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French Indian war altar political, economic, ideological relations American colonies Britain?
In what ways did the French-Indian ar alter political, economic, ideological relations between the American colonies and Great Britain?
For many years, tensions had been simmering between England and France, the dominant European powers in control of the colonial territories in the Americas. The two nations' relationship was even more complicated due to the various tribal alliances of Native Americans. At the onset of the French-Indian ar, by and large, the Indians favored the French. The French tended to be more honest and aboveboard in their dealings with the natives. The French were more interested in establishing economic trade roots in America, rather than creating colonies, a situation which the Indians preferred. In contrast, the British population of settlers in the colonies was 250,000 in 1700 and 1.25 million in 1750 -- a staggering growth in a relatively short…
"French-Indian Wars." Ohio History Central. Ohiohistorycentral.org. July 1, 2005.
December 3, 2010.
"The French and Indian War." Power Point. December 3, 2010
EVOLUTION & FENCH-INDIAN WA
The French and Indian War and the American evolutionary War were fairly close together in terms of timing and they had a lot of parallels and commonalities including some of the major personnel in the conflict. The French and Indian War as well as the evolutionary War both involved people and countries that were fighting for much the same thing, that being control of lands far from the home country in the pursuit and hopes of controlling a lucrative area of land in the New World. The wars were both manifestations of colonial spats and negotiations that both involved France, Great Britain and who would become the Americans, and even Spain to a lesser extent. Indeed, it was a Spaniard king who commissioned the Columbus voyage that led to the discovery of North America. The French and Indian War set the tone for the…
AmericanRevoluton.org. (2013, October 10). French and Indian War. The American
Revolution - (Home). Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.theamericanrevolution.org/eventdetail.aspx?event=4
HistoryCentral.com. (2013, October 10). The French and Indian War. American History
and World History at Historycentral.com the largest and most complete history site on the web. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.historycentral.com/Revolt/French.html
French and Indian War: Braddock and Thereafter
How little credit is given to a Commander, who perhaps after a defeat, in relating the cause justly lays the blame on some individual whose cowardly behav'r betray'd the whole to ruin; how little does the World consider the Circumstances, and how apt are Mankind to level their vindictive Censures against the unfortunate Chief, who perhaps merited least of the blame.
George Washington, 1755
Who would have thought it?
General Edward Braddock's dying words, 1755
The war that raged in North America through the late 1750's and early 170's was a piece of a large struggle between England and France for dominance in world trade and naval power. The British victory in that struggle, known in Europe as the Seven Years' War, ended the long struggle among the three powers in northeastern North America: The English, the French, and the Iroquois Confederacy, it…
6]Felix Martin, Le Marquis de Montcalm et les Dernieres Anness de la Colonie Francaise au Canada (Paris P.M. Laroche, 1879); H.R. Casgrain, Guerre du Canada, 1756-1760, Montcalm et Levis, 2 vols. (Quebec: Imprimeries de L.J. Demers
7]Marjorie Reid, "Pitt's Decision to Keep Canada in 1761," Canadian Historical Association Report for 1926 (Ottawa, 1927), 1-24.
8]Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (1884) (reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1995), 535; Sir Lewis Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1963).
...[p. 41] Reasons may be given, why an Act ought to be repeal'd, and yet obedience must be yielded to it till that repeal takes place.
The intent of most colonists, was to create change through the proper channels, as has been described by the Philadelphia congress, as having occurred over the ten years bridging the two previous declarations.
A consummate expert on the War of Independence, writing in the early twentieth century, Van Tyne, stresses that the development of the ideal of democratic representation, was seeded in the ideals of Puritan politics which were spurned by the exposure of ministers to the ideas of John Locke and John Milton, who demonstratively effected the ideas of the American colonists as well as many others all over the colonial world. The idea of a fierce fight against tyranny and unchecked despotism was an essential standard of the day and at some…
Bancroft, Hubert H.. American war for Independence: Early Causes. 2002-2003. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_II/americanw_bb.html .
Leach, Douglas Edward. Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677-1763. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Morison, S.E., ed. Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
Because the country was essentially thirteen colonies fighting separately, the British had to deal with battles throughout the country, with people who were fighting for their homes and towns. The American forces knew their surroundings better, and they were motivated to fight well to protect their loved ones and neighbors.
The Declaration of Independence, written in July 1776, indicates how resolved most of the population was to independence from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, author of the document, wrote that the British government had become "destructive," and people believed they must assert their independence and be free of the country, or their lives would never be free from oppression. He wrote, "That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the ight of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in…
Editors. "Revolutionary War Causes." Son of the South. 2009. 20 Feb. 2009. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/cause-revolutionary-war.htm .
Gerlach, Larry R., James a. Dolph, and Michael L. Nicholls, eds. Legacies of the American Revolution. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1978.
Sweeney, Jerry K., ed. A Handbook of American Military History: From the Revolutionary War to the Present. 2nd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2006
Ward, Harry M. The War for Independence and the Transformation of American Society. London: UCL Press, 1999.
American evolutionary War
The objective of this study is to write on the causes and major outcomes of the American evolutionary War.
Until the finalization of the Seven Years' War, there were only very few British North America colonists that had objections to their situation in the British Empire and British American Colonists had realized a great many benefits reported from the system of the British imperialists and furthermore paid little in the way of costs for those reported benefits. In fact, the British did not bother the American colonies until the earlier part of the 1760s. However, the 'Seven Years' War" brought about changes with Britain realizing victory over France and their allies at a great cost.
The Seven-Year's War also known as the French and Indian War brought many changes. According to reports "A staggering war debt influenced many British policies over the next decade. Attempts…
The American Revolution (2014) Library of Congress. Retrieved from: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/amrev/
The American Revolution (2014) Library of Congress. Retrieved from:
An Analysis of the History and Origins of "Belly Dancing"
Indian Dance is described in the est as "belly dancing," but the name "belly dancing" does not do justice to the style of dance which the title conveys. Indian and Middle Eastern dance actually has more of a history to it than what the est views merely as a kind of erotic show. Described as "danse du ventre" by the French in the Victorian Age, the English translation has come to signify the Indian dance, which in Arabic is known as raqs sharqi or raqs baladi -- the former meaning "Dance of the Near East" and the latter meaning "Folk dance." Essentially, what esterners have identified as "belly dancing" is actually the traditional folk dance of the Middle East and India. This paper will discuss the origins and history of Indian Dance, or "belly dancing," and show how…
"Belly Dancing." Eijkhout.net. 2000. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
Deagan, Andrea. "In Search of the Origins of Dance." UNCW. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
Jusserand, J.J. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: W&J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950. Print.
Wright, Marisa. "Origins of Belly Dance." HubPages. 2009. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.
The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…
Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French
Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International
History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign
" Fears of French-Catholic influence amongst the settlers combined with the growing dislike of the Indians on the part of the English further inflamed tensions between the two groups.
This is why the title the "French and Indian ar" is the name commonly applied to the "Seven Years ar" when conflict actually began in 1754 because of the great influence of the native alliances in fighting the war, the last hurrah of Native American might. The strength of their allied tribes was used as a political bargaining chip and a military mark of terror by both sides. In particular, although fewer tribes were aligned with their sides, the English colonies exaggerated the Iroquois military predominance over other tribes to defend and establish British control over the region. Yet even many Englishmen privately criticized these same Indians as being disobedient, and unreliable, as well as predominantly known for their skill in…
Josephy, Alvin M, Jr. The Patriot Chiefs, New York: Penguin, 1993.
Starkey, Armstrong. European and Native American Warfare 1675-1815, Norman: U. Of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1998.
Alvin M, Josephy, Jr., the Patriot Chiefs, (New York: Penguin, 1993) p.101
Armstrong Starkey, European and Native American Warfare 1675-1815, (Norman: U. Of Oklahoma Press, 1998), p.86.
Louvigny returned to Quebec and was considered by Canadians to have ended the first Fox War. He returned to the area in 1717 to continue the policing of the Meskwaki forces, yet made little progress in making contact or forcing the provisions of the previous treaty. In later communication with the government, Meskwaki chiefs expressed their own desire for peace. During the period between 1714 and 1727, the French were able to reopen waterways and move freely throughout the areas previously hindered by the danger of Indian encounters. However, other communications between the French and the American Indians were failing. Among these, the greatest failure was the inability of the French to include the Indian groups in the agricultural settlements they had attempted, including the one at Detroit.
Though the city groups of Indians and white men did not last, the area remained secure enough for the French and Americans…
Edmunds, R. David, and Joseph L. Peyser. The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Hagen, William Thomas. The Sac and Fox Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.
Jones, George O, and Norman S. McVean. History of Wood County, Wisconsin. Publication details unknown, 1923, accessed 22 October 2006; available at http://www.scls.lib.wi.us/mcm/wood_county/ .
Kay, Jeanne. "The Fur Trade and Native American Population Growth." Ethnohistory 31, no. 4 (1984): 265-287.
Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."
Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…
Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.
3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
American Experience With War
Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?
While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.
But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…
Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The
MacMillan Company, 1969.
Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),
Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
military topic; exclude civil war. (I chose Special Forces) • All Research Papers 8 1/2 x
white paper, margins 1" x 1." • The Research Papers a minimum 4 pages typed information exceed 6 pages
There is much controversy concerning the U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) and the missions that they perform on a daily basis because the mass-media tends to distort people's understanding about the military organization. Some might be inclined to consider that the Special Forces take most of the good men in the army and put them in a community that typically performs actions that most military groups would be capable of doing. Moreover, many believe that these people basically take advantage of the government's determination to keep the Special Forces in operation. However, most people fail to understand the training that these people go through on a daily basis, the fact that they have the ability…
Hamilton, John, "Special Forces," (ABDO, 10.01.2007)
North, Robert, "American Heroes: In Special Operations," (B&H Publishing Group, 01.11.2010)
Olson, Eric T., "U.S. Special Operations: Context and Capabilities in Irregular Warfare," Retrieved November 16, 2012, from the National Defense University Website: http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-56/8.pdf
Pushies, Fred J., "United States Army Special Forces," (Zenith Imprint, 01.10.2001)
The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…
Acemoglu, Daaron, Cantoni, Davide, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James. "The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution." NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 4/3/2016. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jrobinson/files/jr_consequeces_frenchrev.pdf
Davies, Norman. The History of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1990.
Langer, William. The Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
growth and development of the United States military from its origination to its present status in the 21st century. It will specifically examine the fostering of both the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force. Moreover, these two branches -- which will serve as case studies for the overall development tendencies of the military in general -- will get deconstructed in the context of the martial encounters that were most seminal for them: The evolutionary War and the War of 1812, and World War I and World War II, respectively.
this paper will delineate the history of the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force to indicate how military sophistication has paralleled the developments in technology and applications knowledge of America itself.
B.U.S. Naval History
The American evolutionary War
The War of 1812 and the establishment of the U.S. Naval Academy
C.U.S. Air Force History
1947 Third branch of the…
Deeben, J.P. (2012). Stoking the fires: The impressments of Seaman Charles Davis by the U.S. Navy. Prologue Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2012/summer/1812-impressment.html This is an excellent source which helps to contextualize the sentiment that contributed to the War of 1812, It not only covers the events of that time period at a macro level, but also includes a number of salient personal details as well. This source emphasizes the importance of the Navy in this war.
Dzurec, D. (2013). Prisoners of war and American self-image during the American Revolution. War in History. 20(4), 430-451. This source provides an explanation for much of the anti-British sentiment during the Revolutionary War. It principle does so by discussing the experience of those captured by the British in this encounter.
National Archives. (2010). Teaching with documents." www.archives.gov. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/369th-infantry / This source provisions a decent overview of World War I. It does so largely through a consideration of the involvement of African-American troops. These troops were necessary to implement in combat situations for the simple fact that the U.S. did not have enough men without their addition. It illustrates some of the wider social implications of this war and its effect both within and outside of the military.
United States Naval Academy (2015). A brief history of USNA. www.usna.edu Retrieved from http://www.usna.edu/USNAHistory / This source provides a fairly detailed history of the development of the United States Naval Academy. As such, it provides an overview of the history of the navy as well. By emphasizing the level of development that the academy underwent since its inception, this source indicates the sort of improvement that characterizes the military in general through the years.
Imagine living in 18th Century America. What would a person encounter during that time period? Would the diverse social and political backgrounds impact a person positively or negatively during this era? Can a person prepare for what may occur with the upcoming Seven Years War? How would the outcomes of this war affect America in general? One will study these issues in depth from the perspective of an individual existing in the past.
During the 18th Century, I experienced a number of things that are worth mentioning. I went to the south at one time and noticed that slavery is an issue. Many of these individuals are poor, and a select few became land owners despite becoming exposed to various diseases. When I saw this I was devastated and wanted to help each person but I could not. However, these people after fifty years of service were promised their…
Bailyn, Bernard. To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities Of the American
Founders (Knopf, 2002), 185p.
HistoryKing. (2011). The social classes in 18th century colonial america. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from History King: http://www.historyking.com/American-History/The-Social-Classes-In-18th-Century-Colonial-America.html.
University of Southern Mississippi. (2011). Seven years war. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from University of Southern Mississippi: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:wvJvJ2QbbaIJ:ocean.otr.usm.edu/~w416373/HIS%2520360/HIS%2520360%2520Lsn%25204%2520Seven%2520Years%2520War.ppt+seven+years+war+outcomes&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8az8UYbRUpHVHP_TzWTpeTtDvq1m5BPG-RFmHHgEmQzzbC .
During the 18th century there was a fierce competition between the British and the French colonial empires which ultimately led to The Seven Years War. The final result of the conflict favored the English who, nonetheless, were forced to make appeal to the force of the American colonies in order to defeat the French. Following such an action, the opponents of the British rule over the American territories would later on recall and use in supporting the cause of independence the aid the Americans provided the British in tackling the French threat.
The British considered the Americans as being the closest political ally and colonial region. Moreover, the historical context determined such an approach. This special treatment protected the American colonies from any external and foreign threat; in return, the British sought to maintain a preferential trade connection with the American colonies who were, without a doubt, one of the…
During his campaign, he successfully won the support of the French settlers living in the area. He is famous for masking his true number to his enemy. Clark had his flags continually marched back and forth behind a ridge to make the ritish believe he had a force of over six hundred men. He defeated the ritish despite all the odds against him and extended American borders to as far North East as the Great Lakes.
His defeat of the ritish at Vincennes, Clark was honored by the newly created United States of America. He was granted the title public surveyor in Virginia. Although he did a great deed which still affects us even to this day, he was not fully recognized by the United States as one would think he would have deserved for his deeds.
Clark, George Rogers. "Memoir of Campaigns against the ritish North of the…
Clark, George Rogers. "Memoir of Campaigns against the British North of the River Ohio." 1791. Indian Historical Bureau. http://www.statelib.lib.in.us/www/Ihb/resources/grcmemone.html
Hamilton, Harry. "Clark Recapture Vincennes, February 22 to March 5, 1791." Indian Historical Bureau. http://www.statelib.lib.in.us/www/Ihb/resources/hamilton2_22_1779.html
Indiana Historical Bureau. "George Rogers Clark Biography." 2007. http://www.statelib.lib.in.us/www/Ihb/resources/grcbio.html
The ritish came to impose serious taxes as a result of the French Indian war. These in turn were unacceptable to a people which considered itself not to be responsible for the causes of the war. The confrontation had been in fact another matter of European dispute that had to be solved outside the continent in the colonies.
Third, there is a disagreement in the way in which the war was perceived at the local level. The American colonies viewed this struggle as a need for independence from a regime that continued to impose an undemocratic control over its institutions and the lives of the people. On the other hand, the ritish saw it as a rebellion that must be immediately squashed. In its view, it was a war for the maintenance of a certain order, while the Americans viewed it as one of disruption of this order. While the…
Brainard, R. (2005) "Shays' Rebellion." 18th century history. 11 June 2008. http://www.history1700s.com/articles/article1120.shtml
British Battles. (N.d.) the War of the Revolution 1775 to 1783. Accessed 11 June 2008 http://www.britishbattles.com/american-revolution.htm
Calliope. (2008) "Shays' Rebellion." A Historical Synopsis. 11 June 2008. http://www.calliope.org/shays/shays2.html
Jenkins, P. (1997) a history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
In an era where the issue of human and civil rights was considered an element that could not be addressed by law, the drafting of the U.S. constitution came as a result of a great democratic endeavor which tried to point out several aspects. On the one hand, it proved the fact that the people are the supreme judges of the way in which the country is developing through the fact that Thus, the most important line for the American democracy is part of the Declaration of Independence which underlines the fact "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" (the Declaration of Independence, n.d.). This aspect certifies the idea that according to the American documents, people have the right to be free in all their respects.
The Constitution comes…
Adams, John. "Novanglus, Febuary 6, 1775." From Revolution to Reconstruction. 2003. 5 May 2008 http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/P.ja2/writtings/novan1.htm
American Foreign Relations. Revolution: Impact on the Economy. 2007. 5 May 2008 http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/Re-Ro/Revolution-Impact-on-the-Economy.html
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Republicanism. 2006. 5 May 2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/republicanism/
In 1779 the Creeks and Cherokees in 1779 suffered tremendous population losses and were unable to resist the new U.S. federal government's political and military advances upon their land (Richter 2001). The Indians lost economic power as well, as the Crees and Assiniboines saw their control over the northern fur trade ebb away to the Hudson's Bay Company. Through New Spain, the Great Plains, Hudson's Bay, and the Pacific Coast between 1779 and 1782, the pox cut a swathe through the nation, but had a particularly devastating impact upon Native Americans (Richter 2001). The Native Americans lost their political and economic clout, their land, as well as their lives, and, in the very long-term, they also lost their culture to the epidemic brought by whites.
Richter, Donald. Review of Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. By Elizabeth Fenn. New York, N.Y., Hill & ang Publishers, 2001.…
Richter, Donald. Review of Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. By Elizabeth Fenn. New York, N.Y., Hill & Wang Publishers, 2001. Common Place.
2.3. 2001. February 17, 2009. http://www.common-place.org/vol-02/no-03/reviews/richter.shtml
George ashington: The First American Hero
Today, George ashington is an American icon, a symbol of patriotism, strength, and humility. His honesty has become the source of legend, to the point that it is easy to forget that he was a real human being with significant political and military accomplishments. Perhaps what is equally surprising about ashington as the durability of his image is the fact that he was just as beloved in his own era. Death sometimes erases some of the more unflattering aspects of a historical figure's legacy from the collective memory but ashington was always revered, even in life. In fact, many of his contemporaries wished to make him a king after he helped secure American independence, an honor which he refused. Instead, he went on to become the nation's first Chief Executive.
George ashington first came to political prominence in colonial America due to his military…
Kladky, William P. "Continental Army." Mount Vernon. Web. 24 Feb 2017.
Knott, Stephen. "George Washington: Life Before the Presidency." Miller Center of Public
Affairs, University of Virginia. Web. 24 Feb 2017.
Remini, Robert. A Short History of the United States. HarperCollins, 2009.
One of the most important events in the history of the United States is the American Revolution, which is regarded as more important in the country development that ideas, trends, and actions. The significance of the American Revolution in the nation's history and development is highlighted in the fact that it was one of the seminal instances of the Enlightenment. During this period, the political philosophy of the Enlightenment was established and utilized in creating an entirely new country that has developed to become the world's super power. However, the American Revolution was fueled by a series of several major events and incidents brought by various factors including rebellion by the American colonies and Declaration of Independence.
Overview of the American Revolution
As previously mentioned, the American Revolution is one of the most important and remarkable events in the country's history given its role in the birth of…
American Revolution History. A & E Television Networks, LLC. accessed November 30, 2015.
Hubley, Benrard. The History of the American Revolution, Including the Most Important Events
and Resolutions of the Honorable Continental Congress During that Period and also the Most Interesting Letters and Orders of His Excellency General George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. New York, NY: The New York Public Library Reference Department, 1805.
These Acts, along with the Quebec Act, which extended the southern boundary of Canada into territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia, proved to be the last straw and hurtled the country into the Revolutionary ar ("Intolerable Acts").
Although it is still debatable whether the American independence from the British was inevitable, there is hardly any doubt that the required the series of legislation enacted by the British Parliament between 1764 and1774, outlined in this essay, served to greatly antagonize the American colonists. Almost all measures taken to tax the American colonies and tighten British administrative control met with resentment and, ultimately, open hostility. These measures proved to be a major reason for the Revolutionary ar, and eventual independence of America.
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian ar." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian War." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
Cogliano, Francis D. "Was the American Revolution Inevitable?" April, 2001. November 26, 2008. BBC Web site. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/american_revolution_01.shtml
Intolerable Acts." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. November 26, 2008. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761579222
Compare similarities differences revolutions America, France, Latin America. Identify common themes present revolution. What fighting ? Who influenced revolutions? What outcome revolution? What effect revolutions world?.
evolutions in America, France, and Latin America:
Causes, ideology, and consequences
Perhaps the most notable difference between the 18th century revolution in America vs. The 18th century revolution in France was one of class: America was not, primarily, a class-driven revolution. The Founding Fathers and supporters of the American evolution came from the elites of American society. George Washington was an important British general during the French-Indian Wars and Benjamin Franklin was a prominent figure in American colonial politics before talk of revolution became common currency. The colonists' frustration at what they perceived as the British Crown's unreasonable taxation policy and their growing economic power that was not honored with political power within the Empire was at the heart of the American evolution.…
Kelly, Martin. (2012). Causes of the American Revolution. About.com. Retrieved:
Minster, Christopher. (2012). Causes of Latin American revolutions. About.com. Retrieved:
The American tea party
The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;
Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government
eduction of government spending and the national debt
eduction of personal and corporate taxes
This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.
Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the…
David W. Koeller, (1999). The Boston Tea Party 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/teaparty.html
Eye Witness to History, (2002). The Boston Tea Party, 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/teaparty.htm
James L. Roark et.al. Eds. The American Promise: A History of the United States. Fourth Ed.
Vol I. Bedford/St. Martin's: New York.
(Early America, "hy the Loyalists Lost," 2005) Support for the American colonial control of local matters and taxation does not necessarily signify that we Loyalists advocate a division between the imperial powers and our own -- and does not mean we believe our tenuous support for greater local control means that the Revolutionaries are justified in seeking severance from the British power. Rather, it is an effective effort at a compromise.
Only when a king becomes a tyrant are the governed peoples not remiss in seeking revolt. In this case, although evident tensions exist between the colonies and King George III, this does not mean that the King's taxation to repair the costs the colonies have incurred upon the mother country are unjust in the sense that the taxes were imposed simply to enrich the king's own pockets -- such self-aggrandizing enrichment is the definition of tyranny, not simply disputing…
Why the Loyalists Lost." The Early America Review. Winter 2000. http://earlyamerica.com/review/winter2000/loyalists.html [6Mar 2005].
Ward & Trent, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1907-21; New York: Bartleby.com, 2000 (www.bartleby.com/cambridge/).[6 Mar 2005].
The way it worked is the Executive branch had the ability to enforce various laws and control of the military. However, in order to receive any kind of funding for its activities it had to work with the Legislative branch. This is when Congress had the power to review these actions and determine if they wanted to continue providing the President with funding for a host of different activities. If there was a conflict one had the power to check the other through different actions they could take (i.e. Congress refusing to fund a particular program that is favored by the President). At the same time, Congress had the authority to pass various laws that would determine how the country was governed. While, the President has the power to check that of Congress by vetoing it and sending it back to them for further review. The courts have the authority…
The Declaration of Independence. (1776).
Williams, J. (2004). The U.S. Constitution. Minneapolis, MN: Campus Print Books.
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…
Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298
Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…
"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763
THE BLACKFEET NATION INDIANS
This is a five page paper dealing with the Blackfeet Nation Indians. It will explore the tribe's history and early lifestyles. It will also cover the health and education of the tribe now. Problems facing the tribe and methods used in preserving their culture will also be addressed. There are seven references used.
The Blackfeet Indians are a Native American tribe that live in Northern Montana. They have a history rich in traditions and rituals. There is some controversy on how they became known as Blackfeet, but many believe it is because of the black moccasins they wore. It's not sure how these moccasins became black, but two suggestions are the Indians painted them or they were darkened by prairie fire (www.blackfeetnation.com).
The original home of the Blackfeet is believed to have been in the eastern woodlands "north of the Great Lakes (www.blackfeetnation.com)."…
(Origins and Early History of the Blackfeet (accessed 10-01-2002) http://
Ritter, John. "Blackfeet plan USA's only offshore bank." USA Today. (2000): 03 April.
Nijhuis, Michelle. "Tribal immersion schools rescue language and culture." The Christian
Science Monitor. (2002): 11 June.
"Their superstitions are infinite, their feast, their medicines, their fishing, their hunting, their wars -- in short almost their whole life turns upon this pivot; dreams, above all have here great credit" (Foner 16). There are a number of value judgments within this quotation; almost all of them are negative. The religious beliefs and practices of the Micmac have been reduced to "superstitions" by the priest. hat is revealing is that almost all of the practices of these people -- including their means of providing food and health care and engaging in social conflict, are likened to "dreams." Yet all of these facets of the Micmac that de Brebeuf names are simply different points of culture that exist between the Europeans and the Native Americans. Because they are different, the priest himself does not believe in them and dismisses them as having a basis in fantasy.
It is interesting to…
Foner, Eric. Voices of Freedom. New York: Bantam. 1991. Print.
Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian is a book written by Don C. Talayesva, a Hopi who learned the ways of white people. Talayesva and Simmons write to educate the reader about the Hopi culture. The book is told from only one man's point-of-view and yet Talayesva writes in a way that introduces all readers to the unique ways of life shared by all the Hopi people. Although the narrative is told from a man's point-of-view, the reader understands what it means to be both a man and a woman in the Hopi society. In addition to discussing matters of gender, the author also delves into issues related to sexuality. hat makes Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian remarkable is the way that the book discusses Hopi culture in relation to the white oppressor. Talayesva writes for a white audience, and is deliberately provocative so that white people…
Talayesva, Don C. And Simmons, Leo William. Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian. Yale University Press: 1963.
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
Somalia Civil war
SOMALIA- CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WA
Columbia Encyclopedia describes the geographical position of Somalia in these words:
Somalia is directly south of the Arabian Peninsula across the Gulf of Aden. It comprises almost the entire African coast of the Gulf of Aden and a longer stretch on the Indian Ocean. It is bounded on the NW by Djibouti, on the W. By Ethiopia, on the SW by Kenya, and on the S. And E. By the Indian Ocean. Mogadishu is the capital. There are 18 regions. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2000)
Somalia has been ruled by various imperial empires. Some of its earlier rulers were the nations of Oman, Turks and Zanzibar. Most of these nations lost control in Somalia. Britain, France and Italy came to this part of the world in the 19th century. Each country has had a say during its rule. It was…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press, Page 43895, 2000
I.M. Lewis: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, I.M. Lewis, Westview Press, 1988
Simons, Anna: Networks of Dissolution: Somalia Undone, Westview Press, 1995
Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Walter M. Clarke, Jeffrey M. Herbst, Westview Press, 1997
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944
One of the events that rocked the world and consequently shaped the world was the WWII that commenced effectively in 1939 and ended in 1945. It is however worth noting that some of the conflicts that eventually ended up in the culmination of the WWII started much earlier. The WWII parse involved majority of the nations, including the powerful nations at that time taking sides and aligning themselves and their military and diplomatic allegiance to either the Allies or the Axis, each side forming their combined forces. The commanding forces in the Allies were France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and to some little extent China (odye-Smith J., 2014). One the other side of the divide the Axis were Italy, Germany and Japan. This war was largely seen as a continuation of the WWI bearing the 20 years of unresolved disputes that emanated from…
Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II
Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE
Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp
Furthermore, while it established Canada as an independent
nation, it also established America. As a war over its previous colonizer,
America can be said to have won a second war of independence. This is
further reflected in considering President Madison's war message to
Congress. Madison appeals to the "honor" of his country, as if Britain has
violated it and it is America's responsibility to retain it (Madison,
1812). Although the war was fought primarily for economic reasons, the
"honor" Madison is referring to was regained during the war as Great
Britain was unable to dominate the United States. In fact, the United
States did more than a good job of fighting the British. Thus, it appears
that the war was fought somewhat over honor, and the United States
maintained their honor in the war. This means that the United States
established itself, and its pride, in the war, and this…
Feldmeth, Greg D. (31 March 1998). U.S. History Resources. Retrieved 3
March 2007 from
Harney, Major W. (1989). The Causes of the War of 1812. Retrieved 4 March
From the beginning of the war, there had been some variation in the Canadian attitude toward the conflict. Canada never questioned the legitimacy of the war and did not question the need for Canadian participation. There were differences of opinion, though, concerning how extensive the Canadian contribution should be. These variations affected the response to calls for enlistment and divided the country as the towns were more willing than the countryside, the prairies more willing than the Atlantic seaboard, and "it was observed that the proportion of enlistments achieved by any social group appeared to vary almost inversely to the length of its connection with Canada. On the one hand, the ritish-born -- the new arrivals with a large proportion of unattached males of military age -- gave the highest percentage of their numbers to the armed services, and, on the other hand, the French Canadians unquestionably gave the…
Ameringer, Charles D. Political Parties of the Americas, 1980s to 1990s: Canada, Latin America, and the West Indie.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Bothwell, Robert. History of Canada since 1867. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.
Boudreau, Joseph a. "Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert "Canada and Worlod War I," the History of Canada (2007), http://www.linksnorth.com/canada-history/canadaandworldwar1.html .
History Of ars
The years of the late 16th century witnessed the colonial conquests of the Americas by the British powers. In "A People's Army" Anderson shows that the King of England was interested in an expansionist policy during this time. The British forces already present in America had laid the ground ready for any war. In defiance of authority, the local people also organized themselves in readiness to face the incoming British forces as well as the French forces that had been hired. Their major aim was to fight and defend their land with all it could take
The author shows that the people who had been in America for far too long as natives had managed to convince many more of their colleagues to stage a fight to defend their heritage. In response to the desire to stay strong, they organized themselves into groups. After this, they undertook…
Fred, Anderson. A People's Army -- (Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War 1984)
Fred, Anderson. A People's Army -- (Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War 1984): p.30
Fred, Anderson. A People's Army -- (Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War 1984): p.52
Fred, Anderson. A People's Army -- (Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War 1984)
The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"
Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.
Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.
Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( http://www.tfo.org/television/emissions/rendezvousvoyageur/en/world/context/firstnations.html ) 9 Feb. 2009.
Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.
Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (
As a result, the majority of European business companies that handled the large number of fur trades were English. The largest of such firms was the Hudson's ay Company established in 1670 (elden, 82). This institution was the center of North American fur trading for more than two hundred years. It was founded by two French fur traders English merchant. The English government granted the company sole trading rights within the Hudson ay region. The development of the fur trade resulted in a greater integration between traders and merchants, and created an entire social system based upon this concept.
The French dominance of the marketplace meant that other European players wanted to gain momentum within the industry. ritish Merchants founded the North West Company in Montreal in order to compete with the stranglehold of Canadian fur trading (Innis, 154). y the late 1700's, fur became a much harder commodity to…
Burley, D., J. Scott Hamilton, and Knut R. Fladmark (1996) Prophecy of the Swan: The Upper Peace River Fur Trade of 1794-1823. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.
Innis, Harold (1956) the Fur Trade in Canada. University of Ontario Press, Totonto.
Rich, E.E. (1966) Montreal and the Fur Trade. McGill University Press, Montreal.
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth and lands in the eastern part of North America.
Native Americans in North America after 1763
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth…
James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self. America: A Concise History (textbook) 2012. pgs. 100-104 and 116-125, 138-142
Social Significance of 1763 in America
An Inevitable First American Revolution
In 1763, France and Spain ceded much of eastern North America to the British as part of the peace deal that took place in Paris on February 10 (Galloway 8). This brought to an end the Seven Years ar, otherwise known as the French and Indian ar. The amount of land that Britain won with its victory was massive, extending east from the Mississippi River, north to the Hudson Bay, and south to Florida. Concessions were also made in an effort to appease France and Spain. The British monarchy returned Havana, Cuba to Spain, a critical way point for ships entering and leaving the Gulf of Mexico and ports south. France retained the northern most sections of Canada around Hudson Bay and several Caribbean Islands, including the sugar-producing economic dynamo Guadalupe.
On the surface, it seemed that all three…
Galloway, Colin G. The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
In general, both sides fought using impromptu raids and very vicious and undercutting tactics. However, this was the traditional fighting method used by Native Americans during this particular era and could be understood in terms of their cultural perspective.
The fifth criteria of just warfare is that "war must be the only possible means of righting the wrong done." This particular standard is another very flexible standard for warfare. oth sides of any conflict must justify their actions as "last resort" even if other opportunities were open for negotiation. However, in this historical context it could be argued that war was inevitable. This is because population tension within the eastern border mandated that a push by the colonials west of the Ohio River was inevitable. As a result, land that was traditionally Native American would ultimately get taken away from their ownership by the colonists. This it is an unavoidable…
A. Britt, Great Indian Chiefs (1938, repr. 1969)
M.F. Schmitt and D.A. Brown, Fighting Indians of the West (1948, repr. 1966)
R.H. Lowie, Indians of the Plains (1954, repr. 1963)
A.M. Josephy, the Patriot Chiefs (1961)
The Algonquian also had harmonious relationships with the French fur trappers who came to this country and Canada to make their livings. In fact, the French bonded with the Algonquians so much that they fought with the Algonquians against their enemies, the Iroquois, during the seventeenth century. The editors of a historical Web site continue, "The Algonquian were among the first North American natives to strike alliances with the French, who adopted Algonquian means of travel and terms like 'canoe' and 'toboggan'" (Editors). This indicates the Algonquian people were eager to strike a balance with the new settlers entering the country, but they were not willing to give up their lands or way of life, something the settlers often demanded as their colonies continued to grow.
Another aspect of the relationship between the Algonquians and the settlers is the issue of disease. Many Algonquian tribes (and others) suffered huge losses…
Bragdon, Kathleen J. The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Northeast. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Editors. "The Algonquians." USHistory.com. 2009. 26 Feb. 2009. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h560.html .
Hatfield, April Lee. "Spanish Colonization Literature, Powhatan Geographies and English Perceptions of Tsenacommacah/Virginia." Journal of Southern History 69.2 (2003): 245+.
Jalalzai, Zubeda. "Race and the Puritan Body Politic." MELUS 29.3-4 (2004): 259+.
The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns had the Algerians and the Native Americans been able to organize en masse in rebellion. Poverty pits neighbor against neighbor in the competition for limited resources.
Furthermore, race and social class become linked together and offered up as false proof that the oppressed groups are inherently inferior. Economic oppression also serves another key goal that helps perpetuate colonial rule: ignorance. Stripping the underclass of access to capital or to the means of production, the ruling class ensures lack of access to…
Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. City Lights Books, 1997.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Azzedine Haddour, Steve Brewer. Routledge, 2001.
French and the Native American: A Mutually Beneficial elationship
When considering the history of the United States and its inception, the most common conception is of Native American tribes being tortured, murdered, and generally emaciated from their contact with the Europeans. And certainly, this was generally the case. However, in the often sad history of contact between the new entrants into the Americas and the native tribes, there are also a few sparks of light, where the native tribes and Europeans in fact benefited from their interactions with each other. Although these benefits were often not without their complications, the relationships between the French and the native tribes with whom they came into contact were generally of a far less violent and murderous nature than most other Indian-European interactions. Indeed, the mutual benefits of these relationships began based upon the fur trade and later progressed to intermarriage and intercultural relationships.…
Templeton, K.A. (n.d.). Trail of Tears: The Native American "Problem" in the New World. Retrieved from: https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~katster/Hist16p.htm
University of Ottawa (n.d.). European Colonization and the Native Peoples. Site for Language Management in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/european_colonization
White, S. (2013). Wild Frenchmen and Frenchified Indians: Material Culture and Race in Colonial Louisiana. University of Pennsylvania Press
The history of Indian and European scalping)
Another factor that should be considered in the discussion of the origins of European scalping traditions is the evidence in etymology. There is evidence of the prior knowledge and use of scalping in the original usage and understanding of the word ' scalping'.
The noun "scalp" (from a Scandinavian root) existed in English long before the seventeenth century. It had two meanings of different ages. The older meaning was "the top or crown of the head; the skull or cranium," and the more recent one was the skin covering that upper part of the head, "usually covered with hair." ut in 1601, Holland's edition of Pliny added a third meaning from a literary acquaintance with the "Anthropophagi" (Scythians) near the North Pole, who wore their enemies' "scalpes haire and al, instead of mandellions or stomachers before their breasts."
Researchers have also…
Ancient Evidence Similar to Indian Scalping Found in China's Hinterland. May 19, 2005. http://www.china.org.cn/e-kaogu/2001/36.htm
Axtell, James. The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. Vol. 12. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Binder, a. Early development of arrest as a concept and process ERCES Journal. May 19, 2005. http://www.erces.com/journal/articles/actuel/v04_02.htm#_ftnref107
Brooke, Christopher. The Saxon & Norman Kings. London: B.T. Batsford, 1963.
African and Native Americans
When discussing the experience of minorities in early America, it is tempting to fall into one of two extremes, either by imagining that the treatment of minorities by European colonizers was equal across the board, or else was so different that one cannot find congruities between experiences. Like most things in history, however, the truth is far more complex, because although the same religious, political, and economic ideologies motivated Europeans' treatment of Native Americans and Africans, the effects were mixed. In some instances Native Americans were treated to the same kind of brutality and disregard as those Africans caught up in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but more frequently, European colonizers attempted to treat Native Americans as something closer to equals in an attempt to manipulate them into favorable actions, such trade alliances or military support. Furthermore, the experiences of Native Americans and Africans in America prior…
Clark, Andrew F. "The Atlantic Slave Trade Revisited." Journal of Third World Studies 22
Maass, John R. "The Frontier War for American Independence/The French and Indian War."
The Journal of Military History 69 (2005): 228-230.
Last of the Mohicians
James Fennimore Cooper's The Last of The Mohicans was published in 1826, part of a pentology, but the best known work for contemporary readers. The story takes place in 1757 during the French and Indian War, when France and Great Britain were at odds for dominance of the North American Colonies. During this war, the French made treaties and allied themselves with many Native American tribes to up the balance between the far more numerous British and colonialists. It was written in a popular genre of the time in which historical accuracy came second and numerous inaccuracies in terms of Native culture were simply overlooked, or became part of White popular culture (Peck). Ironically, there is a famous American author who took great pains to deride the material, Mark Twain. Twain found the novel lacking in variety with excessive verbiage, and even suggested that before praising…
Boles, J., ed. A Companion to the American South. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. Print.
Cooper, J.F. The Last of the Mohicans. New York: MacMillan, 1921. Print.
Franklin, W. The New World of James Fenimore Cooper. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Print.
Meacham, J. American Lion. New York: Random House, 2008. Print.
American Revolution after 1763
There are several factors leading to the American Revolution. During the 18th century, the ritish colonists in North America established themselves as a new nation. Increasingly, they had begun to see themselves as American rather than ritish. This new consciousness contributed to increasing resentment of any ritish attempts at control and influence in America. ritish action deemed unfair by American colonies, such as taxes on tea and sugar, contributed significantly to this problem.
Exacerbated American Grievances after 1763
The Stamp Act is one of the greatest ritish thorns in the American side when 1766 arrived (enjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act, p. 3). The problem was that this tax had to be paid by order of a Parliament where the colonials were not specifically represented. Franklin in fact threatens the ritish with a loss of respect and "affection" from the colonials if this Act were…
"History 205 - Documents for Chapters 5&6.
Garraty, John A. & McCaughey, Robert A. The American Nation: A history of the United States. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
1776: Adam Smith opposes Mercantilism (1776), p. 1
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…
"5b. Indentured servants." The Southern Colonies. U.S. History. 2012. [1 Feb 2013]
Pearson, Ellen Holmes. "The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction." Teaching History.
[1 Feb 2013.]
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…
Vine Deloria Jr.'s Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto
An Analysis of Vine Deloria, Jr.'s Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto
One of the more profound developments of the current Native American movement has been an effort on the part of Indians themselves to record their own history in order to help them gain control of their future. When Deloria promulgated his "Indian Manifesto" in 1969 with the title of Custer Died for Your Sins, it became apparent that he was at the forefront of this movement and the issues he identifies continue to be at the forefront of Native American concerns today. This paper will provide an overview of Deloria's book, followed by a discussion of six of the main points made by the author. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
According to his editors, Vine Deloria,…
Deloria, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, New York: Macmillan, 1969.
ritish agricultural revolution and English settlement patterns in their colonies in New England. It is the authors contention that the world view of the English influenced their agricultural practices and the way that these practices changed the ecology of the land in New England. While largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, it did however have commonalities with the Middle and Southern colonies, a relentless drive West and a decimation of Native American cultures and populations. Needless to say, there were huge differences between this English world view and English agricultural policies and the Native American world view, agricultural practices and approach to the environment.
While agriculture was largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, the idea in the English settlers mind to keep pushing West to find arable land was alive and well and continued throughout the colonial period. Surprisingly enough, this English…
Canterbery, E. Ray. The Making of Economics: The foundation. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific
Publishing Company, 2003.
Cochrane, William W. Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis . Rochester, MN:
Univ Of Minnesota Press, 1993.
Thomas Paine was an earlier conqueror of the special association that was formed between America and France. His part in this association was initiated with his responsibility of the post of American Congress Secretary of Foreign Affairs where he continually used dialogue to make relations between the two better. He retained this post throughout the American evolution. Paine, however, is better noted for his works written throughout the American and French evolutions Eras. In his writings, Paine offered spirited protection of accepted autonomy, human rights, and the republican government. Both Common Sense (1776) ights of Man (1791-1792) stick out as the most broadly read political areas from the era. Paine's distinctive global thought also can serve as the building blocks for liberal cosmopolitanism in worldwide relations. His unrelenting faith in aspects of democratization, free trade, and respect for human rights being the factors that cut back worldwide conflict stands among…
Fruchtman, Jack, Jr. "Thomas Paine and the Religion of Nature." Johns Hopkins University Press . 1993.
Fruchtman, Jack, Jr. "Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom." Four Walls Eight Windows. 1994.
Keane, John. "Tom Paine: A Political Life." Little, Brown. 1995.
world's nations and citizens was the Cold ar. Indeed, slave trade was important, and the formation of American colonies in the 17th century has had an enormous impact on the history of the planet. Also the Seven Years' ar and imperialism had enormous implications and impacts. But the years of the Cold ar stand out as more pivotal in terms of the history of the world. This paper will explain why the Cold ar was most important.
Slave Trade: The International Slavery Museum (ISM) explains that European slave traders "forcibly uprooted millions of people" from est African and est Central Africa between the years 1500 to 1900. In particular, the 16th century was a century in which millions of African peoples were forcibly shipped in cruelly over-crowded slave ships to the Americas. These individuals from Africa were "…farmers, merchants, priests, soldiers, goldsmiths and musicians" (ISM). hile crossing the oceans from…
Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North
America, 1754-1766. New York: Knopf Publishing, 2007.
International Slavery Museum. "The trade triangle." Retrieved December 8, 2013, from http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk . 2008.