1000 results for “Freedom Of Choice”.
consent and affirming the clients freedom of choice. The importance of this topic in relation to the professional counseling arena will be revealed in this examination as the important qualities of the inclusion of this practice will be highlighted and discussed. Before concluding, this essay will also reveal a personal reaction to the information discovered in this exercise.
At the heart and soul of every counseling session, is the idea of trust. The one seeking help and guidance must trust the counselor administering the treatment. The American Counseling Association suggested that "the informed consent advises the client of the counselor's policies, state and federal laws, and client's rights. Informed consent document can take many forms, but certain information is crucial so the client can truly give his informed consent and the counselor can comply with state laws and code of ethics. This document protects the client and counselor."
American Counseling Association (2005). Implementing Informed Consent. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/docs/private-practice-pointers/implementing_informed_consent.pdf?sfvrsn=2
Ingelfinger, F.J. (1979). Informed (but uneducated) consent. In Biomedical ethics and the law (pp. 265-267). Springer U.S..
Redding, R.E. (1993). Children's competence to provide informed consent for mental health treatment. Wash. & Lee L. Rev., 50, 695.
Schuck, P.H. (1994). Rethinking informed consent. Yale Law Journal, 899-959.
Jean Paul Sartre and Simone De Beauvoir on Freedom, Being-for-Others, And Sartrean Despair
Simone de Beauvoir and JP Sartre were two famous existentialists that converged and diverged on various concepts. These included the existentialist concepts of freedom, being-for-others and transcendence or despair. Their converged and divergences will be addressed in this essay.
Sartre was one of the most famous existentialists of all times. For him, existence did not base itself on an ethos of God-ordained morality nor did it have any transcendental meaning. ather meaningfulness of life -- or liberty / freedom -- depended on the meaning that one arbitrarily accorded life and he claimed that man is "what he makes of himself," or in other words "in the end one is always responsible for what is made of one" In this way, Sartre's philosophy integrated both optimism and despair: optimism in the belief that one can resolutely make something…
Fullbrook, Kate & Edward. Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre: The Remaking of a Twentieth-Century Legend. New York: Basic Books: 1994.
Jean-Paul Sartre mythosandlogos.com/Sartre.html
Vintges, Karen. Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir. Translated by Anne Lavelle. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.
de Beauvoir, Simone. The Ethics of Ambiguity. New York: Citadel Press, 1976. Print.
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Conceptions of American Freedom
Freedom is an extremely important aspect of American culture, history, and identity. The European settlers that sailed to what would later become the United States of America, came for key reasons, one of which was freedom of religion. The concept of freedom was in one way very important to the people of the United States. Certainly, the concept of freedom in America is fraught with conflict, tension, and paradox. It is common knowledge that the freedoms of one particular group of Americans was increased with the elimination of the freedoms of other groups in the United States. While white males enjoyed the most freedoms, and declared to have build a country heavily predicated on guaranteed freedoms, the freedoms of women, enslaved Africans, and the indigenous tribes of natives who lived in the country for thousands of years did not have many freedoms relative to theirs.
Democracy Web -- Comparative Studies in Freedom. 2012. The Idea of Freedom. Web, Available from: http://www.democracyweb.org/young/young1.php. [footnoteRef:3]2012 November 15. [3: ]
Maier, P. 1998. Sparring for Liberty. The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/11/01/reviews/981101.01maiert.html . 2012 November 18.
Shipley, C. 2012. Power to change -- What is True Freedom? Web, Available from: http://powertochange.com/students/truefreedom/ . 2012 November 16.
Spease. 2012. What is Freedom in America. Web, Available from: http://spease.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-Freedom-in-America . 2012 November 15.
e. The lack of attachment to other people and things) is beneficial from an individual perspective, but damaging for society as a whole because it hinders advancement.
In reality however, in order to maintain such a belief in our own self-sufficiency and freedom of choice, we would have to rewrite the laws of human nature. As this is highly improbable, we are likely to continue in our flight from freedom for as long as we remain in existence. People are, after all, social creatures by nature and thus, according to Garcin, we "need the suffering of others to exist."
This is Sartre's way of arguing that existentialism is the only valid means of providing mankind with dignity, and life with meaning. Thus at the core of Sartre's suppositions is that the role of existentialism is vitally important in helping the individual to embrace freedom as a manifestation of nothingness and,…
Muller, R.J. (1998) Beyond marginality: Constructing a self in the twilight of western culture, Praeger Publishers
Sartre, J.P. (1993), Being and nothingness: A phenomenological essay on ontology, tr. By Hazel E. Barnes, Washington Square, (orig. 1943)
Sartre, J.P. No exit, Retrieved from http://www.sartre.org/Writings/NoExit.htm
TAXATION IS THEFT?
When Sam the mugger, decides to rob you of your valuable goods or hard earned money at gunpoint, you instantly know what the act is called: theft. You do not only receive sympathy from the public, but are also found entitled to police support and protection. The city administration upon learning of the incident would most certainly show some anxiety over deteriorating law and order situation and the government would certainly criticize the thug's immoral act.
However lets just suppose that Sam the mugger wants you money again. But this time, some respectable people like senators, parliamentarians, Congressmen etc., accompany him. Instead of the gun, he carries an official letter that says certain percentage of your hard earned money is now his. The tone remains the same i.e. threatening. You give him money O ... The dire consequences of not complying with his 'request' are repeated reiterated…
1) Chris R. Tame: Taxation is Theft, a publication of the Libertarian Alliance: Retrieved online 29th September 2004: http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/polin/polin044.pdf .
2) Cohen, G.A. 1995. Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3) Mill, John Stuart. 1970 Principles of Political Economy (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books.
4) Pollock, Lansing 1996 The Free Society. Westview Press. Boulder.
Jim did tell his mom though that he was going to continue working six days a week, and saving as close to three quarters of his take-home pay as he could. His mom was worried about him because he would not move out of his apartment; he lived in a rough neighborhood, where drug deals were commonplace on street corners, where old cars were up on blocks in front of run-down houses with mud where lawns used to be. There was a fatal stabbing last year near his apartment, he told his mom, an old warehouse was set on fire by delinquent teen-agers, and two men were injured recently in a "drive-by" shooting a block away from his house. So his mother insisted he map out a plan to move out of that neighborhood, but not rent again, rather, put money down on a home of his own in…
Mills, Magnus. All Quiet on the Orient Express. New York: Arcade Publishing, 1999.
Freedom speech guarantees freedom extend disturbing funeral (Armed Forces funerals) support claim, acknowledge claim opponent, find common ground .
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of freedom of speech and the fact that people are often denied the right to speak when they want to express themselves. Even with this, there are a series of situations when one's right to express his or her position needs to be denied on the basis of common sense. It would surely be absurd to claim that freedom of speech should not be present in every setting regardless of circumstances. However, people should carefully analyze a situation and decide whether or not it would be right for them to speak in a particular environment. Freedom of speech is in some cases rendered ineffective because of a series of reasons that make it possible for individuals to understand that it is more important…
Brouwer, D.l C. And Hess, A. "Making Sense of 'God Hates Fags' and 'Thank God for 9/11': A Thematic Analysis of Milbloggers' Responses to Reverend Fred Phelps and the Westboro Baptist Church," Western Journal of Communication 71.1 (2007)
Conery, B. "Supreme Court upholds protests at military funerals as free speech," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the Washington Times Website: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/mar/2/supreme-court-oks-church-protest-military-funerals/?page=all
Kingsbury, A. "Supreme Court Weighs Free Speech Limits in Military Funeral Case," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the U.S. News Website: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/10/06/supreme-court-weighs-free-speech-limits-in-military-funeral-case
Liptak, A. "Justices Rule for Protesters at Military Funerals," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/03/us/03scotus.html?pagewanted=all
Mottern (2008) writes that Dr. William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice.
People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of making progressively better choices with regard to fulfilling one's fundamental needs. A choice will then be "good" if it brings one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs in a harmless manner (both to ourselves and others). A less effectual or "bad" choice would be one that fails to bring one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs, or one that…
Look at any communist regime in the last 100 years, where religion is considered an opiate of the masses. The government becomes god in that circumstance, and can get away with anything, including mass genocide (the Origin of ights - posted on."
True freedom should be given to individuals who do not harm other members of society.
One classic example of a lack of freedom that does not make sense is teenage curfew. Thousands of cities across the nation impose teenage curfews. The governments of those cities choose an arbitrary time by which teens have to be home or they can be taken into custody and their parents can be charged with contributing to the delinquency of a minor for letting their child be out past curfew.
Curfew laws impose on what freedoms should be allowed. Why is it necessary for teenagers to come in at a certain time? Who…
Enemies of the Future
The Origin of Rights - posted on March 30, 2005 @ 12:12: AM CST
Western world it appears is slightly alienated from the spiritual world that most people in the east like Hindus take for granted. For an average person in the West, physical and material world is the only world and spirit is only an illusion. For those in the east, like Hindus, physical world is the illusion and spirit is the only truth there is.
Western social, political and economic systems play an important role in the shaping of western concept of freedom. Freedom to choose, freedom of speech, freedom from bondage, freedom to vote, are some of the main ideals upheld by western society and thus freedom has become merely a hollow term used to describe a state of liberation in the physical world. Capitalism has also influenced the development of this concept as freedom to choose what one likes, build what one desires and move as and when one…
Frederic Spiegelberg. Living Religions of the World: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1956
Hedebro, Goran. Communication and Social Change in Developing Nations. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982.
Peter Heehs. Indian Religions: The Spiritual Traditions of South Asia: An Anthology/edited. Delhi, Permanent Black, 2002
Mrs. Peters shows this belief when she says, "But Mrs. Hale, the law is the law." (Glaspell, 16.)
Many of the laws that govern society are based on maintaining society. This includes criminal laws, which are easily justified, they protect everyone's safety. It also includes business laws, which again protect society by clarifying how businesses can operate. Everyone has a responsibility towards society simply because they are part of it. This means that individual freedom is restricted in favor of the freedom of society.
The question that "Trifles" raises, is when is it all right to overlook this responsibility to society in favor of responsibility to an individual. In life, this question is raised often. Stealing is a crime, but is it acceptable to steal food if a child's life depends on it? In the play we see that a criminal crime of 'suppression of evidence' occurs where Mrs. Peters…
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from: http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/publications/indonesia-baseline-study.pdf
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704229
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703998
El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=727
(Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner, 2011).
Handling controversial social studies topics in the classroom setting is often not an easy undertaking. In the words of Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner (2011), "even though controversial issues are included in the curriculum, teachers face uncertainty on how to best teach the content" (42). As Byford, Lennon, and ussell (as cited in ussell, 2009) observe, teachers avoid controversial subjects in social studies because of lack of the relevant classroom management skills, discomfort when discussing some issues, restrictive district or school policies, and job security. To handle controversial subjects and topics appropriately, teachers can make use of a number of strategies and approaches.
To begin with, it helps to ensure that while at the same time seeking to ensure that one does not veer off the topic, learners are exposed to multiple perspectives with regard to the issue at hand. When there is a…
High, J.F. (1962). Teaching Secondary School Social Studies. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Levstik, L.S. & Tyson, C.A. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of Research in Social Studies Education. New York, NY: Routledge.
National Council for the Social Studies. (2007, September). Academic Freedom and the Social Studies Teacher: A Position Statement of National Council for the Social Studies. Retrieved from: http://www.socialstudies.org/positions/academicfreedom
Philpott, S., Clabough, J., McConkey, L. & Turner, T.N. (2011). Controversial Issues: To Teach or Not to Teach? That is the Question! The Georgia Social Studies Journal, 1(1), 32-44.
I remember making that decision to push her, as awful as it might seem. I do not know what possessed me to want to push her, but I know that, whether or not I wanted to, I did push her, and I could have done otherwise. True freedom means being able to make a choice in spite of all variables -- want being one of them. There are many times that we want to do something, but it is not good for us, so we choose to do what is more positive for us in the long run than what we want to do right now. We are free to make that choice, as is exemplified by the times that we choose to do what we want to do over what is right or what would serve us better in the long run. Freedom must mean we have the ability…
History has shown that freedom is not inherently a part of society, rather it is something fought hard for and won. When countries fight for freedom, when people rise for liberty, they do so because they feel they must. Whether it is a strict government, a deranged dictator, or a highly religious society, people have seen their freedoms limited to varying degrees. The United States has been built upon the idea that freedom should be a basic right. While the country has seen its fair share of battles, with itself and with outsiders, it has maintained this very ideal throughout its history.
What is freedom and liberty? Why is it so important that people would risk their lives to maintain certain freedoms? To begin analysis of these two words, I will present my own definition of freedom and liberty followed by how others define these two words. First and foremost,…
Thus, free will -- as demonstrated by moral choice -- is in actuality a series of discrete and connected choices, each dependent on those preceding it as they shape the individual's attitude.
De Beauvoir then describes the sub-man, who wishes he did not exist. Yet he is the very consciousness that is willing this non-existence, and is thus self-defeating. To escape his subjectivity, he immerses himself in the object, and Lives fro a Thing rather tan for himself. She derides nihilist thought, too, claiming that though neither the world nor the individual have inherent and objective justifications, as the nihilists claim, it is the individual's responsibility to create that justification. Several other attitudes, given archetypal names like "the adventurer" and "the passionate man" are described, along with their mistaken takes on morality and free will. The truly free will, de Beauvoir claims, is in understanding and accepting -- indeed, actively…
Due to the forgiveness that is extended to every Christian by their faith in Christ as pronounced in the New Testament, Luther argues, all Christians are free to act in any way they please. When they continue to behave according to God's law as it is written in the Bible, they do so of their own free will; acts of charity and kindness are nto something that is required in order to receive forgiveness, but rather is an outgrowth of the charity and kindness that exists in people's hearts regardless of the status of their salvation, which is already assured so long as their faith is pure and strong. This quite obviously limits the power of the Church as far as condemning acts of any kind is concerned; even one found guilty of heresy would, according to Luther's argument, still receive salvation through their faith in Jesus Christ as the…
If we assume that 1) and 2) are true, then hard determinism is valid. Free will then is only an illusion that man perceives as a result of the complexity of all interacting cause-and-effects. Although he thinks he has possible courses of action, his final choice has already been the sum result of these interacting variables. However, if either 1) or 2) is false then it breaks down the whole concept of hard determinism.
This paper further argues that 1) and 2) are both false. First, the cause-and-effect concept is only a human phenomenon. What we know as science is only a generalization of seemingly regular and repeatable events. For example, Newton's laws of motion had been considered the only way of explaining the movement of planets, stars, and galaxies. This generalization has been accepted for hundreds of years. However, Einstein's theory of relativity has shown inconsistencies in Newton's explanation…
Wikipedia Contributors (2008). "Determinism." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 14, 2008 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determinism
Wikipedia Contributors (2008). "Free Will: Moral Responsibility." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 14, 2008 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_will#Moral_responsibility
I set up my practice at once. So many maladies among citizens of this town were directly related to the spiritual imbalance in the forest. Little puk-wudgees caused much havoc among the townsfolk. Oh, at first the people of Freetown had little faith in my medicine, but over time they came to appreciate that I was perfect for their unique corner of the world.
Theirs was a land haunted. People came to me when the ghosts in their attic began to make noise; when they saw lights above the forest at night; when they saw a creature from the corner of their eye. This was life as normal in Freetown. Everybody who lived there simply accepted it, without becoming creepy like such a town would seem on television. But I helped them. I helped them learn the reasons why spirits acted the ways they did. I taught them how to…
So, the rightness of the claim that the CIA needed more money cannot be supported by the fruition of terrorist attacks.
Hannity moves on into a discussion regarding immigration and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service -- or INS. Essentially, Hannity feels that the Immigration Act of 1965 makes it entirely too easy for illegal immigrants to exploit loopholes in the present legislation. In particular, he mentions how illegal immigrants are able to overstay their visits here in the United States and to obtain legal certifications like drivers' licenses in the process. Hannity believes that the INS is altogether too soft on illegal immigration and that this softness, created by the Clinton administration, has resulted in numerous social problems and contributed to the terrorist threat. He states:
This system that absolutely must be fixed before terrorists use such loopholes to strike us again. Illegal aliens must be incarcerated, not allowed…
Hannity, Sean. Let Freedom Ring. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.
"In eloved, Morrison allows the reader to share the legacy of slavery as the characters Sethe, Paul D, and Denver attempt to make a new life in freedom. However, they cannot put the past, lived in slavery, behind them; they must reveal it to themselves, to each other, and to the reader in 'digestible pieces.'" (Nigro) The traumatic events which were experienced by slaves cannot be wiped clean, and the past will continue to have an effect on the future. Today, the concept of post-traumatic stress disorder -- the psychological consequences of experiencing traumatic events -- would perhaps be identified in Morrison's characters. (Feldspar) Nightmares, flashbacks, irritability, emotional detachment, and other distress are common symptoms, and certainly experienced by Sethe and others in eloved, all of which are a kind of continued mental slavery.
In addition to freedom being a myth because of legal and psychological reasons, there are also…
Davis, Kimberly Chabot. "Postmodern blackness': Toni Morrison's 'Beloved' and the end of history." Twentieth Century Literature. Summer, 1998. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0403/is_2_44/ai_53260178/print
Elliott, Mary Jane Suero. "Postcolonial Experience in a Domestic Context: Commodified Subjectivity in Toni Morrison's Beloved." MELUS, 2000. 181. http://www.geocities.com/tarbaby2007/beloved4.html
Feldspar, Antaeus, et al. "Post-traumatic Stress Disorder." Wikipedia. 28 July 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PTSD
JW1805, et al. "Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution." Wikipedia. 12 August 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
However, in principle, the rules and laws of society merely ensure our freedom from unwanted behavior of others. In many cases, in fact, the particular rules themselves are purely arbitrary, such as the simple rules of the road about stopping on a red signal and going on a green signal because the reverse rule would be just as good. The purpose of the rules of the road are simply to protect us from accidents. Likewise, acquiring a drivers' license as a condition of driving is intended to ensure that anybody who drives a heavy vehicle capable of maiming and killing is competent to do so without exposing others to risks.
Other rules of society are much harder to justify because they regulate conduct that affects nobody else. For example, prohibiting driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs have a legitimate purpose of protecting others. On the other hand, prohibitions…
Russell, B. (1992) the Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. (Edited by Egner & Denonn). London: Routledge
The Women's Freedom Network, the Educational Equity Center and the AAUW all agree on one thing. They agree that women have made great strides in the educational arena. What they don't agree on is how the advancement of women in the education arena has affected men. Some believe that there is an effect while others don't.
The AAUW believes that women have made great strides over the past years but this success has not come at the expense of the men (Where the girls are, n.d.). Educational achievement is not a zero-sum proposition, in which a gain for one group consequences in a corresponding loss for the other. If girls' success comes at the expenditure of boys, one would expect to see boys' scores go down as girls' scores rise, but this has not been the case. I agree that just because women are beginning to succeed in…
Kleinfeld, J.S. (1998). The myth that schools shortchange girls. Retrieved from http://www.menweb.org/kleinful.htm
Raising and educating healthy boys. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.edequity.org/files/Raising%20and%20Educating%20Healthy%20Boys%2
freedom of association refers to the freedom to join a union or association without fear of outside interference. Australia does not guarantee freedom of association in her Constitution. As a result, Australia has ratified several international covenants on freedom of expression, and used international laws as a basis for the Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993.
The orkplace Relations Act of 1996, which specifically protected the freedom of association, and provided specific penalties for breaching the Act, superseded the 1993 Act. Recently, the war on terrorism has presented an unexpected threat to Australia's freedom of association laws. This renewed the argument that the freedom of association should be guaranteed, by law, within the body of Australia's constitution.
Freedom of association has taken an important place in international labor law and social justice. The International Labour Organization (ILO) has long had conventions that deal specifically with freedom of association, the importance of…
Amnesty International. Australia: Senate Must Consider Human Rights When Considering Terrorism Laws. Media release - 13 May 2002. 24 September 2002. http://www.amnesty.org.au/airesources/press-02-05-13.html
Australasian Legal Information Institute. COMMUNICATING WITH THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE: A Guide to the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 24 September 2003. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/ahric/booklet/part3.html
Human & Constitutional Rights. Australian Laws of Freedom of Association. Site maintained by the Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School. 24 September 2002. http://www.hrcr.org/safrica/freedom_assoc/australia_law.html
International Labour Organization. Fundamental International Labour Standards on Freedom of Association. 24 September 2002. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/norm/whatare/fundam/foa.htm
The Positive and Negative Effects of Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
In essence, social media in the UK provides an amazing platform for people to freely express their views, share information, and interact. Indeed, as McGoldrick (2013, p. 49) observes, “Facebook and other internet-based social networking sites (SNSs) have revolutionized modern communications.” Some of the most popular social media platforms in the country include, but that are not limited to, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc. It is important to note that unlike in the physical world where relations between people are governed by various social rules and etiquette standards, relations on social media tend to present a limitless and unrestricting facade. In recent times, some countries have attempted to limit the way people relate on social media – even closely monitoring content in an attempt to ensure that freedom of expression in social media is…
Nevertheless, the Thalberg school district maintained that her appearance on the show and participation in the contest exposed her students to inappropriate subject matter, notwithstanding the fact that it would have been virtually impossible for second grade students to hear a broadcast requiring special receivers and a monthly paid subscription service (WFSB 2008).
Ms. Jarry absolutely rejected any such suggestion but resigned under the pressure simply to preserve her teaching career because she lacked the financial resources to challenge the ultimatum in formal litigation, given the vast resources of the school district. By resigning "voluntarily" Ms. Jarry effectively relinquished any rights to dispute the school district's characterization of her appearance but, under the circumstances, she felt she had little choice in the matter.
Chicago Tribune (2008) Marie Jarry, Bikini-Wearing Teacher, Fired, May 9, 2008. etrieved August 21, 2008 from the Tribune wire reports, at http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-marie-jerry-bikini-teacher-fired-080509-ht,0,1213011.story
WFSB (2008) Teacher Jobless…
Chicago Tribune (2008) Marie Jarry, Bikini-Wearing Teacher, Fired, May 9, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from the Tribune wire reports, at http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-marie-jerry-bikini-teacher-fired-080509-ht,0,1213011.story
WFSB (2008) Teacher Jobless After Stern Appearance
Second-Grade Teacher Won Stern Contest, May 8, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from the WFSB News Channel 3 public website, at http://www.wfsb.com/news/16201453/detail.html
The choice cannot be repudiated or duplicated, but one makes the choice without foreknowledge, almost as if blindly. After making the selection, the traveler in Frost's poem says, "Yet knowing how way leads on to way/I doubted if I should ever come back" (14-15). And at the end, as one continues to encounter different forks along the way, the endless paths have slim chance of ever giving the traveler a second choice. One can see this as similar to Mrs. Mallard's change. As she looks out into the future, she sees endless possibilities for choice and nothing feels like she would ever return to the determinate state of marriage.
The final two lines of "The Road Not Taken" say, "I took the one less traveled by / and that has made all the difference" (19-20). Unlike in Chopin, the traveler determines to take the path. In Chopin, the path forces…
Carver, Raymond. (1981). Cathedral: stories. New York: Vintage.
Chopin, Kate. (2003). The Awakening and selected short fiction. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Frost, Robert. (1969). The Poetry of Robert Frost: the collected poems E.C. Lathem, Ed. New York: Holt.
The Nature of Freedom in the 18th and 19th Centuries
The evidence shows that the nature of freedom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was considered a natural right in some cases and a divine right in others. For example, when it was useful, people appealed to the idea of a Creator endowing people with certain “unalienable rights” and when nature was viewed as the source of life, the rights of man were considered something that just was.
Three passages from the different primary source texts that provide evidence for my claim are:
1. “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights… hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights”—from the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
2. “We hold these truths to…
professional H standpoint on the Employee Free Choice Act for the consideration of a local U.S. representative.
Message to epresentative
This document contains the professional opinion of highly qualified Human esource professionals on the proposed Employee Free Choice Act. The group has thoroughly gone through the proposal, evaluating its strengths and weaknesses before preparing this document. This has been done keeping in mind that theirs is a crucial role in the acceptance or rejection of the said act.
It is the belief of this organization that employees can be able to progress when they unite in the quest to achieve improved remuneration from their employers. Given the increase in the prices of goods and services such as the price of food items, household goods and increased interest rates among others. All this has placed an increased burden on many workers without their wages being increased to meet these…
Chris, J. (2015, June 12). Joseph Chris Partners Executive Recruiting Search Firm. Employee Free Choice Act Pros and Cons - Joseph Chris Partners. Retrieved February 28, 2016, from http://www.josephchris.com/employee-free-choice-act-pros-and-cons
(2009). Human Rights Watch. The Employee Free Choice Act. Retrieved February 28, 2016, from http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/efca2009_web.pdf
Shimabukuro, J. (2011, January 12). [email protected] -- Cornell University ILR School Research. The Employee Free Choice Act .Retrieved February 28, 2016, from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1788&context=key_workplace&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bing.com%2Fsearch%3Fq%3Demployee%2Bfree%2B
(n.d.). The New York Times. The Employee Free Choice Act. Retrieved February 28, 2016, from http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/politics/EFCA_Summary.pdf
Mill agrees that the mischief a person does to himself can affect others, and he finds that it is right to bring to bear moral disapprobation,
henever there is a definite damage, the case moves out of the province of liberty and into that of morality or law. ith reference to that which is merely contingent, however, society can afford to bear the inconvenience (Magid 799-800).
Mill in his work on Liberty proposed a simple principle for determining whether society has a right to limit individual freedom, a principle based on utilitarian concepts and applicable to the individual in his or her dealings with society. that principle can be stated as follows:
The only thing of ultimate value is the happiness of individuals, and individuals can best achieve their happiness in a civilized society when they are left free to pursue their own interest with their own talents as these…
Carlyle, Thomas. Past and Present. The Gutenberg Project (27 Sept 2004). July 16, 2007. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13534 .
Himmelfarb, Gertrude. On Liberty and Liberalism. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1974.
Kelly, J.M.A Short History of Western Legal Theory. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1992.
Magid, Henry M. "John Stuart Mill." In History of Political Philosophy, Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey (eds.), 798-802. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle
Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open field. His tired eyes wandered over the bloody ground, over the earth covered with corpses, over the scene of one of the greatest battles in American History, and his words rang out true and clear -."..Our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
Abraham Lincoln's famous address gave meaning and purpose to all those young lives so tragically cut short. It etched forever in the minds of posterity the real aim behind that great war. e were a nation of free people. Subjection and slavery were banished for all time from our shores. Or were they? The Civil ar freed the slaves. A piece of…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=22777836"Anderson, Terry H. The Movement and the Sixties. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. De Leon, David, ed. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Eskew, Glenn T. But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle / . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Jasper, James M. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. King, Richard H. Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Peake, Thomas R. Keeping the Dream Alive: A History of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference from King to the Nineteen-Eighties. New York: Peter Lang, 1987. Pinkney, Alphonso. Black Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenitice-Hall, 1975.
One thing my father has taught me since I was a little boy is always to look neat and clean, hold my head up high, and walk with purpose, no matter how rich or how poor. He says that this can affect a person's confidence, and it won't hurt if someone is watching them for an advancement at work. I try to follow his advice, but find my body bending too easily to the positions of a soccer player. My father asks Miguel to pardon us while he leads me to the window to pray. Once our noon prayers are done, the four of us sit at the table, and my mother, artfully tucking her veil out of the way while she slurps noodles, says my father has something to discuss with us.
"Son," my father begins in the stiff way he has adopted for talking about serious matters. "I…
Given the combination product features, pricing, and sometimes, as Leon mentions, positioning statements, businesses could determine which product features, price, and positioning statement consumers will prefer the most. Ultimately, the analysis would help businesses determine which set or combination is most preferred by consumers, and which set or combination will not work at all for them.
Leon presented his arguments in a two-fold manner: first, he discussed the issue of consumer choice using his marketing insight and by citing historical examples in marketing strategies of specific brands and products, and second, he further strengthened his arguments about consumer choices and their differences between consumer-to-business and business-to-business transactions through a scientific/statistical method called the conjoint analysis. And in both ways, I agreed with what Leon had explicated about free consumer choices.
Ultimately, Leon argued that "completely free choice" is not the ideal scenario in the consumer marketing industry, mainly because sometimes,…
Leon, G. "You choose, you lose." (Faxed material).
Moreover, all psychological problems are based on dysfunctional relationships; therefore, change must occur in the arena of personal connections (the William Glasser Institute, 2010).
g. What is the role of cognitions or thoughts?
According to Glasser, thoughts are just one aspect of "Total Behavior," which includes "acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). All human behavior is Total Behavior, and all human behavior is chosen. However, acting and thinking are the only two components of behavior a person can directly control. Therefore, a patient must indirectly control their feelings and physiology by directly controlling their thoughts and behaviors (Glasser & Glasser, 2010).
IV. What specific techniques are used in this theory?
Choice theory is based primarily on "Seven Caring Habits" and "Ten Axioms" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). The Seven Caring Habits are: "supporting, encouraging, listening, accepting, trusting, respecting, and negotiating differences" with creativity (the William Glasser…
Erwin, J. (2004). The Classroom of Choice: Giving Students What They Need and Getting What You Want. . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Glasser, W., & Glasser, C. (2010). The Language of Choice Theory. HarperCollins ebook.
The William Glasser Institute. (2010). Teaching the World Choice Theory. Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from the William Glasser Institute: http://www.wglasser.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=92&Itemid=221
This is only one of the implications that individuals are facing when it comes to these kinds of limits. Some people choose to ignore the limits that are placed on them if they feel that those limits are too restrictive. Others do not even recognize the limits that are placed on them and feel as though the limit-placer has no right to do so in the first place. Despite these things, however, it usually does not end well from an organizational standpoint for people who continue to 'break the rules.' Being fired is one of the implications of ignoring limits, and getting into trouble with the law can also be an implication of this. Usually people either leave of their own accord or are brought into line before any of this takes place, but that's not always the case.
For the people who ignore limits there are other problems, as…
Patriot Act and current developments in the United States
In 2011, the PATIOT Sunsets Extension Act made possible the tracking of small businesses and corporate affairs that are on the territory of the United States. The applicability of this law can be seen in the most common working spaces and, thru this, the confidentiality of the information shared and traded via the Internet becomes a matter of the past. The Patriot Act is therefore an issue of concern and at the same time a matter of ensuring security for the population of the United States. However, it is important to consider the price in terms of privacy that both the average American as well as its international counterparts need to pay in order to obey by the Patriot Act and the necessity for safety.
There are several aspects to consider. The Internet as a means of communication, the privacy as…
Bier, William C.S.J. Privacy: A Vanishing Value? New York: Fordham University Press, 1980.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act. Cornell University Law School. N.d. 2008 http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002516-000-.html
Kim Zetter, "Few Companies Fight Patriot Act Gag Orders, FBI Admits" Wired Online, 2012, http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2012/05/nsl-challenges/
northern southern soldiers claim fighting "freedom" "liberty." 2 sources ( newspaper, journal, magazine, book legitimate website ). Works utilize source equally documented text listed properly a works cited page.
Passion during the Civil War
The American Civil War occurred between 1861 and 1865 and is largely considered the most destructive conflict in U.S. history, resulting in approximately one million military casualties and an inestimable number of civil victims. Much controversy still surrounds the nature of this conflict, as its determining causes are complex. Contemporary international perception may have placed a progressive, anti-slavery label on the whole affair, yet the basic fact remains that nineteenth century America was an increasingly inhomogeneous country and prone to blatant discrepancy.
This work is focused on providing an analysis of Southern and Northern perspectives from a justifying point-of-view, in order to form an outline of the opposing sides' motives. Both parties were strongly driven by…
Harrison, R. The Motives and Aims of the Soldiers of the South in the Civil War: Oration Delivered Before the United Confederate Veterans at Their Fourteenth Annual Reunion. Nashville: Order of the United Confederate Veterans. June 14, 1904, Volume 6
Tulloch, H. The debate on the American Civil War Era. New York: Manchester University Press, 1999
defense of your choices.
Qualitative research: Human trafficking in the voices of its victims
In the recent debate over illegal immigration, a crucial component of the issue is often forgotten, namely the persistence of human trafficking amongst the flow of illegal bodies across the nation's borders. According to the ICE (Immigrations and Customs Enforcement, "in its worst manifestation, human trafficking is akin to modern-day slavery. Victims pay to be illegally transported into the United States only to find themselves in the thrall of traffickers. They are forced into prostitution, involuntary labor and other forms of servitude to repay debts -- often entry in the United States. In certain cases, the victims are mere children. They find themselves surrounded by an unfamiliar culture and language without identification documents, fearing for their lives and the lives of their families" (Human trafficking, 2013, ICE). In other scenarios, the situation may be more ambiguous…
FOIPP Act supersedes all other acts unless the other act expressly provides that it or a provision of it applies despite the Act. Under Section 57, the burden of proof lies with the public body to demonstrate that they can or must block access to the information requested. If the clerk at the public body cannot find the documentation proving his claims of legislative override, then the records must be released.
In this case, there is nothing to respond to -- a generic claim that "there is a policy" does not meet the burden of proof requirements under Section 57. The clerk will be informed that they do not have a choice but to obey the ruling. If the public body wishes to address the matter further, it is the responsibility of the head of the public body, not the clerk, to make the claim, and the head still must…
philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.
What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…
Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from http://candst.tripod.com/jefflaw1.htm
Perkins gives us the reason one must never go back: sanity. These characters have issues in their lives but they certainly cannot sit still and wait for things to happen around them. The power of femininity did not advance because women remained timid; it gained momentum because women realized they were separate individuals capable of living full lives without the domineering presence of men. At the same time, they understood the importance of relationships and what they bring to life. They know both can exist without one overpowering the other. hile this does not sound like much of a revelation in today's world, it was a remarkable revelation around one hundred years ago when women were expected to be happy being mothers and wives.
Allen, Brooke. "The accomplishment of Edith harton." New Criterion, Sept 2001. Gale
Resource Database. Site Accessed April 13, 2011.
Chopin, Kate. "Regreat." American Literature…
Allen, Brooke. "The accomplishment of Edith Wharton." New Criterion, Sept 2001. Gale
Resource Database. Site Accessed April 13, 2011.
Chopin, Kate. "Regreat." American Literature Online. Site Accessed April 13, 2011.
Today's consumers act more en masse rather than as individuals, and so, marketing must show them why the "must" have the newest trendy items, or why they have to continue to need those items. Consumers still have personal choices, but they tend to shop for what is "hot" right now and making an item or service hot is what marketing is becoming. Today, people value things not for what they do, but what they say about them as consumers, and how they show they have "taste" and "class." Things are valued because they are expensive, rather than functional, and that is a very different side of marketing as well. Consumers are bound by expense today, and it is no wonder quality is becoming a thing of the past - perhaps it will end up being the real "luxury" in our consumerist society.
Needing the Unnecessary: The democratization of luxury."
Needing the Unnecessary: The democratization of luxury."
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
Accoding to the autho, the passage indicates that the authos of the Bible wote unde the inspiation of the Holy Spiit, but that they did not eceive exact dictation fom God. They wee inspied to wite as they wished, but the outcome was still detemined by God's ultimate will: "Fo the pophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they wee moved by the Holy Ghost." (2 Pete 1:21). In the same way, the wods of the pophets wee thei own, but the message behind these wods was inspied by God. This is the natue of the inteaction between God's will and human feedom in tems of the Bible.
In this way, Feinbeg uses the Bible to substantiate eveything he says about divine and human will, and I am theefoe convinced that his aguments ae supeio to those of Reichenbach…
references to God's sovereignty and omnipotence. Clearly, passages such as Psalm 115:2-3 indicates that God imposes no limitations upon his own power or knowledge even in the face of non-belief: "2 Why should the Gentiles say, / 'So where is their God' / 3 but our God is in heaven; / He does whatever He pleases." Psalm 139:16 states that God knows absolutely everything regarding the outcome of events: "...in Your book they all were written, / the days fashioned for me, / When as yet there were none of them."
Surely what Reichenbach attempts to prove is directly in contradiction to the above. In the light of this, therefore, I believe that Feinberg presents a much stronger biblical argument for the manifestation of human freedom and its interaction with God's will. The Bible contains no passages that indicate God's limitations; either self-imposed or otherwise. In contrast to Reichenbach, Feinberg accepts God's unlimited knowledge and power and basis his philosophical arguments upon this rather than attempting to contradict biblical truth. The latter author's argument is therefore stronger in biblical terms.
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…
Abortion." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 21 April 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion
Abortion debate." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 22 April 2007.
The first items addressed in this particular just society are the principles of liberty that shall apply to each individual as well as to the overall society. The first principle of liberty will be the right to an unlimited freedom of speech that will pertain to each and every person. This right will be sacrosanct and will be defended and upheld by all. Assuming that each individual will act in a just manner, this right should permeate throughout society and should be the one right that is held true and steadfast by all.
The second principle of liberty for the proposed just society is the freedom to choose whatever path the individual wishes to travel, as long as that path does not negatively impact others who have chosen different directions. The right to make decisions bears with it the right of responsibility for those decisions. If the individual makes…
A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971
Rights of Man (1791), reprinted by Citadel Press, 1948, with an introduction by Philip S. Foner
Matter of Choice or Conscience?
Motor vehicle accidents are the number one killer of America's youth. Sadly, taking 5 seconds to buckle a seat belt could have prevented such senseless accidents and saved thousands of lives. While no one disagrees that seat belts do indeed save lives, statistics show that while some people do wear seat belts religiously others only wear it when it seems important (i.e. long trips) and some never buckle up. Wearing a seat belt may be considered a personal choice as some contend, however, advocates of seat belt laws point to the billions of dollars that non-users of seat belts cost the rest of the population. Survey results reveal that while people generally favor seat belt laws, they do not support laws that are too invasive of ones personal privacy. Requiring citizens to buckle up is an invasion of ones personal choice, depending on…
Child Passenger Safety. Retrieved May 2, 2002 from National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Website: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/childps/
Gorman, Linda. Mandatory Seat Belt Laws Cause Dangerous Driving and Invade Privacy. The Independence Institute, volume 99, I. 30 Apr 1999.
Primary Seat Belt Laws Save Kids New Messages That Can Redefine the Debate. Retrieved May 1, 2002, from the National Safety Council Website: http://www.nsc.org/partners/primary.htm
New Seat Belt Law Could Prompt Abuses By Police. Retrieved April 28, 2002 from the American Civil Liberties Union Website: http://www.aclu.org/news/1999/w041399b.html
The right to choose
In her article "The ight to Choose? eally?," Kathryn Jean Lopez outlines a number of benefits to the Abortion Non-Discrimination Act (ANDA) and denigrates the viewpoints of the pro-abortion opponents to ANDA. As Lopez notes at the start of her article, ANDA was enacted to enable hospitals and other healthcare providers to not have to perform abortion against their will. Lopez's main argument is that the bill is necessary because otherwise, healthcare providers have no choice but to provide abortions, even when abortions are antithetical to their sensibility. She argues that by preventing life, abortions are an affront to the purpose of the hospital. Accordingly, Lopez contends that ANDA actually promotes freedom since it allows hospitals the autonomy to choose whether or not to perform abortions.
By stating that ANDA endorses freedom, Lopez erroneously privileges the healthcare provider over the patients themselves. The purpose…
Lopez, K.J. (Fall 2002). "The Right to Choose? Really?" The Human Life Review, 39-44.
Max Weber defined state as "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory whether that legitimacy derives from charisma, tradition, or law" (Hokim 2012). Weber held that domination of people being ruled by a ruler is an unavoidable political fact. His vision for democracy in Germany was a political marketplace where charismatic rulers are elected by winning votes in free competition, whether in struggle or not. He saw localized, public associational life as the breeding ground of charismatic rulers.
Weber suggested that social pluralism should be the sociocultural ground for political education of lay citizens, which requires an organized civil society. He also suggested that the political education should contain ethics in conviction and responsibility. The political ethics also involved value-freedom and value-relativism.
Under Weber's definition, North Korea under Kim Jong-il, after American invasion or Cambogia under the Khmer…
"Charisma." New World Encyclopedia. Apr 2, 2008. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Charisma (accessed Jan 26, 2013).
Hokim, S. "Max Weber." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. July 31, 2012. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/weber / (accessed Jan 25, 2013).
Norman, J. The world's enduring dictatiors: Kim Jong-il, North Korea. June 4, 2011. http://www.cbsnews.about.com/od/profilesofasianleaders/p/BioKimJongil.htm (accessed Jan 25, 2013).
totalitarism. 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/600435/totalitarism (accessed Jan 25, 2013).
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…
Bloom, Alexander and Breines, Wini, (Editors). "Takin' It to the Streets "u: A Sixties ?Reader. Third edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life?
New York and Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. Print.
Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. Sixth edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
11th Grade Froggybottom Class
The questions you asked me about have no easy answers. Philosophers, economists, revolutionaries, and social leaders have all been debating the answers for centuries, and as usual many of our politicians don't even know the first thing about the issues involved! Though the questions seem simple, they are actually rooted in the most basic questions of human existence: what is the "good life" and how can we live it? All the world's religions have tried to answer that question, and still no one knows the real answer. I can tell you my opinion, and I can tell you what famous thinkers and politicians have said, but in the end these are questions you need to figure out on you own. Think about them carefully, because your own personal answers will help you define your political and economic position wisely.
Your first question asked, "What is in…
However, there are other theories about what is the most important part of the public interests. Some people say what is important to the public is safety and well-being, and that if free will and property rights aren't providing this then the government needs to assure them. These theories might say that the government should set minimum standards for products and for employee safety, and that if it looks like important business are going to go bankrupt the government should help them so that they can continue to produce for the economy and provide jobs. The public good is defined in terms of job security and quality, and the economic welfare of companies and employees. This theory is in many ways older than free market theory -- even back in the days of the ancient Egyptians, the government set prices for grain and exchange, and subsidized and controlled farmer choices. In other ways, this theory is more modern. Minimum wage laws and other laws protecting employees came into recent existence because business was abusing workers with low wages and unsafe environments. Laws protecting product or service quality also became more common when reformers become upset with poor quality products (such as foods with poison in them, or radioactive alarm clocks, or quack doctors selling snake oil). The problem with trying to manage society in this way is that no government is so all-knowing that it can regulate every aspect of the market without error, and moreover a government which totally protects its citizens from their own choices essentially enslaves them. The benefit with this system, of course, is that it can protect people from their own stupidity and the selfishness of others.
Today, many people talk about how important it is to have a free market where the government doesn't interfere with business; at the same time most of these people do believe that the government should take some steps to protect the public welfare. There is no country today where a truly free market exists, and no country where the market is totally controlled for the good of the people. Deciding which part of the public welfare (whether that be freedom of choice for all or positive outcomes for most) is most important is very difficult, and a personal decision. Most people try to balance these two ideals in order to reach the overall ideal: the true happiness and welfare of society. If you want more information on free market and economic theory, John Kilcullen of Macquarie University has an excellent page about the subject at http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/Ockham/y67s26.html .
As this complicated first answer has probably shown you, the answer to the second question depends on your personal answer to the first question. I think I have already answered the first part of the question: "How can the free market, driven by greed and financial profits, ever lead to that goal?" The answer is that if all people are equally greedy and profit-oriented, then all people will essentially protect their own financial well-being and so all transactions will be beneficial in some way to both parties or else they would not proceed. If the government does not get involved, self-interest will guide actions to be mutually beneficial for all. The second part of your question, "Why is it good, and when is it appropriate, for government to stay out of the marketplace?" is simple. It is best for the government to stay out of business when the nature of the business relationships in question are such that all parties involved stand to profit in some way (either financially or by receiving products or services they need). For example, Presidential hopeful Kerry suggests allowing market forces
eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual. Thus, as adults and citizens the government should offer structure and guidance in a manner that is consistent with the social goals of the Enlightenment; namely allowing actualization without overly reducing individual decisions and actualization.
Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.
Barry, B. hy Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.
Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. eb. April 2013. .
Gay, P. The Enlightenment - the Science of Freedom. New York: .. Norton, 1996.
Porter, R. The Enlightenment. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2001.
Sharma, C. "Beyond Gaps and Imbalances." Public Administration…
Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.
Barry, B. Why Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.
Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. Web. April 2013. .
Suddenly I receive a Titian to hang on my wall -- a Greek bas-relief to stick over my chimney-piece." (James in: Phelan-Cox, 2004)
Through the analogies of alph, the reader is able to view the manner in which "male pleasure in spectatorship with interconnected with Western aesthetics generally." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) it is the argument of Laura Mulvey that the film of Hollywood is structured around "the voyeurism and scopopophilia of the male gaze by denying the existence of other viewing positions." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) James veritably denied other ways to view through his description of the scene "by consciously omitting Isabel's own perception of herself in that setting or any objective description of the scene that might include observations about alph." (Phelan-Cox, 2004)
VII. Portrait and the Implications
The title of this story is even misleading as noted by Phelan-Cox the word 'portrait' "implies that the novel is to be a…
Ascari, M. (nd) Three Aesthetes in Profile: Gilbert Osmond, Mark Ambient, and Gabriel Nash. RSA Journal 7.
Braden, HE (2011) Lily Bart and Isabel Archer: Women Free to Choose Lifestyle of Victims of Fate? University of New Orleans. 4 Aug 2011. Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.uno.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1247&context=td
Brown, B. (2001) Thing Theory. Critical Inquiry. Vo. 28, No. 1 Autumn 2001.
Gilmore, MT (1986) the Commodity World of the Portrait of a Lady. The New England Quarterly, Vo. 59, No. 1. Mar, 1986.
Global terrorism has changed the entire spectrum of tolerance in today's world. Highlighted by the events of 9/11 the facts that even the world's most powerful nation was not immune to the effects of terrorism brought home the fact that there was little defense to the acts of terrorists. The age of innocence in the United States had ended and the rest of the world waited to see how the United States would react (Schorow 2002).
Terrorism has been a part of the world framework for some time but in the United States it had been something that occurred somewhere else. It was not anything that those living within the borders of the United States had to be concerned with. Those types of problems existed elsewhere. In America everyone was safe: until 9/11. 9/11 forced Americans to look at terrorism in a different light and to examine the roots…
Blake, Michael. "Religion and Statecraft: Tolerance and Theocracy: How Liberal States Should Think of Religious States." Journal of International Affairs, Fall/Winter 2007: 1-17.
Stetson, Brad and Joseph G. Conti, The Truth about Tolerance: Pluralism, Diversity, and the Culture Wars. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2005.
Hinkson, John. "In the name of freedom: is the legacy of September 11 a global anti-liberal ascendancy?" Arena Magazine, February 1, 2002.
Hoodbhoy, Pervez. "The United States and Islam:toward perpetual war?(Views from Russia, Pakistan, Malaysia, and China." Social Research, December 22, 2005.
The general attitude and concern is that globalization will create the disintegration of society, and that regardless of the economic wealth that it will bring, globalization will have a negative effect on the everyone. odrik's intent was to provide a balanced look at these issues, but in the end, the book was decidedly anti-globalization, which leads to an anti-globalization slant in the Globalization eader.
Throughout the book, the authors provide subtle hints that they are biased against further globalization through their selection of material. However, it is not until Chapter VIII that the book demonstrates a truly biased perspective. When the authors address the issue of globalization and the role of religions, it is difficult to discount the bias that is present in the work. The first article that is presented was authored by Frank Lechner, "Global Fundamentalism." In this article, Lechner argues that fundamentalism is on the way out…
Lechner, F. & Boli, J. (2007). The Globalization Reader, 3rd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
he stance is, of course, preposterous. he solution to lessening poverty of course lies in providing more resources for development rather than encouraging abortion.
Similarly, some people justify the abortion of babies with disabilities on compassionate grounds. his reasoning is an extension of the now thoroughly discredited pseudo-science of eugenics that promoted the weeding out of the mentally retarded and feeble-minded populations. here is no 'compassion' involved in the killing of the most vulnerable sections of our population and the unborn child is quite obviously the most vulnerable. In fact, it is one of the cruelest acts imaginable. It is also misleading to suggest that such unborn babies with disabilities are 'unwanted.' he readiness of families to adopt such disabled children disproves the contention.
he most controversial legal issue facing the U.S. courts and the administration is the issue of 'partial birth abortion.' he procedure in which a baby's brain…
The most controversial legal issue facing the U.S. courts and the administration is the issue of 'partial birth abortion.' The procedure in which a baby's brain is 'literally sucked out' has been performed thousands of times in the country since abortion was legalized. The U.S. Congress passed the "partial-Birth ban Acts" in 1996 and 1997 but was vetoed by President Clinton. Eventually President Bush signed the Act into law in 2003. On appeal, the courts in California, Nebraska, and New York ruled that the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 is unconstitutional and a violation of the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade. The Act now heads to the U.S. Court of Appeals and is expected to eventually end up in the U.S. Supreme Court for a decision. New appointment of judges to the U.S. Supreme Court by the Bush administration in the coming days is, therefore, crucial to the decision on this issue and would be eagerly awaited by all those who support the right of life for the unborn babies.
Even the earliest abortions, such as the RU 486 abortions cannot be done until after six weeks of pregnancy
An example of a powerful group that supports abortion is the National Organization of omen. They do not see a fetus as a life and do not define it as such. Conservatives have many supporters that respect life and believe that it begins at conception. Many religious organizations support those that are pro-life. Pro-life supporters often come to this conclusion because of their moral convictions. They cannot justify taking a life and many believe that life begins at conception. Many would only believe that abortion is acceptable only if the mother's life is in danger or in severe cases of rape.
The issue of choice could be radically changed if McCain wins the presidency and is successful in overturning Roe v. ade. Both sides of the political fence can look into the future and see something very good happening or something very bad happening. This is why the presidential candidate…
Barack Obama: Change We Can Believe in." Barack Obama Online. Site Accessed September 14, 2008. http://www.johnmccain.com
Bardes, Barbara. American Government and Politics Today. Belmot: Thomson/Wadsworth. 2004.
Charlie Gibson interview GOP vice Presidential Candidate Sarah Palin." Site Accessed September 14, 2008. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/Vote2008/Story?id=5795641&page=7
McCain for President." John McCain Online. Site Accessed September 14, 2008.
Johnson repeated the phase two hundred years later of women preaching (Woolf 774).
Were Woolf to unequivocally state, "Men used to think that women can't act or speak," and then moved on to her next thought, then we hardly would be convinced by her argument. In order to be fully convinced, we rely on that traditional rhetorical supplement known as quotation.
The invention of a talented sister for Shakespeare is one of Woolf's greatest rhetorical inventions. Judith Shakespeare becomes a metaphor not merely for the role of woman in society during Shakespeare's time, but for the plight of all women in general, and all women artists in particular - including, in both categories, Woolf herself.
Finally, the tone of Woolf's essay sweeps us up into her argument from the very beginning and forces us to engage with the issues at hand. Woolf's tone is established at the conclusion of the…
Islamic government may be defined therefore as the rule of divine law over men."(Khomeini, 29) God is the true authority in the state, and the sole legislative power: "In Islam the legislative power and the competence to establish laws belongs exclusively to God Almighty."(Khomeini, 30) it is obvious therefore that Khomeini believes in the realization of a Platonic, almost utopian republic in which everything should be ruled only on the principle of divine absolute justice. In this idealist view, the state is a reflection of the divine order. The Islamic republic endeavors to make absolute knowledge and absolute truth a form of government. Thus, the definition of the Islamic republic resembles that of the Platonic republic much more than the estern correspondent. As Khomeini himself notes, the main difference between the estern republic and the Islamic one is that the estern government is based on human social rights, while the…
Khomeini, Imam. The Governance of the Jurist. Islamic Government. http://www.iranchamber.com/history/rkhomeini/books/velayat_faqeeh.pdf
Plato. The Republic. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
consent and affirming the clients freedom of choice. The importance of this topic in relation to the professional counseling arena will be revealed in this examination as the important…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Jean Paul Sartre and Simone De Beauvoir on Freedom, Being-for-Others, And Sartrean Despair Simone de Beauvoir and JP Sartre were two famous existentialists that converged and diverged on various…Read Full Paper ❯
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms. "In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided…Read Full Paper ❯
Conceptions of American Freedom Freedom is an extremely important aspect of American culture, history, and identity. The European settlers that sailed to what would later become the United States…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
e. The lack of attachment to other people and things) is beneficial from an individual perspective, but damaging for society as a whole because it hinders advancement. In reality…Read Full Paper ❯
TAXATION IS THEFT? When Sam the mugger, decides to rob you of your valuable goods or hard earned money at gunpoint, you instantly know what the act is called:…Read Full Paper ❯
" Jim did tell his mom though that he was going to continue working six days a week, and saving as close to three quarters of his take-home pay…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Freedom speech guarantees freedom extend disturbing funeral (Armed Forces funerals) support claim, acknowledge claim opponent, find common ground . There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of freedom…Read Full Paper ❯
Mottern (2008) writes that Dr. William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Look at any communist regime in the last 100 years, where religion is considered an opiate of the masses. The government becomes god in that circumstance, and can get…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
" Western world it appears is slightly alienated from the spiritual world that most people in the east like Hindus take for granted. For an average person in the…Read Full Paper ❯
Mrs. Peters shows this belief when she says, "But Mrs. Hale, the law is the law." (Glaspell, 16.) Many of the laws that govern society are based on maintaining…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Journalism
Communication Islamic Countries Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but…Read Full Paper ❯
(Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner, 2011). Handling controversial social studies topics in the classroom setting is often not an easy undertaking. In the words of Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
I remember making that decision to push her, as awful as it might seem. I do not know what possessed me to want to push her, but I know…Read Full Paper ❯
History has shown that freedom is not inherently a part of society, rather it is something fought hard for and won. When countries fight for freedom, when people rise…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Thus, free will -- as demonstrated by moral choice -- is in actuality a series of discrete and connected choices, each dependent on those preceding it as they shape…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Due to the forgiveness that is extended to every Christian by their faith in Christ as pronounced in the New Testament, Luther argues, all Christians are free to act…Read Full Paper ❯
If we assume that 1) and 2) are true, then hard determinism is valid. Free will then is only an illusion that man perceives as a result of the…Read Full Paper ❯
I set up my practice at once. So many maladies among citizens of this town were directly related to the spiritual imbalance in the forest. Little puk-wudgees caused much…Read Full Paper ❯
So, the rightness of the claim that the CIA needed more money cannot be supported by the fruition of terrorist attacks. Hannity moves on into a discussion regarding immigration…Read Full Paper ❯
"In eloved, Morrison allows the reader to share the legacy of slavery as the characters Sethe, Paul D, and Denver attempt to make a new life in freedom. However,…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
However, in principle, the rules and laws of society merely ensure our freedom from unwanted behavior of others. In many cases, in fact, the particular rules themselves are purely…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Gender Equity The Women's Freedom Network, the Educational Equity Center and the AAUW all agree on one thing. They agree that women have made great strides in the educational…Read Full Paper ❯
freedom of association refers to the freedom to join a union or association without fear of outside interference. Australia does not guarantee freedom of association in her Constitution. As…Read Full Paper ❯
The Positive and Negative Effects of Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K. Introduction In essence, social media in the UK provides an amazing platform for…Read Full Paper ❯
Nevertheless, the Thalberg school district maintained that her appearance on the show and participation in the contest exposed her students to inappropriate subject matter, notwithstanding the fact that it…Read Full Paper ❯
The choice cannot be repudiated or duplicated, but one makes the choice without foreknowledge, almost as if blindly. After making the selection, the traveler in Frost's poem says, "Yet…Read Full Paper ❯
The Nature of Freedom in the 18th and 19th Centuries 1 The evidence shows that the nature of freedom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was considered a natural…Read Full Paper ❯
professional H standpoint on the Employee Free Choice Act for the consideration of a local U.S. representative. Message to epresentative This document contains the professional opinion of highly qualified…Read Full Paper ❯
Mill agrees that the mischief a person does to himself can affect others, and he finds that it is right to bring to bear moral disapprobation, henever there is…Read Full Paper ❯
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open…Read Full Paper ❯
One thing my father has taught me since I was a little boy is always to look neat and clean, hold my head up high, and walk with purpose,…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Given the combination product features, pricing, and sometimes, as Leon mentions, positioning statements, businesses could determine which product features, price, and positioning statement consumers will prefer the most. Ultimately,…Read Full Paper ❯
Moreover, all psychological problems are based on dysfunctional relationships; therefore, change must occur in the arena of personal connections (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). g. What is the role…Read Full Paper ❯
This is only one of the implications that individuals are facing when it comes to these kinds of limits. Some people choose to ignore the limits that are placed…Read Full Paper ❯
Patriot Act and current developments in the United States In 2011, the PATIOT Sunsets Extension Act made possible the tracking of small businesses and corporate affairs that are on…Read Full Paper ❯
northern southern soldiers claim fighting "freedom" "liberty." 2 sources ( newspaper, journal, magazine, book legitimate website ). Works utilize source equally documented text listed properly a works cited page.…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
defense of your choices. Qualitative research: Human trafficking in the voices of its victims In the recent debate over illegal immigration, a crucial component of the issue is often…Read Full Paper ❯
FOIPP Act supersedes all other acts unless the other act expressly provides that it or a provision of it applies despite the Act. Under Section 57, the burden of…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton.…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Perkins gives us the reason one must never go back: sanity. These characters have issues in their lives but they certainly cannot sit still and wait for things to…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Today's consumers act more en masse rather than as individuals, and so, marketing must show them why the "must" have the newest trendy items, or why they have to…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Abortion
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Accoding to the autho, the passage indicates that the authos of the Bible wote unde the inspiation of the Holy Spiit, but that they did not eceive exact dictation…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Abortion
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but…Read Full Paper ❯
Society The first items addressed in this particular just society are the principles of liberty that shall apply to each individual as well as to the overall society. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Seatbelt Laws: Matter of Choice or Conscience? Motor vehicle accidents are the number one killer of America's youth. Sadly, taking 5 seconds to buckle a seat belt could have…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Abortion
Women's Issues The right to choose In her article "The ight to Choose? eally?," Kathryn Jean Lopez outlines a number of benefits to the Abortion Non-Discrimination Act (ANDA) and…Read Full Paper ❯
Max Weber defined state as "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory whether that legitimacy derives from…Read Full Paper ❯
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug…Read Full Paper ❯
11th Grade Froggybottom Class The questions you asked me about have no easy answers. Philosophers, economists, revolutionaries, and social leaders have all been debating the answers for centuries, and…Read Full Paper ❯
eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual.…Read Full Paper ❯
Suddenly I receive a Titian to hang on my wall -- a Greek bas-relief to stick over my chimney-piece." (James in: Phelan-Cox, 2004) Through the analogies of alph, the…Read Full Paper ❯
Tolerance Global terrorism has changed the entire spectrum of tolerance in today's world. Highlighted by the events of 9/11 the facts that even the world's most powerful nation was…Read Full Paper ❯
The general attitude and concern is that globalization will create the disintegration of society, and that regardless of the economic wealth that it will bring, globalization will have a…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Abortion
he stance is, of course, preposterous. he solution to lessening poverty of course lies in providing more resources for development rather than encouraging abortion. Similarly, some people justify the…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Abortion
An example of a powerful group that supports abortion is the National Organization of omen. They do not see a fetus as a life and do not define it…Read Full Paper ❯
Johnson repeated the phase two hundred years later of women preaching (Woolf 774). Were Woolf to unequivocally state, "Men used to think that women can't act or speak," and…Read Full Paper ❯
Islamic government may be defined therefore as the rule of divine law over men."(Khomeini, 29) God is the true authority in the state, and the sole legislative power: "In…Read Full Paper ❯