1000 results for “Free Speech”.
Free Speech vs. Security
Freedom of Speech and Homeland Security
They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
Benjamin Franklin, 1775
Freedom of speech is one of the essential cornerstones of democratic societies. Absent the right to free speech, democracy cannot function -- one might even say there is no democracy without freedom of speech. While most citizens and members of the governing body of democratic countries firmly subscribe to this conviction, at the time of wars and emergencies some voices begin to question the appropriateness of granting the citizens all civil liberties inherent in democracies. As a temporary war-time measure, often members of the governing body place restrictions on citizens' civil liberties, including their right to free speech. There have been many moments in history when the government of the United States temporarily suspended elements of democratic institutions, the…
Baker, N.V. (2003) National Security vs. Civil Liberties. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 33(3): 547-567.
Ellwood, J.R., & Wollstein, J.B. (2002) Why "Anti-Terrorism Laws Threaten You. International Society for Individual Liberty. Retrieved on February 25, 2011, from http://www.isil.org/resources/lit/dictatorship-at-doorstep.html
Stone, G.R. (2005) Free Speech in the Age of McCarthy: A Cautionary Tale. California Law Review, 93(5): 1387-1412.
The Surrender of MSNBC (2003) AllYourTV. Retrieved on February 25, 2011, from http://www.allyourtv.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=259:surrendermsnbc&catid=78:featurescoveringmedia
United States (1970), after a Vietnam veteran was arrested for wearing a jacket with those words into a courthouse. In principle, even speech that is "offensive" is considered to deserve protection, because the consequences of censorship are even more harmful to society than involuntary exposure to offensive words in public. The same right protects artistic expression as another form of speech. In many countries, offensive speech in public is prohibited by law and political speech that is critical of the government or of public officials is severely punished by imprisonment, and in some cases, (such as Iraq (prior to 2003), even torture. On the other hand, the Supreme Court has also ruled that certain "utterances," while technically defined as "speech," are justifiably excepted from the protections ordinarily afforded to "speech." Specifically, words that expose others to danger, such as shouting "Fire!" In a crowded theater are not protected constitutionally; nor…
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown.
Friedman, L.M. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone. Haynes, C., Chaltain, S., Glisson (2006) First Freedoms: A Documentary History of First Amendment Rights in America. London: Oxford University Press
Miller, a. (1989) Miller's Court. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Free Speech and the Internet
With great power comes great responsibility, and to much is given, much is expected. These two proverbs, one from a recent film that is the most recent to reference it, and the latter, from the book of Proverbs in the Bible, needs to form the catalyst of free speech policy definition and implementation throughout the Internet. While unbridled, unlimited freedom is the catalyst of chaos, the same is true for intensive levels of monitoring and the continual censure of freedoms in society today. The best approach to freedom of speech on the Internet needs to balance the needs of individuals for protection of their privacy and their personal, civil rights.
Why Free Speech Needs To Be The Cornerstone
There are no more precious freedoms than those that underscore and support the free exchange of ideas, concepts and opinions. This is a right of all humans…
People can communicate with family and friends even at very long distances without having to pay exorbitant amounts for long-distance calls. Disabled people who are socially isolated have a means of contacting others like themselves. Kids struggling with their homework can receive help from their classmates or get instant feedback from others. There are also the more personal aspects of a person's life which are taken care of by Internet access.
Of course, there are a myriad of issues with the internet which are not nearly so positive. People have organized crimes on the internet, have planned them out and sought out individuals to help them with their plans. White-collar criminals have used the internet to defraud people of their money. People illegally download everything from movies to music and video games so they do not have to pay for them by going to the store and buying them legally.…
Free Speech Rights of College and University Faculty
This is a paper that outlines Free Speech Rights issues at academic institutions and argues why it is important to preserve it. It has 16 sources.
The freedom of speech is something that has to be preserved no matter what the medium of communication may be, and this is because members of society may be greatly disadvantaged if exceptions are made.
As compared to the past, education today is very different. The nature of educating students today itself has seen changes largely because of the awareness that media has brought around. In contrast to students today, dealing with students of yesteryears was much easier because teachers could control them effectively.
Today, it seems that control over students is at risk, especially with the process of distance learning becoming more and more popular. Through this means of learning it has been seen that…
Author not available, [Accessed on 25-3-2003]. Education and Technology: Future Vision at http://www.wws.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/byteserv.prl/~ota/disk1/1995/9522/952203.PDF
Author not available, [Accessed on 25-3-2003]. Innovating in Education at http://www97.intel.com/education/index.asp
Mast, C. . e-learning: inside hp's virtual classroom Accessed on 25-3-2003 at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/feature_stories/elearning01.htm
Yap, A. . How does e-learning come out tops over traditional learning? available at http://www.purpletrain.com/news/20020710_01.htm
Although the concept of "freedom of speech" as outlined in the First Amendment to the Constitution appears relatively straightforward, over the course of the country's history numerous cases have arisen requiring this concept to be refined and interpreted for situations the framers of the Constitution could have scarcely imagined. However, the framer's motivations for protecting speech remain just as relevant today, and by examining precisely how and why the framers opted to protect speech in this way, one may begin to understand which kinds of speech they intended to protect as well as possibly acceptable limitations on speech and the rationales for them.
Before examining some of the framer's motivations for protecting the freedom of speech via the First Amendment, it is useful to briefly consider the text itself, as a means of appreciating precisely which aspects of the First Amendment deal with the concept of "freedom of…
National Archives. (1788). Constitution of the United States. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html
Sunstein, C. (1993). Democracy and the problem of free speech. PUBLISHING RESEARCH
QUARTERLY, 11(4), 58-72.
Linder, D. (2011) Introduction to the free speech clause. University of Missouri-Kansas City.
Clarence Brandenburg, standing with a burning cross in the background, stated at a public rally that "if our President, our Congress, our Supreme Court, continues to suppress the white, Caucasian race, it's possible that there might have to be some revengeance taken." ("Brandenburg v Ohio") This statement led to the creation of the Brandenburg Test, a legal test to decide whether or not specific speech was guaranteed protection under the Constitution. The Court ultimately decided that in order for the government to prohibit speech, that speech must intend to incite imminent action, use words that could produce imminent action, and openly urge incitement. In other words, the speech must intent, and produce, immediate illegal action.
This is a good standard for the protection of speech because it prohibits any speech which would start violent or illegal action, while still maintaining the freedom of speech that Americans hold dear.…
"Brandenburg v Ohio: Supreme Court of the United States 395 U.S. 444
June 9, 1969." Exploring Constitutional Law. Web. 26 Nov. 2012.
Freedom of Speech, or the right to express oneself, verbally and in writing, as one chooses, and how, when, to whom, and in what manner one chooses, is a guarantee of all American citizens, protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Specifically, the First Amendment to the Constitution states: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances
." It is my opinion that freedom of speech has always been, and remains, a necessary component of any open society. However, the political and social value of freedom of speech tends to become forgotten when a people feel that they are unsafe, or begin to feel threatened by their own peers (current…
'About the First Amendment." FirstAmendmentCenter. Retrieved May 2, 2005,
from: http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/about.aspx?item=about_firstamd .
Baym, Nina, et al. (Eds). "Thomas Paine." The Norton Anthology of American
Literature, Vol. 1. 5th Ed. New York: Norton, 1998. 691-692.
He was arrested because the town had a law where one could not stand in a public street and scream at others in insulting manner.
While it is tempting to understand why Walter Chaplinsky was arrested and most people can understand the annoyance his speech must have caused, it was a law that should have been repealed.
Freedom of speech is such a fundamental right ingrained for more than 250 years that it needs to be protected even when the majority of listeners do not like or agree with what is being said.
Another case, in 1952 brings to light a different issue with regards to freedom of speech. In that case the leader of a white supremacy group was arrested for distributing literature claiming that the Negro race lacked virtue and other important characteristics.
While freedom of speech should be protected, it is also important not to allow hate…
Chaplinsky vs. New Hampshire 1942.
Taking a Position on a Constitutional Issue '
Goodman, Laura (1989) Laura L. Goodman, Shacking Up with the First Amendment, 64 IND. L.J. 716 (1989).
Hinds deCourcey Michael. A Campus Case, Speech or Harassment. Taking a Position on a Constitutional Issue.
Anthony Elonis - 18 U.S.C. §875(c)
In this case, Anthony D. Elonis was convicted for publishing a series of Facebook posts describing committing acts of violence towards various people in violation of § 875(c) (Wald and Milazzo). In May 2010, Anthony Elonis's wife moved out of their home with their two young children which consequently angered Elonis who then began posting on his Facebook page descriptions of how he wanted to kill his wife -- one such post, referring to his wife, stated: "If I only knew then what I know now, I would have smothered your ass with a pillow, dumped your body in the back seat, dropped you off in Toad Creek, and made it look like a rape and murder" (Larkin and ichardson). In October 2010, after having lost his job arguably due to another Facebook posting, Elonis's musings became darker and more vitriolic (Lempert).…
Curtis, G. The Law of Cybercrimes and Their Investigations. CRC Press, 2011. Print.
Eastland, T. Freedom of Expression in the Supreme Court: The Defining Cases. Rowman & Littlefield, 2000. Print.
Kaplin, W. And B. Lee. The Law of Higher Education. John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.
Larkin, P. And J. Richardson. "True Threats and the Limits of First Amendment Protection." 8 December 2014. The Heritage Foundation. Online. 9 April 2015. .
Supreme Court's Decision
I agree with the majority opinion of Chief Justice Roberts in the case of Snyder v. Phelps. I also believe that the only dissent by Justice Samuel Alito is unwarranted and incorrect. The actions of Westboro Baptist Church had little to do with Albert Snyder and his son. The former was merely picketing a funeral that involved military personnel. As such, they were merely expressing their freedom of speech as protected by the U.S. Constitution and its amendments. The church and its members did nothing that warranted any of the sort of emotional distress that Snyder claimed he needed to recover monetary damages for.
This issue was largely decided based on the rhetoric that the signage displayed by Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, Kansas displayed. That signage was merely expressing the opinion of various church members regarding the presence of homosexuality in the military. The link between…
Book CensorshipIntroductionThe censorship of information is one of the most pressing issues in libraries today (Steele, p.1). Censorship basically refers to efforts undertaken by governing authorities or their representatives to change/limit access to material depending on the content of work. Some of the changes or limitations made on work include removal, restriction, or exclusion. Censorship is a practice that has existed in society since ancient times and has been characterized by debates on the extent to which it affects the freedom of speech and intellectual freedom. As a form of censorship, book censorship occurs when government officials, private individuals, or organizations limit or remove books from school reading lists, libraries, or bookstore shelves. Over the past few decades, book censorship has grown to become one of the most common forms of censorship. Proponents of book censorship contend that it is critical to control the kind of literature given to children.…
Works CitedAmerican Civil Liberties Union. “A History of Fighting Censorship.” ACLU - American Civil Liberties Union, American Civil Liberties Union, 2005, https://www.aclu.org/other/history-fighting-censorship-pdf . Blanchard, Margaret A. “The American Urge to Censor: Freedom of Expression Versus the Desire to Sanitize Society - From Comstock to 2 Live Crew.” WILLIAM AND MARY LAW REVIEW, vol. 33, no. 3, 1992, pp. 741–851. Bogen, David S. “The Origins of Freedom of Speech and Press.” Maryland Law Review, vol. 42, no. 3, 1983, pp. 429–465. Cahn, Naomi. “Lessons in Censorship: How Schools and Courts Subvert Students’ First Amendment Rights.” Family Law Quarterly, 49 , no. 3, pp. 535–544. Fanetti, Susan. “A Case for Cultivating Controversy: Teaching Challenged Books in K–12 Classrooms .” The Alan Review, vol. 40, no. 1, 2012, pp. 6–17. Fitzsimmons, Richard. “Censorship, Intellectual Freedom, Libranianship and the Democratic State.” International Federation of Library Associations And Institutions, Https://Www.ifla.org/Wp-Content/Uploads/2019/05/Assets/Faife/Lectures-Papers/fitz96.Pdf, May 2019, https://www.ifla.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/assets/faife/lectures-papers/fitz96.pdf . Hassan, Twana A. “A Historical Analysis of the Development of Free Speech Justifications.” The Journal Jurisprudence, vol. 28, 2015, pp. 487–506. Lukenbill, W. Bernard, and James F. Lukenbill. “Censorship: What Do School Library Specialists Really Know? A Consideration of Students\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Rights, the Law and Implications for a New Education Paradigm .” American Association of School Libraries, American Association of School Libraries, 2009, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ851695.pdf . United States, Congress, U.S. Government Publishing Office, and U.S. Government Publishing Office. First Amendment - Religion and Speech, U.S. Government Publishing Office, 2 Oct. 1992. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/GPO-CONAN-1992/pdf/GPO-CONAN-1992-10-2.pdf . Accessed 12 Mar. 2022.
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…
Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,
Writing in dissent, Chief Justice ehnquist argued that the CPPA was merely a natural extension of Ferber, and the new law seemed intended to be used only to prosecute those individuals distributing materials known to use real children.
Holding: Court's reasoning and policy implications:
Justice Anthony Kennedy, writing for the majority, found in favor of the Free Speech Coalition, and affirmed the judgment of the Court of Appeals to strike down the relevant statutes. Critical to Kennedy's decision was the government's radical reformulation of the obscenity standard in Miller. To be banned under the CPPA standard, the materials in question "need not appeal to the prurient interest. Any depiction of sexually explicit activity, no matter how it is presented, is proscribed," even though there was no clear physical threat to a child, according to the Ferber standard. The government was suppressing lawful speech (speech not using children to produce sexual…
Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition. (2002). University of Cornell. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
After the initial clash, police arrested Elton Cox and charged him with "disturbing the peace," (the Ovex Project, "Cox v. Louisiana"). In 1965, the Court decided that none of the student's activities were criminal. They were rightfully engaging in their right to free speech.
However, cases like the 1966 decision of the Adderley v. Florida case (the Oyex Project, "Adderley v. Florida"), represented the unsupportive view of the Court towards students and their cases. During the chaos of the 1960's, Harriet Louis Adderley and around 200 of her associates were arrested; charged with "trespass with a malicious and mischievous intent" after gathering a protest the jailing of other students on a "non-public" jail facility, (the Oyex Project, "Adderley v. Florida"). The students appealed the case on the grounds that it was a violation of their First Amendment ights. This appeal was denied after a 5-4 decision, showing the closeness of…
The Oyez Project, Adderley v. Florida, 385 U.S. 39 (1966), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1966/1966_19/ (last visited Saturday, February 16, 2008).
The Oyez Project, Cox v. Louisiana, 379 U.S. 536 (1965), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1964/1964_24/ (last visited Saturday, February 16, 2008).
Student Searches, Free Speech & Expression, and Privacy in the Wired Age
Student searches and in-school discipline for off-campus conduct
Free Speech and Expression on and off campus
Privacy in the wired age on and off campus. (Facebook, twitter, myspace, blogs, cellphones)
What are a students' constitutional rights when it comes to searches and seizures, on and off campus discipline, free speech, expression, and privacy in the wired age when on and off campus? How are students protected by the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights when it pertains to the three items listed above?
Students are often subject to rules and regulations that are associated with school codes of conduct and those rules and regulations are sometimes not reflective of constitutional rights to free speech and free action inside the laws. These long list of potential violations are printed by institutions and are made available to students, in…
In short students and especially minor students and their parents should make themselves aware of the codes of conduct the student is expected to uphold and live within those guidelines even if they feel the guidelines are overreaching as students have little recourse because even most public institutions such as public schools are still considered voluntary and enrollment in them requires certain standards to be upheld. This is not to say it is likely that all new students will read and memorize a code of conduct but they must beware that violations especially that hurt others will not likely be tolerated. It is not likely that the constitutional protection of students will be expanded, rather to the contrary laws that protect others from immoral, unethical and/or illegal or harmful behaviors in a public forum such as the internet, across email, and cell phones will likely be expanded. It also must be made clear that the intent to harm another does not have to be present for that harm to be done or for the individual(s) responsible to be held accountable for it. In other words consider yourself under public scrutiny when you are enrolled in any institution and act accordingly, upholding the law and the moral and ethical standards associated with your role as a student.
Wheeler, T. (2011). Facebook Fatalities: Students, Social Networking, and the First Amendment. Pace Law Review, 31(1), 182-227. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Williamson, L. (2009). Private Rants Become Public When Aired Online. InsideCounsel, 20(211), 67-68. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
US Supreme Court case Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition
In the case of Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court presented even more arguments and reasons as to why online child pornography is prohibited. What this case failed to do is define how far the government's censorship can stretch. The controversial question lies in the phrasing from the COPA provisions where terms referring to virtual child pornography were struck out for being too broad (Mota 2002).
This case has proven among the more interesting regarding first amendment rights on the internet. Unlike most rulings by the Supreme Court where the majority of states agree on the ruling, this case came down with most districts agreeing instead with the dissent. Many arguments have now been presented as to why even virtual child pornography is an issue. Namely, the idea that producing child pornography can lead to pedophile behaviors (Mirkin,…
Balkin, Jack (2004). Virtual Liberty: Freedom to Design and Freedom to Play in Virtual Worlds. Virginia Law Review, 90(8), 2043.
Wu, Tim (2003). Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination. Telecom and High Tech. Law Review, 2, 141.
Parke, Adrian; Griffths, mark (2004). Why Internet Gambling Prohibition will Ultimately Fail. Gaming Law Review, 8(5), 295-299.
ight to Expression: The Fine Line of the First Amendment
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the enactment of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the PATIOT ACT), there has been a growing debate concerning the proper role of the government in protecting Americans while balancing their right to free expression. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the line between an individual's right to expression and the role of the government to protect its citizens from harm, including some salient examples of this conflict in the nation's past. An analysis concerning whether Americans have come any closer to reconciling these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
On the one hand, the First Amendment to…
Berg, C. (2013, September). Free speech lost in translation. Review - Institute of Public Affairs, 67(3), 18-23.
Munger, M. 92015, Spring). No place to hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. surveillance state. Independent Review, 19(4), 605-609.
Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47, 51-52, 1919.
Youm, K.H. (2004, Summer). The four freedoms of the First Amendment. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 446-450.
speech of a public institution's faculty member to be protected under the Pickering/Connickline of cases, what criteria must be satisfied? Do these criteria suitably balance the interests of faculty members and the institution in the higher education context?
There are really two key principles that must be satisfied. The first is that the court determines whether the speech in question hinges on a matter of public concern. If it does, the court takes further criteria into consideration such as:
Whether the statement impairs discipline in school or harmony amongst superiors or amongst cookers.
Whether the statement has a negative impact on close working relationships
Whether the speech interferes with the way the operator usually conducts his business,
Yes, these criteria take the interests of faculty members and school into consideration.
Specifically, what was the fatal flaw in the instructor's speech? Was it the profanity itself? Or was it the belittling…
Speech to Support Mortgage for Independent Spanish Village
The focus of this study is to consider the scenario of making a choice in the use of inheritance money and specifically to gain a mortgage for an independent villa which will be a town or villa in realengo and to compose a speech to support this objective
It is my belief that gaining a mortgage for an independent villa is the most appropriate approach to investing of my inheritance money. For to do otherwise would be to render my inheritance under the control of another individual who will hold all power and decision-bearing capacity and who will not be as interested in the profitability or long-term success of the villa since they do not in reality hold ownership to the property. Under the system of feudalism which is a "social system of rights and duties based on land tenure and…
Stubbs, William (nd) A General Overview: Its Frankish Birth and English Development. Retrieved from: http://history-world.org/feudalism.htm
The American Association of Retired persons found that pension plans' coverage is quite unstable, differing greatly based on ethnicity, age, pay grade, and education.
In addition, the AARP also found that social security benefits are becoming a problem in many countries, as the number of retired persons who receive benefits rise and the number of births fall.
As people who live in troubled economic times, some are not following government advice to save for retirement.
The United States Department of Labor advocates managing a retirement account with the same amount of attention and importance one would give a bank account.
Mr. C did not follow this advice, and his reliance on government and employer-based plans fell through.
He and his wife were both forced to work after retirement.
This cut into the traveling and relaxing plans that he had made.
Now, Mr. C cannot live the lifestyle that he always…
artists be given free rein in the producing and displaying of works that are offensive, objectionable, or disparaging of certain people's beliefs and values? What responsibilities do artists have to their society? What responsibilities does the society have to its artists?
The job of artists is to hold up a mirror to society and comment on both the beauty and ugliness that exists in the real world. It is easy to showcase things that are beautiful. The museums of the world are full of pretty pictures which depict landscapes and lovely people in fancy dresses. However, there are also works of art in museums or galleries which are controversial, unsettling, and perhaps even downright ugly. Some works of art show things that most people do not want to see, such as material which is offensive, or objectionable, or even disparaging of the beliefs and values of others. Such works are…
Freedom speech guarantees freedom extend disturbing funeral (Armed Forces funerals) support claim, acknowledge claim opponent, find common ground .
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of freedom of speech and the fact that people are often denied the right to speak when they want to express themselves. Even with this, there are a series of situations when one's right to express his or her position needs to be denied on the basis of common sense. It would surely be absurd to claim that freedom of speech should not be present in every setting regardless of circumstances. However, people should carefully analyze a situation and decide whether or not it would be right for them to speak in a particular environment. Freedom of speech is in some cases rendered ineffective because of a series of reasons that make it possible for individuals to understand that it is more important…
Brouwer, D.l C. And Hess, A. "Making Sense of 'God Hates Fags' and 'Thank God for 9/11': A Thematic Analysis of Milbloggers' Responses to Reverend Fred Phelps and the Westboro Baptist Church," Western Journal of Communication 71.1 (2007)
Conery, B. "Supreme Court upholds protests at military funerals as free speech," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the Washington Times Website: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/mar/2/supreme-court-oks-church-protest-military-funerals/?page=all
Kingsbury, A. "Supreme Court Weighs Free Speech Limits in Military Funeral Case," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the U.S. News Website: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/10/06/supreme-court-weighs-free-speech-limits-in-military-funeral-case
Liptak, A. "Justices Rule for Protesters at Military Funerals," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com /2011/03/03/us/03scotus.html?pagewanted=all
Freedom of Speech
The Brandenburg Case
The central holding in the Brandenburg case is the debate about whether suppressing hate speech or speeches that have the potential to incite violence is, in fact, violates the guarantee to freedom of speech as given by the First Amendment of the U.S. constitution. In the case of Brandenburg, while the state of Ohio declared him to have incited potential violence through his speech that he made on TV and sentenced him to 1-10-year prison and a fine, the Supreme Court of the U.S. overturned the verdict and found Brandenburg not guilty and opined that the Ohio state had violated Brandenburg's right to free speech. The supreme court noted: "Freedoms of speech and press do not permit a State to forbid advocacy of the use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action…
campus speech codes violate student rights?
The freedom of expression is not for students alone. It is for all citizens and for students the rights and liberties that are available for all citizens apply in the same manner. In that context if the citizen has a right of speech and expression, it also implies that the citizen student also enjoys this right. Where the general laws abrogate the freedom of speech, making some kinds of speech and expression culpable, it is also applicable to the student. The question is if the academic institution passes rules that prohibit speeches and other form of expressions defined as 'hate speech', it has to be assumed that the 'hate speech' as defined inside the campus differs from the general legislation, or there is no general legislation that covers the 'hate speech 'and therefore being introduced in the campus make it unique to the student…
Colin Kaepernicks political activism and his symbolic taking the knee have sparked a fierce debate over the power, potential, and possible limitations on freedom of speech. According to an article in The Washington Post, survey after survey has shown that too many students at all levels including in college dont understand free speech and dont know that it is guaranteed by the First Amendment, (Strauss, 2017, p. 1). The reason why I am writing about freedom of speech in relation to the reaction to Kaepernick is that the First Amendment encompasses the fundamental rights and freedoms fundamental to democracy. The goal of the paper is to explain the facts of the case through the lens of both ethics and constitutional law. Ultimately, I want to demonstrate to the audience why a democracy cannot function without freedom of speech. I also want to show why protesting something symbolic like…
Technology Speech Science
Speech Quality Tests: An Analysis and eview of the Literature
The speech measurement technology to be evaluated in this research is a speech quality test. According to the research, a speech quality test is "a routine procedure for examining one or more empirically restrictive quality features of perceived speech with the aim of making a quantitative statement on those features" (). Essentially, people are constantly using undirected speech in ordinary conversations in order to exchange information through spoken sentences. Yet, when speech becomes directed by some third party or director, the speaker's speech may end up being modified by these directions. Here, the research suggests that "by using specific directives, the experimenter can, in directed communications, adjust the influence of each quality feature" (). A speech quality test can ascertain how biased perception may end up being in the case of directed speech. There are four primary…
Springer Science Media. (2011). Speech Quality Measurement Methods. Web. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fcontent%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9783642184628-c2.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-1132963-p174099663&ei=FoN6U6PWOpOwoQSK-YCYCQ&usg=AFQjCNFpupv9bFCayRPt7dUNuB3u52LPeQ&sig2=0YtNG6fsnBc4royONWXuLg&bvm=bv.67229260,d.cGU
Stan, A., Yamagishi, J., King, S., & Aylett, M. (2011). The Romanian speech synthesis (RSS) corpus: Building a high quality HMM-based speech synthesis system using a high sampling rate. Speech Communication, 53(3), 442-450.
Valentini-Botinhao, C., Yamagishi, J., & King, S. (2011, May). Evaluation of objective measures for intelligibility prediction of HMM-based synthetic speech in noise. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 5112-5115). IEEE.
These newspapers continuously wrote that there is no essential conflict between labor class (referring to wage earners) and the capitalists and that each should not suspect the other in the development of America.
outhern slave society: An essential conflict with free labor social order
There were many distinctions in the Northern and outhern economic and social outlook of America. There were conflicting ideologies being pursued in these regions and the economic progress of Northern region was associated to the free enterprising class known as the middle class. The class thrived in the Northern region by investing in their own businesses, small and large. On the contrary, outhern society was based on slavery system. The Northerners demanded that the slavery of fugitives' slaves shall be abolished and free soil in the west was to be enforced. The essential elements that divided the Northerners and outherners were the matter of slavery. The…
Such deep was the issue of slavery that it broke down the part of Whigs during 1850s and led Republicans to replace them as a symbol of hope, prosperity, and economic progress. The main reason of elimination of Whigs from national scene was their persistence to support the slave system in south whereas its own leaders were not willing to support such oppressive practice while rest of Americas strived for economic progress. Such diverse and conflicting was the issue of slavery and the difference in Southern and Northern concepts of economic progress that 'The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854' nearly destroyed two political parties, Whigs were totally eliminated from political scene and Democrats saw their party divided on sensational lines. W.C. Pennington quoted that the slavery impacted each and every aspect of economic and thus the social life of African-Americans. He said "the being of slavery, its, and its body, lives and moves in the chattel principle, the property principle, and the bill of sale principle" (Henretta, Edwards & Self, 358). The domestic slave trade was considered to be absolutely what Republicans essentially wanted to abolish in figurative sense as well. The Republicans held the view that "Free labor meant independence from wage earning with fixed salaries, if northern person is wage earning and dependent for whole life, he is no different from southern slave" (Foner, 15). Thus, the Republican viewed dependence of a northern on the wages for whole of his life as being equal to the status of a southern slave. This figurative explanation indicates that the southern way of life and economic conduct was fundamentally conflicting with that of Republican's notion of free labor and enterprise, let alone being inconsistent with Republican ideology.
The Republican concept of free labor, as described by Zachariah Chandler, meant "that a young man goes out for service, for labor by wages and earns enough money to start his own farm and becomes employer of labor." Thus, it was contradictory to the oppressive and conservative notions of labor held by the southern slave owners. The progress of American society, according the Republican perspective, lay in the enterprising and middle class men who strived for better economic prospects. The practices of slavery and such oppressive social and economic systems were opposed to the very concept of economic justice that was held by Northerners.
Speech by a Teacher
Teachers in public schools are not permitted to invoke specific Biblical theories, parables, or otherwise invoke the word of God -- either denominationally or generally -- in their classes. The constitutionally imposed rule -- separation of church and state -- is widely considered appropriate and important to the American democracy within the secular and legal community.
Moreover, the rules of public schools make it clear that it is psychologically, morally, constitutionally and socially unacceptable to stealthily (or otherwise) attempt to interject God's word or God's prophets' narrative into an educational setting.
But a competent, alert and effective Christian teacher today need not break those rules in the process of presenting information God would approve of. hy? That is because there are values that God has emphasized in the Holy Bible that can be presented to students without ever identifying them as having come from God Himself.…
Cable News Network -- CNN. "Innocent man freed after serving 15 years in prison." KPLCTV.
Retrieved September 30, 2012, from http://www.kplctv.com .
Cumming-Bruce, Nick. "U.N. Says Syrian Refugee Numbers Are Surging." The New York
Times. Retrieved September 30, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Speech on Alcoholism and Addiction
Main Points: I. Alcoholism is an addiction, not a character flaw.
Treating alcoholism requires modern rehabilitation methods.
The "Twelve-Step" program advocated by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
represents an extremely effective route to recovery.
Central Idea: For centuries, society has viewed addiction to alcohol and other substances as a defect in one's moral fiber, rather than a medical affliction. Modern scientific exploration into the subject of addiction has revealed that alcoholism is actually the result of neurotransmitters in the brain becoming activated, chemical responses throughout the body, genetic influences, and even environmental factors. By revising the widespread belief that addiction to alcohol is one's own "fault," and recognizing the litany of variables which determine whether somebody will be prone to addictive tendencies, the stigma placed on alcoholism may eventually be lifted.
A. For as long as mankind been aware that the actions of an individual are…
Dodes, L. (2002). The heart of addiction: A new approach to understanding and managing alcoholism and other addictive behaviors. New York, NY: Harper-Collins
Narcotics Anonymous Fellowship. (1991). An introductory guide to narcotics anonymous, revised. Narcotics Anonymous World Services, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.na.org/admin/include/spaw2/uploads/pdf/litfiles/us_english/Booklet/Intro Guide to NA.pdf
However, Jefferson's "Declaration of Independence" also amounted to a declaration of war. He was well aware that the British government would not simply let the colonists pull away from England and declare themselves their own country or countries. England made huge profits from the American colonies and were not about to just roll over and let them cut themselves free simply because they didn't like a few laws the Parliament had passed.
In contrast to this is King's speech. While he lists the inequalities involved with being Black in a White-dominated America, he called for people to come together. He said, "I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood." He knew it was a dream and not a reality, as did…
(Rothschild.) Numerous other instances have been reported by people who have been interrogated by agents simply because they have criticized the government, President Bush, or his "war" on terrorism.
All of this speaks to the new McCarthyism, where political dissent is being equaled to treason," stated Barry Steinhardt, associate director of the American Civil Liberties Union in ashington. He finds the anecdotal evidence deeply troubling. "It's a very frightening trend: that people are doing nothing more than expressing the very freedoms that we are fighting to preserve - and find themselves with the FBI at their door." (Steinhardt.)
Other reports of the new "un-American" activity of voicing an opinion that does not support the Bush Administration's activities have resulted in professional writers, including Pulitzer prizewinning cartoonist, Steve Benson, losing their jobs. This, in effect, takes away the individual's right to a free press because the presses, owned and controlled by…
ABFFE alerts booksellers to concerns re new antiterrorism law. American Booksellers
Association. Nov. 1, 2001. 2/21/02 http://www.bookweb.org/news/btw/5175.html
Douglas, William O. Amendments to the United States Constitution. The World Book Encyclopedia. 1969. Vol. 19 (141-145.)
Johnson, Gerald. "The American Presidency." Grolier's Encyclopedia. 2000. 2/21/02. http://gi.grolier.com/presidents/nbk/side/pofus.html
For the first part of this exercise, I will dwell on Lou Gehrig's speech. The speech in question has featured prominently in quite a number of speech collections as a truly historical speech, alongside those given by the likes of Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill. Commonly referred to as the Iron Horse due to both his commitment and durability as far as baseball is concerned, Gehrig was at the prime age of 36 when he was struck by what has now come to be referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease. The disease effectively ended his long and illustrious career in baseball. This speech, which I will rewrite to convey the opposite message, was delivered by Gehrig during a ceremony held in his honor by his friends and team mates. Given his circumstances at the time, one would have expected the speech to be self-defeating and perhaps full of…
American Rhetoric (2013). Lou Gehrig: Farewell to Baseball Address. Retrieved from http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/lougehrigfarewelltobaseball.htm
Natural Resources Defense Council (2012). The Consequences of Global Warming on Weather Patterns. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/fcons/fcons1.asp
Union of Concerned Scientists (2011). Climate Hot Map: Global Warming Effects around the World -- Solutions to Global Warming. Retrieved from http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-solutions/
Speech by President Bush
Prospective Deliberative Speech to the Republican National Convention in July, Directed on Television to the American Nation as a hole
Nods, smiles, acknowledges audience)
My fellow Americans, this November every one of you will be faced with a seemingly simple choice, but a choice that will affect this entire nation's future -- should you vote to change the current administration and vote democratic? Or should you vote Republican and stay the course this nation has followed over the past four years?
e have been through many difficult times together, you and I, my fellow Americans, over the course of my administration. Together, we have weathered a terrible attack on our nation's security, a devastating economic recession, and a just but sorry war against a brutal dictator. The war for our nation's security on all these fronts has yet to be won, but it will be won.…
BBC. (2004) Iraqi Q&A. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3543595.stm
This site explains the new interim government of Iraqi and the history of the United States' recent engagement with the nation
Chaddock, Gail Russell. (November 21, 2002). "Security Act to Pervade Daily Lives." The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/1121/p01s03-usju.html
This news article provides an analysis of the new provisions of the Home Security Act and how they affect all Americans.
Clinton's Lewinsky Speech
Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…
Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.
Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.
The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran…
Thus, the deficit must be due to an "inefficient mapping of acoustic information into phonetic features at a central (postcochlear) conversion stage. Accordingly, these findings provide new routes by which researchers should examine and practitioners should diagnose and treat SLI (Ziegler, et.al., 2005).
We live in a day and age of rapid technological development. In the area of cognition, our knowledge of how brain works and how language functions and is processed has seen rapid advancement in just the past three decades. Given the information that we have uncovered here, there is hope for a more rapid diagnosis and a more effective treatment of students with SLI's. With more understanding of the role of input and noise, perhaps, our teachers whom area affected greatly by his or her students' performance, would understand how to properly handle such students and provide a classroom environmentally set up so as to…
Binder, J. (200). The new neuroanatomy of speech perception. Oxford Journal, 123(12), 2371-2372. Retrieved from Oxford University Press.
Kuhl, Patricia K, Ph.D. (2004) "Speech Perception." Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.
Lane, D. (2008, June 18). Speech Perception. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m11175/2.9/
Merzenich, M., Jenkins, W., Johnston, P., Schreiner, C., Miller, S., and Tallal, P. Temporal Processing De-cits of Language-Learning Im-paired Children Ameliorated by Training, Science vol. 271, January 5-1996, p.77-80.
Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens' "Cornerstone Speech"
The Civil War was by far the most costly war in terms of human life ever fought by the United States, and the events that precipitated this conflict on U.S. soil included the succession of seven Southern states by March 1861 to form the Confederate States of America. With President Jefferson Davis leading the way, his vice president, Alexander Stephens, delivered a speech in support of the Southern cause including assurances that the new constitution was an improvement on the old, and that commercial enterprises were free to engage in interstate and international commerce at their discretion. Citing concerns over Northern superiority in infrastructure that would make prosecuting the war challenging, the vice president also assured his audience that enormous investments had already been made throughout the South and that more would be made in the future. In sum, this speech was a…
He personalizes the sense of power and youth with which the audience is leaving college, while universalizing the benefit they could bring to society as a whole:
We need help. Your help...Help... And you will make a huge impact on the life of the street, the town, the country, and our planet. If only one out of four of each one hundred of you choose to help on any given day, in any given cause - incredible things will happen in the world you live in." (Hanks 7).
Hanks therefore attempts to move his audience to action by emphasizing that the action they need to take is very small, but will have great benefits. He does this progressively, by infusing his speech with small to large images. The life of the street becomes the life of the planet with a single choice by a single person to do something helpful…
Hanks, Tom. "The Power of Four." Poughkeepsie, 22 May 2005. American Rhetoric. Ed. Michael E. Eidenmuller. 2006. 26 Sept. 2006. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/tomhanksvassar.htm.
Reeve, Christopher. "1996 Democratic National Convention Address." Chicago, 26 Aug. 1996. American Rhetoric. Ed. Michael E. Eidenmuller. 2006. 26 Sept. 2006 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/christopherreeve1996dnc.htm
Lincoln's Speech Compared
The Evolution of Lincoln's Thought in His Speeches
Abraham Lincoln is one of the most celebrated and popular Presidents in the history of the United States. Lincoln presided over the Presidency at a difficult time for the country, when the unity of the nation was at stake and the question of slavery deeply polarized the society into two. Lincoln was able to preserve the Union, but at a great cost which made him as controversial as he was popular. But it is uncontroversial among his contemporaries and the readers of his speeches today that the sixteenth President of the United States was a great orator, able to address a broad range of audience: rich and poor, literate and illiterate, freemen and slaves; and he possessed a rare skill of persuasion. Lincoln was able to address a divided nation with great care and measurement. He was reserved when…
All the references come from The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, edited by Roy P. Basler, and is available online at (Accessed: February 19, 2011).
The famous speech by Martin King Luther Jr. “I Have a Dream” is deemed as one of the most captivating and moving speeches that were ever given by MKL Jr. in his lifetime. This speech was given to mark the epitome of the civil rights march at Lincoln memorial in Washington DC in 1963. The audient to whom MKL Jr. was giving the speech was a multitude of civil rights movement members from all over the USA, ordinary people, dignitaries and people from different racial backgrounds. The outstanding purpose of the speech was to further the position of the civil rights movement on the issue of racial discrimination and alienation of the black as well as the blatant breach of the human rights of the blacks that was taking place in the USA at that moment in history. It was also a speech meant to send a strong signal that…
He futhe solidifies this point of humility and self-depecation of pesonal stoies showing how he has always admied the univesity and how he sees the students as exceptional.
Having cafted this platfom of tust and ensuing thee is a stong esonance with the audience, M. Colbet gets even moe daing and pokes self-depecating humo at Thomas Jeffeson's own unique behavio. Only afte building such a stong foundation of tust does the joking come acoss well.
He next goes fo the heat of the speech, bining out the most pofound, insightful sayings of Thomas Jeffeson. His comedic timing and insight make the unexpected aspects and intepetation of Thomas Jeffeson's most famous sayings both poignant and entetaining. He concludes the speech with a call fo the gaduates to make thei own way, as Thomas Jeffeson called on the nascent colonies to also do. These ae the most poweful moments of the speech…
references to modern culture and humor, freeing the audience for a pedantic, lecture-driven speech for one with meaning and energy.
Success: Susan B. Anthony's Speech
The 1870s went down in history as the decade when women's movements stood strongly against oppression, demanding that women be given the same rights as men. In 1873, Susan Anthony was arrested and later released on a $100 dollar fine, all because she had voted in the presidential election the previous year. This, in her mind, amounted to oppression, and was an injustice not only to her, but to all American women. She took her stand, stating that if African-Americans, who prior to 1865 were not considered U.S. citizens, could vote, then women who were citizens by every technical definition, had every right to vote. Antony's speech, 'omen's Right to Vote' successfully combines pathos, logos, and ethos, using both facts and personal testimony to create emotional resonance in her audience. Although this speech alone was not sufficient to grant women the right to vote, it…
Halsall, Paul. "Modern History Sourcebook: Susan B. Anthony: Women's Right to Vote." Fordham University, 1997. Web. 31 May 2014 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1873anthony.asp
Miraglia, Ann. "Susan B. Anthony: the Rhetorical Strategy of Her Constitutional Argument (1872)." The College at Brockport Library. State University of New York, 1989. Web. 31 May 2014 http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=cmc_theses
Oh well, them's the breaks! I wonder if maybe I should start stalking the rehab centers, maybe I can meet a cool chick there too!
As many of you know, Shawn and Chrissie have finally managed to develop a healthy addiction -- to each other. When I first met Chrissie I could see that she and Shawn were made for each other. They have a similar philosophy of life. I think they've both traveled down some of the same roads and have a lot that they can relate about throughout the rest of their lives. They're so nice to each other sometimes that it makes me want to puke. I don't know if all of you know how Shawn proposed, but I'm warning you, if you thought Shawn was macho, your image of him will be completely shattered. Shawn is a romantic sap at heart, and I know that Chrissie…
Good day, ladies and gentleman. I extend my deepest thanks to all of you for coming out to this occasion. Your presence here is an honor to all of us, and we're all happy to be able to share in our experiences with you. If there's one thing that this entire experience has shown me, it's the importance of hard work and dedication. If I've discovered anything, it's that hard work and dedication can truly help one transform oneself and one's life.
I've worked tremendously hard to earn my degree and I continue to work hard in order to better my life and the lives of the people closest to me -- my family friends and community. Ever since I was a child, I was no stranger to hard work, which is fortunate, as my life has been full of it. However, more than anything, I've learned…
President Obama's "Second Inaugural Address:" Rhetorical analysis
Knowing one's audience is a critical component of giving a good speech. hen President Obama gave his second inaugural address, although he had been reelected by a significant majority, he knew he was still facing a divided country. To show his respect for patriotic values, he began his speech invoking both God and country yet in a manner that stressed the need for concrete government actions to deal with the nation and the world's problems. "For history tells us that while these truths may be self-evident, they've never been self-executing. That while freedom is a gift from God, it must be secured by his people here on earth."
Obama addressed his speech to the American public at large, but he also had a clear eye upon his Republican critics, in his use of specific phrases and themes. His first term began with a…
Obama, Barack. 'Second Inaugural Address." Full text available 9 Feb 2013:
The author hopes to restore what he calls "the former unsuspecting confidence of the Colonies in the Mother Country, to give permanent satisfaction to your people." Teh term "unsuspecting confidence" reveals the colonial mentality. Burke even suggests that a conciliatory tone will trick the colonies into greater respect for the Crown. "The more they multiply, the more friends you will have, the more ardently they love liberty, the more perfect will be their obedience."
In the speech delivered to Parliament, Burke bases his rhetorical appeal on the prevailing philosophical themes in late 18th century Britain. Crown supporters like Burke had not yet fully embraced the tenets of popular rule and remained tied to a the monarchic model. Burke appeals to national pride in his parliamentary address, too, repeatedly referring to the "greatness" of the empire. The American colonies are portrayed by Burke as Crown subjects, so he does not antagonize…
Burke, E. (1775). Speech on conciliation with America. Retrieved April 14, 2007 at http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/D/1751-1775/libertydebate/burk.htm
Jensen's "The World is a Business" Speech from Network (1976)
The speech by Arthur Jensen in the 1976 film Network is given to an audience of one -- Mr. Howard Beale, network television news show host. It takes place in a large conference room, nicknamed "Valhalla" by Mr. Jensen. It lasts just over four minutes and its effect is profound in that it produces a radical transformation in the audience: Mr. Beale returns to his position as news show host and delivers, in turn, a speech to his own audience that essentially confirms the cynical viewpoint that Mr. Jensen has impressed upon him. Why is Jensen's speech so effective? As Leff and Sachs point out, it is not just "what was said" but "how it was said" that made it so persuasive. Thus, from a Neo-Aristotelian point-of-view, the parts of Jensen's speech add up to make a convincing whole. This…
Gottfried, H. (Producer), Lumet, S. (Director). (1976). Network. USA: MGM.
Leff, M., Sachs, A. (1990). Words the Most Like Things: Iconicity and the Rhetorical
Text. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 54: 252-273.
Mateas, M. A Neo-Aristotelian Theory of Interactive Drama. AAAI Technical Report,
The American public is misleaded concerning the war in Iraq.
Americans believe that the war is for freedom, 9-11, and the good of the Iraqi people.
Americans are misled.
What is the war really about?
The war is not about terrorism, freedom, WMD's or the "people."
The war is misguided and damaging.
Experts agree that the war is a bad idea.
Clarke and Leverett give opinions on why the war is a bad idea.
The Iraq war is compared to an insufficient dose of penicillin.
What's so wrong with attacking Iraq?
There are no WMD's, the main justification is gone.
One cannot clean one's kitchen by cleaning the living room.
So what's the big deal?
American citizens are not safer than before, and may be less safe.
Iraq, like American Muslims are perceived as fair targets, whether they deserve it or not.
Conclusion: Iraq is not the same as…
Fletcher, Douglas. (2004). Where are the WMD's? Reason Hit and Run. 27 March.
Discusses the role of WMD's in the war on Iraq.
Gillespie, Nick. (2002). You mean they're not the same thing? The Washington Post. Retrieved from Web site on March 31, 2004 http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:JW0jnA8faFQJ:www.brookings.edu/comm/policybriefs/pb93.pdf+%22war+on+terrorism%22+and+%22Iraq%22+an d+%22wrong%22&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Touches on the possible negative repercussions on the war on terrorism resulting from the Iraq war -- especially in the use of resources.
Parties -- through their platforms, through their leaders, through their policies -- offer simple answers. Don't know what to think about abortion/gay rights/climate change? No need to worry. Just vote straight ticket.
One can certainly see the appeal of subjugating one's own political ideology to party membership. or, if not precisely subjugating it, assuming that the party (whichever party) will simply take care of one. The paternal attitude between individual and party has a long history itself in American politics. And it is worth remembering that it is not all just smoke and mirrors. A poor, black, gay man is much, much more likely to be well served by the Democratic Party. That's a quick-and-easy answer that is almost always bound to be right.
But easy answers tend -- in American politics -- to lead to easier answers, and finally to answers that require no thinking at all. Indeed, there…
Welcome to the 21st Century, my friends. This is your century of reward and your day of awards. The Eagle Award, established in 2001, is organized and sponsored by Transcoast London Ltd. It aims to create, or rather -- to recognize -- the astounding role models and leaders like yourselves. As leaders you are important, for others may feel inspired by your achievements. The word "inspired" is an important one, because it is further defined as "in-spirited." What controls our lives are the meanings we associate with things in our lives, which are shaped by our own personal psychology, our world view, and the beliefs and values that we have created. You, as role models and leaders, have a unique spirit in you, and "inspiring" spirit, and that what makes you leaders is that this spirit touches others and gives that spirit to them. You have added…
1987 Quarterly Journal of Speech, Maurice Charland embraces Kenneth Burke's argument that "persuasion" should not necessarily be the "key term" as a theory of rhetoric. Rather, the key term in critiquing rhetoric should be "identification" (Charland, 1987, p. 133). Why is focusing on identification more valid than focusing on persuasion in the process of rhetorical themes? Charland insists that using persuasion as a driver for rhetoric "…implies the existence of an agent who is free to be persuaded," which is not always the case. Charland uses Quebec's quest for sovereignty as an example of why his assertion is valid. The White Paper that was created identifies the issues and the alleged oppression; in itself, it persuades through identification of salient issues.
In 1976, Quebec's political situation changed dramatically when voters gave control of the legislature to the Parti Quebecois (PQ), taking it away from the MSA; the PQ took 71…
Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition and language structure. He states: "We have an organism of which we know nothing. We know, or we can discover, what kind of data is available to it, and the first question we must try to answer is: what kind of mental structure does the organism develop when that evidence is presented to it?" (Chomsky, 1988, p. 102). Once we find an answer to this question, we can ask what sorts of processes have intervened leading form the data available to the knowledge that resulted. Chomsky explains:
The input-output situation is this: a child who initially does not have knowledge of a language constructs for himself knowledge of a language on the basis of a certain amount of data; the input…
Aitchison, J. (1998). The articulate mammal: An introduction to psycholinguistics. London:Routledge.
Appel, A. (2005) 'Dinner conversation' proof of ape speech? National Geographic News.
Brown, G. (1958). Words and things. New York: The Free Press.
Brain circuitry involved in language reveals differences in man, non-human primates (2001, September 5). Science Daily. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/09/010905071926.html .
Martin Luther King Jr.'s iconic speech "I Have a Dream" in relation to some of the reactionary racism fuelled by Barack Obama's ascendancy to the White House. Many people believe that Obama's election to President of the United States was a fulfillment of King's infamous speech and it is not difficult to see that Obama's speech "A More Perfect Union" can easily be compared to King's speech as well. The two have quite a bit in common for important figures from different eras, and one of the things that they have in common is that racism is still alive and well in the United States. While King was faced by rampant public racism of his time, Obama has faced a new kind of racism that King was never subjected to -- Internet racism. In the months leading up to his being elected to President, the amount of threatening remarks on…
Netter, S. (2010). "Racism in Obama's America one year later." ABC World News.
Accessed on 15 April 2011: http://abcnews.go.com/WN/Obama/racism-obamas-america-year/story?id=9638178
Nobelprize.org. (2011). "Martin Luther King -- Biography." Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on: 15 April 2011: http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html
Southern Poverty Law Center. (2008). "Racist attacks on Obama growing more heated."
A literary critical analysis is not merely a summary of a literary work. Instead, it is an argument that expresses an interpretation, judgment, or critical evaluation of the work. This is accomplished by examining specific literary devices (symbols, themes, metaphors, tone, point of view, diction, structure, etc.), within the work. The purpose of a critical analysis is to demonstrate how these elements convey meaning. In your analysis, you will most likely discuss how certain literary techniques are used to convey specific ideas. You will discuss what a literary piece means and how it achieves its effect. To write critically, you must provide analysis of specific evidence from the text (words and phrases; avoid long quotes). The goal of this assignment is to give the audience an interpretation of the literature.
1. Introduction (explore the subject? of your analysis and end with a thesis statement).
2. Body Paragraphs…
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin to lay the outlines if this thesis for a Master's degree.
I see the wonder in a child's eyes as he imagines a world unfolding in a grain of sand as I read a story to him; an hour reading in a class of children translates into infinity as the children in that class become readers themselves, changing the hours into infinity as they develop the habit of infinite reading.
Voluntary in-school free reading program - elementary level" is the subject of this thesis proposal, and the objective is to prove that voluntary in-school free reading programs result in positive effects on elementary students' attitudes toward reading.
Statement of the Problem
To be able to identify the strengths and…
Durrell, Donald. D. Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (New Edition).
Kottmeyer, William. Evaluation Handbook: Levels in English. Webster.
Kottmeyer, William. Guide for Remedial Reading. Webster Strang, Ruth, et. al. The Improvement of Reading. New York: Mc GrawHill.
Steiger, Ralph. New Directions in Reading. New York: Bantam Books.
Internet Service Provider (ISP) Web Content Law and Ethics
The objective of this work is to answer whether Internet service providers have a responsibility to regulate the content that is available on the World Wide Web? This work will additionally answer as to whether the presence and ease of availability of pornography to the general public a tribute to free speech and a reflection of social maturity or an example of the potential damage that unregulated markets and the hegemony of technology have reaped upon society?
The Internet is such that allows consumers, businesses, and industry, alike to "do many new things in unique and efficient ways." (Tekxam, nd) There are however, reported to be areas of both legal and ethical concern with regards to the responsibilities of Internet Service providers. Some of those areas include protection of intellectual property, fraud prevention, protection of freedom of expression, protection of privacy,…
Black, Justice (1965) in: Study Guide: Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Internet (nd) Tekxam. Retrieved from: http://www.tekxam.com/StudyGuide/concepts/Ethics-and-Legal/TekXam_Legal_and_Ethical_Study_Guide.html
Cohen-Almagor, R. (2011) Freedom of Expression, Internet Responsibility, and Business Ethics: The Yahoo! Saga and Its Implications. Springer Science Business Media. B.V. 2011. Retrieved from: http://hull.academia.edu/RaphaelCohenalmagor/Papers/1074355/Freedom_of_Expression_Internet_Responsibility_and_Business_Ethics_The_Yahoo_Saga_and_Its_Aftermath
Study Guide: Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Internet (nd) Tekxam. Retrieved from: http://www.tekxam.com/StudyGuide/concepts/Ethics-and-Legal/TekXam_Legal_and_Ethical_Study_Guide.html
Turban E., et al. (2000) Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective, Prentice Hall, 2000 in: Study Guide: Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Internet (nd) Tekxam. Retrieved from: http://www.tekxam.com/StudyGuide/concepts/Ethics-and-Legal/TekXam_Legal_and_Ethical_Study_Guide.html
Kerr's management strategy on campus only emboldened the New Left.
In addition to the Free Speech movement, the New Left included other student organizations including Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress on acial Equality (COE), and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The former focused on the antiwar efforts to end the Vietnam conflict, placing the students in direct conflict with many of America's most powerful institutions and organizations. Sit-ins, and other non-violent protest tactics were used to gain media coverage as well as to effect real change. The increasing awareness of how the War in Vietnam was proceeding caused the New Left to grow dramatically, providing a credible opposition to the Department of Defense. As Zinn points out, an increasingly large proportion of Americans ceased affiliating with either the Democratic or epublican parties, expressing opposition to the core institutions of government that led to injustices like those being…
Foner, E, 2011. Give Me Liberty! Norton.
"The free-speech fight that shaped the New Left." Workers' Liberty. Retrieved online: http://www.workersliberty.org/story/2008/02/09/free-speech-fight-shaped-new-left
Heilbrun, J., 1997. "The New Democrats. New Republic. Retrieved online: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/93596/democratic-leadership-council-al-from#
Kinzer, S. Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change. New York: Henry Holt.
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)
How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?
Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.
In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?
Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…
2012 Puerto Rico Statehood Amendment. (2012). Boards. Retrieved from: http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=77582334
Commerce Clause. (2012). Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127865/commerce-clause
Principles of Constitutional Construction. (2010). Constitution.org. Retrieved from: http://constitution.org/cons/prin_cons.htm
Sin Taxes. (2005). Six Taxes. Connecticut Voices for Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ctkidslink.org/publications/bud05sintax02.pdf
In fact, when actual harm seems imminent, the government has more leeway to restrict the speech. Fighting words or words likely to result in harm to an individual fall into this category. The most notorious example is shouting "Fire" in a crowded theater. A more realistic example is the criminalization of terroristic threats.
) in an essay of at least two well-developed paragraphs, explain how laws related to capital punishment have changed since the early 1970s
At the beginning of the 1970s, capital punishment was legal throughout the United States, though execution rates varied tremendously by state. However, in 197, in the case of Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 38 (197), the Supreme Court suspended capital punishment throughout the states. The Court found that capital punishment violated the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. However, it is important to realize that the violation did not come from the…
2) in an essay of at least two well-developed paragraphs, explain how laws related to capital punishment have changed since the early 1970s
At the beginning of the 1970s, capital punishment was legal throughout the United States, though execution rates varied tremendously by state. However, in 1972, in the case of Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972), the Supreme Court suspended capital punishment throughout the states. The Court found that capital punishment violated the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. However, it is important to realize that the violation did not come from the actual executions, but from the way that the states carried out their capital punishment procedures. Therefore, beginning in 1976, many states retooled their capital punishment laws and, once again, began sentencing defendants to death.
Since 1976, the capital punishment statutes of many states sought to address the Court's concerns that capital punishment was arbitrary. Some states adopted mandatory capital punishment statutes for certain types of murder, though those were later found to be unconstitutional. Other states adopted bifurcated proceedings, where guilt and punishment were established in separate stages. To determine whether or not to impose the death penalty, juries were called upon to consider aggravating and mitigating factors. In 1977, the Court determined that the death penalty violated the Eighth Amendment if imposed for rape, setting the standard that only murder could be a capital offense in state tribunals, though treason, espionage, and certain military crimes may still be capital offenses. There have been various challenges to the means of execution, so that executions must be carried out in as painless and humane manner as possible. The rules surrounding executions remained fairly consistent from the late 1970s until the early 2000s. However, in the early 2000s, two cases placed major restrictions on capital punishment, which brought the United States more into alignment with international humanitarian standards. First, the Court prohibited the execution of mentally retarded individuals. Next, the Court prohibited the execution of those who were minors at the time of commission of the offense. While all of these changes have not eliminated the death penalty and have been based on the premise that state-sanctioned executions are not unconstitutional, they shown an increasing awareness of the human rights issues
Free Speech vs. Security Freedom of Speech and Homeland Security They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety. Benjamin…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
United States (1970), after a Vietnam veteran was arrested for wearing a jacket with those words into a courthouse. In principle, even speech that is "offensive" is considered to…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Free Speech and the Internet With great power comes great responsibility, and to much is given, much is expected. These two proverbs, one from a recent film that is…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
People can communicate with family and friends even at very long distances without having to pay exorbitant amounts for long-distance calls. Disabled people who are socially isolated have a…Read Full Paper ❯
Free Speech Rights of College and University Faculty This is a paper that outlines Free Speech Rights issues at academic institutions and argues why it is important to preserve…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Free Speech Although the concept of "freedom of speech" as outlined in the First Amendment to the Constitution appears relatively straightforward, over the course of the country's history numerous…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Free Speech Clarence Brandenburg, standing with a burning cross in the background, stated at a public rally that "if our President, our Congress, our Supreme Court, continues to suppress…Read Full Paper ❯
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Business - Law
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limiting free speech ID: 53711 The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the…Read Full Paper ❯
Writing in dissent, Chief Justice ehnquist argued that the CPPA was merely a natural extension of Ferber, and the new law seemed intended to be used only to prosecute…Read Full Paper ❯
After the initial clash, police arrested Elton Cox and charged him with "disturbing the peace," (the Ovex Project, "Cox v. Louisiana"). In 1965, the Court decided that none of…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
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Business - Law
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Government - Federal
ight to Expression: The Fine Line of the First Amendment Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the enactment of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing…Read Full Paper ❯
speech of a public institution's faculty member to be protected under the Pickering/Connickline of cases, what criteria must be satisfied? Do these criteria suitably balance the interests of faculty…Read Full Paper ❯
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Family and Marriage
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Business - Law
campus speech codes violate student rights? The freedom of expression is not for students alone. It is for all citizens and for students the rights and liberties that are…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
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These newspapers continuously wrote that there is no essential conflict between labor class (referring to wage earners) and the capitalists and that each should not suspect the other in…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Speech by a Teacher Teachers in public schools are not permitted to invoke specific Biblical theories, parables, or otherwise invoke the word of God -- either denominationally or generally…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Speech on Alcoholism and Addiction Main Points: I. Alcoholism is an addiction, not a character flaw. Treating alcoholism requires modern rehabilitation methods. The "Twelve-Step" program advocated by Alcoholics Anonymous…Read Full Paper ❯
However, Jefferson's "Declaration of Independence" also amounted to a declaration of war. He was well aware that the British government would not simply let the colonists pull away from…Read Full Paper ❯
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Communication - Language
Thus, the deficit must be due to an "inefficient mapping of acoustic information into phonetic features at a central (postcochlear) conversion stage. Accordingly, these findings provide new routes by…Read Full Paper ❯
Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens' "Cornerstone Speech" The Civil War was by far the most costly war in terms of human life ever fought by the United States, and…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
He personalizes the sense of power and youth with which the audience is leaving college, while universalizing the benefit they could bring to society as a whole: We need…Read Full Paper ❯
Lincoln's Speech Compared The Evolution of Lincoln's Thought in His Speeches Abraham Lincoln is one of the most celebrated and popular Presidents in the history of the United States.…Read Full Paper ❯
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He futhe solidifies this point of humility and self-depecation of pesonal stoies showing how he has always admied the univesity and how he sees the students as exceptional. Having…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Success: Susan B. Anthony's Speech The 1870s went down in history as the decade when women's movements stood strongly against oppression, demanding that women be given the same rights…Read Full Paper ❯
Oh well, them's the breaks! I wonder if maybe I should start stalking the rehab centers, maybe I can meet a cool chick there too! As many of you…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Committed Good day, ladies and gentleman. I extend my deepest thanks to all of you for coming out to this occasion. Your presence here is an honor to all…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
President Obama's "Second Inaugural Address:" Rhetorical analysis Knowing one's audience is a critical component of giving a good speech. hen President Obama gave his second inaugural address, although he…Read Full Paper ❯
The author hopes to restore what he calls "the former unsuspecting confidence of the Colonies in the Mother Country, to give permanent satisfaction to your people." Teh term "unsuspecting…Read Full Paper ❯
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Parties -- through their platforms, through their leaders, through their policies -- offer simple answers. Don't know what to think about abortion/gay rights/climate change? No need to worry. Just…Read Full Paper ❯
Leadership Award Speech Welcome to the 21st Century, my friends. This is your century of reward and your day of awards. The Eagle Award, established in 2001, is organized…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
1987 Quarterly Journal of Speech, Maurice Charland embraces Kenneth Burke's argument that "persuasion" should not necessarily be the "key term" as a theory of rhetoric. Rather, the key term…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Language
Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition…Read Full Paper ❯
Martin Luther King Jr.'s iconic speech "I Have a Dream" in relation to some of the reactionary racism fuelled by Barack Obama's ascendancy to the White House. Many people…Read Full Paper ❯
Essay Prompt A literary critical analysis is not merely a summary of a literary work. Instead, it is an argument that expresses an interpretation, judgment, or critical evaluation of…Read Full Paper ❯
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
Internet Service Provider (ISP) Web Content Law and Ethics The objective of this work is to answer whether Internet service providers have a responsibility to regulate the content that…Read Full Paper ❯
Kerr's management strategy on campus only emboldened the New Left. In addition to the Free Speech movement, the New Left included other student organizations including Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee…Read Full Paper ❯
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off…Read Full Paper ❯
In fact, when actual harm seems imminent, the government has more leeway to restrict the speech. Fighting words or words likely to result in harm to an individual fall…Read Full Paper ❯