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Detente was a cooling down, or thaw, among America, Russia and China's arms' race (Detente). The United States and Russia could either slow their weapons production or continue the arms race, which, people feared could end in a devastating war (Detente, CNN). Nixon and Henry Kissinger worked secretly on Detente at summit meetings in Beijing and Moscow. President Gerald Ford signed on to Detente in Helsinki in 1975. (CNN, Detente).
Richard M. Nixon
Leonid Brezhnev, Moscow Communist Party Chief, wanted to relax tensions with America (CNN, Detente).
illy Brandt, est German Chancellor, gave Brezhnev the idea for Detente.
President Richard M. Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger were the architects of the United States' plan for Detente.
President Gerald Ford took over the office after Nixon resigned and signed the treaty in 1975.
The U.S. Foreign…
An Outline of American History." (1994) Chapter 12. From Revolution to Reconstruction - An.HTML Project. 21 April 2003. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch12_p6.htm.
Detente." May 2002. History Learning Site. 21 April 2003. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/detente.htm .
Disarmament, Nuclear: International Agreements." 1994, 1995. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995..21 April 2003. http://www.slider.com/enc/16000/disarmament_nuclear_International_Agreements.htm .
CNN. "Detente: 1969-1975. Cold War: Episode 16." CNN Perspective Series. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/16/.
Foreign policy decisions are often thought of as collective events, conceptualized more in terms of sociology, historical patterns, structures, institutions, and culture before the individual psychological variables are considered. Situational and circumstantial variables are considered tantamount to psychological traits, cognitive, emotional, or behavioral cues. Structural perspectives like realism, neoliberalism, and idealism had become more important than focusing on the actual actors making decisions, just as the behaviors of corporations cloud the behaviors of their leaders. Yet power brokers and state-level actors are individual people, with attendant backgrounds, biases, and beliefs. The cluster of variables impacting personal-level decision making likewise impacts macro-level decision making. Foreign policy decisions can and should be viewed with a psychological lens in order to better understand historical successes and failures, and perhaps ironically even used to inform more effective foreign policy.
Foreign policy analysis does in fact depend on a thorough understanding of psychological variables and…
Abshire, D. & Dickson, B. War by miscalculation. The Washington Quarterly 6(4), 114-124, 1983.
Alden, C. & Amran, A. Foreign Policy Analysis. New York: Routledge, 2012.
Boulding, K.E. The Image. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1961.
Greenstein, F.I. The impact of personality on the end of the cold war. Political Psychology 19(1), 1-16, 1998.
The U.S. And Russia reportedly have about 90% of all the nuclear weapons in the world. So if this treaty makes sense for both sides, and shows a newfound sense of cooperation between the two nations that were Cold ar enemies, why would there be dissention in the U.S. Senate?
That question can be answered a couple different ways. For one, there is a very divided and hostile political situation in ashington, D.C.; during the past two years the major pieces of legislation that Obama has pushed through have received not a single Republican vote. Obama's stimulus bill, $862 billion, that many economists say helped avoid a depression, did not get a single Republican vote. The biggest reform of all Street in the nation's history passed without a single Republican vote, and likewise, the healthcare reform act, a "major overhaul" -- that will provide 30 million Americans with health coverage…
Tapper, Jake. "Passage of Major legislation Can't Stop Obama's Poll Numbers From Dropping."
ABC News. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2010, from http://abcnews.go.com .
United States Senate. "Treaties." Retrieved Dec. 17, 2010, from http://www.senate.gov .
Yahoo News. "Senate kicks off debate over U.S. -- Russia arms treaty." Retrieved Dec. 17,
" that one administration official observed, "I can assure you a young generation of terrorists is being created" (Zaharna 2003).
At present, "The current [Israeli-Palestinian] conflict is mortgaging the future of both nations. A new generation of Palestinians is coming of age. More than 50% of the population of the est Bank and Gaza is under the age of 15," which means that the U.S. must act now before a new generation of terrorists is born (Enderlin 2002). As a result of the Israeli security measures to impose order on the est Bank, unemployment and poverty in Gaza and the est Bank are at unprecedented levels. "More than two-thirds of Palestinian children live on less than $1.90 a day," a situation of economic distress that makes the region a fertile breeding ground for terror and is also a public relations boon to nations that use the occupation as justification for…
Clayton, Mark. "Breaking free." The Christian Science Monitor. Sci-Tech: Computers and Technology. 21 Oct 2004. 27 Apr 2007. http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/1021/p13s02-stct.html
Enderlin, Charles. "Shattered Dreams": an inside look at Israeli-Palestinian negotiations." Tolerance.org. 2002. 27 Apr 2007. http://www.tolerance.ca/Article.aspx?ID=59&L=fr
Haass, Richard. "The New Middle East." Foreign Affairs.
He suggests that other reasons were secondary and complementary to economic goals. First and foremost, Americans were interested in enriching themselves and the policy of the government reflected this goal.
Healy agrees that there were economic concerns but he argues that there was multiplicity of goals. He specifically emphasizes that Americans were concerned about German threat to American interests in the region. He also notes that Americans viewed Central Americans with disdain and racial arrogance, so their goal in the region was to "civilize" them and develop economically. hile I believe these are noteworthy points, they do not negate the fact that economic concerns were at the forefront of U.S. policy in the Caribbean. American leaders were aware that German military threat to American national integrity was severely limited. The threat Germany posed was directed at American economic interests in the region.
American racial arrogance also does not negate the…
LaFeber, Walter. Inevitable Revolutions: the U.S. In Central America. W.W.: Norton, 1993. Print.
Healy, David. Drive to Hegemony: the United States in the Caribbean, 1898-1917. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Print.
Foreign policy regarding Israel & Palestine
The entire issue of Israel and Palestine is complicated by the position that the state of Israel is Jewish, to whom the Western countries have a guilt complex due to the actions of Hitler, and the fact that Palestine is Islamic and Islamic countries control most of the available petroleum of the world.
In looking at foreign policy, the main element of relationship between two countries when they are not neighbors, or closely connected through history is the commercial relationship, and that is what determines their decisions on bilateral and multilateral maters. The entire area of Middle East is where the American arms go, and this creates a lot of profits for the weapons manufacturers in U.S.. Even after the Gulf War has ended, and before the war in Iraq started, the total arms export to this region was more than $60 billion. Most…
Zaharna, R.S. Israel's Policy of Targeting Terrorists: Implications for the U.S. Volume 6,
Number 32. September 2001. Retrieved from http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol6/v6n32exjud_body.html Accessed 4 September, 2005
Zunes, Stephen. Howard Dean: Hawk in Dove's Clothing? February 26, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0226-04.htm Accessed 4 September, 2005
Zunes, Stephen. 10 Things to Know about U.S. Policy in the Middle East. 26 September, 2001.
S. held canal back to Panama, and, importantly, the Iran hostage crisis that erupted during the later years of his presidency. The crisis highlighted Carter's weaknesses as a negotiator and military leader as neither his diplomatic nor military attempts to release the hostages succeeded, and they were released a few moments after Ronald Reagan was sworn in as president.
Despite being welcomed on such a positive foreign policy note, Reagan had a great deal of foreign policy failures as well. Although he succeeded in his goal of building up the United States' military arsenal, in addition to fostering a better relationship with the U.S.S.R. And Mikhail Gorbechev throughout his later years as president, Reagan's involvement in the Middle East and Latin America was characterized by failure. In the Middle East, Reagan's unfaltering support of Israel increased other nations' hostility toward the West. Additionally, Reagan's support of the Contras and the…
Compliance with the regulations is likely to be high when a regulation fits well with the existing market practices or when the regulations are supported by cultural norms and civic institutions. To elicit compliance with the fisheries policy in the European Union which is inhabited by people with different cultural practices, the stakeholders should consider partnering with civil society organizations and build support through education. To guarantee success of a regulatory framework in the context of the Common Fisheries Policy in the European Union, prior consultation with target population is imperative. This helps in finding out about factors that are central to the policy implementation. It also helps in securing group support. This helps in building a sense of ownership among the target group. This helps in increasing commitment to the objectives of the policy being rolled out. The regulator, in the process, comes up with better solutions (Organization for…
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2000). Reducing the Risk of Policy
Failure: Challenges for Regulatory Compliance. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from http://www.oecd.org/gov/regulatory-policy/46466287.pdf
Riley, G. (2012). Government Failure. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/as-marketfailure-government-failure.html
Stone, C. (1975). Where the Law Ends: The Social Control of Corporate Behavior. New York:
Conflict prevention theory may seem contradictory in a country that has just held a civil war, but it remains an important focus of U.S. foreign policy going forward in Libya. Socio-historical problems facing Libya stem from the tribal bonds that divide the nation. The United States must focus on finding a balance between the tribes rather than supporting a single tribe over the others, as it had when cooperating with Qaddafi. Politically, the three major cities of Libya are Tripoli, Misrata and Benghazi. These cities will have to find a way to power broker themselves in order to create a thriving democracy, based in Tripoli, but representative of the other two cities, as all three places are cornerstones of Libya's future as well as strong reminders of the country's past, on which a successful future can be built.
Libya is the only country of the four analyzed in this paper…
"Carnegie Corporation of New York: Search Publications." Carnegie Corporation of New York: Home. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. .
"Carnegie Corporation of New York: Search Publications." Carnegie Corporation of New York: Home. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. .
"Carnegie Corporation of New York: Search Publications." Carnegie Corporation of New York: Home. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. .
"QDDR." U.S. Department of State. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. .
Foreign Policy Dealing With Clothing Manufacturing in Over Seas Third Countries angladesh
The objective of this study is to answer as to what the problem is in dealing with U.S. clothing manufacturers who have their clothing created in third world countries such as angladesh in the view a leader and specifically a president in the free world. Specifically this work will answer as to what can be legally done and what sanctions might be put in place. This work will identify stakeholders and makers of the program and who would be involved in providing input during the programs development stage and what problems with the cultural environment might exist in addressing this problem. Further, this work will answer as to what might assist or present as a barrier to the program and examine historical implications and treaties or amendments that might be enforced. This work will additionally address how the…
Fernandez-Stark, K, Frederick, S. And Gerei, G. (2011) The Apparel Global Value Chain: ECONOMIC UPGRADING AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT. Nov 2011.
THE APPAREL INDUSTRY AND CODES OF CONDUCT: A Solution to the International Child Labor Problem? (nd) United States Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/global/ilo/code/apparel2.htm
Third World Women in Factories (2010) Cultural Survival. 17 Sept 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/third-world-women-factories
Foreign policy is one of the major issues that have played a critical role in the history of the United States. The significance of foreign policy in America’s governance system is shown in the influential role it plays during U.S. Presidential Elections. Foreign policy has been at the center of America’s politics, especially in the recent past because of the increased global security concerns. While foreign policy remains controversial issue in the United States, it’s derived from the nation’s democratic system. Presidential candidates and policymakers in the U.S. take different foreign policy perspectives that are geared towards safeguarding the interests of American people. In this regard, United States’ foreign policy is shaped by different policy traditions or schools of thought.
President Obama’s foreign policy fell into liberal foreign policy tradition, which is based on the belief that most countries will cooperate if adequate goodwill and confidence is established between them…
Ferguson, N. (2016, March 13). Barack Obama’s Revolution in Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 3, 2017, from https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/03/obama-doctrine-revolution/473481/
Mead, W.R. (2001). Special providence: American foreign policy and how it changed the world. Madison Avenue, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Mead, W.R. (2010, January 4). The Carter Syndrome. Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 3, 2017, from http://foreignpolicy.com/2010/01/04/the-carter-syndrome/
Ondrejcsák, R. (2009). American Foreign and Security Policy Under Barack Obama: Change and Continuity. Retrieved October 3, 2017, from http://cenaa.org/analysis/american-foreign-and-security-policy-under-barack-obama-change-and-continuity/
The Economist. (2001). Four Threads, One Mighty Rope. The Economist. Retrieved October 3, 2017, from http://www.economist.com/node/863363
The military experience that President Dwight D. Eisenhower took to the White House was largely without precedent. In sharp contrast to President Harry S. Truman’s years, some of the White House functions and structures were reorganized – with new positions being introduced in an attempt to promote the efficient running of government business. President John F. Kennedy, on the other hand, sought to ease the bureaucratic structure left by his predecessor. Just as we can compare and contrast the domestic policies of both presidents, and their approach to the conduction of government business, we can also evaluate their foreign policy perspectives with an intention of comparing and contrasting their outlook.
Like Kennedy, Eisenhower had a keen interest in foreign affairs. His liking for organization as well as staff work was largely sourced from his role a military commander. Towards this end, he sought to ensure that the integrated…
Beschloss, M. (2016). Mayday: Eisenhower, Khrushchev, and the U-2 Affair. New York, NY: Open Road Media.
Central Intelligence Agency - CIA (2011). Congress, the CIA, and Guatemala, 1954. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol44no5/html/v44i5a03p.htm
Dobbs, C.M. (2010). Trade and Security: The United States and East Asia, 1961-1969. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Hook, S.W. & Scott, J.M. (Eds.). (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy Today: American Renewal? Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Hammond, P.Y. (1992). LBJ and the Presidential Management of Foreign Relations. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
JFK Presidential Library and Museum (2018). Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Retrieved from https://www.jfklibrary.org/learn/about-jfk/jfk-in-history/nuclear-test-ban-treaty
Kaufman, B.I. & Kaufman, D. (2009). The A to Z of the Eisenhower Era. Lanham: Scarecrow Press.
Kinnard, D. (K). Adventures in Two Worlds: Vietnam General and Vermont Professor. New York, NY: Xlibris Corporation.
Causes, Course, and Consequences of the Vietnam War against the USA
As the world’s superpower, the United States got involved in the Vietnam War but left the country with a mortifying conquest, appallingly high fatalities, the public in America cuttingly divided, and the leaders unsure of the way forward regarding foreign policy. The Vietnam War is in history as American’s most protracted and enervating war that the country ever lost and had an overarching impact and consequences on multiple facets of the American life including foreign policy, domestic politics, and the economy.
Causes of the Vietnam War
The U. S. immersion in the Vietnam War was primarily caused by the communist containment policy developed when the Cold War began in combination with aspects of Wilsonianism (Thayer, 2016). Two ideological superpowers divided Europe at the end of WW2. President Truman had anticipated that Eastern Europe that was newly conquered would hold…
Appy, C. G. (2016). American Reckoning: The Vietnam War and Our National Identity. Penguin Books.
Emerson, G. (2014). Winners & Losers: Battles, Retreats, Gains, Losses, and Ruins from the Vietnam War (reissue). WW Norton & Company.
Thayer, T. (2016). War without fronts: The American experience in Vietnam. Naval Institute Press.
What does the future hold for relations between China and Japan?
Given their longstanding disputes and track record of going to war over resources, it would be reasonable to suggest that future relations between China and Japan are going to be characterized by a reluctant, pragmatic trade-off between bi-lateral commerce and the need to hammer out their respective differences over foreign policy current issues on which they currently diverge. Although Japan horsewhipped China militarily throughout the early 20th century in its quest for scarce resources to fuel its enormous war machinery, things have changed and China is no longer the second-class nation Japan faced prior to and during World War II. Moreover, because these two nations are both the main Asian economic juggernauts, the stakes are high for Japan and China as well as the rest of the international community. While there are no foreign policy crystal balls that can…
Brown, K. (2016, August 31). The most dangerous problem in Asia: China-Japan relations. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2016/08/the-most-dangerous-problem-in-asia-china-japan-relations/.
Chuck, E. (2016, March 31). Fact sheet: Who has nuclear weapons and how many do they have? NBC News. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/fact-sheet-who-has-nuclear-weapons-how-many-do-they-n548481.
Economy, E. C. (2017, July/August). History with Chinese characteristics: How China’s imagined past shapes its present. Foreign Affairs, 96(4), 141-145.
Khatoon, S. (2017, January 1). The rise of China and India-Japan strategic partnership. IUP Journal of International Relations, 11(1), 52-55.
It is difficult to state that the national security apparatus is underperforming when you have clear statistical results: no attacks in the last five years. This means that something must be functioning at full parameters there and that the informational community is also operating with those in other countries to obtain these results (the attacks planned for London and stopped are a good example in this sense).
On the other hand, a counter argument to this statement is that the war is not against national terrorism: it is a global war on global terrorism, the U.S. have pledged to wipe out terrorism on a global scale and this, as shown in the article, is not yet giving full results. Indeed, the attacks in London and Madrid are a good example in this sense, if we consider only some of the most important cases of extremist Arab terrorism.
As to the…
1. Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at http://web0.foreignpolicy.com/issue_julyaug_2006/TI-index/index.html
Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at
Foreign Policy of President eagan
Before the disastrous Vietnam War, the U.S. held an undisputed dominant position worldwide, recognized locally as well as by other nations. The nation's historic actions towards defending freedom, by restraining the fascist faction during the Second World War, followed by organizing a large free-state coalition for combating communism, were supported by profound and sweeping domestic consensus. This consensus was destroyed by America's decision to wage war on Vietnam. Despite the rationale being the protection of free peoples battling communism, the Vietnam War resulted in caustic doubt and destabilizing discord among Americans. This suspicion and discord incited and guided by people opposed to the war, rather than the enemy's weaponry and zeal, explains America's failure, above every other factor. The U.S. had to battle internal resistance more than resistance from the Vietnamese adversary, and resulted in a self-inflicted defeat (Brenes 2015; LAISON 2013). Extremely serious repercussions…
Anderson, Martin. 1990. Revolution: The Reagan Legacy, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Armstrong, Scott and Peter Grier. 1986. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream, New York: Foreign Policy Association.
Arquilla, John. 2006. The Reagan Imprint: Ideas in American Foreign Policy from the Collapse of Communism to the War on Terror, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Baucom, Donald R. 1992. The Origins of SDI, 1944-1983, Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas.
It was however an essential move for the foreign policy of the United States in its quest for containment of the communist threat.
A proper example of the way in which the decisions taken in terms of foreign policy were the reflection of the interests of political parties vs. their electorate was the Carter administration that took some of the most important steps in the discussions with the ussian Communist forces on human rights issues. Better said, usually the first steps in improving the diplomatic relations with a country or a set of countries is the start of negotiations on smaller and less important aspects for the political forces. One such subject, in the late 70s and early 80s was the discussion on human rights. As opposed to the more stringent and real problems the U.S. had with the U.S.S.. that included nuclear threats or economic competition, the issue of…
Zelizer, J.E. (2010) "Arsenal of Democracy: The Politics of National Security - From World War II to the War on Terrorism." New York: Basic Books.
" hen and if the U.S. cuts back on the use of fossil fuels to reduce global warming, other nations may well follow our example.
To wit, when we allow the United Nations to conduct searches for potential weapons of mass destruction in our own country, or in countries we have disputes with, other nations may follow and allow inspectors into their country as well. It is idealistic to believe that other nations will do the right thing if only we do the right thing first, but there's no rule that says foreign policy can't have idealism. America was founded on the principals of idealism -- "In order to form a more perfect union" -- and on the other hand America was founded on realism too. If we don't cut the cord with England, we will forever be beholding to tyrants.
right understands that the U.S. can never say we…
Wright, Robert. (2006). An American Foreign Policy That Both Realists and Idealists Should
Fall in Love with. The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:
Summary of chapter on "Alternative Futures:
The United States as an Ordinary State"
In this chapter, the author argues that (despite appearances to the contrary), there are always choices as to the future direction of any state. America seems to be committed to a war on "terror" by the events of September 11th and the subsequent conquests in the Middle East. This author argues that no such commitment exists, but that America still has the freedom of action to allow any number of future policy directions to exist. The United States, the reader is asked to remember, has not always had an expansionist perspective or sought to save the world.
It is important, the author claims, that as America considers going to war that we also consider the "victor's strategy," which is the way in which the world will be ordered after the war. Many of the greatest…
S.; b) assess correctly the readiness of America's partners to back up the sanctions; and c) engender the support of minor trading partners ("black knights") to increase their willingness to trade with Iran as the big players leave in obedience to the U.S. led sanctions (Kozhanov, 145).
The Russian writer uses some of the space in his article to review the history of U.S. sanctions against Iran, and mentions a brief thaw in the bitterness between the two countries. That came in 1998, when a team of American wrestlers visited Tehran and were welcomed with flowers. In that moment of detente, the U.S. lifted the ban on exported medical and agricultural goods to Iran, and allowed imports (dried fruits, caviar, and carpets) from Iran into the U.S. But along came the new Iranian president, hard-liner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who took up the slogan "Death to Israel and the U.S.A." And made…
Economist. (2011). The Wretched Middle East. 401(8763), 1-3. Retrieved January 23, 2012,
Kozhanov, Nikolay a. (2011). U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Iran: Undermined by External
Factors. Middle East Policy, XVIII (3), 144-158.
The research, methods will seek to establish a common basement of the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process. Equitable regard will be accorded to the state of affairs that exist between the U.S.A. And Iran
Questionnaires are samples of structured questions that will seek directive responses from the respondents in the field of study. In order to arrive at making decisions, there are several considerations that the president of the U.S.A. needs to know from the public and the secretary of state. Such questions will be included in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be supplied to various respondents. These respondents are thought to have consistent information as regards the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process matters in the world. Questionnaires are relevant when it comes to exhausting on the exiting trends of management in the country.
Interviews refer to face-to-face approaches of seeking to elicit information…
Alterman, Eric. 1998. Who speaks for America?: why democracy matters in foreign policy.
Ithaca [u.a.]: Cornell Univ. Press.
Beisner, Robert L. 2003. American foreign relations since 1600 a guide to the literature.
Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. http://ebooks.abc-clio.com/?isbn=9781576075302 .
Therefore, it is fairly evident that U.S. foreign policy certainly aided in worsening the political situations in much of Latin America during the Cold War. It did so by serving as a source of enmity for many nationalist groups that arose to oppose its domination in the area, by attempting to undermine the reform measures of governments erected in place of those that it favored, and by formally supplying weaponry, funding and training to opposing factions that represented U.S. interest. The effect of all of these measures was that they led to greater and greater reactionary measures among the groups that were infringed upon. This fact is particularly true of Central American involvement in the Cold War, the regimes that were erected and dealt with insurrections and counter insurrections in El Salvador and Guatemala were among some of the bloodiest in the Cold War, excluding those in Vietnam. Yet…
Brand, Hal. Latin America's Cold War. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2004. Print.
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…
Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point
Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:
Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
These climatic changes in turn impact negatively on the economy and the people within the region. There is need hence for the environmental protection for sustainable development. Though there have been significant measures like the formulation of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) which was geared towards protection of the marine environment especially tackling pollution and shipping safety laws to be in place (Justice Laws Website, 2013), there is still more that Canada can do to ensure a sustainable economic growth of this region.
Canada must therefore resort to ecosystem-based management system within the Artic region. There is need to ensure an approach that will take into account the co-management of the species in the Artic region that may cross the international borders like the polar bear and the Arctic birds. The collaborative approach to the ecosystem should also include the Arctic research and science ventures conducted in collaborative…
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, (2013). Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.international.gc.ca/arctic-arctique/arctic_policy-canada-politique_arctique.aspx?lang=eng
Geopolitics in the High North, (2013). Statement on Canada's Arctic policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=138:statement.
Justice Laws Website, (2013). Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-12). Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-12/
28). The directions that this new "great and powerful" friend takes in the next 20 years will have a pronounced effects on what type of foreign policy is needed to maintain the middle road aspired to by Australian foreign policymakers. In the Australia's Defence Department's White Paper, "Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: Force 2030," published in 2009, a number of eventualities are examined in terms of the appropriateness of an independent, dependent, interdependent or coindependent foreign policy in the future, depending on how the world changes. In the chapter, "Australia's Defence Policy," the White Paper makes the following points:
1. A nation's 'strategic posture' is the expression of how it seeks to secure its strategic interests, including by reducing the risk of conflict in the first place, and how it would potentially use force in relation to its strategic interests. In terms of strategic posture, an Australian government…
Berger, M.T. & Borer, D.A. (1999). The rise of East Asia: Critical visions of the Pacific century. London: Routledge.
Copper, D.A. (2002). Competing Western strategies against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: Comparing the United States to a close ally. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: Force 2030. (2009). Australian Government:
Department of Defence -- Australian Policy Online. Retrieved from http://www.apo.org .
India / Theoretical / Foreign Policy Shyness (Pant, 2009, p. 251). Pant's latest scholarship on India's foreign policies (2009, p. 253) is far more forceful and impactful than the narrative in his 2008 book. He chides India for not letting go of its Cold ar foreign policy strategy. "The Cold ar officially ended almost two decades ago,"
Pant writes (p. 253), and yet India continues to debate "the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)." That attitude among India's elite foreign policy experts "…is merely the clearest sign of the intellectual sloth that has infected the foreign policy discourse," Pant states. "Intellectual sloth?" Nowhere in Pant's 2008 book are there phrases so vigorous and persuasive. He stresses that it is "irresponsible and dangerous" for India to "cling to ideas that served a different strategic context" (p. 253).
Theoretical Approach / India Foreign Policy (Robert Gilpin / John J. Mearsheimer):
Works Cited / Bibliography
Gilpin, Robert, 1983, War and Change in World Politics, Cambridge University Press: New York.
Mearsheimer, John J. 2003, the Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W.W. Norton & Company: New York.
Pant, Harsh V., 2008, Contemporary Debates in Indian Foreign and Security Policy: India Negotiates Its Rise in the International System. Palgrave / Macmillan: New York.
Pant, Harsh V. 2009, 'A Rising India's Search for a Foreign Policy', Orbis, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 250-265.
Jimmy Carter's foreign policy in the United States of America, many have come up with very negative views and have highlighted more or less the same loop holes in his policy and administration that led to his failure, namely his misconceptions of views relating to public relations and his inept political and management skills. (Smith 1986; Hargrove 1988; Jones 1988)
Kaufman (1993, 3) on one hand, praised Carter for his true ideas, intentions and achievements, while on the other hand agrees with the negative judgments that have been made on his political span as the President.
While, rinkley (1996, 552) was all in praise of Carter's improvisation skills to come up with a suitable policy for the Cold War before it was over, yet still blamed his inefficient public opinion skills and polls as the reason for the downfall of his foreign policy or its ineffectiveness.
However, what all these…
Andrew Z. Katz. (2000) Public Opinion and the Contradictions of Jimmy Carter's Foreign Policy. Presidential Studies Quarterly. 30: 4.
Brinkley, Douglas. (1996). The rising stock of Jimmy Carter: The "hands on" legacy of our thirty-ninth president. Diplomatic History 20:505-29.
Carter: 1980) America will meet Soviet challenge. 1980. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, January 26, 171.
Hargrove, Erwin. (1988). Jimmy Carter as president: Leadership and the politics of the public good. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
" Regan was able to discourage Congress' previous prohibitions for aid to UNITA and instead launched into the covert plan to leverage American weight on the side fighting the Marxist supporters. The Soviet Union reacted quickly; Cuban expeditionary forces were sent to the region in their satellite guerilla's aid and, in the bloody fight between ethnic groups in Angola, the larger Soviet-American conflict played out.
In 1987, the struggle came to a head. The United States assumed its supportive role for UNITA as reason preside over the tripartite negotiation that would end the civil war. At the bargaining table were also Cuban and South African forces, reaffirming the battle as one led by other issues more than directed by the cause of Angolan success. Cuba agreed to leave Angola, ultimately, but South Africa also agreed to relinquish its control over Namibia. Twenty years earlier, Marxist South-West Africa eople's Organization launched…
American Foreign Policy Theories
It has been said that all politics are local, meaning that whatever the issue, an individual always views it from the perspective of their own personal life. And since their personal life exists in a local environment, a person's view of a political issue is always clouded by local circumstances. oarke and Boyer, in International Politics on the World Stage assert that a nation's international policy can often be guided by their internal circumstances. In other words, a nation's foreign policy is often the result of domestic politics. This type of thinking has often been associated with what has been termed "realism," a theory that asserts international politics is shaped by conflicts between different nations caused by their domestic political circumstances. A newer type of realism, called "neorealism," actively attempts to shape world politics according a nation's internal needs, and has been enacted in many nations.…
Indyk, Martin, Kenneth Lieberthal, and Michael O'Hanlon. (2012). Bending History:
Barack Obama's Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute. Print.
McCormack, James. (2010). American Foreign Policy and Process. Boston, MA:
China and Foreign Policy
With reference to any ONE country you have studied, how far does interdependence shape its foreign policy and in what ways
A Brief History of Chinese Foreign Affairs
Current Foreign Policy
Foreign elations and Interdependency
China is an emerging force in the world, and it seems only to be natural, as the Chinese civilization is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. In fact theorists seem to question the reasons for its downfall, as it is the largest and has historically been the cultural and educational center for the world.
As far as its foreign policy is concerned, the Chinese government deals with it in a unique way, where the foreign affairs are the business of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which falls under the ambit of a department called the "Foreign Affairs Leading Small Group of the Communist Party of China."…
Barboza, D. 2011. Entrepreneur's Rival in China: The State. New York Times .
Chen, J. 1979. China and the West . Hutchinson.
China. n.d. [Online] Available at: (26 January 2012)
China's Foreign Affairs and International Relations. 2012. . [Online] Available at: (26 January 2012)
Stern Hu himself cannot actually exert much control from the Chinese prison where he is being held on charges of espionage. The Australian firm he worked for however, Rio Tinto, has been very vocal -- especially through Hu's former boss John Dougall -- in its attempts to get the federal government and Prime Minister Rudd in particular to act quickly to free Hu. This would require heavy Australian pressure on the Chinese government, adding tension to one of Australia's biggest trading relationships (a relationship which, ironically, Hu helped to create and solidify).
The Mass media in both countries has not been helpful here but instead has exacerbated the issue, making it largely one of nationality. Especially in China, where the government and culture is still largely under the control of the Communist Party, this creates a great deal additional emotion surrounding the issue, requiring foreign policy ministers on both sides…
S. Congress - show that as of 7:20 A.M. On November 19, 2006, the dollar cost for Iraq alone stood at $343,505,966,000. That's over $343 billion dollars spent on the war effort since Bush launched the American invasion on March 19 of 2003.
The National Priorities Project breaks down the cost of the war per state; for example, the war has cost California $43,514,789,000; it has cost the state of Nebraska $2,469,887,000 so far. It has cost Mississippi $1,336,643,290, and it has cost the devastated state of Louisiana (which is still trying to rebuild from Hurricane Katrina) $2,615,210,500 so far; imagine how many homes could be repaired, and how many affordable houses could have been built in and around New Orleans, with over 2 and a half billion dollars.
hat is the cost to marriages involving the soldiers? The Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy in Focus (IPSFP) writes…
Bennis, Phyllis, and Leaver, Erik. "The Iraq Quagmire: The Mounting Costs of War and the Case for Brining Home the Troops." The Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy in Focus. (August 31, 2005): Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 at http://www.ips-dc.org/iraq/quagmire/
National Priorities Project. "The War in Iraq Costs." Retrieved 19 Nov. 2006 at http://nationalpriorities.org/index.php?option=come_wrapper&Itemid=182 .
The New York Times, Oct. 5, 2001, Nov. 30, 2001; Feb. 7, 2002; Oct. 26, 2002; Jan. 29, 2003; Feb. 11, 2003; March 17, 2003; and Sept. 4, 2003. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 from ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851-2003).
Young, Steve. "Iraq's signature wound: Body armor, medical transport help save once-fatal brain
However, once they were expelled from Kuwait is when the original boundaries were restored once again. (rown 302 -- 310)
These different events are significant, because they are illustrating how any kind of attempts to change the borders in the Middle East has been a sign that U.S. is working to aggressively to maintain the status quo. Where, they do not want one particular country to be able to dominate all of the others. Instead, the United States wants to make certain that the current balance of power is maintained at all times. As, this kind of strategy will ensure the continuous free flow of oil out of the region.
Once we are able to test our hypothesis against this theory, it will offer specific insights as to the accuracy of hypothesis. The reason why, is because this kind of doctrine will help us to understand how oil is one…
Askari, Hossein. Middle East Oil Exporters. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2006. Print.
Brown, Leon. Diplomacy in the Middle East. London: IB Tarius, 2004. Print
Crane, Keith. Imported Oil and U.S. National Security. Santa Monica: RAND, 2009. Print.
Denzen, Norman. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2005. Print.
In addition the United States has provided many new products to be used for agricultural production so that the war torn fields can again become fruitful and prosperous (Adamson, 2002).
The infrastructure assistance provides the roadways so that the agricultural products can be transported into needed areas and crops can be transported out for sale and for export.
While helping the nation rebuild the roads and highways and bridges that were destroyed during the conflict the United States also has devoted time and funding to the development of the nation's communication system. Engineers, technical training and technical instruments have all been provided by the U.S. To Vietnam in the attempt to use the international strategy of development for the purpose of defining and carrying out the United States foreign policy toward Vietnam (Adamson, 2002).
The second international strategy being used by the United States for the purpose of…
Ambassadorial roles and foreign policy: Elbridge Durbrow, Frederick Nolting, and the U.S. commitment to Diem's Vietnam, 1957-61. (Articles). Presidential Studies Quarterly; 6/1/2002; Adamson, Michael R.
S., Vietnam develop military ties By David Lamb LOS ANGELES TIMES
U.S. Foreign Policy
American foreign policy occupies a unique place in the world. American foreign policy regarding interacting with other nations is a non-homogeneous mixture of politics, economics, and the unique American culture which believes that both the success of political and economic agenda's cannot be separated from the ways which a country treats it's people. To be specific, American has a difficult time forming positive relationships with nations that oppress, imprison, or otherwise trample their people's basic human rights to life, liberty and the individual pursuit of happiness. As he stated during his administration, President Jimmy Carter described the connection between human rights and American foreign policy this way.
Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy, because human rights is the very soul of our sense of nationhood."
American foreign policy is also seen as a function of the president, and the president must take the lead…
Allen, M., and P.P. Pan. Bush touts U.S. values to Chinese. Washington Post, 2002, February 22, p. A01.
Carter, J. Openings to Cuba: We must find common ground. Washington Post. 2002, May 24, p. A35.
Kane, John. American Values or Human Rights? U.S. Foreign Policy and the Fractured Myth of Virtuous Power Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 33. 2003
Sullivan, K. Carter urges democracy for Cuba. Washington Post, 2002, May 15, p. A14.
It is hard to determine what was the foreign policy used by the George . Bush administration in the Iraq ar. The U.S. foreign policy was shaped by outside factors up to the 9/11 events. The presidential administrations preceding George . Bush's were aware that they had to adapt their foreign policies on account of their interests and of the interests of the international public. Surprisingly, at the apex of the Iraq ar, a large number of Democrats in Congress conveyed ambiguous criticism. Moreover, through their criticism, Republicans proved that they were in fact supportive of the war (Forsythe, 2004, p. 79).
Throughout his first term, George . Bush managed to generate positive feedbacks from the American public. "Culturally conservative voters and especially white evangelical Christians" appeared to have become fond of him and thus turned most of their votes toward choosing him to complete a second term. One of…
1. Baumgartner, J.C. & Francia, P.L. & Morris, J.S. A Clash of Civilizations? The Influence of Religion on Public Opinion of U.s. Foreign Policy in the Middle East. Political Research Quarterly 61.2 (2008).
2. Farer, T.J. (2004). The Interplay of Domestic Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Foreign Policy Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy. ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering (New York: Routledge.
3. Klinkner, P.A. Mr. Bush's War: Foreign Policy in the 2004 Election. Presidential Studies Quarterly 36.2 (2006).
The international community can obviously respond by seeking to marginalize the Taliban and similar movements as extremists. However, it has become clear following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that western governments have not been effective in infiltrating terrorist networks and pre-empting attacks. It has also become clear that there will be no shortage of people in the Islamic world who are willing to martyr themselves for as long as there are legitimate grievances against the U.S. And other countries. It is therefore in the interest of the Americans that actions are taken by its government that seek to address both the legitimate concerns of moderate elements within the Islamic world and American's own relative ignorance as to what is happening in the world beyond the U.S. (Marsden, 2002 pp. 153-155).
The Afghanistan military action of the U.S. wherein the Taliban regime was overthrown is…
Marsden, P. (2002) the Taliban, War and Religion in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books Ltd.
Rashid, a. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
Roy, O. (1986) Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, J. (1991) Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in Nuclear Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
American Foreign Policy from three articles from Annual Edition's American Foreign Policy: Article 33, "Musclebound: The Limits of U.S. Power" by Stephen M. alt; Article 12, "A Small Peace for the Middle East" by Arthur Hertzberg; and Article 11, "To Be An Enlightened Power" by u Xinbo. It answers the following questions: 1) hat is the overall foreign policy issue/theme/problem that links the articles together. 2) hat are the central arguments of each article? Discuss these noting if they agree, complement, or conflict. 3) hich articles or authors do you tend to support and why? hat persuaded you? 4) hat should be the final foreign policy responses and solutions to the problem(s)? 5) If you like, you can conclude with any personal reactions to the articles.
American Foreign Policy
All three authors, alt, Hertzberg, and Xinbo, clearly believe that the United States should change its approach to foreign policy. The…
Hertzberg, Arthur. "A Small Peace for the Middle East." Annual Edition's American Foreign Policy. Article 12. Pp. 78,79,80,81.
Walt, Stephen M. "Musclebound: The Limits of U.S. Power." Annual Edition's
American Foreign Policy. Article 33. Pp. 204,205,206,207.
Xinbo, Wu. "To Be An Enlightened Power." Annual Edition's American Foreign Policy. Article 11. Pp.73,77.
(Efimova, 2007, paraphrased)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
North Korea underwent internal changes as well as changes due to external factors that placed North Korea in a defensive stance in its focus on strategically avoiding threats and in rebuilding its own self-reliance economically. For North Korea since the erlin Wall fell the use of conventional weapons by North Korea in defending itself from external foes has not been a feasible proposition, therefore, it is apparent that North Korea acquired nuclear capabilities because of the value of these capabilities as use as a method for ensuring adequate self-defense in what the regime in North Korea views as a highly unstable security environment and one in which North Korea is quite terrified that will result in the United States becoming aggressive from a military standpoint.
It really can not be held as true that the reason for the development of nuclear capability in North…
Lin, Liu (2006) The North Korean Nuclear Test and Its Implications. Central-Asia -- Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Program. Online available at: http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/Silkroadpapers/2006/LiuLin%20Final061204.pdf.
Yongho, Kim and Yi, Yurim (2005) Security Dilemmas and Signaling During the North Korean Nuclear Standoff. Asian Perspective. Vol. 29, No.3, 2005, pp. 73-97. Online available at: http://www.asianperspective.org/articles/v29n3-d.pdf
Xizhen, Zhang and Brown, Eugene (2000) Policies Toward North Korea: A Time for New Thinking. Journal of Contemporary China. Vol. 9, Issue 25, November 2000. pp.535-545.
Sujian, Guo and Stradiotto, Gary A. (2007) The Nature and Direction of Economic Reform in North Korea. Political Studies, Vol.55, No. 4 December 2007. pp. 754-778(25) Blackwell Publishing.
But elections alone are not enough. Effective democracies honor and uphold basic human rights, including freedom of religion, conscience, speech, assembly, association, and press. They are responsive to their citizens, submitting to the will of the people." Taking into account the perspective given by these statements, the regime in Iraq was inconsistent to either of the elements pointed out, therefore it was a potential sheeted for terrorism. In the light of the American experience however, there are more and more opinions arguing that such a precedent would open the way for new similar interventions in areas considered to be dangerous for the survival of democracy.
This messianic mission is however not new for the American foreign policy. The Cold War and particularly the eagan Administration are relevant examples in this sense. The period following the end of the Second World War can rightfully be described as an era of direct…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987). World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Gordon, P.H. (2006). The End of the Bush Revolution. Foreign Affairs. 10 Feb. 2008
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
The White House. (2006). National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. National Security Council. September 2006. 10 Feb. 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nsct/2006/sectionV.html
Dell, HP, Microsoft, Exxon Mobil and Wal-Mart has emerged as the strong candidates in the international market, which has been possible only because the companies have avoided and curtailed the possible security risk either through strategy in which the focus has been to aver the security concerns either through provisions for the social welfare of the people in the region, or through relocation (Erik, 2004). The United States has therefore maintained its lead in the war of trade in the field of globalization with the weapons of research, technological advancement and services fully active and supportive.
It is proposed that the country should devise a strong security monitoring system which should be compatible to the economic and trade system and linkages of other countries, the government of the United States should not design its economic policies as per the security concerns prevalent in the certain regions, rather areas of…
Dell Champlin, Paulette Olson. The Impact of Globalization on U.S. Labor Markets: Redefining the Debate. Journal of Economic Issues. Volume: 33. Issue: 2. 2001. Association for Evolutionary Economics.
Kunihiko Imai. The Impact of Globalization on Civil Liberties: Asian vs. Non-Asian States. International Journal on World Peace. Volume: 19. Issue: 1. 2002. Professors World Peace Academy.
Erik S. Reinert. Globalization, Economic Development and Inequality: An Alternative Perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing. 2004. pp. 23-67.
Jonathan Michie, John Grieve Smith. Globalization, Growth, and Governance: Creating an Innovative Economy. Oxford University Press. 2001. pp. 103-129.
S. has unilaterally imposed sanctions to punish ran for its support of these activities. To address the shortages from this embargo, the ranian government has been working on developing nuclear power. They claim that this will help to tackle the nation's current and future energy needs. (Khan, 2010, pp. 77 -- 110)
This has led to the UN imposing another embargo against the slamic Republic for their continuing incompliance with international law. At the heart of the issue, are concerns that ran is using their nuclear energy program as a cover for developing an atomic bomb. The fear is that the ranians will pass on nuclear related materials to terrorist groups or they will use these weapons to attack the U.S. To prevent this from happening, America is leading an international effort to further isolate ran. n response, ran has been defiantly working on their program. This has caused the…
In the case of Iran, they are at the far end of the spectrum by wanting to destroy the U.S. And everything that it stands for. This has increased the amount of covert actions that are taken against the Islamic Republic. At the same time, this helps the U.S. To push its trading partners to isolate Iran (which is causing their economic situation to become even worse). This is showing how America's approach can be used as way to reward or punish a country for their activities. (Sutter, 2012, pp. 37 -- 59)
In the case of China, the fact that they were willing to work with the U.S. And implement many of the economic reforms led to improved relations between both countries. This is when China received favored trading status and was provided with tremendous amounts of foreign direct investment capital (which helped to increase economic development). These changes were occurring despite China's terrible human rights record and lack of political changes. This is showing how efforts to implement at least some of the reforms led to more support in the future from the U.S. (Sutter, 2012, pp. 37 -- 59)
These different approaches are illustrating how the U.S. is rewarding those countries that are in support of international standards with various forms of economic and military aid. While nations that are unwilling to do this, will face the possibility of isolation. This is designed to put pressure on
Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.
The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…
Bonime-Blanc, a., 2011. The Fight Against Corruption Goes Global. Foreign Affairs, pp. 44-49.
Caldwell, W., 2009 . Learning to Leverage New Media. Military Review, May, pp. 256-260.
Carafano, J., 2011. Mastering the Art of Wiki. Joint Force Quarterly, pp. 266-271.
Clinton, H., 2010. Leading through Civilian Power. Foreign Affairs, pp. 199-209.
The intervention in Iraq can be said to have had a humanitarian purpose; nonetheless, the U.S. then remained in the region to reconstruct the society and the country as a whole. This in turn brought up important financial gains as well as business opportunities. At the same time though, the overthrow of Saddam was important from the point-of-view of the stability in the region and for the oil markets the U.S. And the world is so dependent on.
The second model of analysis is the "domestic politics" model which is crucial for the well being of the American democracy. This is an approach based on the actual interests of the domestic actors involved. In this sense, political factors such as parties play a key role. This model, particularly adapted to the framing of the environmental policy stresses the need for consensus or at least for debate concerning a matter of…
Nye, Joseph. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. New York: Pearson, 2005
Softing, Guri Bang. "Climate change policymaking - three explanatory models." Cicero Working Papers. 2000. 14 June 2008 http://www.cicero.uio.no/media/205.pdf
However, although Clinton was also criticized for humanitarian inaction, his stress upon multi-lateral engagement in a world of increasingly powerful regional actors such as the European Community and successful renegotiation of NAFTA, and his ability to bring China more fully into the world community have since been praised as economic success stories. Clinton's presidency oversaw the emergence of China and India as world powers, the end of the Soviet Empire, and the launch of the European Community. The fact that his foreign policy seems to lack a fitting sense of closure (even his Middle East negotiations, poised on the brink of success, passed into the hands of the subsequent administration) reflects the transitional nature of many of the events of the years from 1992-2001.
President Bill Clinton's Foreign Policy: A Critical Assessment."
Roundtable Discussion Co-Sponsored by the Center for the Advanced Study of Leadership & the Fulbright International…
President Bill Clinton's Foreign Policy: A Critical Assessment."
Roundtable Discussion Co-Sponsored by the Center for the Advanced Study of Leadership & the Fulbright International Center, University of Maryland, 7 May 1999. http://www.academy.umd.edu/publications/presidential_leadership/Clinton_Roundtable.htm
Advantages and Disadvantages of Counter-Concepts in Iraq:
Isolationism is one counter-concept that is often suggested as a solution to the challenges currently had in Iraq. With isolationism, policy centers on non-intervention, militarily, politically, and economically. The advantage of this policy would be that Americans would no longer be on Iraqi soil and therefore no longer in danger. However, the disadvantages are numerous and include: the possibility of a rise of another Hussein-esque dictator, the support of terrorism within the country that could attack the U.S., and another unstable country in the midst of the primary supplier of global oil that the U.S. relies upon.
Henry Kissinger proposed the "return to realism" concept of foreign policy, specifically in the Middle East. This concept is based on a "carrots-and-sticks" approach where there are negative consequences for those who work against American goals, but great rewards for those who cooperate. In this way,…
Daalder, I. & Lindsay, J. "Unilateralism Disgraced." The American Prospective. (1 Oct 2003). December 11, 2006 http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/9/daalder-i.html .
Iraq Liberation Act of 1998. 27 Jan 1998. Library of Congress. December 11, 2006 http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z-c105:H.R.4655.ENR :.
Leverett, F. Illusion and Reality. 12 Sept 2006. The American Prospect. December 11, 2006 http://www.prospect.org/web/page.ww?section=root&name=ViewPrint&articleId=11859 .
Neoconservatism. 8 Dec 2006. Wikipedia.org. December 11, 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoconservatism .
The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).
Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.
The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…
CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION
An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
ismarck's Impact On Foreign Policy In Germany And On The alance Of Power In Europe
Otto von ismarck (1815-98) is unquestionably one of the dominant figures of modern German, and European, history. Much of his fame as a statesman has always rested on his handling of foreign policy and diplomacy. His consistent policy was to position Germany as a unified and dominant power in continental Europe, consolidating her territorially and diplomatically to the point where she was, to use his own term, "satiated."
ismarck pursued an aggressive policy, involving Germany in three localized wars, seeking to isolate France and build alliances with Austria, and maintaining a suspicious distance from Great ritain, but did not seek war or territorial expansion when he believed such activity would threaten German stability. His achievement was to leave Germany stable, peaceful, and at the heart of the European states system; to integrate a dynamic and…
Stefan Berger, 'Historians and nation-building in Germany since reunification', Past and Present, no. 148 (August 1995), pp. 187-222.
F.R. Bridge and Roger Bullen, The Great Powers and the European States System, 1815-1914 (London: Longman, 1980).
Gordon A. Craig, Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).
George O. Kent, Bismarck and his Times (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978).
U.. Foreign Policies during 1920s and 1930s
The United tates was at a crucial point in its international relations after WWI. ome scholars say that the U.. pulled out of world affairs, that it didn't actively participate in post-war reconstruction of Europe, and that it failed to behave as a powerful nation should. They most often cite the enate's failure to ratify the treaty establishing the League of Nations as evidence of this unwillingness to participate in world affairs (Constitutional Rights Foundation 1).
Other scholars, however, say that in the post-war period "the U.. emerged as world's most respectable country," (Howard 1). They note that the U.. became more involved economically, that it joined in enforcing penalties against Axis powers and that it contributed immeasurable amounts of influence on world cultures.
One answer to this difference might be that the U.. did participate in world affairs, but that it did…
Hampton, Mary. The Wilsonian Impulse: U.S. Foreign Policy, the Alliance, and German Unification. Westport:Praeger, 1996.
Lake, David. Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in its Century. New Jersey:Princeton University Press, 1999.
No author, "The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Policy," Howard University AFROTC notes, Powerpoint, available online at http://www.howard.edu/howardlife/AFROTC/files/sld407_policy.ppt
No author, "War in Iraq," Constitutional Rights Foundation, 18 paragraphs, available online at http://www.crf-usa.org/Iraqwar_html/Iraqwar_foreignpolicy1.html
The South Vietnamese authorities had been fighting the Vietcong communist guerilla forces from the North which were later replaced by the more powerful North Vietnam army. The U.S. had entered the war with the intention of stopping the North Vietnamese communist regime from overtaking South Vietnam. During the 1959-1975 period millions of Vietnamese and tens of thousands of U.S. soldiers had been killed as a result of the war.
The Vietnam War is one of the most debated topics when concerning the U.S. military involvement abroad. There are Americans that condemn the U.S. decision to conduct warfare in Vietnam due to the fact that they consider the war as having been pointless.
Another debated intervention of the U.S. government abroad had been the Yugoslavian war, in which the NATO forces have bombed several areas of the country. The U.S. had allegedly bombed the country with the motive of annihilating all…
Learn About the Vietnam War. (2008, accessed 4 December 2008); available from digitalhistory. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/vietnam/index.cfm
Woodrow Wilson. (From (Nobel Lectures, Peace 1901-1925, Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972, accessed 4 December 2008); available from Noblprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1919/wilson-bio.html
Yugoslavia: The American Way of War. (Revolution, 25 April, 1999, accessed 4 December 2008); available from Revolution. http://revcom.us/a/v20/1000-1009/1003/kosovo.htm
eapons of mass destruction are just an excuse. But is known that
"President George Bush and Vice-President Dick Cheney were both oil
company executives before entering politics, as was half the present US
administration," which means that not only do you have friends in the oil
business but that they dictate your policy (Vesely 2002). Having such
deceptive and underhanded policies and engaging an entire nation in a war
that not only kills Amerians, but also people of other countries and
encourages anti-American sentiment among even our allies is a horrible
foreign policy when all we receive in return is natural resources and
riches for a few Americans. Alternatives must be sought. No longer can
weapons of mass destruction be an excuse to involve the United States in
such costly polices.
And yet even more so now weapons of mass destruction are being hinted
at as an excuse to go…
Buckley Jr., William. "Looking Ahead-Oil." National Review (2005). 17 Apr.
"Imperialism Definition." Dictionary.Com. 17 Apr. 2007
Lewis, Bernard. "Did You Say 'American Imperialism'? : Power, Weakness, and
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.
Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.
Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…
references for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy, International Organization, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2004, pp.137-174, Published by Cambridge University Press
post war policies that the U.. And the world have adopted towards Iraq. It has 8 sources.
The war in Iraq and the protests of people around the world has given a clear signal to the American government and policy makers that the world has become a different place. That every attempt of American expansionism and corporate imperialism will be opposed, the unilateral policies of United tates has to change and being a superpower it has to realize its responsibilities. The opposition from the European countries, the Arab community and China should be a great concern to America. The American foreign policies clearly show that the goal of its leader is to expand the American empire with the method of progressive imperialism. The United tates because of its policies has become isolated in the world and has become an object of hatred around the world. If the unilateral and expansionism…
Martin Schwarz, "We're all Americans: Why the Europeans Are Against This War," (Silver City, NM & Washington, DC: Foreign Policy In Focus, March 26, 2003).
Dworkin, Anthony, Iraq and the "Bush doctrine" of Pre-Emptive Self-Defense," August 20, 2002 at http://www.crimesofwar.org/expert/bush-intro.html
Louis Gerber, U.S. foreign policy on Iraq, 2003 at http://www.cosmopolis.ch/english/cosmo34/us_american_foreign_policy_iraq_2.htm
Phyllis Bennis, UNDERSTANDING THE U.S.-IRAQ CRISIS, A pamphlet of the Institute for Policy Studies, January 2003 at http://www.ips-dc.org/iraq/primer1.htm#4
American Foreign Policy
Since September 11, 2001
Over its history, American foreign policy has proven remarkably flexible. Indeed, critics have said it has been too flexible -- "too naive, too calculating, too openhanded, too violent, too isolationist, too unilateral, too multilateral, too moralistic, too immoral" (Mead, 2002). All of these criticisms have been true of U.S. foreign policy at certain points, but its flexibility has made it possible for the nation to grow and thrive in a swiftly changing world. It is often said that the events of September 11, 2001 changed the world. The scale and source of the terrorist attacks on U.S. soil were certainly different from those experienced by any other nation before that time. However, assertions that 9/11 changed U.S. foreign policy permanently are, I believe, based on a shortsighted view of national orientations towards guerilla warfare, preventive attacks, and alliance-building. Below, I will discuss the…
Mead, W.D. (2002) Special providence: American foreign policy and how it changed the world. New York: Routledge.
Barber, B.R. (1995). Jihad vs. McWorld. New York: Times Publishing.
In the wake of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, there were many changes in U.S. domestic and foreign policy. The attacks highlighted the risks posed to Americans both at home and abroad. The Bush government enacted several policies in response to the attacks. Domestically, two stand out as the most significant. The first was the Homeland Security Act of 2002. This act created the Department of Homeland Security, which took a substantial amount of responsibility -- but not total responsibility -- for safeguarding the nation. The DHS began working with other agencies to strengthen border security in particular, and to coordinate anti-terrorism efforts. The department's presence is especially felt in terms of transportation safety, and the myriad new rules and restrictions that govern air travel.
The other significant law that was passed in response to the terrorist attacks was the Patriot Act, which was passed very quickly after…
Cornell Law School. (2014). Fourth Amendment. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved November 6, 2014 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/fourth_amendment
CRF. (2014). The Bush doctrine. Constitutional Rights Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2014 from http://www.crf-usa.org/war-in-iraq/bush-doctrine.html
Drezner, D. (2011). Does Obama have a grand strategy? Foreign Affairs. Retrieved November 6, 2014 from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67919/daniel-w-drezner/does-obama-have-a-grand-strategy
Similar ambitions of Mao and Stalin to establish pro-communist Korean state, which was divided into two spheres of influences Soviet, with communist regime of Kim Il Sung and pro-American nationalist authoritarian regime of Syngman hee. But according to authors Offner and Gaddis we can say that the role played by North Korean authorities was the main in this conflict. The war started North Korean in 1950 was over three years later, yet no result was achieved. This conflict revealed bankruptcy of United Nations to solve major conflicts and in many respects defined the course of history for 40 more years. These authors which are called "revisionist" and whose ideas are widely criticized today make a clear point that neither USA nor its allies in Europe (mainly France and Great Britain) were ready for a chain reaction of nationalism spread in the third world after the end of WWII, which sympathized…
LaFeber, Walter America, Russia, and the Cold War McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2006
Merrill, Dennis Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Since 1914 Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005
U.S. Foreign Policy
Far from being contrite, Southerners more emphatically held to the perceived, innate superiority of their race and breeding, comparing themselves to Biblical patriarchs as a means of validating these perceptions and justifying slavery (432). If Perry's journey had demonstrated Northern hubris, Stowe's novel generated its Southern equivalent.
Then, there was an ironic unification of the British and the Americans in the development of Samuel Colt's revolver in these years. hile the new gun was proving remarkably effective in aiding American conquest of Native American territories, it meant more than this; it was evidence of Anglo-Saxon superiority, which inspired the British as well (424). Old animosities, it seems, were lost in the greater commonality of a shared idea of racial superiority. On the strictly American front, this belief in Protestant and white superiority was also fueled by challenges coming from other nations. Long before the great tide of European immigration at…
Maier, P., & Keyssar, A. Inventing America, 2nd Ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.
However, the prerogatives of the presidential office give him this possibility. In this sense, his quality as commander in chef of the armed forces enables him to wage war without the approval of the Congress. Also, the first war in Iraq represented a good precedent for the authority of the President to go to war. Finally, another element that were used as justification for the intervention in Iraq without congressional approval is the Congress's resolution discussing the intervention against terrorism. In this sense, "the President is authorized to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons" (Authorizing Use of Force 09-14-01, 2001). Therefore, these…
Authorizing Use of Force 09-14-01. U.S. Government info. 2001. 25 February 2008. http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/bills/blsjres23.htm
Ehrhart, W.D. "The Authority to Declare War." Intervention Magazine. 2003. 25 February 2008. http://www.interventionmag.com/cms/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=335
Lithwick, Dahlia. "What War Powers Does the President Have?" Slate. 2001. 25 February 2008. http://www.slate.com/id/1008290
War Power Resolution. Findlaw.com 2008. 25 February 2008 http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/casecode/uscodes/50/chapters/33/sections/section_1541.html
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…
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