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Profiling or Guessing- the role of criminal profiling is certainly one in the popular press and media. Television shows such as CSI or Bones ring the task of forensics into the mainstream living room, ut these shows tend to focus more on the sexier forms of criminology as opposed to the gray area of forensic psychology. A professional forensic psychologist, though, understands that a typical profile is not meant to e an exact science -- for example, white male, middle age, college educated, frustrated at work, may have had social adjustment issues while an adolescent -- we have just descried oth a typical serial killer as well as eighty percent of American males orn etween 1955-1970. Similarly, psychological autopsies, like forensic evaluations tend to e more narrowly focused, interested more in accuracy of events than supposition. For example, often suicides are cases in which a psychological autopsy would e conducted…
bibliography, and, whenever possible, adding to the general knowledge of the field as appropriate. In particular, this is important because the working forensic psychologist is in the "trenches" enough to find issues that need further research and explanation.
Syndromes and Child Abuse -- Battered women, PTSD, Rape Trauma and other syndromes are in the purview of the modern forensic psychologist and are often used to explain or elaborate on behaviors or victimology. Some of these theories remain controversial, yet it is important for the forensic psychologist to keep an open mind and aid in the defense of the battered victim during the trial situation, as well as support and recommend appropriate victim support and psychological therapy. In any scenario, child abuse issues are difficult, heartrending, and yet someone must stand up and become the advocate for the minor. There are four major roles that the forensic psychologist has within this construct: evaluation of the child, assessing competency and/or mental health to testify, helping to prepare the child for testimony, and testifying as an expert witness based upon a sound psychological examination of the child.
Chapter 12 -- Trial Consultation - The Forensic Psychologist is often called to aid in jury selection. One role, depending on stakeholder, is to assess potential jurors for the potential to be unbiased against the accused.
Often the consulting Forensic Psychologist will recommend to the Court that a fair trial cannot take place in a given location based on community bias or other factors. The psychological aspects of such a recommendation will need to be explained to the Court.
Sometimes the Forensic Psychologist will be asked to help prepare witnesses for testimony, to assist in case organization and presentation of data, and to measure jury bias and appropriate techniques for stakeholder. The key for the Forensic Psychologist is to serve the appropriate client; be that law enforcement, a particular case issue (on either side of the adversarial procedure), or, in many cases, to protect the best interests of society at…
While "immediately following a crime a forensic psychologist may be asked to act as a criminal profiler" in the court system, the psychologist may be asked to evaluate the competency of a specific defendant in a criminal trial or to assess the level of mental harm done to the plaintiff in a civil trial (Decaire n.d). "Often a forensic psychologist is asked to make evaluations of defendants or plaintiffs' disability or level of trauma" (Decaire n.d.). In the juvenile court system, particularly in the case of a juvenile accused of a serious crime, a juvenile forensic psychologist would be asked to both evaluate the juvenile's state of maturity and/or provide suggestions about his or her needs. Finally, in a corrections or psychiatric facility, "the forensic psychologist in these institutions will often provide a range of therapies in order to control or eliminate the psychiatric disorder that has led to the…
Decaire, M.W. (n.d.) Forensic psychology: The misunderstood beast.
Swart, J. (2010). Criminal psychology. Retrieved:
This contribution towards the evolution of this field gives more credence and attention to these practices, making this award important for everyone involved.
The education system is the starting point for many important subjects such as forensic psychology. The importance of making this particular discipline accepted and official allows the followers and subsidiaries of these streams of information a guide path to elaborate on their own studies on the matter. Some sciences that remain of the fringes often have a difficult time garnering any attention to their work if it has not been accepted by mainstream sources such as the APA. The science itself is very new and is continually being added to by new research and experiments. It is important to realize that it is in change and may experience some growing pains as it continues on its path.
Bartol, C.., & Bartol, a.M. (2012). Introduction to Forensic…
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2012). Introduction to Forensic Psychology: Research and Application (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Huss, M.T. (2001). What is forensic psychology? it's not silence of the lambs. Eye on Psi Chi. Retrieved from http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_58.aspx
From the perspective of the forensic psychiatrist, suicide as a cause of death is particularly important in terms of its preventability. In many forensic settings, prior risk assessment for potential suicide victims can assist the psychiatrist in not only saving the lives of potential victims, but also in resolving crimes, preventing future crimes, or at the very least save uncountable grief and heartache to the families involved. The article by Borges et al. (2010) concerns a 12-month investigation of suicide risk on a cross-national basis. The global scale and long-term nature of this research might be expected to provide valuable information to forensic psychiatrists working in a clinical setting.
The purpose of the research was driven by a lack of data-driven methods for assessing suicide risks among clinical, criminal, and general populations. The 12-month epidemiological survey provided for the creation of a database to estimate the prevalence of…
Borges, G., Nock, M.K., Haro Abad, J.M., Hwang, I., Sampson, N.A., Alonso, J., Andrade, L.H., Angermyre, M.C., Bautrais, A., Bromt, E., Bruffaerts, R., De Girolamo, G., Florescu, S., Lee, S., Levinson, D., Medina-Mora, M.E., Ormel, J., Posada-Villa, J., Sagar, R., Tomov, T., Uda, H., Williams, D.R., and Kessler, R.C. (2010, Dec.). Twelve Month Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71(12). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000886/
" (Franklin, 2006, p.1) Assessed are personality factors and an attempt is made to determine which parents is closer to the children on a psychological level.
The children are evaluated as well in an examination that involves the psychological assessing he emotional connection of the child to each of the child's parents. As well the psychologist examines whether the children appear to have any psychological problems of a significant nature. School adjustment is examined as well are any behavioral problems at school and as well an examination is conducted regarding the child's involvement in school, the effects of the extended family and any stepfamily issues. Finally, the psychologist assesses whether the parents will be able to work cooperatively for the child's best interests. (Franklin, 2006, paraphrased)
The work of Mart (2006) entitled: "Getting Started in Forensic Psychology Practice" relates that the child custody evaluation typically includes the use of the…
Mart, E.G. (2006) Getting Started in Forensic Psychology Practice: How to Create a Forensic Specialty in Your Mental Health Practice. John Wiley and Sons, 2006.
Franklin, D. (2006) Issues In Forensic Psychology. Child Custody Evaluations. Online available at: http://www.campsych.com/custody.htm
Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings (2009) American Psychological Association reprint of vol. 48, No. 7, July 1994.
However, a forensic psychologist in a military setting may be able to assist in other ways in interrogations in prisoner-of-war camps and in warfare in general. Because these professionals have a strong civilian foundation -- usually having achieved some if ont a significant part of their coursework in civilian settings -- and due to the fact that they are familiar with regulations governing their profession both within and outside of the military, they may be able to display humane tendencies during these settings that can mitigate unneeded pain and suffering. However, even this role is not a given, since the function of these professionals within military settings is substantially framed within achieving the overall objectives of the military. There certainly can be a conflict of interest between overarching psychology norms and the goals of the military in interrogations. Psychologists may not be able to prevent the latter from overshadowing the…
Zur, O., Gonzalez, S. (2002). "Multiple Relationships In Military Psychology." Zur Institute.
Retrieved from http://www.zurinstitute.com/dualmilitary.html
American Psychological Association. (2008). "APA Actions to Implement the Council Resolutions Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment." www.apa.org. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/press/response/torture.aspx
But they do not tell you which variable influences which. They may hint or suggest that one variable influences another, but they are never proof of causality. That is, they are never proof that changes in variable a cause changes in variable B" (Mitchell n.d.). In fact, B might cause a, versus a causing B (a diagnosis of a learning disability might indicate a predisposition to delinquency, or delinquent behavior might make a student more apt to be identified as learning disabled, if a correlation between these factors has been established).
Finally, experimental research formally deploys the scientific method. "Experimental research is guided by a hypothesis (or several hypotheses) that states an expected relationship between two or more variables. An experiment is conducted to support or disconfirm this experimental hypothesis….Experimental research, although very demanding of time and resources, often produces the soundest evidence concerning hypothesized cause-effect relationships (Gay, 1987, cited…
Kravitz, K. (2013). Understanding and enjoying research. IAFC. Retrieved:
Mitchell, Mark. (n.d.). Non-experimental methods. General Psychology Page. Retrieved:
Clinical psychology is not a unified 'school' of psychology. A clinical psychologist might be a non-directive, ogerian psychologist, emphasizing that the client must find out what is bothering him or her and interfering with self-actualization. A behaviorist might suggest a complex system of rewards and punishments to a parent when helping a child with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) cope with the rigors of the classroom. But while a clinical psychologist may help a client better to adjust to society, the psychologist is not treating a larger 'system' as a whole, and his or her ultimate duty is to the client -- including confidentiality obligations, unless the client is a danger to him or herself or others (Clinical psychology, 2010).
This is not to say that forensic psychologists are callous or do not have individual client's needs at heart: they play an invaluable role, for example, in helping family courts…
Clinical psychology. (2010). The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved July 03, 2010, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/clinical-psychology-2
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (2010) All
Psych. Retrieved July 03, 2010,
According to the American Psychological Association (2013), forensic psychology is the application of clinical specialties to the legal arena. Forensic psychology combines the practice of psychology and the practice of law. A professional working in this field will use their psychological expertise and apply it to the judicial system. The interest of the forensic psychologist is to understand why certain behaviors occur and to also assist in minimizing and preventing such behaviors. They do thin within the criminal justice system. The forensic psychologist will apply their knowledge of psychology and use it to assist in narrowing down a list of suspects or provide the motive behind a crime (Guarnera, Murrie, & Boccaccini, 2017). There are cases where the evidence presented by a forensic psychologist will be the last piece of the puzzle when attempting to convict a criminal. The forensic psychologist will work directly with attorneys, offenders, defendants,…
American Psychological Association. (2013). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychology. The American Psychologist, 68(1), 7.
Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. (2017). Introduction to forensic psychology: Research and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Guarnera, L. A., Murrie, D. C., & Boccaccini, M. T. (2017). Why do forensic experts disagree? Sources of unreliability and bias in forensic psychology evaluations. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 3(2), 143.
MacLean, N., Neal, T., Morgan, R. D., & Murrie, D. C. (2019). Forensic clinicians’ understanding of bias. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law.
The findings of all of these evaluations could then be used to paint a picture that sheds light on whether the insanity plea in question is potentially or verifiably legitimate or if it seems to be a ploy to get around the charges in play. Some notable findings of the study reviewed for this discussion response include the fact that there was some disparate responses among the study subjects but it did not seem to be based on the fact that some of the people involved were psychologists while others were psychiatrists (Gowensmith, Murrie & Boccaccini, 2013).
Forensic psychologists should also take note that the study found that of all of the cases where an insanity defense was actually used, only 35.4% of the people in question (out of around 450 cases) were found insane while 58.6% were found sane. Of those 450 or so cases, there was unanimous agreement…
Gowensmith, W., Murrie, D.C., & Boccaccini, M.T. (2013). How reliable are forensic evaluations of legal sanity?. Law And Human Behavior, 37(2), 98-106.
Lindgren, J. (2013, August 7). Ariel Castro's house of horror leveled in Cleveland. USA TODAY: Latest World and U.S. News - USATODAY.com. Retrieved August 9, 2013, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/08/07/ariel-castro-cleveland-house-abduction/2626855/
Rubin, J. (2013, August 7). Nidal Hasan hopes for death in Fort Hood killings, lawyers say - CNN.com. CNN.com - Breaking News, U.S., World, Weather, Entertainment & Video News. Retrieved August 9, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com/2013/08/07/justice/hasan-court-martial
criminal gangs are formed. he writer uses theories of conformity and the elements of family life that contribute to the willingness of a teenager to join a gang and perform illegal acts. here were six sources used to complete this paper.
Law enforcement officials are often faced with crimes that have been committed by gang members. he crimes can range from petty to extreme and can include everything from vandalism to murder. A teen girl who is almost abducted by a gang stands a chance to have serious harm committed to her because of some of the elements that cause gangs to form and to act once they are formed. here are many social theories that work in tandem when it comes to a gang and its members, and the combination of those theories provide the foundation that the gang is based in. Gangs act as one unit in many…
Theories of Conformity (Accessed 2-9-2003)
Deutsch and Gerard (1955) Dual Process Dependency Model
" (Linder, 1)
By and large, Simpson's history would support the argument which might have been levied by forensics psychologists that, in addition to the circumstantial evidence connecting him to the murders and his suspect behavioral pattern at the inception of the investigation, Simpson did have a behavioral history that suggests mental illness and the psychological makeup to commit the double-homicide. Quite certainly, indications of his temperament, of his tendency toward violence, of the frightening side which he displayed within the confines of his marriage and often in front of others could be considered sufficient cause for a more intensive psychological evaluation, particularly considering the strength of DNA evidence against Simpson. (Meier, 1)
These conditions justified the frequently nuanced use of forensic psychology as a way of understanding Simpson's capability to commit deed which evidence suggests he had the motives, the means, the lacking alibi, the varying witness accounts and…
Auther, J.; Feldman, C. & LaMotte, G. (1997). Jury Unanimous: Simpson is Liable. CNN Interactive. Online at http://www.cnn.com/U.S./9702/04/simpson.verdict1/index.html
Editorial. (2008). The Juice and Justice. Los Angeles Times. Online at http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-ed-simpson6-2008dec06,0,3851871.story
Linder, D.A. (2001). The Trial of O.J. Simpson. University of Missouri-Kansas City. Online at http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Simpson/simpson.htm
Meier, B. (1994). Simpson Team Taking Aim at DNA. The New York Times. Online at http://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/07/us/simpson-team-taking-aim-at-dna-laboratory.html?sec=health&pagewanted=1
However, the police department must be careful to not preclude the ADA applicants from those jobs to which they can be ascribed and hired for with little to no reasonable accommodations because not allowing or considering such reasonable accommodations can indeed be construed a violation of the law so the hiring managers and associated forensic psychologists need to be very careful (ADA, 2013).
It may seem to some people including many forensic psychologists that the ADA is a double-edged sword that potentially puts ill-prepared people in the line of fire while at the same time raising the possibility that a department will deemed to be anti-disabled or discriminatory. However, there are best practices and good habits that can and should be undertaken so that ADA applicants are hirable for the jobs that they are able to do while at the same time protecting the public because physically incapable applicants (regardless…
ADA. (2013, August 11). ADA.gov homepage. ADA.gov homepage. Retrieved August 11, 2013, from http://www.ada.gov
ADA. (2013, August 11). QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACTAND HIRING POLICE OFFICERS. ADA.gov homepage. Retrieved August 11, 2013, from http://www.ada.gov/copsq7a.htm
(Steinberg, 2001) (Kirk, 1986)
The independent variable is when the officer was allowed to structure the interview and lead them to answer the question through making different kinds of inferences. This was achieved by looking at 400 different interviews that were accomplished over an eight-month time frame. The results were that 89% of respondents provided more information and felt comfortable about discussing their situation with investigators using National Institute of Child Health and Development's structured interview protocol. These different areas are providing validity and reliability to the study, by illustrating how researchers were able to compare the responses of children as well as the accuracy of the information provided. (Steinberg, 2001) (Kirk, 1986)
Explain whether you think the validity and reliability, as reported in the article, are accurate or suspect and why
The validity and reliability of the article is exact. This is because two different techniques are being utilized…
Kirk, J. (1986). Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sternberg, K. (2001). Use of a Structured Investigative Protocol. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (5), 997 -- 1005.
I believe I possess a number of personality traits that are relevant to my career goals of becoming a lead forensics psychologist and earning a PhD in clinical psychology. Foremost among these is the fact that I am hard-working in both the intellectual and physical sense of the term. As a result of my solid work ethic, I am goal oriented and extremely driven to succeed in my aforementioned aims. I am also honorable, and have the best of intentions to better the quality of my life for my immediate family, which includes my husband and children.
This program at Walden is an excellent match for me because it is compatible with the timeline that I would like to accomplish my goals in. Furthermore, I am convinced that this institution can offer me an education that will suitably prepare me for the future career and educational…
Despite the fact that the field of forensic psychology was formally recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a "subset" in 2001 (Salfati, 2009), aspects of this science have influenced law enforcement long before that. One of the most salient ways it does so is in terms of interviewing people for certain positions -- whether they be formal positions such as an appointment to a law enforcement position or informal ones such as witness and eyewitness testimony.
Various branches of the law have been made cognizant of the fact that individuals who work within law enforcement have a very tenuous, difficult job. There is a significantly greater amount of work -- and psychology -- involved in working as a police officer. Therefore, within the past several years law enforcement officials have included personality tests as part of the testing for police officers (Salfati, 2009). Although these tests are far…
Huss, M.T. (2001). "What is forensic psychology? it's not silence of the lambs." Eye on Psi Chi. Retrieved from http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_58.aspx
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). "Introduction to forensic psychology." Baltimore: Author. "Foundations of Forensic Psychology" with Dr. C. Gabrielle Salfati.
Usually, it is more likely that the ruse is discovered by a forensic psychologist, and/or that there is simply too much evidence pointing to the fact that the criminal knew what he or she was doing when the crime was being committed (Adler, 2004).
The Likelihood of eoffending
Whether a criminal is likely to reoffend is something else that has to be considered by forensic psychologists. They are often asked to give their opinion on this issue when inmates are coming up for early release or when they are eligible for parole. There are other factors and opinions that are taken into account, of course, but having a professional, psychological opinion about whether a criminal has been "cured" of his or her behavior or will be likely to repeat it is very significant (Adler, 2004; Dalby, 1997). It can be difficult to determine what goes on in the mind of…
Adler, J.R. (Ed.). (2004). Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice. Cullompton: Willan.
Dalby, J.T. (1997) Applications of Psychology in the Law Practice: A guide to relevant issues, practices and theories. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Duntley, J.D., & Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology. Social Biology, 51, 161-165.
Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment
While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.
Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN THE PACTICE OF FOENSIC PSYCHOLOGY
Professional code of ethics regulates the behavior and practicing of individuals from different fields. Psychologists conform to the stated professional code of ethics that guide them in the provision of safe and quality services to their clients. Similarly, psychologists can practice in firms, including the law to aid in forensic examination of the convicted individuals. As such, it may require the application of the law code of ethics and psychological code of ethics, a fact that might present a significant challenge to them. Therefore, the following analysis identifies the standards of ethics psychologist (Dr. Joven) faces when practicing forensic psychology.
Dr. Joven has to follow numerous ethical standards guiding his professional practice as a future forensic psychologist. He will have to ensure confidentiality of the information of his clients. Confidentiality entails respecting one's right of privacy to the extent applicable,…
APA Ethics Code Commentary and Case Illustrations. (n.d.). http://www.apa.org. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/education/ce/1360279.aspx
Bush, S.S., Connell, M.A., & Denney, R.L. (2006). Ethical practice in forensic psychology: A systematic model for decision-making. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Ethics Rounds -- APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: An ethics code for all psychologists? (n.d.). http://www.apa.org. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep06/ethics.aspx
Zapf, P.A., Hart, S.D., & Roesch, R. (2013). Forensic psychology and law. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley
Forensic Psychological Evaluation
Confidential Psychological Evaluation
Gender: Male Date of Report: 05/07/2012
Date of Birth: 10/01/1981 Age
Marital Status: Single Occupation: Unemployed
Race: Caucasian Education: GED
Referred by: Dr., B. Wynter
REASON FOR REFERRAL:
A Psychiatric Evaluation on May 19, 2006 by Barbara Wynter, License psychologist who is
Clinical administrator of Central Treatment Facility ward 1, 2, 3, was requested to further assist in diagnosis.
LIMITS OF CONFIDENTIALITY:
DR, B. Wynters
MMPI (Spell out the name Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
Is a depressive component of scale 6. The items connote extraordinary emotional sensitivity or vulnerability that is dysphonic in tone. These items have a "poor little me" flavor, portraying the self as meek and innocuous, emotionally fragile, incapable of being a threat to others, and perhaps as being entitle to special concern and consideration for one's tender sensibilities. There is an implicit theme of resentment…
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…
Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.
Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.
Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
This does not mean that I do not think I would learn a lot from the introductory course. I just believe that there has to be a foundation for knowledge, and that is what the beginning psychology course is generally designed for. By getting a good foundation it would then be easier to learn about any and all of the important issues that will likely be addressed within more advanced courses as the curriculum becomes more difficult.
Based on the experience that you have and what you have done, my question to you would be this: Do you believe that alcohol and substance abuse problems are psychological in and of themselves, or are they merely physical manifestations or reactions to these problems?
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
The construction/validation sample of 96 juvenile sexual offenders ranged in age from 9 to 20, with an average age of 14. To administrate the exam, the test is not directly administered to the juvenile: instead the trained professional calculates the boy's relative risk factors, based up his past history, such as a history of violence, of being a victim of abuse himself, caregiver consistency, and history and preoccupation with sexuality. The problem with the test is that it to some degree stereotypes the boy and tries to predict the likelihood of negative behavior based upon negative past and family circumstances. However, it can be useful in family court settings for flagging 'at risk' teens who have already entered the system and may be helped by receiving additional social support to prevent future acts of violence.
Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI). Tacoma, A: Nichols & Molinder Assessments.
Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI). Tacoma, WA: Nichols & Molinder Assessments.
Prentky, Robert. Sue Righthand, Ph.D. (2003). Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II
(J-SOAP-II) Retrieved May 14, 2009 at http://www.csom.org/pubs/JSOAP.pdf
Forensic nursing goes far beyond traditional medical care; it is "an innovative expansion of the role nurses will fill in the health care delivery system of the future," (Lynch, 1995, p. 489). This is why the Vice President of the United States Joe Biden has stated, "Forensic Nurses play an integral role in bridging the gap between law and medicine. They should be in each and every emergency room," (cited by the International Association of Forensic Nurses, 2006). Until recently, I was not aware that the profession existed. I learned what I know about forensic science from television, and also from years spent watching autopsies being performed at the morgue near by dad's office. Oddly, I would spend hours watching actual autopsies so when television shows started to depict forensic science in documentary and fiction shows more and more, the field broadened and opened up to me. I soon learned…
Hammer, R. & Pagliaro, E.M. (2006). Forensic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice. Jones & Bartlett.
International Association of Forensic Nurses (2006). What is forensic nursing? Retrieved online: http://www.iafn.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=137
Lynch, V.A. (1995). Clinical forensic nursing: a new perspective in the management of crime victims from trauma to trial. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1995 Sep;7(3):489-507.
In the vehicle study, witnesses had to select from various types and colors of vehicles, four of the former and three of the latter. The variables in the study in which listeners heard from 'witness testimony included the participation of both jurors and judges in Arizona, five differently worded findings, as well as two versions of conclusions in which it was stated that the 'suspect' either did or did not commit the crime -- in the opinion of the expert (McQuiston-Surrett and Saks, 2009, p. 441).
However, the data collection was extremely different. In the vehicle witness study, the findings were simply the mathematical results of the percentages of the people who were correct in identifying the requisite vehicle. In the other study, researchers were able to determine how different phrasing and diction swayed the credibility of witness testimony -- with some of the phrasing even mentioning the circumscriptions of…
McQuiston-Surrett, D., Saks, M.J. (2009). "The testimony of forensic identification science: what expert witnesses say and what factfinders hear." Law and Human Behavior. 33: 436-453.
Villegas, a.B., Sharps, M.J., Satterthwaite, B., Chisolm, S. (2005). "Eyewitness memory for vehicles." The Forensic Examiner. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=18&sid=e4265201-4916-4a30-9f85-a8889681037f%40sessionmgr14&hid=17
Graham was consistent with a general trend exhibited by the court to create a more clear differentiation between appropriate juvenile vs. adult sentencing. For example, in oper v. Simmons (2005) the court declared the death penalty unconstitutional for persons under 18 (Guggenheim 2012: 3). However, the Graham decision was considered more surprising because the Court tends to give more consideration to death penalty cases. There is often great variation between juvenile laws between the states, but rather than defer to a growing trend to emphasize states' rights, the Graham decision emphasized evolving national and international standards of decency. According to Justice Kennedy, regardless of the state in which the juvenile is tried, there must be a general acknowledgement that juveniles have a "lack of maturity and an underdeveloped sense of responsibility...are more vulnerable or susceptible to negative influences and outside pressures, including peer pressure; and their characters are not as…
Graham v. Florida. (2010). Cornell Law School. Retrieved:
Guggenheim, M. (2012.).Graham v. Florida and a juvenile's right to age-appropriate sentencing
Harvard CRCL. Retrieved:
Careers in Psychology
Each person possesses his or her own field of preference in psychology specialization after the basic course. The desire emanates from personal experience, passion in life, desired goals to fulfill, and the rewards accompanying each specialization. All the specialization areas in psychology remain in high demand in the society. Concisely, all that matters is the innovativeness of the person in the profession, the skills, and the approach methods in use when in the practicum field. The result after the inputs determines how successful one becomes. The societal needs are at a rampant change, therefore as one chooses a certain profession to venture in, critical analysis in of utmost importance. After detailed evaluation of the various ventures that provide the best satisfaction to a psychologist, the three topmost specializations are forensic, biopsychology and social psychologists.
Social psychologists work in environments with close relation to hospitals, clinics, mental hospitals,…
Accredited Forensic Psychology Schools and Degrees Online. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/forensic-psychology/
Biopsychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/biological-psychology/
Kuther, T.L., & Morgan, R.D. (2013). Careers in psychology: Opportunities in a changing world. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Perception | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/perception/
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.
Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
Analysis of the crime scene
After Jeffrey Dahmer was sentenced, he was taken to the Correctional Institution of Columbia, located in Portage; a town in Wisconsin. During his first incarceration year, Dahmer was confined separately in order to keep him physically safe in case he interacted with other prisoners. With his consent, when the first solitary confinement year was over, Dahmer was taken to a unit that was less secure. Here, he was made to work for two hours each day; he used to clean the ablution block.
Apparently, Dahmer adapted well to life in prison, although he had at first been separated from the other inmates. He ultimately managed to convince the authorities to let him interact more with his fellow prisoners. Dahmer learnt religion from photos and books he received from his father. The Correctional Institution of Columbia even allowed him to go through baptism; it was…
Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part
What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?
In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218
Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle
Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html
Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology
All psychologists are required to follow the ethical guidelines found in the 2002 Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), commonly known as the Ethics Code. Other important ethical guidelines are found in the 2007 Competing Development Achievement Levels (DALs) of the National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP) and the Assessment of Competing Benchmarks Work Group of the APA. These ethics codes cover compliance, privacy and confidentiality, assessment, therapy, research and publications, and there are also special guidelines for dealing with children, minorities, culturally diverse populations, forensic psychology and gay and lesbian clients. Both the Ethics Code and state laws require psychologists to maintain the confidentiality of clients and their records, apart from legal requirements to report verified or suspected child abuse or clients who are a danger to others. Psychologists can only provide…
Arnaut, G.L.Y. And D.A. Hill (2010), "Ethical and Legal Issues," in J.C. Thomas and M. Hersen (eds). Handbook of Clinical Psychology Competencies. Springer, pp. 73-94.
Corey, G. et al. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning.
Wulach, James S. And David L. Shapiro (2005), "Ethical and Legal Considerations in Child Custody Evaluations," in Gunsberg and Hymowitz (Eds.), A Handbook of Divorce and Custody Forensic Development and Clinical Perspectives. New Jersey: The Analytic Press pp. 45-56.
The field of clinical psychology emerged as a viable method through which the theoretical foundations of cognitive studies could be effectively applied within the clinical setting to prevent and treat psychological syndromes. Derived from the first clinical psychology work conducted by Lightner Witmer in the late 19th century, and expanding throughout the 20th century as diagnostic tools were refined and classification systems for mental disorders were standardized, modern clinical psychology has been adapted to fulfill a niche within a whole host of divergent fields, including criminal justice, the social sciences and gender relations. Clinical psychologists premise their work on the use of empirical analysis to accurately investigate matters of cognitive processing, psychological assessment and mental illness, with the administration of personality tests, neurological scans and clinical interviews the most frequently utilized diagnostic resources. As clinical psychology expanded the base of knowledge pertaining to the human brain's highly refined…
Blackburn, R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct: Theory, research and practice. John Wiley & Sons.
Donohue, J., & Levitt, S. (2001). The impact of race on policing and arrests. Journal of Law and Economics, 44, 367-394. Retrieved from http://pricetheory.uchicago.edu/levitt/Papers/LevittDonohueTheImpactOfRace2001.pdf
Fite, P.J., Wynn, P., & Pardini, D.A. (2009). Explaining discrepancies in arrest rates between
Black and White male juveniles. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 77(5), 916. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981137/ >.
The impact of the psychological profiles of the offender and victims on the court evidence presented by the prosecutor and defense teams and witness use
Psychological profiling involves developing a composition of behavioral attributes. It combines psychological and sociological review of the offender. The process of profiling is anchored on the premise that if the crime scene is analyzed carefully and accurately, there is a good chance that the type of person involved in the offence will begin to surface. Therefore, it is based on the idea that some types of people manifest certain behavior tendencies and patterns. A jury informed of such patterns, is better equipped to ascertain probale suspects (Ebisike, 2007).
Profiling driven by psychological processes has an impact on the strategies and suggestions for evidence presentation by both offenders and victims. In the offender's case, profiling suggests the most effective style of interviewing to apply when such…
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
This means that the decision I make in this scenario must be guided by sincere questions concerning the validity of my practice and the importance of alternate ambitions such as my desire to make a foray into the screenwriting profession. It is thus that I have decided the costs are simply too high to maintain the current relationship which I have with my patient.
Therefore, the only appropriate measure is for me to immediately cease my counseling relationship with the patient. In order to ensure that the patient does not lose his access to the treatment which he requires, he will be referred to one of my respected colleagues. It is believed that the necessary cost of breaking from this established doctor/patient relationship will be outweighed by the benefits of removing myself from a situation in which objectivity has been lost.
Upon separating form the patient thusly, I would make…
Fisher, C.B. (2008). Decoding the Ethics Code. Sage Publications.
Holcomb, W.R. (2006). Thinking Correctly About Ethics: A Review of Ethical Practice in Forensic Psychology. Psychology Critiques, 51(48), 1554-1556.
Jordan, A.E. & Meara, N.M. (1990). Ethics and the Professional Practice of Psychologists: The Role of Virtues and Principles. Professional Psychology Resource Press, 21(2), 107-114.
Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1998). Ethics in Psychology. Oxford University Press.
violence and aggression. First, different aspects of violence, such as diversity and culture, gender and psychosocial aspects are discussed. And, the ethical and legal dimensions of mandatory reporting of child and elder abuse are looked into. The emerging technologies in the field of psychology are also discussed in relation to the topic of violence and other forms of deviant behavior. Lastly, correlations of the causality and violence prevention interventions are given.
MFT: Psychology of Violence
The history of the world is mired with incidences of violence. Violence traces its origins back to prehistory, and there is barely a community, society or individual that has never experienced or witnessed some form of violence. A single incidence of violence can be powerful and unbearable whether it is terrorism, war, suicide, homicide or even systemic injustices (structural violence -- whereby there are access barriers to health care, social justice, or some other type…
Anderson, C., & Bushman, B. (2002). Human Aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27-51.
Duxbury, J., & Wright, K. (2011, March 7). Should nurses restrain violent and aggressive patients? Retrieved from Nursing Times: http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/specialisms/mental-health/-should-nurses-restrain-violent-and-aggressive-patients/5026793.article
EIGE. (2015). What is gender-based violence. Retrieved from European Institute for Gender Equality: http://eige.europa.eu/gender-based-violence/what-is-gender-based-violence
Felson, R., Deane, G., & Armstrong, D. (2008). Do theories of crime or violence explain race differences in delinquency. Social Science Research, 624-641.
Instead, a representative sample is used. The larger the sample the better, obviously, because the larger the sample the less wiggle room there is going to be between the sample looked at and the entire body.
Perhaps another explanation for the margin of error in this study is noted in the abstract of the document, whereby it is acknowledged that they questionnaire looked at forensic psychologists that were retained or secured by the court as well as situations where one of the child custody parties in question retained the forensic psychologist. It is not immediately clear whether that figured into the margin of error because that would certainly affect the motives and even the outcome of the study in general but whether/how much of an impact was had was not immediately made clear.
In short, the margin of error in this study accounts for the fact that only a…
Arch, M., Jarne, a., Pero, M., & Guardia, J. (2011). CHILD CUSTODY ASSESSMENT:
A FIELD SURVEY of SPANISH FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGISTS' PRACTICES. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 3(2), 107-128.
altenative appoach to Computeized Tomogaphy in foensic pathology.
Thomsen, A.H., Juik, A.G., Uhenholt, A.G., Vesteby, A. (2009).
Jounal: Foensic Science Intenational.
Publication Infomation: 2008, 183, 87-90.
The main pupose of this aticle is to see whethe o not CT scans ae necessay as a means of augmenting autopsies. The eseach question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effot equied to implement this technology? Thee is no hypothesis fo this aticle; the authos wee cetainly non-patisan in thei appoach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans pefomed by the Depatment of Radiology at Aahus Univesity Hospital. I eviewed this aticle to ascetain the elevance of CT scans to foensic pathology.
Abstact: This aticle denotes the boons and the detiments associated with using CT scans as compaed to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies fo foensic pathology. Oiginal eseach…
references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.
Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology
Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.
Journal: Medical History
Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.
The authors of the article determined that by directing children into a specific line of questioning regraind a certain action "gives the child material that might appear in subsequent play or narrative" (Gilstrap and Cici, 2001).
The true relationship between both of these issues is that ultimately, Hewitt also engaged in leading children through the use of imagery, by asking them to draw how they would feel if something sexual did happen to them. Finally, the last problem identified with using clinical techniques in a forensic setting is related to relying on aspects of behavior as being congruous with abuse. Without properly attributing for the base rate of sexual abuse in the world or the population in which the children are, the propensity for gaining false positives is very real -- and problematic.
Thus, there are many different important concepts a forensic psychologist could take away form this particular article.…
Gilstrap, L.L., Ceci, S.J. (2001). "Difficulties inherent in integrating clinical wisdom with empirical research in forensic interview." PsycCRITIQUES. 46 (2). Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?vid=6&sid=e8439b61-401f-4d44-b03d-9552b26c9259%40sessionmgr115&hid=107&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=pvh&an=cnt-46-2-159
Litwack, T.R. (2001). "Actuarial vs. clinical assessments of dangerousness." Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7(2), 409-443. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?sid=87617533-0386-4c21-a27f-bfc6df2dbdb5%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=122&bdata=JnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#db=pdh&an=2001-17852-005
Insanity evaluations represent the most challenging forensic assessments in the criminal domain" (ogers, 2008, p.126). This is due to the fact that insanity evaluations require the psychologist to assess whether a defendant had a mental illness at the time that an offense was committed, and, whether that mental illness was related to the commission of the crime in a way that would make the defendant "insane" under applicable state laws. First, whether or not the defendant is presenting as mentally ill at the time of the assessment is often not relevant to the assessment; most defendants, processed and in the jail system, have access to medications and treatment that they may have lacked at the time of the crime. Therefore, it is important to realize that a defendant's competency to stand trial is a different issue than whether a defendant is not guilty by reason of insanity. If a defendant…
Bonnie, R.J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation.
Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10(3), 291-316.
Frontline. (2013). Instanity defense FAQs. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from PBS website:
In "The role of the Violence isk Appraisal Guide and Historical, Clinical, isk- 20 in U.S. courts: A case law survey," Vitacco et al. discuss the use of the psychological forensic assessment in predicting future dangerousness. The authors are very critical of the use of psychological assessments for these purposes because of their belief, which is affirmed by investigation into case law, that psychologists often get their predictions wrong. In other words, psychologists are not necessarily able to predict future dangerousness, which can make an assessment of future dangerousness little more than guesswork.
One of the cases mentioned by Vitacco et al. was the seminal case of Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983). The defendant, Thomas Barefoot, was convicted of murdering a police officer. He was charged with a capital offense and the jury had to determine whether or not Barefoot was eligible for the death penalty.…
Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983).
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Introduction in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). The nature and evolution of forensic mental health assessment in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Relevant sources of authority for developing best-practice standards in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Alter the Forensic Dynamics during an Interviewing Process
In this paper, we reveal how professional's attitudes, views, and knowledge do not necessarily match forensic research findings. Witness issues will then be discussed concerning research community. The study identifies some of the key factors that can alter or improve forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. This study focuses primarily on forensic dynamics relating to the interviewing young children and the associated challenges.
Expert knowledge and attitudes
It has been proven that professionals and social researchers (biased) towards information confirming their initial beliefs by refuting established opinions. Once established, beliefs and impressions challenged to contrary proof. Thus, belief systems and generalization can create a confirmation prejudice that may result in faulty understanding and wrong presentation, adversely affecting important decisions. egarding child victimization situations, such prejudice may result in dramatic repercussions presenting a serious risk to a person's legal rights or presenting a…
Bull, R., Valentine, T., & Williamson, T. (2009). Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: Current developments and future directions. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Goals of Psychology
Psychologists in various areas of specialty put emphasis on different behavioral aspects though often with similar goals, that of getting acquainted to the human behavior. The paper will look at these four goals of psychology as well as an example of a study created that would help elaborate on each of these four goals of psychology. These four goals of psychology are to describe behavior, to explain behavior, to predict behavior and to control behavior.
This involves the naming and classification of a behavior that is displayed by an individual or a group of people. A description is normally based on careful, systematic procedure carried out which is a contrast to the haphazard description that may be put forth without backing of well researched data. Description is important as it clarifies the phenomenon under study and it is only after a description of the phenomena…
Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2013). What is psychology ? essentials. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
sit-down with an experience psychologist recently and a very enlightening and expansive conversation ensued. The psychologist in question did request that her name and her practice be excluded from being named within this report, but there is a bevy of great information that was gleaned during the interview and will be shared in this report. She said she wanted to be very candid and felt she should not do so if her name (or the name of her practice) are in play. At the request of the professor, topics to be mentioned in this summary include how long the psychologist has been working in the field, what orientation the psychologist was trained for and the time splits that the psychologist allocates her time to, the assessment tools she uses and the associated training engaged in to be able to use those tools, the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist has encountered…
The science of Psychology has evolved over time and certain studies have been instrumental in that evolution. Two of the more famous studies that have revolutionized the field were the orschach inkblot study of 1942, and the study in 1962 by Calhoun on the effects of overcrowding. These two scientific studies changed the field of psychology and our understanding of human behavior.
The orschach inkblot test is one of the most famous studies in the history of Psychology. As stated in the published study, "the experiment consists in the interpretation of accidental forms, that is, of non-specific forms." (orschach, 1951, p. 15) Inkblots are created by dripping ink on a piece of paper and then folding the paper. The researchers maintain that it is important that the resulting inkblot fulfill certain requirements, but most importantly the inkblot must be symmetrical. The inkblots are then shown to the subject…
Calhoun, J.B. (1962). "Population Density and Social Pathology." Scientific American. 206, 139-48.
"Letting the Rat out of the Bag, The Cultural Influence of John B. Calhoun's Rodent Experiments." (2009) London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from http://www2.lse.ac.uk/researchAndExpertise/researchHighlights/Environment/rats
Rorschach, Hermann. (1951). Psychodiagnostics: A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, 2nd Ed.. Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/stream/psychodiagnostic011205mbp#page/n7/mode/2up
Ethics in the Practice of Psychology
Identify the problem.
The therapist must decide how to respond to several potential ethics issues that the client has brought to the client-therapist relationship. The therapist is considering options for responding that will preserve the integrity of the client-therapist relationship and that will avoid communicating any disregard for the ethnic traditions that are most likely influencing the client's actions.
Identify the potential issues involved.
While it is probable that the psychologist has reviewed the ethical guidelines that govern her work, the client has stepped outside of those bounds in several ways. Most notably, the client has not complied with the processes and constraints associated with fee payment, and the client has introduced complexity into the client-therapist relationship by making arrangements for the provision of therapy services to another family member without first discussing the matter with the therapist. In addition, the client…
Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping profession (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks / Cole.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (1992, December 1).
American Psychological Association. Author. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/code-1992.aspx [Type text]
Duties of a Correctional Psychologist
An increasing rate of violation of crimes characterizes the current global environment. Different forms of violence and aggression, including drug trafficking and abuse, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of violence necessitates the need for analyzing the roles of a correctional psychologist. he special roles played by the correctional psychologists such as providing environments that improve the safety of the staff and inmates, psychological services, inmate management, and conducting an evaluation of the inmate/prison population and its influence on inmates' health necessitated the study into the topic. In addition, the fact that the correctional psychology has numerous ethical dilemmas and conflicts makes it wanting to study the topic.
he working environment, professional and personal experiences made me interested in studying the duties and challenges facing correctional psychologist. he fact that correctional psychologists work in a simulative and challenging environment attracts my interests…
The study provides a variety of opportunities for future research. For example, it provides an avenue for conducting research on the organizational factors that influence decision-making of the correctional psychologists. Organizational factors such as structure have been predicted to affect the practicing of correctional psychologists. Therefore, this study will provide the basis for studies into the issue. In addition, the study provides opportunities for future research on the contributing factors to the transformation of the correctional psychologists and their roles. Other ways in which this study will provide opportunities for future research include studies that aim at criticizing legitimacy of studies conducted on the topic.
Corriea, K.M. (2009). A Handbook for Correctional Psychologists: Guidance for the Prison Practitioner. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
Since males of all sexually reproducing species are naturally drawn to signs of fertility in females (Zuk 2002), they naturally express more interest in females when they ovulate, or come into heat in the vernacular applied to non-human animals. In many other species that do not rely as much on a monogamous pair bond for the survival of the fetus (Barash & Lipton 2001), females exhibit very clear external signals corresponding to their ovulation. This system is very well suited to species where a single male (or several) mate with many females, such as among lions and many mammals; in fact, it probably reduces any potential for conflict among harem females for male attention.
Human females replaced the outward signals of ovulation and fertility by evolving a suppression of any outward manifestation, precisely, to ensure that males provided for, guarded, and protected them continually rather than only that portion of…
Ackerman, Diane. (1995) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage
Angier, Natalie. Birds Do it. Bees Do it. People Seek the Keys to it; the New York Times (Apr. 10/07)
Barash, David, P. And Lipton, Judith E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, Nathaniel (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Thus, a juvenile-specific evaluation is mandated and the evaluation must be performed by someone with juvenile-specific experience (which was not necessarily the case for the initial evaluation of K.G. In Indiana, based upon the facts presented). Virginia law also provides strict guidelines regarding how the evaluation must be performed.
After the evaluation, the court makes a decision as to whether the juvenile is competent to stand trial. The juvenile's attorney, pursuant to Virginia § 16.1-357 B. can also request a hearing regarding the issue of competency. "If a hearing is held, the party alleging that the juvenile is incompetent shall bear the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence the juvenile's incompetency. The juvenile shall have the right to notice of the hearing and the right to personally participate in and introduce evidence at the hearing" (LIS -- Code of Virginia). If the juvenile is found competent based…
LIS -- Code of Virginia. Retrieved:
Sirkin, J. (2005). Juvenile competence to stand trial: Alleged juvenile delinquents in Indiana are not subject to the adult competency statute. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 33(2), 267-268. Retrieved:
Awareness about psychology behind domestic violence has been greatly enhanced in recent years, as have legal protections for victims. However, the courts' major decisions on domestic violence cases have been somewhat equivocal. For example, in the case of Castle ock v Gonzales, the abused woman filed a complaint against the police department, arguing that it violated her right to Due Process when "acting pursuant to official policy or custom" the police "failed to respond to her repeated reports over several hours that her estranged husband had taken their three children in violation of her restraining order against him. Ultimately, the husband murdered the children" (Castle ock v Gonzales, 2012, Cornell). In the case, the woman had a restraining order against her husband, prohibiting him from coming near her or her children. However, ultimately the court did not find favor with the defendant since a restraining order is not a property…
Castle Rock v Gonzales. (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved:
Hiatt, Heidi. (2011). Landmark domestic violence legislation: Tracey Thurman vs. Torrington,
CT. Time's Up. Retrieved: http://timesupblog.blogspot.com/2011/10/landmark-domestic-violence-legislation.html
The MMPI-2 has been used successfully to detect feigning in neurological and psychiatric control groups (Klein, 2007). As a result, the MMPI-2 is the most frequently used test in forensic psychological testing. There is, however, still substantial "debate which of the four subscales is most useful for identifying malingering" (Klein, 2007). However, one of the MMPI-2's lingering problems is that it is a test where people can incorporate coaching, so that it is somewhat vulnerable to coaching.
The issue of coaching is critical in the forensics environment. This is because the goal of forensic psychology is to use neuropsychological assessment methods to help in some type of legal proceedings. These proceedings can be civil or criminal proceedings. In both civil and criminal environments, the need for accurate diagnosis can be critical to outcomes for the person being tested and for people being impacted by their testing. Moreover, it can be…
Klein, H. (2007). Assessment of malingered neuropsychological deficits. New York: Oxford
Knapp and VandeCreek (2001) is a qualitative article with somewhat of a literature review. There are no formal reports, tables, graphs, or content related to a case study or research study. There is valuable information regarding the context within which the article will consider the ethical issues in personality assessment within the field of forensic psychology. They offer valid examples and spend time clarifying definitions and jargon related to the issue. This is not a quantitative article; it is a qualitative one. Knapp and VandeCreek provide context for the research questions and conclusions in addition to offering examples and counterexamples. The article discusses why ethics should be forensic psychology overall. "Ethical Issues in Personality Assessment in Forensic Psychology" is part exposition, part qualitative research, and part literature/contextual review.
This particular piece of writing is about the evolving role of the forensic psychologist as the expert. The article seeks to identify…
Kalmbach, K.C., & Lyons, P.M. (2006). Ethical issues in conducting forensic evaluations. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 2(3), 261-288.
Knapp, S., & VandeCreek, L. (2001). Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology. Journal of personality assessment, 77(2), 242-254.
Eyewitness and ecalling
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
Literature on Schemas
Literature on Schemas and Stereotypes and their role in Eyewitness
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
To investigate and prosecute crime the criminal justice system heavily depends on eyewitness identification (Wells & Olson, 2003). An eyewitness goes through different psychological procedures prior to the courtroom testimony. It is evident that before…
Brewer, W.F., & Treyens, J.C.(1981). Role of schemata in memory for places. Cognitive Psychology, 12(2), 207-230
Charman, S., & Wells, G.(2008). Can eyewitnesses correct for external influences on their lineup identifications? The actual/counterfactual assessment paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14(1), 5-20.
Christianson, S., & Hubinette, B.(1993). Hand up A study of witnesses' emotional reactions and memories associated with bank robberies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7(5), 365-379
Duffy, E.L.(1948). Motivational theory of emotion. Psychological Review, 55, 324-328.
"(Bonnie et al.)
For many the ability of a client to participate in pleading insanity is controversial. Many contend that this ability shows that the person is rational and should be punished accordingly. While others argue that, the ability of a person to know that they are insane does not make them sane. In either case, the insanity plea remains as a controversial subject.
Within the realm of psychology, the issue of insanity has always been a topic of interest. Psychologists have long asserted that there are various mental conditions that render individuals insane. These conditions include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and even certain forms of depression. Psychologists contend that these conditions can make an individual unable to rationalize.
A book entitled Court-Ordered Insanity: Interpretive Practice and Involuntary Commitment explains that many cases involve the hospitalization or commitment of the client. In these cases, the book explains that the client mental…
Bonnie, R.J., Poythress, N.G., Hoge, S.K., Monahan, J., & Eisenberg, M. (1996). Decision-Making in Criminal Defense: An Empirical Study of Insanity Pleas and the Impact of Doubted Client Competence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1), 48-62.. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000317272
Ellias, R. (1995). Should Courts Instruct Juries as to the Consequences to a Defendant of a "Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity" Verdict?. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 85(4), 1062-1083. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77002953
Fass, M.E. (1999). A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense. Teaching of Psychology, 26(3), 201-203. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34684718
individual is someone who has a distinct personality of his/her own that differentiates him from a group or class of people. This individual has a distinguishing intelligence level, achievement abilities and aptitude. As far as intelligence is concerned, it can be defined as the "ability to reason about personality and personality-relevant information and to use that information to guide one's actions and more generally, one's life" (as qtd. In Mayer, Panter & Caruso, 2012, p. 124). In other words, intelligence is a basic psychological capability in an individual that allows him/her to give explanation, plan and prepare and get to the bottom of troubles. Intelligence is something that is not acquired by reading books or being academically bright. In the similar fashion, achievement is the way a task is performed in a successful manner (Travers. 1970, p. 447). However, aptitude is a natural ability/tendency to carry out a task.
Fagan, T., & Wise, P.S. (1995). School psychology: Past, present and future. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
Huss, M.T. (2009). Forensic psychology: research, practice, and applications. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publications.
Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2013).Psychological testing: principles, applications, & issues. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Mayer, J.D., Panter, A.T., & Caruso, D.R. (2012). Does Personal Intelligence Exist? Evidence From a New Ability-Based Measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94(2), 124-140.
The forensic psychologist has a responsibility of ensuring that individuals are fully informed of their legal rights in regards to the anticipated forensic service and the reasons for evaluation and the nature of the procedures to be used as well as the intentions concerning the use of any product of these services. The forensic psychologist is required to obtain the informed consent of the party or their legal representative prior to proceeding with any evaluations or procedures.
Sometimes the party does not have the capacity to give informed consent and this means that the forensic psychologist must obtain the consent of the individual's legal representative before proceeding with evaluations or procedures. Confidentiality issues are of critical importance for the forensic psychologist to address with their client and where confidentiality is limited; the forensic psychologist is required to maintain confidentiality on any issue that is not directly related to the legal…
Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (1991) Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. Law and Human Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 6. 1991. Retrieved from: http://www.ap-ls.org/links/currentforensicguidelines.pdf
Bartol (2004) Forensic Psychology: Introduction and Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/5136_Bartol_Chapter_1_Final_Pdf.pdf
Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (1991) Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. Division 41. American Psychological Association. 9 Mar 1991. Retrieved from: http://www.doh.state.fl.us/mqa/psychology/info_forensicguidelines.pdf