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French and Indian War
Cultural Analysis of French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is considered to be part of Seven Years War that took place from 1756 till 1763. It is one of the most fierce and bloodiest battles that ever took place and in which thousands of people were killed. Participants of the war included French, Indians and ritish. It is believed that the war was fought in order to gain control over North America and clash over colonies between France and England over power and wealth.
The French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is considered to be part of Seven Years War that took place from 1756 till 1763. It is one of the most fierce and bloodiest battles that ever took place and in which thousands of people were killed. Participants of the war included French, Indians and ritish. It is…
Anderson, Fred (2000). Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. New York: Knopf.
Anderson, Fred (2005). The War that Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War. New York: Viking.
Axtell, James. The Invasion Within. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Brumwell, Stephen (2006). Redcoats: The British Soldier and War in the Americas, 1755-1763. Cambridge University Press.
French Revolution and its Enlightenment ideas about nationalism, universal rights and equal citizenship for all was extremely influential at the time it occurred, and was widely studied and imitated afterwards. Liberals and radicals in Europe, and increasingly the rest of the world, always recognized that the French Revolution was somehow uniquely theirs, especially in its attempt to end feudalism, state-supported churches, and the entrenched privileges of monarchs and aristocracies. It led to an expansion of commerce, industry, science and public education, and also created a new class of small farmers who owned land (Furet 35). It established the idea for the first time that women, the lower classes and religious and ethnic minorities should have equal right under the law, and that slavery and serfdom should be abolished forever. Conservatives who opposed the French Revolution, especially supporters of the monarchy and the Catholic Church, continued to oppose it throughout the…
Balibar, Etienne and Immanuel Wallerstein. Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities. Verso, 1991.
Barber, K.M. "The Idea of a Declaration of Rights" in G. Kates (Ed). The French Revolution: Recent Debates and New Controversies. Routledge, 1998: 91-142.
Freeman, M.A. Human Rights: An Interdisciplinary Approach, 2nd Edition. Polity Press, 2011.
Furet, Francois. "The French Revolution Revisited" in Kates: 71-90.
French Foreign Legion l. Jones
The French Foreign Legion
For many, the French Foreign Legion evokes images of adventure, perhaps men traipsing over sand dunes in khaki knickers, and flapped white hats -- tough, and a bit, shall we say, unorthodox in a mercenary kind of way. However, the French Foreign Legion was, and continues to be, a legitimate fighting force, unique to France and the French experience, while still capturing the collective imagination of the world. Yet, the Legion's colonial legacy has in the past, and continues in the present, to complicate other nation's attitudes about the force. Not only does this effect the historical perception of the organization, but its legitimacy in current world affairs.
The Legion was founded in the year 1831 by King Louis Philippe. Although, without question, the Legion is patently French in its ideology, loyalty, and outlook, it is actually an international band of…
Embassy of France in the United States. "The French Foreign Legion Code of Honor." 2001. Retrieved from Web site on April 13, 2004 http://www.info-france-usa.org/atoz/legion/code.asp
Gilbert, Nils. "The French Foreign Legion. 2000. Retrieved from Web site on April 13, 2004 http://mitglied.lycos.de/DSA_00_1/doku4/thefrenchlegion.dwt
Jones, Colin. "The Conflict in Vietnam. Website. 1998. Retrieved from Web site on April 13, 2004 http://8thwood.com/conflict_in_vietnam.htm
Mail and Guardian Online. "Ivory Coast." 10 February 2003. Retrieved from Web site on April 13, 2004 http://www.africanconflict.org/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=620
Quoting Edith Cresson, the first female Prime Minister of France, the difference is that "French men and women liked and needed each other." At least we may be happy that feminism and freedom of women is more in France than at anywhere else because the contrast with Anglo-Saxon attitudes is noteworthy and this shows that the French women do not see themselves as generically the victims of men. (McIntyre, 1996) on the other hand the harassment laws in France are far stricter than other countries. This information is vital for understanding why the problem of a simple thing like a head scarf made mandatory for women creates a furor. Can such a situation be overcome?
2. Is France capable of overcoming this rigidity, or is it doomed to struggle unsuccessfully with these challenges?
There are some answers to this question one of them being the possibility of increasing the employment…
Bell, J. Bowyer; Horowitz, Irving Louis. (1979) "Assassin: theory and practice of political violence." Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Boltho, Andrea (2001). "Economic Policy in France and Italy since the War: Different
Stances, Different Outcomes?" Journal of Economic Issues, vol. 35, no. 3, pp: 712-715.
Boucher, Eric Le. (2004) "Les New Miserables." Foreign Policy, vol. 140, no. 1, pp: 81-
In conclusion, the French evolution introduced not only in France but the entire western world to the concept of political revolution at the hands of the lower classes. It also provided some hard-earned lessons on what exactly makes up a democracy where all citizens are treated fairly and equally. In addition, the revolution brought to light the idea that a nation such as France is constructed of more than just citizens loyal or disloyal to a particular monarchy, for it is in reality a social system where all the people must be free to choose their own destinies.
Of course, many scholars have taken on the question as to whether the French evolution could have been prevented, but due to the conditions within France before the outbreak of revolt, it is clear that such a thing was impossible. Undoubtedly, the monarchy of Louis XVI was greatly responsible for the revolution…
Forsyth, Murray. (1987), Reason and revolution: The political thought of Abbe Sieyes, Leicester University Press, New York.
Gershoy, Leo. (1957), the era of the french revolution: 1789-1799, Van Nostrand, New York.
Hunt, Lynn. (1984), Politics, culture and class in the french revolution, Longman, London.
Lefbvre, Georges. (1969), the french revolution: From 1793 to 1799, Routledge & Kegan Paul, New York.
Lawrence iver. Then there are basilicas, museums, and the Ice Hotel plus countless dining, wining and shopping opportunities. When you factor in the day trips to local ski resorts, you can have an unrivaled city-ski break" (the Mail on Sunday, 2006).
The educational system in Quebec is once again the result of cultural interactions between the French and the English, but the most significant part was played by the Americans, who left an impressive mark onto the Canadian education. "The evolution of the French Canadian college is not unlike that of the American" (Charlemagne Bracq, 1924, p. 296) foreign manager arriving in the Quebec Province would be presented with an opportunity to further develop his studies within highly specialized scholarly institutions, teaching in both French and English. The region also offers educational programs especially designed for the immigrants in the country.
Quebec is internationally recognized as a center of education.…
Charlemagne Bracq, J., the Evolution of French Canada, the Macmillan Company, 1924
Mcconaghy, T., a Blueprint for Restructured Education in Quebec, Phi Delta Kappan, Volume 78, 1996
Nuechterlein, J., Oh, Canda, First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, Number 75, August- September 1997
Immigration Quebec, Official Website of the Government of Quebec, http://www.immigration-quebec.gouv.qc.calastaccessed on April 7, 2008
French-English elations in Canada
In the 20th century, Canada has two significant relationships in foreign policy -- one with the UK and one with the U.S.A. The UK essentially set Canada's foreign policy "during the decades following Confederation" -- a fact which tested Canadian loyalty and Canadian unity (since it was, number one, a policy that meant to look out for the best interests of the UK). In the latter half of the 20th century, however, French-English relations in Canada experienced a very serious strain. This paper will analyze and discuss that strain, showing how it came about and what it entails.
While at the beginning of the 20th century, the Canadian census reported that almost 90% of all Canadian peoples were of French or British heritage, the complete emphasis of foreign policy upon British inheritance certainly set the tone for the straining of French-English relations in Canada. This was…
"Challenges and Opportunities." (n.d.). Canadian Studies. Retrieved from http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/history30/fram5_10.html
"External Forces and Domestic Realities." (n.d.). Canadian Studies. Retrieved from http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/history30/fram3_4.html
9 for example, the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, formed through the union of an earlier society of priests of the Holy Spirit (founded by Claude-Francois Poullart des Places) and the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (founded by Francois-Marie-Paul Libermann in 1841), was influenced by the Sulpician and Eudist transmission of the French School through Libermann (1802-50), who was trained at St. Sulpice and was formed by the Olierian and Eudist spiritualities. Libermann is representative of this wider, more dispersed transmission of the French School. His independence from it is great, and his charisma quite original, stressing especially the active apostolate, but still believes in the same principles of Christocentrism and Marian piety of the founding mystics. This more diffuse "Berullianism" could be applied to the numerous priests, nuns, brothers, seminarians, students, and so forth, who have come under the influence of the religious families. Viewed in this…
Daniel a. Helminiak: Catholicism's Spiritual Limbo: A Shift in "Incarnational" Spirituality http://www.spiritualitytoday.org/spir2day/873944helminiak.html
Bernard Tenailleau, "Father Libermann's Spirituality," Spiritans Today 4 (1985): 49-76
Jordan Aumann, Christian Spirituality in the Catholic Tradition (San Francisco: Ignatius, 1985), p. 218.
The bourgeoisie was about to grow as commerce increased and the industrial revolution had a larger and larger influence.
Appreciation of the individual was a far stronger trend in the French Revolution than class (Furet, 1989). Instead of class struggle and growing communist ideas, the French Revolution was arguably most influenced by the Enlightenment, particularly as expressed by Rousseau (Censer, 2003). Some historians view industry and commerce as being the strongest social influence at the time, as the middle class grew, industry expanded -- especially printing, which promoted the exchange of ideas and new importance for free speech, and the growth of commerce (Censer, 2003) more than social movements. This increased importance of the individual was also reflected in the desire to have more equitable access to the courts. The influence of seeing individuals as important, no matter what their class, is a pattern that exists throughout the events of…
Barker, Nancy N. 1993. "Let them eat cake': the mythical Marie Antoinette and the French Revolution." Historian, Summer.
Censer, Jack R. 2003. "Amalgamating the social in the French Revolution - Social History and Standard Topics."
Journal of Social History, Fall.
Crubaugh, Anthony. 2000. "Local Justice and Rural Society in the French Revolution." Journal of Social History, Winter.
These and other devices combine to give the sense of a film as a kind of assemblage - different bits of the material world put together in a particular way." (BFI, 1) The moment of silence is famously divergent from the formula of sound presentation. By cutting the soundtrack altogether, Godard boldly pulls back the curtain on the process, making a very clear mechanical maneuver with a poignant emotional impact on the viewer. The moment of silence is oddly deafening, with nothing but the suspended expressions on the characters and the movements around them suggesting nothing in the way of an actual experience, with such silence in a busy cafe being impossible. Instead, the experience is purely emotional, with the tension of this silence weighing heavily on the viewer. Ultimately, the impact is a surprising lack of conscientiousness for the viewer as to the audio device engaged. Instead, the connection…
Ankeny, J. (2008). Alain Resnais. The New York Times.
British Film Institute (BFI). (2007). Paris Match: Godard and Cahiers. Sight & Sound.
Brody, R. (2008). Everything Is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard. Metropolitan Books.
Douchet, J. & Bononno, R. (1999). The French New Wave. D.A.P./Distibuted Art Publishers, Inc.
Django Reinhart & Stephane Grappelli
Racine -- Phedre, Corneille -- Le Cid, Moliere -- Tartuffe
Moulin Rouge, Folies Bergeres
Carmen -- Bizet
Orphee en enfers -- Offenbach
Pierre Beauchamp recorded the first five classic feet positions of ballet
We watch this to see what a corporate American remake of a French story might look like. We don't learn much from watching this film, at least nothing that would not be learned by reading the original work by Dumas. An open-ended question like "what kind of questions are raised…" is absurd. Any one human being could ask a million different types of questions about this film. The prompt really needs to be…
Citizens known as sans-culottes or peasants in the countryside, their role in fueling the French Revolution is inestimable. However, it is quite important to emphasize throughout the paper the areas and periods of the Revolution where they helped trigger events and differentiate these periods from those where they were used as a manipulative mass by the political factions that were leading the country. Less evident for peasants, the manipulation of the sans-culottes into reaching the political desiderates and eliminating the political competition is quite obvious. Further more, it is often the case that the sans-culottes and the people were used as sympathetic forms of defense, as is the case for Danton, and that they sustained governmental changes, as is the case for the proclamation of the Republic and Robespierre's downfall.
In order to approach and discuss the presence and import of the people during the French Revolution, we…
1. Andress, David. "Dismantling the 'Revolutionary Crowd: collective violence and Parisian politics 1789-1791." Lecture at the University of Portsmouth
2. Schama, Simon. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution (New York; Alfred A. Knopf, 1992)
3. Hibbert, Christopher. The Days of the French Revolution (New York; William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1980)
French Colonization: The Eurocentric Perspective vs. The Revisionist perspective
Colonization takes place when some people staunchly believe that the culture they are a part of and the lifestyle they follow is better, beneficial and therefore must be adopted by those that have a foreign feeling towards theirs. As Some comments in his magnum opus, Of ater and the Spirit, while explaining what happens under 'colonization',
Colonization begins from a feeling of superiority in estern, in this case exclusively European, countries; they believe in their right to own the land inhabited by others. A secondary but nonetheless important assumption under colonialism is the belief that the European culture is better, more productive and beneficial to its members. Hence it is justified in the minds of the colonizers that they enter a foreign land, displace the indigenous peoples from their homes and strip them of their cultures. Despite the fact that these…
Sullivan H. Should We Seek Truth in Some's Magic? Retrieved September 19, 2003 at http://dickinsg.intrasun.tcnj.edu/diaspora/heatherwater.html
French Colonization. Retrieved September 19, 2003 at http://www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/IDOT/idot3.htm
Wood M.E., Against the Current.
Athar S. Reflections of an American Muslim. Retrieved September 20, 2003 at http://islam-usa.com/r19.html
Symbolism first developed in poetry, where it spawned free verse. Forefathers included the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Rimbaud; practitioners included Laforgue, Moreas, and Regnier. The Swiss artist Arnold Becklin is perhaps the most well-known Symbolist painter; his pictures are like allegories without keys, drenched in melancholy and mystery. Other artists working in this vein include Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. The Surrealists drew heavily on the Symbolists later on.
Catalan masters played a major role in the development of 20th Century modern art in many fields. For example, modernism expressed by Gaudi, Rusinol, Gimeno, Camarasa, Picasso, Nonell or Miro epitomized the efforts of the Catalan people. Still, most of them expressed their talents outside Spain in Paris where many of them lived and worked before going home to continue their expression. Like anyone honing a craft, they needed a foundation of knowledge for their art and Paris offered…
2000. Catalan Masters. Available at http://www.artcult.com/na125.html" http://www.artcult.com/na125.html. Accessed on 9 January 2005.
2002. Notes on Picasso: Important Terms, People, and Events. Available at http://www.tamu.edu/mocl/picasso/archives/2002/opparch02-281.html . Accessed January 2005.
Art Nouveau in Catalonia. Available at http://www.gaudialigaudi.com/A0003.htm;. Accessed 9 January 2005.
Catalan Painting. Available at http://www.mnac.es/eng/dinou/s6.htm . Accessed January 2005.
There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.
The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…
Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French
Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International
History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign
Karel Reisz' 1981 motion picture The French Lieutenant's Woman is based on the novel and the director also seems to be appreciative in regard to postmodernism and existentialism when considering the elements that he introduces in the film. Reisz created his film by designing a story within a story as he presents viewers with an account involving the actors playing Victorian characters. The director is not apparently concerned about criticizing a Victorian society, as he apparently wants audiences to think about how dilemmas present in the nineteenth century could also emerge in the 1980s. Reisz was well aware that he needed to address existentialism in his film, and he knew that he needed to do so by combining concepts contemporary to him and elements originating in Victorian England.
While Fowles used the narrator's voice with the purpose of intervening at different moments in the novel, Reisz has characters in the…
Lynn Dodson, Mary, "The French Lieutenant's Woman: Pinter and Reisz's Adaptation of JohnFowles's Adaptation," Literature/Film Quarterly 26.4 (1998)
Mahmoud, Fowles, " Mary Lynn Dodson, "The French Lieutenant's Woman," Random House, 2010.
Salami, Mahmoud, "John Fowles's fiction and the poetics of postmodernism," Associated University Presse, 1992
Dir. Reisz, Karel, The French Lieutenant's Woman. United Artists, 1981.
The Japanese have learned how to combine the best of both worlds.
Decorum is another important aspect of pastry making. The aesthetics of French pastries sometimes is more important than the actual taste. Japanese pastry chefs have come to understand this and have produced some modern marvels and master pastry chefs. Chief among them is Sadaharu Aoki who is well-known in both Japan and France. His pastries tend to be much sweeter than traditional Japanese pastries, but it is mainly his artistic flavor in creating beautiful looking pastry that has won him so much acclaim within the pastry world. The key to "fusion" pastry is that they are economical. French pastries made by famous pastry chefs are aesthetically pleasing but are not only expensive, but often glazed to provide shape and texture that makes it extremely hard to eat. Japanese pastries made with the French techniques are much more economical…
French Quebec Nationalism
A major turning point in the history of Canada was the fall of Quebec which resulted in the transformation of a French colony into a ritish colony. Had it not happened, English would never have become the first language of the country. The battle of Quebec was one of the numerous wars fought between the ritish and the French over fur and land during the 18th century. The fall of Quebec ensured the control and domination of ritish in major parts of North America. New ideas were brought forward by new generations who came in power and redefined the political scenario of the province. The Quebec Act was drafted by the ritish government which motivated the growth of nationalism in Quebec and since then, the nationalist movement has remained powerful and dominated the politics of the province.
Troubles in Manitoba
In 1870, the ritish government introduced the…
Belanger, D. (2004). Henri Bourassa (1868-1953). Informally published manuscript, Department of History, McGill University, Montreal, QC. Retrieved from http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/bios/henribourassabio.htm
Crunican, P.E. (2012). Manitoba schools question. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/manitoba-schools-question
Gall, G.L. (2012). Quebec referendum (1995). Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/quebec-referendum-1995
Rene Levesque. (2012). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/337886/Rene-Levesque
French and the ritish were both experienced colonial masters. Why do you believe the French essentially failed to maintain order and control whereas the ritish maintained control? What were the differences in their adversaries? What were the most and least effective components of the French response?
In contrast to the ritish experience in its colony of Malay, the French faced a relatively organized and unified force in French Indo-China. The French attempts to install a 'puppet' leader were a miserable failure and he had little popular support. Thus "France was less successful in Indochina…unlike the ritish in Malay…the French faced an opponent that had a secure neighboring base."[footnoteRef:1] The French, also unlike the ritish, were spread over a wide territorial area in Indochina. The French leadership was vulnerable to attack, particularly upon their communications systems, and while the French had advanced weaponry like napalm, the road system was poor, making…
Black, Jeremy. War Since 1945. London: Reaktion Books, 2005.
Carver, Michael. War Since 1945. Dublin: The Ashfield Press, 1990.
French associate their country with a geometrical shape.
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and Eastern France
The South (also known as the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and eastern France
The south (the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…
As in every decisive point of war, so I have come about once more to add to the glory of the French Empire. The Grande Armee is ready for battle, and we are to cross Neman shortly on the morrow. Poland must not fall to the Russians, and if needs be, we shall show the Russian emperor our true force; the force of the French army in her magnificent glory.
No other empire could have hoped to grow as largely as France, not Alexander the Great, not even Caesar's Roman Empire. No, it shall be a glorified and united Europe, and I shall see my reforms through. No ancient imperial order should stand in the way of revolution. Certainly Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette fared the worst for their mistreatment of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror. And if I have to fight…
French geography help to broaden and deepening your knowledge of France? Does learning geography help to change preconceived notions or stereotypes about France and the French people? What in your view is a good way to learn about a country's geography?
Have you ever stopped to wonder if your geographic origins have affected how you think about yourself?
For example, I have always noticed that I sound a lot like the people who grew up in my town, but if I go 100 mles south or north, I no longer quite fit in. If I go further than that, I sometimes sound foreign to people aoround me. In 1977, I went from my home town of York to Portsmouth on the south coast of England. I moved about 300 miles from the north to the south. During try-outs for the volleyball team, one of the coaches, hearing me speak, asked…
French literature? (Pick as many as you think are correct)
Songs sung by traveling minstrels (troubadours) and entertainers and jesters (jongleurs)
Oral histories evoking the exploits of saints and kings
Long verse poems telling the stories of heroes like Charlemagne, knights and ladies and their confrontations with giants, monsters, and the supernatural world
The Renaissance - pick out which of the following elements characterize the changes and innovations of the Renaissance era in France - the late 15th century to the early 17th century.
An interest and celebration of the arts and thinking of ancient Greece and Rome
An attraction to humanism - a view of the world where individual choices direct one's actions more so than religious conviction
Royal support for music, architecture, and art
The bubonic plague
The Hundred Years War
Which of the following were important Renaissance writers?…
Films and Directors of the French New Wave Movement
Discuss the male/female relationship in the Umbrellas of Cherbourg, My Night at Maud's, Le boucher Shoot the Piano Player regards to the Nouvelle Vague.
La Nouvelle Vague, or the "New Wave," is a term given by film critics in the late 1950's to a cluster of French filmmakers who began a movement that rejected classical cinema to introduce new perspectives of romantic youthfulness. hey also broke with traditional models to address political or social themes with refreshed images and dialogue. Additionally, they believed that cinema could discover the mysterious often un-discussed facets of human experiences. hese fresh ideas were especially moving when filming the male/female relationships as seen in "he Umbrellas of Cherbourg," "My Night at Maud's," "Le Boucher" and "Shoot the Piano Player."
he Umbrellas of Cherbourg
he Umbrellas of Cherbourg, directed by Jacques Demy, portrays traditional male and female…
This low budget film did not realize the success at the box office of "400 blows," but it did impress the critics. Some call, "Shoot the Piano Player" Truffaut's masterpiece. His artistry in this film out shines that of Godard's "Breathless," in the sense that it did not rely on star appeal but tells a multi-level story with amazing clarity and conviction. In addition, his consistency of quality is impeccable. From the opening sequence to the last, the story remains poignant. The use of intensity, humor, unpredictability, flashbacks, superior acting, and vivid use of music keeps the viewer attentive. Critics note that "Shoot the Piano Player," is endearing due to the unassuming honesty seen in the main character. This is, perhaps, on of Truffaut's greatest gifts.
In 1965 Godard produced "Pierrot le fou." It is a story of a man who escapes his predictable life and the Mediterranean with the lovely Marianne. All is well until Marianne, like Charlie's brother, is being chased by hit-men. And, following the theme of Breathless, the two lead an unconventional life on the lam. The couple, played by Belmondo and Karina, is dynamic and definitely have chemistry but are too contemporary and rule-breaking to be committed in any meaningful way. The lines between them are unreal and artistic as seen in this exchange, "Why do you look so sad? Because you speak to me in words and I look at you with feelings." As in Breathless, Godard chooses removed long-shots of action sequences but offers more substance in this plot. Perhaps because the main characters are older, their love seems more tortured than teasing. Similar to "400 Blows," Godard plays keep away with the realization of happiness, though his characters are dealing with a wider range of emotion and thought.
[Note: Could add personal thoughts as a conclusion]
Formerly known as Zaire, the Democratic Republic of Congo gained its independence from Belgium in June of 1960. Education standards have risen since the nation became independent, but political strife and an ongoing civil war continue to plague the Democratic Republic of Congo, which is actually run as a dictatorship. Since 1998, civil war has caused poverty, disenfranchisement, and a general low standard of living. Hardest hit are the women in society, who have traditionally been subordinated to their male counterparts. Although suffrage is universal and women maintain certain political and economic rights, women are still viewed and treated as secondary citizens. One of the most notable manifestations of the gender gap is in the educational system. In the total population, 77.3% of people over the age of 15 are literate in one of the major languages (French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba), but only 67.7% of females over the age…
By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).
Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…
Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De
Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.
Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
A few days later the judge (Jean-Jacques Gomez) ordered Yahoo to "take all measure of a nature to dissuade and to render impossible all consultation…of the online sale of Nazi objects…or any other site or service that constitutes an apology of Nazism or a contestation of Nazi crimes" (p. 138).
The response from Yahoo co-founder Jerry Yang was that the French court does not have jurisdiction over an American company; "Asking us to filter access to our content according to the nationality of an internaut is very naive" (p. 138). Basically Yang was saying we won't obey your order and become a censor. The worst part of this for Yahoo was the media exposure; headlines had "Yahoo" and "Nazi" in the same sentence was a public relations disaster for Yahoo. hen Yahoo decided to remove all Nazi-related materials (except anti-Nazi items) from its pages that still didn't put the controversy…
Le Menestrel, Marc, Hunter, Mark, and de Bettignies, Henri-Claude. (2002). Internet e-ethics
In Confrontation with an Activists' Agenda: Yahoo! On Trial. Journal of Business Ethics,
Vol. 39, 135-144.
La Parure "The Necklace" by Maupassant
French author Guy de Maupassant is considered one of the greatest French short story writers. Maupassant wrote more than 300 short stories, six novels and three travel books until in 1891, when he went mad. Maupassant's tales were dark and ironic, he portrayed the bourgeoisie life of Paris and his characters were unhappy victims of their greed, desire or vanity. What was most remarkable was Maupassant's style, he was a master of his skill, and he had a highly controlled style marked by objectivity and with sheer irony and comedy. His stories were usually about simple episodes of everyday life, which revealed hidden sides of people.
La Parure (The Necklace) is one of the celebrated works of Maupassant, a short story filled with irony and dark humor with implicit philosophical message that 'pride goeth before a fall' and the fact that pride always brings…
Bernardo, Karen. Guy de Maupassant's "The Necklace" 2000 at http://www.storybites.com/demaupassantnecklace.htm
Maupassant, Guy de. The Necklace and Other Short Stories (Dover Thrift Editions), Dover Pubns; (February 1992).
The Subjective over the Objective
Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).
Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (aym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…
1. Snow, C. (1968). The Realists: Portraits of Eight Novelists. New York: Macmillan.
2. Fried, M. (1997). Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
3. Wilson, E., & Reill, P. (2004). Encyclopedia of the enlightenment. New York, NY: Facts on File.
4. Zafirovski, M. (2011). The Enlightenment and Its Effects on Modern Society. New York: Springer.
Irony and Humor in French Literature
Delphine Perret's analysis of irony and humor is apparently well-founded and well-supported by famous literature. Due to obvious differences in the French and English notions of irony, Perret explored irony by returning to its roots. Starting "at square one" with definitions of "irony" from notable dictionaries, Perret then traces irony through historical eras and developments with the aid of such great thinkers as Socrates and Aristotle. Her exhaustive analysis results in clearly defined types of irony/humor, basic elements of the phenomenon and dimensions that are or should be present in that form of writing. The intelligence of Perret's examination is illustrated in two famous French plays of the 19th and 20th Century: "Ubu Roi" and "The ald Soprano." Though written by different playwrights in different centuries, both plays fully support Perret's analysis and findings regarding irony/humor.
a. Perret's Applicable Points
Delphine Perret's "Irony"…
Ashton, Dore. "On Blaise Cendrars...But I Digress." Raritan, 31(2) (Fall 2011): 1-42, 164. Print.
Dittmar, Linda and Joseph Entin. "Jamming the Works: Art, Politics, and Activism." Radical Teacher, 89 (Winter 2010): 3-9, 79-80. Print.
Hrbek, Greg. "The Science of Imaginary Solutions." Salmagundi, 170/171 (Spring 2011): 240-252, 280. Print.
Ionesco, Eugene and Donald M. Allen. The Bald Soprano and Other Plays. New York, NY: Grove Press, Inc., 1958. Print.
This document highlighted that human rights need to be universal in order for society to be healthy. The document influenced French people in general to get involved in the revolution and to express interest in reform.
5. Calvinists and Jews were persecuted groups up until the revolution and they thus played an active role in devising the human rights agenda. "On December 21, 1789, a deputy raised the question of the status of non-Catholics under the new regime; his intervention started a long debate that quickly expanded to cover Jews, actors, and executioners, all of them excluded from various rights before 1789" (Hunt 84).
6. The idea of slavery was questioned even before the French Revolution started, as there were numerous influential individuals who denounced the institution of slavery. The French National Assembly actually held individuals who believed that black people should have rights and that slavery needed to be…
Avery Hunt, Lynn, "The french revolution and human rights: a brief documentary history," (Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996)
Enlightenment on the French evolution
evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.
Introduction to the French evolution
When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…
Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000). http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html.
Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke
University Press, 1991.
Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at http://www.utm.edu/ressearch/iep/r/rousseau.htm.
Difference between FF and Markowitz Portfolio Theory
Fama-French Three Factor Model
Eugene Fama and Kenneth French designed Fama-French three factor model to describe stock returns. Fama -- French model uses three variables. They added two factors to CAPM:
r = RF + ?3 (Km -- Rf) = bs . SM + bv . HML + ?
r = portfolio's rate of return,
RF = risk-free return rate,
and KM = return of the whole stock market.
Over 90% of the diversified portfolios returns are explained by the Fama-French Three Factor model. It further measures investment returns with academic and mathematic approach. Consequently, the "small cap" stocks and stocks with a high book-to-market ratio provide a more return than the general market. For Fama and French, high returns are a reward for high risk, which means if returns increase with price, stocks with a high price ratio should be…
Ball R. 1978. "Anomalies in relationships between securities' yields and yield-surrogates." Journal of Financial Economics 6:103-126.
Banz RW. 1981. "The relationship between return and market value of common stocks." Journal of Financial Economics 9:3-18.
Black, F, Jensen MC, and Scholes M. 1972. The capital asset pricing model: Some empirical tests. Studies the Theory of Capital Markets: New York: Jensen MC, Praeger.
Breeden DT. 1979. An intertemporal asset pricing model with stochastic consumption and investment opportunities. Journal of Financial Economics. 7:265-296.
The machines were used to create vertical and horizontal movements which had not been done before. In other words, a god could be pictured using the machine as floating down onto the stage, or boats moving across it. Night or dawn could appear, or ghosts (Lawrenson 92). Most of these machine-plays were produced at the Theatre du Marais. There is a difference here, too. The French machine plays reached the public, whereas the English masques of the early century were performed mainly for royalty. Certainly the stage sets for court ballets and opera were more elaborate and special than the public designs since they were subsidized by the royal coffers.
Both English and French theatre took over the new Italian techniques for changing scenery. The French theatre abandoned triangular prisms used in conjunction with painted backdrops. At the beginning, these were painted simultaneously and dropped over or pulled back to…
.. reason is being heard throughout the whole universe; discover your rights," led to her being charged with treason, resulting in her arrest, trial and execution in 1793 by the dreaded guillotine (1997, Halsall, "Olympe de Gouge," Internet).
The Haitian evolution:
While all of this revolt was happening in France, the small Caribbean colony of Haiti was experiencing similar turmoil. The Haitian evolution of 1789 to 1804 began as a political struggle among the free peoples of Saint Domingue, a French colony on the island of Hispaniola. The French evolution of the same period provided the impetus for class and racial hatreds to come about on the island. Each of the colony's social classes, being the wealthy planters and merchants, and the lower white classes, seized the chance to address their grievances and bring about social chaos and revolt. While many colonial members sought support from the political groups in…
Carpentier, Alejo. (2004). "The Kingdom of the World." Internet. November 12, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.msu.edu/~williss2/carpentier .
Declaration of the Rights of Man -- 1789." Internet. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/rightsof.htm .
Halsall, Paul (1997). "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Internet. Modern History Sourcebook. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1791degouge1.html .
" Fears of French-Catholic influence amongst the settlers combined with the growing dislike of the Indians on the part of the English further inflamed tensions between the two groups.
This is why the title the "French and Indian ar" is the name commonly applied to the "Seven Years ar" when conflict actually began in 1754 because of the great influence of the native alliances in fighting the war, the last hurrah of Native American might. The strength of their allied tribes was used as a political bargaining chip and a military mark of terror by both sides. In particular, although fewer tribes were aligned with their sides, the English colonies exaggerated the Iroquois military predominance over other tribes to defend and establish British control over the region. Yet even many Englishmen privately criticized these same Indians as being disobedient, and unreliable, as well as predominantly known for their skill in…
Josephy, Alvin M, Jr. The Patriot Chiefs, New York: Penguin, 1993.
Starkey, Armstrong. European and Native American Warfare 1675-1815, Norman: U. Of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1998.
Alvin M, Josephy, Jr., the Patriot Chiefs, (New York: Penguin, 1993) p.101
Armstrong Starkey, European and Native American Warfare 1675-1815, (Norman: U. Of Oklahoma Press, 1998), p.86.
watch first the French a Bout de Souffle, Luc Godard's film, released in 1960. I decided to pick this particular one from the list because I thought the image of Jean Paul Belmondo and Jean Seberg in the street made me want to see the film. That image communicated not only eroticism, but also a special connection between the two that I wanted to explore. While watching the French film, I searched the Internet to find out more about the actress playing Patricia, the main female role. I found her femininity befitting the sensuality of her male counterpart, Paris in the sixties.
Next, I then found out that Jean Paul Belondo played his first major role in this film, one of the most successful films of the French New Wave (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000901/bio-ref_=nm_ov_bio_sm ).
After watching the French film, I realized that the main male character, his villainy aside, was quintessentially French.…
"Their superstitions are infinite, their feast, their medicines, their fishing, their hunting, their wars -- in short almost their whole life turns upon this pivot; dreams, above all have here great credit" (Foner 16). There are a number of value judgments within this quotation; almost all of them are negative. The religious beliefs and practices of the Micmac have been reduced to "superstitions" by the priest. hat is revealing is that almost all of the practices of these people -- including their means of providing food and health care and engaging in social conflict, are likened to "dreams." Yet all of these facets of the Micmac that de Brebeuf names are simply different points of culture that exist between the Europeans and the Native Americans. Because they are different, the priest himself does not believe in them and dismisses them as having a basis in fantasy.
It is interesting to…
Foner, Eric. Voices of Freedom. New York: Bantam. 1991. Print.
Rhodesia and parts of the French Maghreb have been ravaged by terrorism and guerilla warfare.
One of the main aftermaths suffered by the African countries which have been colonized is poverty. Most colonial powers have exploited their colonies to the maximum, enslaving locals and stealing their resources.
Another repercussion that a great numbers of Africans have sustained after the colonial period is the fact that their countries are being devastated by the continuous wars fueled by money coming from the sale of diamonds. The 1994 massacre from Rwanda is believed to have had its roots in the colonial period, when groups of people had been discriminated.
1. Ahluwalia, D. Pal S., Ahluwalia, Pal. "Politics and post-colonial theory: African inflections." Routledge, 2001.
2. Leonard, Thomas M. "Encyclopedia of the developing world." Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Leonard, Thomas M. "Encyclopedia of the developing world." Taylor & Francis, 2006.
1. Ahluwalia, D. Pal S., Ahluwalia, Pal. "Politics and post-colonial theory: African inflections." Routledge, 2001.
2. Leonard, Thomas M. "Encyclopedia of the developing world." Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Leonard, Thomas M. "Encyclopedia of the developing world." Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Ahluwalia, D. Pal S., Ahluwalia, Pal. "Politics and post-colonial theory: African inflections." Routledge, 2001.
adaptation a french Novel Zazie dans le Metro
It is quite clear from even a cursory analysis of chapters of 18 and 19 of aymond Queneau's Zazie dans le Metro, described as one of the most laughable books originally written in French (Vincendeau, 2011), that the author is describing the events that take place in them in a humorous way. As such, the reader can infer that the actions described in these two chapters, and probably through the remainder of the novel, are not literal and are meant to poke fun at a greater concept. The author's humor is certainly understated, which is why these chapters read more like a satire than a straightforward novel to produce an overall "fun" effect (No author, 1999). It is highly important that in both chapters, a good deal of the humor revolves around women. A closer examination of the author's diction and tone…
Armstrong, M-S. (1992). "Zazie dans le Metro and Neo-French." Modern Language Studies. 22 (3): 4-16.
McDonald, J.Q. (2000). "Zazie dans le Metro." The Thumbnail Book Reviews. Retrieved from http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/~jmcd/book/revs/zdlm.html
No author. (1999). "The complete review's review." The Complete Review. Retrieved from http://www.complete-review.com/reviews/queneaur/zazie.htm
Queneau, R. (1959). Zazie dans le Metro.
history libertinism, 18th century France. In concluding paragraphs, relate research formation, conflicts characters Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons dangereuses), epistolary Choderlos de Laclos.
The notion of the libertine:
The radical and reactionary implications of libertinism in Les Liaisons Dangereuses
The novel Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons Dangereuses) has a daring storyline, even by contemporary standards. Over the course of a series of letters between the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, a plot is orchestrated to bring shame and scandal upon the conventional and pure Madame de Tourvel and Cecile Volanges. Valmont in particular embodies the notion of the 19th century libertine, or a man who lives without regard to conventional morality: in effect, he is 'liberated' from the conventions of society and religious dogma.
The notion of a 'libertine' was first articulated in the writings of the 17th century theologian John Calvin, who defined libertines as all that good…
Cavaille, J. "Libertine and libertinism: Polemic uses of the terms in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English and Scottish literature." Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, 12.2 (2012), 12-36,157.
Hollinger, K. "Losing the feminist drift: Adaptations of Les Liaisons Dangereuses."
Literature/Film Quarterly, 24.3 (1996), 293-300.
O'Connell, Lisa & Cryle, Peter. Libertine Enlightenment. Palgrave Macmillan 2003.
Troubadours actually represent an example of that change in the social set up that signifies individualistic approach. Troubadours represent the rejection of social locks on the ability of people to be romantically in love. Italian critic Mario Casella also attempted to note the significance of troubadours as a special development of Augustinian Philosophy of individualistic approach. (Silverstein, 122)
The troubadours dealt with varied important subjects like war, politics, personal satire and other subjects, yet the main theme of remained love and affection towards women. Most of the ladies for which the troubadours were sung, were married. Only some exceptional troubadours sang for maiden girls. Thus, the concept of love touched through troubadours was conventional type and it rejected marriage as the major objective of love. Some of the genre of troubadours was very satirical and naughty in essence such as Alba, which is the song that is sung by a…
Chaytor, H.J. The Troubadours. University of Cambridge Press, Cambridge. 1912.
Marisa, Rosa Menocal. Close Encounters in Medieval Provence: Spain's Role in the Birth of Troubadour Poetry, Hispanic Review, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 43-64.
Silverstein, Theodore. Andreas, Plato, and the Arabs: Remarks on Some Recent Accounts
of Courtly Love, Modern Philology, vol. 47, no. 2, Nov., 1949, pp. 117-126.
poeme French Renaissance Author Pierre de Ronsard. The poeme title Take Rose
French " Prends cette rose" hen analyse theme, culture aspect found poeme. things choice words, verb adjectives colours .
Take this rose -- Critical analysis
Pierre de Ronsard's poem "Take this rose" relates to the concept of a rose as being a metaphor for traditional love throughout the ages. It is as if Ronsard wants to talk from the perspective of his heart -- this standing as a metaphor for the fact that he was unhesitant about employing a completely different attitude with regard to love. The passion that one can observe in this poem is extraordinary and it is most probably essential for one to actually experience a higher form of love in order to be able to put across such intense feelings.
Ronsard compares his lover with a rose in an attempt to put across his…
Ronsard, Pierre, "Take this rose"
French author Emile Zola was noted for his realistic portrayals of human beings in his novels and short stories. In his novel La Cur-e, he tells a story about the failings of the modern world, particularly in what is valued in modernity as opposed to periods in the past. Modern people all value money, material possessions, and satisfaction of personal desires and hungers. So consumed are people with these desires that they ignore anything which might hinder them, including ethics and morals. In the past, Zola, insinuates people cared more about family and honor, but in the present it is only money that matters. Through the relationships that Aristide Saccard has with his first wife and second wife, as well as in comparison with P-re Goriot from Balzac's novel Le Pe-re Goriot, it is clear that Zola is showing that valuing money above all other things is a…
Balzac, Honore? De, and Pierre Georges Castex. Le Pe-re Goriot. Paris: Garnier Fre-res, 1963.
Zola, Emile, Brian Nelson, and Emile Zola. The Kill = La Cure-e. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.
IX. Plan of implementation
The implementation plan should have several different parts. The first part is the analysis. The decision has been made to relocate some of the plants from locations with high labor and production costs to countries where these costs are lower. The analysis will need to show which each of these countries are. The idea is that the new countries will need to have some of the characteristics that serve company interest. These would include being close to markets where the products are sod or, if it is the same country, a sufficient purchasing power for the customers in the new locations.
The action plan or actual implementation plan should follow. The implementation plan will include dates and times when things are being moved, prices, for goods that are being auctioned and no longer retained in the new locations, personnel that will need to move to the…
French New Wave
French cinema, by the time the second world war ended, was faced with a crisis fittingly summarized by posters that advertised Mundus-Film (distributors for First National, Goldwyn, and Selig). These posters implied that the cannon operated by America's infantrymen launched film after film targeted at the French. La Cinematographie francaise (soon to become the leading French trade journal) claimed that every week 25,000 meters of film imported mainly from America were presented in France for each 5000 meters of local French films. French-made films often constituted as little as 10% of the films screened in Parisian cinemas. Henri Diamant-erger, publisher of French magazine 'Le Film', bluntly stated that France could be in jeopardy of turning into a 'cinematographic colony' of America (Nowell-Smith).
"French New Wave" is one of the film movements shaping the history of French cinema. Rejuvenating the prestigious French cinema, the New Wave that emerged…
Darke, Chris. "The French New Wave." n.d. Retrieved from: http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415582599/data/The%20French%20New%20Wave%20-%20Chris%20Darke%20(4th%20ed).pdf
Neupert, Richard. A History of the French New Wave Cinema. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2007. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=OIp7bDHNDs8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=french+new+wave+cinema&hl=en&sa=X&ei=J8E8VZjvM9GxacHFgJgO&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=french%20new%20wave%20cinema&f=false
Nochimson, Martha P. World on Film: An Introduction. New York City: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=c3Kn7dsGGA0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Nochimson,+Martha+P.,+World+on+Film&hl=en&sa=X&ei=X8k8VdTbBNXgar3RgMAD&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Nochimson%2C%20Martha%20P.%2C%20World%20on%20Film&f=false
Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey. The Oxford History of World Cinema. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Retrieved from: https://archive.org/details/The_Oxford_History_Of_World_Cinema.PDF
irth of the First French Republic
The first French Republic was established in 1792 in the aftermath of the 1789 Revolution and abolishment of the monarchy. The National Convention held a meeting in September 1792 that culminated with a vote to put an end to the monarchy and establish the first French Republic. The 1789 Revolution that acted as a catalyst for the abolishment of the monarchy and eventual establishment of the first French Republic gave the people the unprecedented opportunity to confront King Louis XIV who had dominated their lives. As the National Convention voted for the establishment of the first French Republic through abolishing the monarchy, it also tried Louis XVI for treason. The king was found guilty of treason and executed at the beginning of 1793. Given its role in the establishment of the first French Republic, the 1789 Revolution was a complex event with significant impacts…
McPhee, Peter. Living the French Revolution, 1789-99. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan,
Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
Publishers, Inc., 2008.
The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…
Acemoglu, Daaron, Cantoni, Davide, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James. "The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution." NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 4/3/2016. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jrobinson/files/jr_consequeces_frenchrev.pdf
Davies, Norman. The History of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1990.
Langer, William. The Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.
For instance, Algerians saw the defeat of the French as a means to their own independence.
When the French were defeated by the Vietminh, the French were so humiliated and embarrassed in the eyes of the world that they decided to stiffen their resistance to others seeking independence. This led to a decade long war in Algeria which the French were resolved not to lose. Unlike Indochina, there were large numbers of native French living in Algeria, and the French viewed it as an integral part of France. But the French no longer had the military resources to maintain their Algerian colony by force, and the French people were forced to accept Algerian independence. In fact, more than 90% of the French public had grown tired of the war, and the atrocities that were being carried out in the name of France, and favored independence for Algeria. But there was…
Green Sourcing Process for Mcdonalds French Fries
McDonald is a global and largest food chain specializing in fast food with more than 68 million customers. The company operates in 36,658 outlets across 119 countries. Major brands of Macdonald include French fries, cheeseburgers, hamburgers, chicken products, breakfast items, desserts, milkshakes and soft drinks. However, Mcdonald's French fries is the world most famous fries produced from premium potatoes, Shepody and usset Burbank. Mcdonald has been successful from selling the French fries because their fries are made up of one-third of French fries sold in the United States. In the last few years, Mcdonald has faced criticisms because of inability to follow green initiatives when procuring the ingredients used to prepare the French fries.
The purpose of this document is to provide recommendations to assist Mcdonald completing the Green Sourcing process for French fries. The report uses the following steps in providing the…
Blome, C. Hollos, D. & Paulraj, A. (2014). Green Procurement and Green Supplier Development: Antecedents and Effects on Supplier. International Journal of Production Research. 52( 1): 32 -- 49.
Birkin, F. Polesie, T. Lewis, L. (2009). A new business model for sustainable development: an exploratory study using the theory of constraints in Nordic organizations. Business Strategy and the Environment 18(5): 277 -- 290.
ESRC. (2008). Biological Alternatives To Chemical Pesticides. Sciencedaily. Economic & Social Research Council.
Greaves, J. (2015). Biopesticides, regulatory innovation & the regulatory state. University of Warwick.
Known as much for her fashion choices as for her role in the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette is in many ways a quintessential queen in that the patriarchal historical record severely undermines her power. Marie Antoinette was far from being an architect of the Revolution and yet her role in it cannot be underestimated. Misogynistic misunderstandings and misconceptions about the role of women in positions of power have caused Antoinette’s legacy to have been distorted gravely, to the point where she has been incorrectly credited with saying “let them eat cake.”[footnoteRef:1] Vilified as she was, Marie Antoinette signifies the ways women wielded power even when they were stripped of official or legitimate political agency. [1: “Marie Antoinette Biography.” Last modified Jan 4, 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/marie-antoinette-9398996 ]
Marie Antoinette was born into power, the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa, the empress of the mighty Habsburg dynasty based in…
Nevertheless, "A Musical Party" and other banquet scenes, in its contrasting gloom, gain a sense of depth that other painters do not achieve with similar depictions.
After the end of his apprenticeship in 1619, Tournier became part of a community of French artists in Rome, who perpetuated the Caravaggesque movement. Most influential of Tournier's work during this time was Valentin de Boulogne (Musee des Augustins). Both being French and in Rome, the artists became good friends. While Tournier was not a pupil of Boulogne's, the latter nonetheless influenced him significantly. It is perhaps also as a result of Boulogne's influence that Tournier painted generally upbeat, secular scenes such as "A Musical Party." Not even this artist's jovial influence could destroy the inherent melancholy of Tournier's work. Whereas Boulogne's figures were depicted with an edgy tension, Tournier's were consistently quiet, as mentioned above, almost suspended in time. The two style were…
Artnet. "Artist's Biographies: Nicolas Tournier." 2007. http://www.artnet.com/library/08/0858/T085862.asp
Encyclopaedia Britannica. "French culture in the 17th century." 2007.
New Technology/Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars to American Civil War eginning
Warfare Change in Technology
In France, reforms began after the great Seven-Year-long war. The war ended in French calamity in1763. Evidently, it was important to have reforms to field soldiers that could fight for French interests and honor. The government suggested that light infantry should be increased. This later brought about initiatives for conventional infantry training in techniques for light infantry. This training created soldiers that could fight both in open and close order. The multiple gun calibers used by the artillery unit were taken away; and they were left with only four varieties. There were new guns, which were more portable and lighter than the earlier ones. The new guns featured standardized segments and enclosed rounds. Lidell-Hart stated that according to Jean du Teil, "light mobile guns for use in the field when used…
Gibson. "Napoleon and the Grande Armee: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rma.html .
History.com. "Civil War Technology." 2010. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology .
Scholastic. "Strategy and Tactics, Military." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategy-and-tactics-military .
Zapotoczny, Walter. "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Warfare." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.wzaponline.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Inductrialrevolution.292125935.pdf.
Napoleon was sent to French military schools at Brienne and Paris. He received his commission in the artillery in 1785. After the outbreak of the French Revolution, he attempted to join the Corsican patriots led by Pasquale Paoli, but his family was thought to be pro-French. A political event was to reopen his career overnight. In Oct. 1795, a royalist Parisian rebellion attacked the Convention, and Paul Barras convinced the Convention to place Bonaparte in command of the troops. Napoleon dispersed the mob with what he called "a whiff of grapeshot" -- which killed about 100 insurgents. He was given command of the army of the interior. After drawing up a plan for an Italian campaign, he was, made commander in chief of the army of Italy with Barras's help.
He left for Italy in March 1796. Assuming command of an ill-supplied army, he succeeded within a short time in…
Great Britain had never succumbed, and the Continental System proved difficult to enforce. Napoleon's first signs of weakness appeared early in the Peninsular War (1808 -- 14). The victory of 1809 over Austria had been costly, and the victory of Archduke Charles at Aspern (May, 1809) showed that the emperor was not indomitable. Forces were gathering everywhere to cast off the Napoleonic yoke.
Napoleon's decision to invade Russia marked the turning point of his career. His alliance with Czar Alexander I, dating from the treaties of Tilsit and extended at the Congress of Erfurt (1808), was tenuous. When the czar rejected the Continental System, which was ruinous to Russia's economy, Napoleon gathered the largest army Europe had ever seen.
In December, Napoleon left his army, returning to Paris to bolster French forces. Of his allies, Prussia was the first to desert; a Prussian truce with the czar (Dec. 30) was followed by an alliance in Feb. 1813. Great Britain and Sweden joined the coalition, followed (Aug., 1813) by Austria, and the "War of Liberation" began. At the Battle of the Nations (Oct. 16 -- 19), Napoleon was forced to retreat.
post-revolutionary French art, and are titled; Nudity a La Grecque in 1799 and Colonization Gross's Plague-Stricken Jaffa share some fundamental commonalities. The similarities that these two articles share are their methodology, formal artistic analysis and their account and implicit description of the relationship between art and social history. Both of these articles also provide historical accounts of artistic criticism of post-Revolutionary history painting. Most significantly Grisby's articles provide a view of post-Revolutionary France where art, history and politics all combine to allow readers to more fully understand cultural and social issues of great importance of the time.
Darcy Grimaldo Grisby sets out to dispel commonly held notions and opinions regarding Gross's Plague-Stricken Jaffa. The most significant theory he seeks to dispel is one that claims the painting is simply a government commissioned propaganda piece created to enlarge the image of the then, soon to be emperor of France Napoleon Bonaparte…
Grimaldo Grisby, Darcy . "Nudity A la Grecque in 1799." Art Bulletin 80.2 (1998): 311-335. Print.
Grimaldo Grisby, Garcy. "Rumor, Contagion, and Colonization in Gros's Plague-Stricken of Jaffa." references 51 (1995): 1046-1093. Print
American Revolution in 1776 inspired the French Revolution in 1789 by showing that the common people could overthrow the powerful political establishment. Both countries were ruled by absolute monarchies. The United States were then colonies of Great Britain, and were ruled unfairly. The early Americans became tired of "taxation without representation." In France, the common people and peasants were also not represented by their government. In both cases, only landowners could vote and there was little equality or justice. By taking up arms against Britain, the early American settlers took a stand against tyranny and this act then led to the French Revolution.
The American Revolution set an example to the people of France that it was possible to have democracy. By taking the first step in this process of change, the American settlers showed that democracy was possible, even if it meant going to war. After succeeding in the…
If they are a couple, they have no children together. Whereas Morisot focuses on the child in "The Basket Chair," Caillebotte accomplishes the opposite. Caillebotte's painting lacks emotional intensity, because his palette is far more retrained than that of Morisot. Morisot's garden is rendered in vivid greens and intensely saturated hues. Caillebotte's, on the other hand, is a more staid palette. Furthermore, unlike Morisot's fenced-off garden, Caillebotte's is a public park. Yet there are no other people in the park: which suggests that there are a disproportionate number of wealthy elite in Paris at the time of painting. In their own ways, the two Impressionists suggest that the bourgeois live in a world apart from the working class society. Beyond the boundaries of their respective gardens, scores of working class French men and women toil to feed the burgeoning capitalist enterprise that characterizes urbanization and industrialization. However, the subjects in…
Caillebotte, Gustave. "The Orange Trees." 1878.
Duret, Theodore. Manet and the French Impressionists. London: Grant Richards, 1910.
Fell, Derek. The Impressionist Garden. London: Frances Lincoln, 1994.
Harrison, Charles. Painting the Difference: Sex and Spectator in Modern Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Off center from the beautiful woman stands a small, dwarfish creature, the height of a child. His face is deformed, almost like a circus freak, and he gestures rudely with his thumb at the woman. It is uncertain if he is doing this with approval or disapproval. The dwarf's gesture is crude and impolite, given that he is openly pointing at the woman. His necktie also seems to mark his status as lower-class, as is the fact that he seems to be picking his teeth with his other hand. The woman holds a magazine in her hand, evidently the Review that the drawing is designed to publicize. She seems unaware or untroubled by the pointing thumb. In the background hover the many names of other publications in an impressionistic, sparsely depicted drawing of a newsstand, from which evidently the fashionable beauty has selected as her choice. There is also a…
Brenson., Michael. "Review/Art; Bonnard's Graphics Illuminate His Entire Output."
Dec 1989. The New York Times. 4 Mar 2008. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEFDB1F3AF935A35751C1A96F948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all
Wye, Deborah. Artists and Prints: Masterworks from the Museum of Modern Art.
New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2004, p. 32. Excerpted by Susan Suzuki. "Pierre Bonnard La Revue blanche (the White Review). 1894." MoMa.org. 2007. 4 Mar 2008. http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3ADE%3AI%3A2&page_number=18&template_id=1&sort_order=1
Analysis of Godard's Alphaville
French New ave cinema emerged during the 1950s and was inspired by the criticism of Andre Bazin and Jacques Donial-Valcroze who helped to found Cahiers du Cinema. The Cahiers du Cinema helped to establish two filmmaking philosophies that would help to guide New ave auteurs in the creation of their films. Additionally, New ave directors would also establish a set of guidelines that would help to classify their films as part of the New ave movement. Among the founders of the New ave movement was Jean-Luc Godard whose films not only adhere to the guidelines of the movement, but also push the boundaries and allow him to use his films to explore politics, genres, and cinematic styles. Alphaville, released in 1965, not only follows the guidelines that were established by the New ave movement, but also brings together the genres of film noir and science…
Alphaville. Dir. Jean-Luc Godard. France: Athos Films, 1965. Motion Picture.
Phillips, Craig. "French New Wave." Green Cine. 2005. Web. Accessed 8 April 2012.
"Retrofuturism." 25 March 2007. Web. Accessed 8 April 2012.
Spicer, Andrew. Film Noir. New York: Pearson Education, 2002. Print.
Discuss if MPB should accept the offer. Clearly show your calculations and support your discussion with the findings
The French Champagne house wants to pay £75,000 to MPB Ltd for the production of 5,000 boule sets.
This implies that the offer price for every boule set is (£75,000 / 5,000) = £15
Engraving the company’s logo will cost £2.50 for every set. This implies that the variable cost is £8 + £3 + £2.50 = £13.50
The total variable costs will be £13.50 × 5,000 = £67,500
The total fixed costs will be £6,000 × 5,000 = £30,000
Therefore, the total costs will be £67,500 + £30,000 = £97,500
By including the additional cost of engraving the logo, the total variable cost for every boule set becomes £13.50. Despite the fact that there is a positive contribution margin, MPB should not accept the offer from the French Champagne house. This…