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Medical Antitrust

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23872766

Federal Trade Commission ruled on charges of anti-trust leveled against the Wisconsin Chiropractic Association. The WCA and its executive director, Russell A. Leonard, had been charged with organizing a conspiracy among members of the WCA, which represent 90% of the chiropractors in Wisconsin, of conspiring to force health care providers to pay higher rates for chiropractic services than they had previously paid.

According to the proceeding records (FTC, 2003) and published statements by the FTC (FTC, 2000a), the plan began when the federal government as well as many insurance companies adopted new billing codes to cover chiropractic treatments. In addition, two other chiropractors, Michael T. erkley, D.C., and Mark A. Cassellius, D.C., settled with the FTC on similar charges (FTC, 2000a).

The final settlement included about 2,800 words of restrictions on the WCA and Leonard, some of them extending to the year 2020 (FTC, 2003).

The FTC alleged that the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brookings Institution. 2002. "The Effect of Antitrust Policy on Consumer Welfare: Assembling the Empirical Evidence." June. Accessed via the Internet 2/27/03.  http://www.ftc.gov/be/seminardocs/antitrustpolicy-consumerwelfare.pdf 

Federal Trade Commission (FTC). 2000. "Wisconsin Chiropractic Association and Its Director Agree to Settle FTC Charges of Price-Fixing." March 7. Accessed via the Internet 2/27/03.  http://www.ftc.gov/opa /2000/03/wischiro.htm.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC). 2000. Docket No. C-3943 Decision and Order.May 18, 2000. Accessed via the Internet 2/27/03.  http://www.ftc.gov/os/2000/05/wisconsin.do.htm 

Federal Trade Commission (FTC). 2003. "HEARINGS ON7 HEALTH CARE and COMPETITION, LAW, AND POLICY." October 1. Accessed via the Internet 2/27/03.  http://www.ftc.gov/ogc/healthcarehearings/031001ftctrans.pdf
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Health Care -- SLP --

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47813554

Realistically this compliance and assistance should be sought and used before, during and after negotiations with other health care organizations with which this organization might merge or enter a joint venture. Furthermore, the proposed contract itself should be passed by the FTC's Office of the General Counsel or its designee for approval before final ratification of the contract.

3. Conclusion

In order to merge and operate in a joint venture acceptable to the FTC, the organization must be mindful of Title 15 of the U.S. Code, specifically Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 18, Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1, 2, and Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. In addition, due to the FTC's recent special interest in the mergers/joint ventures of health care organizations, particularly but not solely in connection with price fixing, the organization should assume that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cornell University Law School. (n.d.). Legal Information Institute - 15 U.S.C. Section 1. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from www.law.cornell.edu Web site:  http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15 /1" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Anti-Trust the Conduct of the

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 93629065

Even non-chiropractic patients would be hurt, as the costs might be passed onto all users of all components of the health insurance plans who were being effectively extorted for money.

The ultimate settlement that emerged prohibited the CA "from fixing prices for any chiropractic goods or services, or the terms of third-party payer contracts," which seems more than fair and reasonable -- it seems overly lenient given the damage that was done ("isconsin Chiropractic Association and its director agree to settle FTC charges of price-fixing," 2008, FTC). However, because price-fixing can be difficult to prove, some of this leniency on the part of the FTC may be due to the need to engage in a settlement rather than a lengthy court battle with the CA. Given the centrality of the organization's head Russell a. Leonard, in engaging in such tactics, demanding his resignation seems not only fair, but reasonable.

However,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Welcome to the bureau of competition." (2008). Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Website. Retrieved 26 Aug 2008 at  http://www.ftc.gov/bc/index.shtml 

Wisconsin Chiropractic Association and its director agree to settle FTC charges of price-fixing." (7 Mar 2008). Retrieved 26 Aug 2008 at  http://www.ftc.gov/opa /2000/03/wischiro.shtm" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Against Jane Claiming to Be Hispanic-American in

Words: 1096 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78504409

against Jane claiming to be Hispanic-American in her ads.

The main argument against Jane claiming to be Hispanic-American in her ads is that it is dishonest. Neither she nor most of her employees are Hispanic, and it appears that the ad would violate the concept of truth in advertising and expose her to liability. Likewise, at first blush, it seems as if there are no good arguments for Jane claiming to be Hispanic-American in her ads. However, Jane needs to increase sales to keep the business afloat. Hispanic-American customers may be more willing to buy products from a Hispanic-owned business. The issue becomes whether the fact that Jane is (or, rather, is not) Hispanic is a material fact. If Jane was running a Mexican restaurant, her ethnicity might be critical. However, unless there is something culturally significant about the clothing that depends on Jane's ethnicity, it seems unlikely that her…… [Read More]

References

Federal Trade Commission. (2001). Advertising FAQ's: a guide for small businesses.

Retrieved from  http://business.ftc.gov/documents/bus35-advertising-faqs-guide-small-business 

Federal Trade Commission. (Unk.). Advertising and marketing basics. Retrieved from:

 http://business.ftc.gov/advertising-and-marketing/advertising-and-marketing-basics
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Legislation Protecting Privacy in the

Words: 1904 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27120994



In general, the CDT urges the enactment of legislation organized around FIPs. Such practices are guided by certain principles: transparency; individual participation; purpose specification; data minimization; use limitation; data quality and integrity; security; accountability and auditing. (CDT Comments, 10-11). These principles have been at the heart of privacy legislation since the Privacy Act of 1974. (Dep't of Homeland Security).

For example, the CDT advocates for consumer privacy legislation that regulates both the online and offline data collection and management practices by advertisers and that authorizes the Federal Trade Commission to make regulations specifically targeted at these practices. (CDT Comments, 3). With respect to DPI, the CDT has asked Congress and the European Union to engage in fact-finding about how ISPs are using DPI, so that privacy legislation can be designed to distinguish between the legitimate and illegitimate uses of DPI. (CDT Comments, 5-6)

Conclusion

The only thing consistent about the…… [Read More]

References

Center for Democracy and Technlogy. Comments of the Center for Democracy and Technology to the European Commission on the Matter of the Consultation on the Legal Framework for the Fundamental Right to Protection of Personal Data. December 31, 2009. Accessed on June 1, 2010 at  http://www.cdt.org/issue/baseline-privacy-legislation 

Federal Trade Commission. Privacy Online: Fair Information Practices in the Electronic Marketplace. 2000.

Federal Trade Commission. 2010. Enforcing Privacy Promises: Section 5 of the FTC Act. Web. Accessed on June 2, 2010 at  http://www.ftc.gov/privacy/privacyinitiatives/promises.html .

Federal Trade Commission. 2010. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Accessed on June 2, 2010 at  http://www.ftc.gov/privacy/privacyinitiatives/glbact.html
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Oligopolies Part 1 One Proposed Merger Is

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49069929

Oligopolies

Part 1) One proposed merger is Omnicare's bid to purchase Pharmerica (FTC, 2012). The FTC has defined the industry as "long-term care pharmacy" and these are the two largest firms in that industry. The FTC has sued to block this proposed takeover. Pharmerica is the only national competitor for Omnicare. Firms in this industry work with institutions to provide pharmacy services. The industry has some fragmentation, but there are only two national players in Omnicare and Pharmerica. The FTC feels that the combined entity would have such strong bargaining power that consumers would not have adequate choice, prices would rise and suppliers would also suffer from this extreme leverage.

From Omnicare's point-of-view, the merger would give it a dominant position in its industry. Pharmerica is resisting the takeover, as this is a hostile takeover. Pharmerica would likely be absorbed into Omnicare to the detriment of its own operations. Suppliers…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

FTC.gov. (2012). FTC sues to block Omnicare's bid to buy rival pharmacy provider Pharmerica. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved February 3, 2012 from  http://www.ftc.gov/opa /2012/01/omnicare.shtm

Investopedia. (2011). Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. Investopedia. Retrieved February 3, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hhi.asp#axzz1lFGk3bQ3 

Sentementes, G. (2011). I, robot, in the pharmacy. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved February 3, 2012 from  http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2011-04-18/business/bs-bz-bronfein-pharmacy-20110418_1_institutional-pharmacy-robots-michael-g-bronfein
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Sherman Act Clayton Act

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16249575

U.S. laws

There are a number of different laws that govern fair, balanced and competitive practices. One major category is the antitrust laws. Antitrust laws seeks to create a competitive environment by preventing companies from obtaining the ability to abuse their market positions. Ensuring that each industry and market has a healthy amount of competition has been the work of a series of acts that govern antitrust practices.

The most significant piece of antitrust legislation is the Sherman Act, which was passed in 1890 in order to define antitrust activities. The act was passed in response to monopoly abuses on the part of a number of companies, and the recognition that a successful capitalist economy required at least enough market intervention on the part of government to prevent the formation of unnatural monopolies (FTC, 2014).

There have been subsequent laws that have enhanced the Sherman Act, and refined it, largely…… [Read More]

References

DoJ (2014). Horizontal merger guidelines. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from http://www.justice.gov/atr/public/guidelines/hmg-2010.html

FTC. (2014). The antitrust laws. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from  http://www.ftc.gov/tips-advice/competition-guidance/guide-antitrust-laws/antitrust-laws 

FTC. (2014, 2) Price discrimination: Robinson-Patman violations. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from  http://www.ftc.gov/tips-advice/competition-guidance/guide-antitrust-laws/price-discrimination-robinson-patman 

OUSTR. (2014) Anti-dumping Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from  http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/wto-multilateral-affairs/wto-issues/trade-remedies/anti-dumping
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Fetal Treatment in Perusing the

Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4459830



Other key elements of the website included additional information on other congenital birth defects that the FTC also specialized in. These diseases included; Congenital Cystic Adnomatoid Malformation, ulmonary Sequestration, Gastroschisis and even Urinary Tract Obstruction.

The website included information on numerous other defects suffered by infants and in utero babies. Helpful information contained on the website could also be found on the other pages of the website that are conducive to those individuals who are familiar with the methods of traversing such websites. That information included an easy method for ascertaining and then contacting the correct physician for any particular fetal defect. If an individual, or concerned couple, did not know of what particular defect affected their yet-to-be born child, or just wished to have a physician contact them with further information, the website allowed them to do that as well. The website listed over 900 physicians available for consultation…… [Read More]

Perhaps most importantly, the website seemed to provide a modicum of hope to those people whose circumstances may have seem the most hopeless. With the information provided by the website, people who may have been facing the possibility of a death of a newborn, even before it had been born, could now have some degree of comfort and strength. This seemed to be the strongest point of the website, and perhaps because the website was so straightforward in its approach the comforting derived from the website may have been even stronger than if it had attempted to sugarcoat the reality of the situation.

One of the most interesting aspects of the website was the video that can be watched just by clicking on the link. Many of the attributes of the website, including the video, are copyrighted by Kids 'n' Moms 2006, which could be why the video was so well done. Many of the professional notes included on the website are attributed to Dr. Robert Ball, Perinotologist, FTC, UCSF and Dr. Kerilyn Nobahara, FTC, UCSF.

The website seems to be a perfect mixture of professionalism and down to earth stories, and should be accessible and effective for many individuals.
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Mergers There Are Several Legal

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 68032883

It is important that we be allowed to pursue our business interests with a minimum of government interference. Given that the FTC and DoJ already enforce antitrust legislation, it seems unethical that the FCC also enforce such codes, specifically focused on our particular business.

I believe DI should support the proposed changes. The company would benefit from the opportunity to expand our media properties both horizontally and vertically. It would also give us greater opportunity to exit the business should we so desire in future. Ethical concerns about media consolidation are largely unfounded, especially in light of the way that the Internet provides a low-cost voice for alternative media outlets. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 has significantly reduced barriers to entry in the television business, so the free market can dictate which outlets will have an audience and which will not. Moreover, the FCC's Fairness Doctrine, upheld by the Supreme…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Klinenberg, Eric. (2006). Mega-Merger Mania. The Nation. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at  http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060703/klinenberg 

No author. (2008). Hart-Scott-Rodino. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at  http://www.ftc.gov/bc/hsr/ 

McChesney, Robert W. & Nichols, John. (2008). Who'll Unplug Big Media? Stay Tuned. The Nation. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at  http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080616/mcchesney 

No author. (2008). Telecommunications Act of 1996. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at  http://www.fcc.gov/telecom.html
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Garment Evaluation

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72362323

Women Pea Coat

Major components

This apparel is a wool-blended pea coat selling at a price of 62.80 dollars and available online at Forever 21.com. The length of the pea coat is 32" from the high point shoulder to the where it falls on the thigh or hem. It adapts a traditional, military style silhouette with a slight slim in the middle section with modern proportions. The coat is belted, a sleek without much detail and has a hidden hook-bar closure at the top. It is double breasted with two front slanting pockets in addition to a hidden snap button at the bottom. This coat has a slight Napoleonic collar with sleeves 25" in length from the high pleated shoulder. It is fully lined with 100% polyester with the shell woven and comprising of 48% polyester, 45% wool, 4% acrylic, 2% rayon, and 1% nylon. The apparel is machine washable…… [Read More]

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Adults on Secured Online Environments

Words: 12910 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48598250

Next, the researcher will conduct a query of the computer awareness of education administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the New Orleans school district, then evaluation of documented data will provide a research base of the required elements needed to consider while developing a framework that can be used as a guide by educational leaders and parents for the protection of children at school and at home. esearch areas will include law enforcement agencies, various information systems security sites that provide security solutions that can be implemented in schools and in the home, other avenues of research will include interviews with a multitude of technical personnel proficient in hardware, software and network technology utilized for computer security.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide recommendations from experienced practitioners of detailed, hands on instruction or guides that even the computer illiterate parent or senior caregiver can use to…… [Read More]

References

Atkinson, E.N. (1995). Interactive dynamic graphics for exploratory survival analysis. The American Statistician, 49(1), 77.

Barker, C., & Groenne, P. (1996). Advertising on the World Wide Web. [online]. Available: http://www.samkurser.dk/advertising/research.htm[1998, April 6].

Bever, T.G., Smith, M.L., Bengen, B., & Johnson, T.G. (1975). Young viewers' troubling response to TV ads. Harvard Business Review, 54, 109-120.

Cai, X., & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with Web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 197.
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Action Fairness on Your Own

Words: 893 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18619472

This limits the ability for businesses to make use of telemarketing as an advertising technique. hile most people feel that telemarketers are an annoyance, above all else, telemarketers have also been accused of deceptive practices. This act will make it easier to regulate businesses that use telemarketers. Already, in November 2007, "the FTC announced six settlements and a federal court action against companies that violated the Do Not Call provisions of the Telemarketing Sales Rule, resulting in millions of dollars in civil penalties for rule violations" (FTC Chairman and Commissioners Testify Before Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on proposed 'Federal Trade Commission Reauthorization Act of 2008'," FTC: Office of Public Affairs, 2008).

Overall, the most potentially significant aspect of the act is its provisions regarding subprime mortgages. The dream of American home ownership for a long time has been taken as a given. However, legislators are beginning to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blumenthal, Rob & Jenilee Keeft. "Inouye and Dorgan Introduce Bill to Reauthorize Federal Trade Commission." 8 Apr 2008. 10 Jun 2008.  http://commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressReleases.Detail&PressRelease_id=4585a51b-530e-4d5a-8c95-a627b52d1573&Month=4&Year=2008 

FTC Chairman and Commissioners Testify Before Senate Committee on Commerce,

Science, and Transportation on proposed 'Federal Trade Commission Reauthorization Act of 2008'" FTC: Office of Public Affairs. 8 Apr 2008. 10 Jun 2008.  http://www.ftc.gov/opa /2008/04/reauth.shtm" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Intrastrate Acquisition of People's Natural

Words: 2288 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 52966006

" (Schlossberg, 2004)

FERC analyzed while making a review of the electric utility mergers proposition, the transaction being proposed "likely effect" on (1) competition;

(2) rates; and (3) regulation. (Schlossberg, 2004)

There are stated to be "no antitrust exemptions for transactions subject to FERC review and such mergers are regularly reviewed by either the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) or the Division." (Schlossberg, 2004) The Securities and Exchange Commission had previously held jurisdiction for reviewing acquisitions of stock of electric utility companies however, the authority provided under the Public Utilities Holding Company Act of 1935 was repealed in 2005.

III. FORESEEAILITY DOCTRINE REHAILITATION

The work of Trujillo (2006) entitled: "State Action Antitrust Exemption Collides with Deregulation: Rehabilitating the Foreeseability Doctrine" states that a capitalist society that has policies which were established for the purpose of regulating "the promotion of competition in traditionally regulated industries such as the electrical market seems counterintuitive.…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ewing, Saul (2007) FTC Complaint May Seek to Erode 'State Action' Immunity of Utilities. Staying Ahead Bulletin April 2007. Utility Law. Online available at:  http://www.saul.com/common/publications/pdf_1285.pdf 

Schlossberg, Robert S. (2004) Mergers and Acquisitions: Understanding the Antitrust Issues. American Bar Association 2004. Google, Books Online available at:  http://books.google.com/books?id=JmcoRxfB1OsC 

Trujillo, Elizabeth (2006) State Action Antitrust Exemption Collides with Deregulation: Rehabilitating the foreseeability Doctrine. Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law. Online available at:  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4048/is_200601/ai_n16410098/
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Business Law Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals

Words: 2742 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 20041024

The grand jury returned a 112-count indictment against Steve Warshak, company president; his mother, Harriet Warshak; general counsel Paul Kellogg; and former employees Charles Clarke Jr., Steven Pugh and Amar Chavan. A company called TCI Media, which was allegedly used to launder money, was also part of the indictment. The charges include 77 counts of money laundering, 12 counts of mail fraud and four counts of bank fraud (Berkeley president, others indicted for fraud, 2006).

After the Grand Jury indictments were handed down The U.S. Attorney's Office in Cincinnati filed a new complaint against Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals that included the freezing of various assets worth almost $2 million. The complaint alleged that Berkeley owner Steven Warshak and others participated in a complex, large scale mail and wire fraud operation. This amounted to another felony charge being added to the long list that had already been handed down. The frozen assets…… [Read More]

References

1. Berkeley Nutraceuticals files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. (2008). Retrieved June 10, 2009, from Business Courier Web site:

 http://www.bizjournals.com/cincinnati/stories/2008/09/15/daily26.html 

2. Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals, Inc. (2009). Retrieved June 10, 2009, from Business Courier

Web site:
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Advertising to Children Pediatricians Call

Words: 2778 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77365582

As expected to prove H3, the fourth graders could recall a median of 6 items about the ad while the first graders recalled a median of 4 items.

The ultimate conclusion of the researchers was that children "can recall a reasonable amount of information from a single exposure to a television advertisement and are capable of sharing information accurately" (Maher et al., 2006, p. 30). The authors view their work here as a beginning point for further study. In the conclusion to the article, they suggest that the next step would be to see how much children recall if they were in an unstructured environment and perhaps not paying close attention to the advertisement as the children in this experiment did.

International food advertising, pester power and its effects"

In a British study directed by Laura McDrmott, Terry O'Sullivan, Martine Stead, and Gerard Hastings the power of pestering by children…… [Read More]

References

FTC not sweet on junk-food ads targeting children. (2006, Nov. 7). The Washington

Post, p. A1.

Maher, J, Hu, M. & Kolbe, R. (2006). Children's recall of television ad elements.

Journal of Advertising, 35(1), 23-33.
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Private University Is Selling a Share or

Words: 1077 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28203394

Private University is selling a share, or something else. At the outset of the Act, "security" is defined as "any note, stock, treasury stock, security future, security-based swap, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate…" and many others are subject to the law. The key is that the security creates a share of income for the holder, whether in the form of debt or equity. Options for later purchase are also included in the definition of security.

The asset in question is a "share" that entitles the bearer to college credits in any school at the future date. A college credit is not a claim to a cash flow, nor it is claim to equity. Therefore, this is not a security. Rather, it is a coupon by which a product can later be acquired. There is no difference between this asset…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

FTC. (2013). The antitrust laws. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from  http://www.ftc.gov/bc/antitrust/antitrust_laws.shtm 

FTC. (2013). Horizontal merger guidelines. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from  http://www.ftc.gov/os/2010/08/100819hmg.pdf 

Securities Act of 1933. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from  http://www.sec.gov/about/laws/sa33.pdf 

Stewart, J. (2011). Antitrust suit is simple calculus. New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/10/business/att-and-t-mobile-merger-is-a-textbook-case.html?pagewanted=all
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Online Profiling the Extensive Collection

Words: 2797 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24130980

They worked with the FTC to define the following four Fair Information Practices, rules designed to prevent companies from abusing the information they receive through online profiling (Computer law tip of the week, 2000):

Rule 1 (Notice): A company must notify customers that it uses online profiling to track their online habits. If it collects personally identifiable information about customers, such as their names, addresses or telephone numbers, the company's website must clearly and unambiguously notify them of this fact before the company collects this information.

Rule 2 (Choice): Depending on the type of information a company collects, there must be opt-in and opt-out options. Opt-in, or obtaining the customer's permission, is required to link personally identifiable information that a company has about a customer such as name, address or telephone number with data acquired about Web surfing habits. Opt-out means that the customers have to be given the chance…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arnis, D. (2000, Feburary 1). Online profiling: A threat or a benefit?. http://www.netfreedom.org/news.asp?item=106

Berman, J. (2000, May 25). Privacy online: Fair information practices in the electronic marketplace.  http://www.cdt.org/testimony/000525berman.shtml 

Clickstream concerns. http://cse.stanford.edu/class/cs201/projects-00-01/cookies/index.html

Computer law tip of the week (2000, August 14).  http://www.mgrossmanlaw.com/articles/2000/online_profiling.htm
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Personal Privacy Threats the Various

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44090500

trackedinamerica.org.

Some of the violations of civil and human rights that have resulted for the PA include "aggressive deportations, crackdowns at borders, surveillance of mosques and homes...destroyed livelihoods, splintered families and the loss of a sense of belonging and citizenship," the group asserts on their eb site. Moreover, many peace activists, demonstrators at anti-war rallies, animal-rights groups, student organizations, and critics of the U.S. policy towards Cuba, have been monitored and added to FBI and CIA databases as potential "enemies of America."

ID CHIPS: An article in ABA Journal (Tebo, 2006) points out that employees of some companies are being asked to have ID chips implanted in their arms so their employers "can monitor their movements," Tebo writes. And while the company that is using these ID chips, (www.Cityatcher.com) can rightly say absolute security is pivotal to their customers, many experts, the article continues, "worry that the law is not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Civil Liberties Union. (2006). Federal Court Strikes down NSA Warrantless

Surveillance Program. Retrieved 27 Oct. 2006 at  http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/26489prs20060817.html .

Berghel, Hal. (2006). Phishing Monger and Posers. Communications of the ACM, 49(4), 21-25.

Eggan, Dan. (2005). Bush Authorized Domestic Spying. Washington Post, Retrieved 27 Oct, 2006, at  http://www.washingtonpost.com .
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Protecting Yourself Online

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30690533

Identity Theft: Understanding of the Concept of Protecting Personal Information

The recent scandal involving stolen credit card and personal information from Target consumers over the Thanksgiving 'black Friday' shopping holiday weekend dramatically highlighted the risks of even using a simple credit card. Identity theft -- whether of credit card numbers, social security numbers, or other vital private information -- is a constant, very real worry for many consumers. Depending on the nature and type of the identity theft, a variety of remedies are available although there is no single, surefire solution that will always protect one's identity online or at brick and mortar stores. Thanks to the ubiquity of technology, identity theft is far easier and more common than it was in previous generations.

If you suspect that your credit-related information has been stolen, the first step is to place a fraud alert with one of the three major credit…… [Read More]

References

Create an identity theft alert. (2014). FTC. Retrieved from:

 http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0277-create-identity-theft-report 

EFF's top ways to protect your online privacy. (2002). EFF. Retrieved from:

 https://www.eff.org/wp/effs-top-12-ways-protect-your-online-privacy
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Antitrust Case Against Apple

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31914189

Antitrust Laws: Apple's Case

Competition is a vital element of any vibrant marketplace. Thanks to competition, both businesses and individuals get to benefit from lower prices, increased product variety, higher-quality commodities, and greater innovation. Antitrust laws are meant to ensure that consumers are protected from unfair business practices and anticompetitive mergers, and that consequently, effective levels of competition are created and sustained in the economy.

Antitrust laws differ from country to country and, at times, from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In the U.S., antitrust laws include the Sherman Act of 1890 and the Federal Trade Commission and Clayton Acts, both of 1914 (FTC, 2014). The Sherman Act, whose violation is punishable by criminal law, outlaws any attempts to monopolize a market or restrain trade through rig bids, divide markets, or price fixation (FTC, 2014). The Federal Trade Commission Act, on the other hand, illegalizes any '"unfair methods of competition' and 'unfair…… [Read More]

References

Carmody, T. (2012). DOJ Files Antitrust Suit against Apple and Five Publishers over E-Book Pricing. Wired. Retrieved 1 March 2014 from  http://www.wired.com/2012/04/doj-files-antitrust-suit-against-apple-and-five-publishers/ 

Catan, T., Trachtenberg, J. & Bray, C. (2012). U.S. Alleges E-Book Scheme. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 April 2014 from  http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304444604577337573054615152 

FTC. (2014). The Antitrust Laws. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved 1 March 2014 from  http://www.ftc.gov/tips-advice/competition-guidance/guide-antitrust-laws/antitrust-laws 

Herther, N. (2013). Apple Gambles on Winning E-Book Antitrust Suit. Information Today. Retrieved 1 April 2014 from  http://newsbreaks.infotoday.com/NewsBreaks/Apple-Gambles-on-Winning-Ebook-Antitrust-Suit-90274.asp
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Deceptive Marketing

Words: 1595 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64814341

Deceptive Marketing

Unethical Practices in Marketing: Deceptive Marketing

Business ethics requires that business organizations should act in a manner that is morally and ethically upright. One of the areas where ethical behavior is crucial is marketing. Marketing is one of the major functions within an organization. It is basically concerned with communicating and reaching out to customers in an attempt to promote products, services, and/or brands. Nonetheless, unethical behavior in marketing is not a rare phenomenon. There are often instances of misleading or deceptive advertising, exaggerated claims, using fear tactics, spamming, exploitation, and other practices that fit the unethical tag. If not addressed, these practices can in the long run affect an organization's reputation. Deceptive marketing is one of the common forms of unethical behavior within the marketing realm. This paper discusses this practice. Following a definition of deceptive marketing, the paper pays attention to regulations for deceptive marketing and…… [Read More]

References

Competition Bureau. (2015). False or misleading representations and deceptive marketing practices. Retrieved from  http://www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb - bc.nsf/eng/03133.html

DeMers, J. (2017, May 17). 5 common unethical marketing practices: are you guilty. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2017/05/17/5-common- unethical-marketing-practices-are-you-guilty/#385ba03c2f27

Federal Trade Commission (FTC). (n.d.). Truth in advertising. Retrieved from  https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/media-resources/truth-advertising 

Ferrell, O., & Hartline, M. (2014). Marketing strategy: text and cases. 6th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.
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B & B Custom Woodworks

Words: 16727 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99755175

Custom Woodworks, Inc.

Overview of Small Business in America

Finding a definition of what is meant by small business can be difficult. Even the small business administration has difficulty agreeing as to what is meant by a small business. Currently, the small business administration considers a small business to be one that has fewer than 250 employees, or wholesalers whose annual sales amount to less than $5 million. For retail establishments, they must have less than $1 million a year (Blackford, 2003). This was the definition that has been used since 1953. However, 30 years later, of the size of businesses grew and the small business administration adjusted their definition to any firm with 500 or fewer employees. However, it also noted that an acceptable number of employees differed by industry group. etail sales only firms must have 100 or fewer employees to be considered in the small business category…… [Read More]

References

Arkansas Small Business and Technology Center (ASBTDC) (n.d.) Marketing for Small Businesses. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://asbdc.ualr.edu/business-information/4502-small-business-marketing.asp

Bassi, L., & McMurrer, D. (2005) What to do when people are your most important asset, Handbook of Business Strategy, 6 (1): 219-224.

Black, T. (2010). How to Improve Your E-Mail Marketing. Inc.com. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from  http://www.inc.com/guides/2010/05/email-marketing-tips.html 

Blackford, M. (2003). A History of Small Business in America. Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press,
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Adolescent's Awareness and Their Lack

Words: 11261 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10498624

Studying a sample of 153 top commercial Web sites directed at children under 13, the CME found that COPPA has spurred changes in Web sites' data collection practices. Web sites had limited the amount and type of information (e.g., name, postal address, phone number, age) collected from children, and there was a three-fold increase in the posting of privacy policy information explaining sites' data collection practices. A few sites found innovative solutions (e.g., anonymous registration) that allowed children to interact with site content without revealing personal information. Overall, however, the Center found that many sites were not doing their best to comply with the provisions: Most (66%) did not place links to privacy policies in "clear and prominent" places, and only some sites (38%) obtained parental consent in accordance with key provisions. Further, researchers pointed out that in trying to discourage children under 13 from entering personal information, some sites…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (Aug., 2001). SexEd.com: Values and norms in Web-based sexuality education. Journal of Sex Research, 38(3), 241-251.

Beebe, T.J., Asche, S.E., Harrison, P.A., & Quinlan, K.B. (Aug., 2004). Heightened vulnerability and increased risk-taking among adolescent chat room users: Results from a statewide school survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 116-123.

Borzekowski, Dina L.G. & Rickert, Vaughn I. (2001b). Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: A new resource that crosses barriers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 813-817.

Brown, J.D. (Feb., 2002). Mass media influences on sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 42-45.
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Government's Proposed Investigation Into Google

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52131266

The possibility exists that the company could go bankrupt if these fines are levied. Therefore, all of the top people at Google, as well as its top stock holders, have a particular interest in seeing this issue resolved in Google's favor, as their incomes depend on it. Google's lawyers also have an interest in seeing this resolved amicably for the company, as a large portion of their income comes from their work for Google, and because it will shine a favorable light on them as attorneys to be able to win this case for their client.

The top company executives who are present in the audience include the president, vice-president, and the heads of all of Google's departments, including the heads of Google's other products, such as Google +1, Blogger, YouTube, Google Voice, and others. These are all people who could be out of work, or even bankrupt themselves, if…… [Read More]

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Corporate Social Responsibility and Green Marketing

Words: 2708 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85008271

CS and Green Marketing

Green Marketing and Corporate Social esponsibility

This essay examines green marketing and corporate social responsibility practices. In particular, the paper examines the practice of greenwashing, and discusses companies' willingness to exploit green marketing for competitive advantage. The essay also reviews the legitimate use of green marketing as a means of promoting responsible environmental stewardship.

Green marketing involves the promotion of products that are marketed as being environmentally safe or beneficial. The practice had its beginnings in Europe in the early 1980s when certain products were found to be harmful to the earth's atmosphere. As a result, new types of products were created, called green products, which were less damaging to the environment. The green product movement grew quickly in the United States and has continued growing steadily ever since (Green Marketing, 2011).

Also known as sustainable marketing, environmental marketing, and ecological marketing, green marketing consists of…… [Read More]

Reference List

Economist's View, 2005. Why go Green? Product differentiation or Fox in the Henhouse? [Online] Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2011].

Environmental Leader, 2011. Americans Give Green Marketing Claims Too Much Credit, Study Finds. [Online] (Updated 2011) Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2011].

Green Marketing, 2011. [Online] (Updated 2011) Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2011].

GreenerDesign Staff, 2009. Companies Develop Green Products to Differentiate and Lead: Survey. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2011].
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Safeline US LLC Consumer Reporting Agency

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50410778

Consumer Reporting Agency - Safeline US, LLC
A consumer reporting agency, as per the definition outlined by the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), “means any person which, for monetary fees, dues, or on a cooperative nonprofit basis, regularly engages in whole or in part in the practice of assembling or evaluating consumer credit information or other information on consumers for the purpose of furnishing consumer reports to third parties…” (Federal Trade Commission - FTC, 2012). Thus, in essence, Safeline is indeed a consumer reporting agency. This is more so the case given that true to the definition outlined above, the company is organized on a cooperative nonprofit basis and collects tenant information with a purpose of availing reports to members (third parties) on troublesome tenants.
In response to Jane Doe’s Attorney, it is important to note from the onset that Safeline is not in contravention of the Fair Credit Reporting…… [Read More]

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Global Socioeconomic Perspectives Describe and

Words: 1998 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66242570



Amnesty International (2010) also reports that domestic violence is the major cause of death and disability for women ages 16 to 44 years. Of course, there isn't any forgetting that women in Colombia and Darfur -- places of dangerous armed conflict -- are commonly raped. Amnesty International also notes that the trafficking of women has become a global issue; women are exploited sexually, raped, forced into hard labor and are victims of severe sexual and physical abuse.

The United States must take a stance in helping to protect women across the globe. On February 4, 2010, members of Congress introduced the International Violence Against Women Act (I-VAWA), an important step in protecting, defending and empowering women around the world. This would be a groundbreaking law as we live in a world where "approximately 1 out of 3 women worldwide has been beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused in her…… [Read More]

References:

European Parliament. "Background Note on the Political and Human Rights Situation in Sudan and Darfur." 2007. Retrieved on June 27, 2010, from the Web site:

www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2004_2009/.../696365en.pdf

Responsibility to Protect. 2010. Retrieved on June 26, 2010, from the Web site:

 http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/crises/37-the-crisis-in -darfur/201-human-rights-watch-abu-ghraib-darfur-call-for-prosecutions
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Identity Theft Prevention Detection and

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91530033

hen a Social Security number is stolen, contacting the Social Security Administration can help to place a watch on its use as well (SSA 2009). This particular problem can lead to many complications, as obtaining a new Social Security Number can create many difficulties for the victim while keeping the old number might allow the thief to continue using the victim's identity (SSA 2009). Generally, though, a new number is not necessary to stop most identity thieves.

The government also plays a major role both in preventing identity theft and in addressing both the victims and the thieves after the crime has been committed. The Social Security Administration has set limits on the number of replacement cards an individual may obtain, as well as new and more stringent methods of identity verification when fulfilling a request for replacement cards (SSA 2009). Though this can also make things more difficult for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

FTC. (2009). "About Identity Theft." Federal Trade Commission. Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html#shouldyoufileapolicereportifyouridentityisstolen 

ITRC. (2009). Identity Theft Resource Center. Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://www.idtheftcenter.org/index.html 

SSA. (2009). "Identity Theft." Social Security Administration. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://ssa-custhelp.ssa.gov/cgi-bin/ssa.cfg/php/enduser/std_alp.php?p_lva=&p_li=&p_accessibility=0&p_redirect=&p_page=1&p_cv=2.35&p_pv=&p_prods=&p_cats=16%2C35&p_hidden_prods=&cat_lvl1=0&p_search_text=&p_new_search=1&p_search_type=answers.search_nl

USDOJ. (2009). "Identity Theft." United States Department of Justice.  http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/fraud/websites/idtheft.html#whatdoing
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Teenager's Awareness and Their Lack

Words: 8637 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7405703

In this article, the author describes the technological, demographic, and market forces shaping this new digital media culture and the rich array of Web sites being created for children and teens. Many nonprofit organizations, museums, educational institutions, and government agencies are playing a significant role in developing online content for children, offering them opportunities to explore the world, form communities with other children, and create their own works of art and literature. For the most part, however, the heavily promoted commercial sites, sponsored mainly by media conglomerates and toy companies, are overshadowing the educational sites. ecause of the unique interactive features of the Internet, companies are able to integrate advertising and Web site content to promote "brand awareness" and "brand loyalty" among children, encouraging them to become consumers beginning at a very early age. The possibility that a child's exploration on the Internet might lead to inappropriate content, aggressive advertising,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hansen, C. (2003). Catching potential Internet sex predators [Electronic Version]. MSNBC. Retrieved 27-

7-2006 at  http://www.webcitation.org/5JcD9Dul1 

Cassell, Justine and Cramer, Meg (2004) High Tech or High Risk: Moral Panics about Girls Online. Center for Technology & Social Behavior. online available at
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Regulations Internet Privacy -- Let

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22589202

The same survey quoted by Ries noted that 92% of respondents do not trust online companies to keep personal information confidential and 82% believe that the government should regulate use of personal information by online companies. (FTC Study, 2-3)

If companies do not respond, not only will business stand in danger of being over-regulated by the government, but also consumers may not trust sites and withdraw their business. This was recognized, not by a liberal publication, but the stalwart defender of capitalism known as Business eek. To stem consumer privacy fears, the publication proposed a four-point plan to protect online consumer privacy through relatively non-invasive federal legislation. The plan has the added advantage of being similar to the data privacy requirements adopted by the European Union, another concern, given the increasingly international nature of internet commerce -- and it might be added the United States cannot afford to lag behind…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Business Week. (29 Mar 2000) "Online Privacy it's time for rules in Wonderland." Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 from www.businessweek.com.Online version, www.businessweek.com/2000/00_12/b3673001.htm

FTC. (2000) "Privacy Online." A Report to Congress. Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 from www.ftc.gov/privacy/index.html

Ries, David. (2001) "Protecting online consumer privacy: an overview." Pbi.org. Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 at  http://www.pbi.org/Goodies/privacy/privacy_ries.htm
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Luther Terry Was the Surgeon General of

Words: 2222 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67606809

Luther Terry was the Surgeon General of the United States during the Kennedy Administration and the first part of the Johnson Administration, from 1961 to 1965. Terry changed the nature of the office, which until that time was obscure enough so that many Americans did not know there was such a post. Since Terry's time, and specifically because of one important action he took, the office of Surgeon General has been more prominent, taking the lead in public health issues and ruffling feathers in many American industries. Terry issued his report on smoking and its dangers in 1964, leading to the greater prominence of anti-tobacco forces, the warnings on cigarette packages, the banning of cigarette ads on television and radio, and recently court and legislative actions taken against the tobacco industry after decades of resistance.

Terry's action in issuing the report on smoking is much better known than Terry himself,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

History of the 1964 Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health. http://www.corporate-business-training.com/stink/Pro/1964SGR.html.

History of the Office of the Surgeon General." 2002.  http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/history/sghist.htm .

Kluger, Richard. Ashes to Ashes. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Parascandola, John. "The Surgeons General and Smoking." Public Health Reports 112 (19 Sept 1997), 440-432.
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Law & Ethics

Words: 2135 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 38386096

Unconsented Facebook Behavioral User Research

Facebook's 2012 involvement in a behavioral experiment on a series of its unknowing users

Case Presentation

There is much controversy with regard to Facebook's role in a scandal involving users being followed and exploited. The company is responsible for performing a study where 689,003 individuals on Facebook were manipulated in an attempt to determine how particular ideas influenced them. These respective users were divided in two groups: one of them was provided with news feeds containing positive information while the other was provided with news feeds containing negative information. As a consequence of the experiment, analysts determined that the first group was more likely to make positive posts while the second was inclined to post negative ideas.

Facebook's attempt to interfere with people's lives and analyze how this affected them raised a series of questions:

as this experiment ethical?

as this experiment legal?

To what…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bakan, J. "Childhood Under Siege: How Big Business Targets Children." (Simon and Schuster, 9 Aug 2011)

Hill, K. "Facebook Added 'Research' To User Agreement 4 Months After Emotion Manipulation Study." Retrieved November 17, 2014, from  http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2014/06/30/facebook-only-got-permission-to-do-research-on-users-after-emotion-manipulation-study/ 

Jacobsen, D., & Idziorek, J. "Computer Security Literacy: Staying Safe in a Digital World." (CRC Press, 27 Nov 2012)

Kramer, A.D.I. Retrieved November 17, 2014, from  https://www.facebook.com/akramer/posts/10152987150867796
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HP Pretexting Scandal the Hewlett-Packard

Words: 3344 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74518653



Perkins - who had retired at the age of 70 but was coming back on the board - had by this time muscled his way into a powerful position within the HP community; he and his powerful board ally, George Keyworth, held special "technology committee" meetings with key HP people the day before each board meeting. Stewart writes that Perkins' little group actually became a "board within a board," and Perkins' power grew. His disenchantment with Fiorina also grew. Fiorina was apparently losing the confidence of the board, and Perkins was the central figure in that movement away from Fiorina. Prior to the retreat, which was alluded to earlier in this paper, there was a board meeting scheduled, and before that meeting, Keyworth and Dunn approached Fiorina and urged her to "express concerns about Hewlett-Packard's performance, stock price, unfavorable press, and need to reorganize," Stewart continues.

Although Fiorina showed resistance…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloomberg. "HP chief opposes board vote plan." Retrieved 12 March 2007 from Australian it

 http://australianit.news.com .

Broache, Anne. "HP execs: Spy scandal was ethical wake-up call." CNET News.com. Retrieved 13 March 2007 at  http://www.news.com .

Fried, Ina. "HP denies pretexting former employee." CNET News.com (2007) Retrieved 13 March 2007 at
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Teen Alcoholism

Words: 1954 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4571893

Teenage Drinking

How can the trend toward increased alcohol consumption in teenagers be reduced? The answer to this critical societal question is being addressed by a number of researchers. It is believed that advertising offers a potential explanation for the rise.

In 1999, the .S. Federal Trade Commission called for the alcohol industry to modify its practices in order to limit underage exposure to alcohol advertising (Federal Trade Commission [FTC], 1999). According to a report by the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY, 2002), however, the industry may not have responded. According to guidelines announced in September 2003 by the Beer Institute and the Distilled Spirits Council of the nited States, underage youth should not constitute more than 30% of the audience for alcohol advertisements. The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) at Georgetown niversity recently found that more than 25% of the radio commercials that aired for…… [Read More]

U.S. Federal Trade Commission (1999). FTC Reports on Industry Efforts to Avoid Promoting Alcohol to Underage Consumers (FTC Press Release). Available:  http://www.ftc.gov/opa  / 1999/9909/alcoholrep.htm. Retrieved: November 20, 2002

US Newswire (2003) " African-American Youth Overexposed to Alcohol Advertising, According to Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth." 1066.

US Newswire ( 2003) "Hispanic Youth Exposed to More Alcohol Advertising Than Non-Hispanic Youth, Report Finds." 1008.
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Marketing Context Problem Recognition Is Having an

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 427682

Marketing context, problem recognition is having an awareness of need. The marketer needs to understand the difference between the desired state and the actual condition. This is the first stage of the consumer buying process (No author, 2012). Consumer needs are determined by a variety of influences. The situational influences include time and place in which the consumer is. Consumer influences include the consumer's preferences, available money and the level of need or desire at a given moment in time. The marketing influences are the awareness that the consumer has of different product/service options, and the feeling that the consumer has about those products/services.

Hunter (2012) outlines five types of shoppers. Loyal customers are the biggest customer group for most businesses. They do not need to be attracted to the product, but can be induced to purchase more, or more frequently. Discount customers tend to purchase the product/service only when…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

BSI. (2011). Balanced scorecard basics. Balanced Scorecard Institute. Retrieved February 16, 2012 from  http://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSCResources/AbouttheBalancedScorecard/tabid/55/Default.aspx 

FTC. (2012). CAN-SPAM Act: A compliance guide for business. Bureau of Consumer Protection. Retrieved February 16, 2012 from  http://business.ftc.gov/documents/bus61-can-spam-act-compliance-guide-business 

Hunter, M. (2012). The five types of shoppers. Business Know How. Retrieved February 16, 2012 from  http://www.businessknowhow.com/marketing/shoppertypes.htm 

Law, G. & Lee, S. (1999). Consumers' trust in a brand and the link to brandy loyalty. Journal of Market Focused Management. Vol. 4 (1999) 341-370.
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Financial Comparison Financial Analysis Is a Tool

Words: 1718 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41879325

Financial Comparison

Financial analysis is a tool that allows third parties to analyze corporate financial statements. One of the main reasons that the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that statements are compiled and presented in a consistent manner is to ensure that third parties will be able to use the statements to compare different companies. These comparisons can, among other things, help with investment decisions. This paper will compare PepsiCo and Coca-Cola Company, the two leading soft drink marketers in the world. PepsiCo is actually the larger of the two companies, because it is more diversified, with its snack food properties. These properties also alter the company's finances, creating certain points of difference between the two companies. This report will cover a number of different forms of financial analysis, arriving at a conclusion about which company has the stronger financial position.

PepsiCo

The first set of ratios to be studied…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

FTC. (2010). FTC puts conditions on PepsiCo's $7.8 acquisition of two largest bottlers and distributors. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved May 19, 2012 from  http://www.ftc.gov/opa /2010/02/pepsi.shtm

Leckey, A. (2010). Coca-Cola Co. outlook strong after big acquisition. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 19, 2012 from  http://articles.latimes.com/2010/oct/31/business/la-fi-leckey-20101031 

Loth, R. (2012). Financial ratio tutorial. Investopedia. Retrieved May 19, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/university/ratios/#axzz1vG92KPwm 

MSN Moneycentral: PepsiCo. (2012). Retrieved May 19, 2012 from  http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-income-statement/?symbol=PEP
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Marketing Tobacco Marketing Get Them Young or

Words: 2949 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8448627

arketing

Tobacco arketing: Get Them Young or Not at All

The tobacco industry has been in a battle to capture the youth market for decades mainly because of the degree of brand loyalty that is characteristic of cigarette smokers. Cigarette companies have a lot at stake in making sure that their brand is one of the first tried by the young smoker. In its bid to obtain young smokers, R.J. Reynolds created the Joe Camel campaign with a cool character that youths found highly appealing and the company created fierce advertising, promotional, and sales campaigns to take their message to market. The Joe Camel campaign proved to be one of the most successful bids to capture young smokers in tobacco history. Ultimately, its tremendous success was in part the reason for the campaign's eventual downfall, as public outcry demanded that cigarette companies stop marketing to adolescents and as courts gained…… [Read More]

Magazine Ads. http://www.costkids.org/targetingkids/magazineads.htm (26).

Boyles, Salynn. "Joe Camel May Be Gone, But Legacy Lives On." WebMD Medical News, Aug 15, 2001.  http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1728.86774 (26 Nov. 2002).

Tobacco Marketing To Young People, Young People: A Key Expansion Market. http://www.infact.org/youth.html (26).
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Magnuson Moss Warranty Act

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53462783

Magnuson-Moss arranty Act: A Purposeful Venue warranty is a written statement or promise prepared typically prepared by the manufacturer of a product ensuring it's quality. It is a commitment made by the manufacturer or seller that they represent and will stand by the product in the event of loss, breakage or other malcontent. arranties serve many purposes. They ensure that competition for products is maintained in the marketplace. They provide customers with a means to replace broken, malfunctioning or worn products purchased from manufacturers and sellers. They also provide great customer satisfaction by allowing peace of mind. Customers are more apt to feel that they purchased a worthwhile product, and have an outlet to return the merchandise should something go awry.

In 1975 Congress passed the Magnuson-Moss arranty Act, in an effort to better regulate and monitor "written" warranties provides by manufacturers and sellers. This Act governs all federal consumer…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Grimes, Kevin and Reese, Spencer. "Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act" 2002. February 29, 2003  http://www.mlmlaw.com/library/guides/ftc/warranties/undermag.htm 

Dr. Performance. "Understanding the Magnuson Moss Warranty Act" 2002. March 1, 2003 http://drperformance.com/performance_warranty.html

Understanding the Magnuson Moss Warranty Act" Dr. Performance, 2002

Patton, Stewart. "Consumer Disputes Under the Magnuson Moss Warranty Act are Subject to Arbitration Provision" 2002.  http://www.jtexconsumerlaw.com/Magnuson.pdf
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E-Commerce Considerations

Words: 1467 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: SWOT Paper #: 35689219

Since the store sells clothing and accessories, it's highly visual and isn't quite so dependent on language and such related issues, one needn't worry about translation as much.

When it comes to government, it will be necessary to acquaint oneself with the laws of merchant selling online in each of the respective countries where one will be shipping items to. The most crucial aspect about infrastructure is that the shipping part of the business needs to be completely tight: this refers to shipping and production. Once an order is place online, it needs to be shipped immediately to the buyer. "Annually, new and established online sellers will see dozens or even hundreds of packages that fail to arrive -- lost or damaged in the conveyor belts and trucks meant to carry them to customers. Be prepared to manage both the cost of lost items and the problem of disappointed customers"…… [Read More]

References

Aicpa.com. (2013). Executive Summary. Retrieved from aicpa.com:  http://www.aicpa.org/interestareas/forensicandvaluation/resources/electronicdataanalysis/downloadabledocuments/top-5-cybercrimes.pdf 

Ftc.gov. (2000, March). Electronic Commerce: Selling Internationally A Guide for Businesses. Retrieved from ftc.gov:  http://www.business.ftc.gov/documents/alt067-electronic-commerce-selling-internationally-guide-businesses 

Roggio, A. (2013, July 18). 5 Things I Wish I Knew Before Opening an Ecommerce Business. Retrieved from ecommerce.com:  http://www.practicalecommerce.com/articles/4105-5-Things-I-Wish-I-Knew-Before-Opening-an-Ecommerce-Business 

SBA.gov. (2013). Online Business Law. Retrieved from sba.gov:  http://www.sba.gov/content/online-business-law
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Digest Strategic Management a Condensed

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98664315



Technology

The ubiquity of online media has prompted the magazine to reduce its rate of print publications to 10 from 12 publications a year, and cut its print subscriptions in favor of digital advertising. This will also allow for greater segmentation, as it can more easily create "digital single topic editions, mobile applications, e-reader products and videos" of specific interest to segments of its core consumer base, and hopefully draw more advertisers who wish to target their publications online (Bell 2009). It can also feature general articles and condensed stories to suit the desire of readers still seeking the Reader's Digest compressed form that tells them 'everything they need to know.' Through the online website, searchers can select what stories interest them the most.

Industry environment (Porter's Five Forces)

Reader's Digest is currently in a medium with very low barriers to entry -- virtually anyone can start a blog about…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, Lauren. (2009). Reader's Digest pulls back print, focuses on digital. DM. (Direct

Marketing). Retrieved October 11, 2009 at  http://www.dmnews.com/Readers-Digest-pulls-back-print-focuses-on-digital/article/138808/ 

Historical Perspectives of the Reader's Digest. (2008). Focusing on Words. Retrieved October

11, 2009 at  http://www.wordfocus.com/word-RD-intro.html
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Release of Information Properly the

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 56586783

For the patient, there are equally negative consequences, such as medical identity theft, financial loss and potential damage to their health. Medical identity theft can result in erroneous entries to the patient's health care records, which can affect the patient's medical and financial records for a long time (Federal Trade Commission, 2003 & 2007). In each medical facility, there is a need for trained professionals who can properly process Release of Information (ROI) requests. These individuals must also be able to make properly disclosures of request to first and third parties for the preservation of the integrity of the data and the privacy of the PHI. Moreover, these trained professionals cannot become complacent or corrupt, as this can lead to loss of privacy and security of the PHI (ittleton Police Department, 2004).

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was an attempt by Congress in 1996 to reform the…… [Read More]

Law enforcement categories medical identity fraud into two types: organized crime and individual identity theft.

An example of individual identity theft occurred at the University of Connecticut when a man with HIV utilized his cousin's health insurance information without the cousin's knowledge to receive approximately $76,000 worth of medical care and treatment (University of Connecticut, 2005).

The privacy and security review process identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the existing system of health care information management. Central to the review process is
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Business Law Contract Analysis U-Haul

Words: 4590 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46964143

Independent dealers must sign a contract that sets forth the manner in which they will operate their rental centers. Often a small business owner will supplement their income be adding U-Hauls to their market mix. Independent contractors earn a commission on their sales.

Each division of AMERCO has it own president. All of them must report to a Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board and overall President is Edward Shoen, descendent of the original founders of the company. Many members of the Shoen family still control much of the company (Google Finance). Little information is available about the company, aside from their financial statements. Although they have a Board of Directors, the company continues to operate as a family-style operation, with the family members occupying many positions in upper management. The company structure is simple and little is available beyond basic information.

Purchasing Contract Analysis and the UCC…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ceh v. UHaul International, Inc., 11th district court of appeals, No. 04-10031.

A www.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/ops/200410671.pdf. Accessed January 22.

Company News; U-Haul's Parent Seeks Bankruptcy Protection." June 21, 2003. New

York Times.  http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800EFDF173BF932A15755C0A9659C8B63 . Accessed January 23, 2007.
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Business Ethics Has Become a Serious Subject

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36676110

Business ethics has become a serious subject of discussion the world over because of the rather intricate complexities attached to it. There are so many different facets to business related ethical problems that everyday something new emerges that needs to be tackled in the light of current legal structure or philosophical framework. The case of Patricia Dunn from HP might also sound like one of those complicated cases of ethics that need to be studied closely to reach a more reasonable solution. This case also highlighted the issue of pretexting which is strictly prohibited under California state law. Many people who had no way of knowing what pretexting meant learned about this ethical issue and hence something new was learned during the hearing of the case. We must understand that while each new major business ethics case might seem more complicated than the last one or even unique in some…… [Read More]

References

Federal Trade Commission: Pretexting.  http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/pubs/consumer/credit/cre10.shtm 

Biographies of HP board members.  http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/investor/board.html 

"Dunn charged in leak case" Accessed online from  http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aud2XbLOFANc 

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Accounting Finance Alternative Approach to Taxes

Words: 1189 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64515614

The common guiding principles of economics provide little direction. As a consequence, U.S. international tax policy is a clutter of rules with a diversity of political and economic reasons. It is frequently described as a concession that strikes a balance. Policy leans toward tightening foreign tax rules and putting foreign income on equal footing with U.S. income when it is thought that foreign investment hurts the U.S. economy. Then policy leans toward relaxing the rules and giving foreign income favorable treatment if it is thought that foreign investment promotes U.S. interests (Sullivan, n.d.).

Due to the fact tat every government charges taxes by its own process and at its own rates, the ensuing system of international taxation often warps investment and adds to reductions in international economic well-being. The environment of these alterations depends on the way of taxing profits from international investment. If investment earnings are taxed only at…… [Read More]

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Kb Home Business Level Strategy

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42547022

The operations in terms of elements like supply chain, outsourcing and location of operations are clearly based/focused on areas wherein they have built up their strengths over a considerable period of time. The company began as Kaufman & Broad in 1957. (KB Home Customers Find FTC Penalties Inadequate) However over the last five years, the Earnings per share of the company had grown by 22.29%, it has had dividend growths at the rate of 26.41%. Thus it is considered as a company with have a built in speculative element of streak. This is also being shown by the price of the share which is $75.91, whereas the book value is only $24.66. (KB Home (NYSE: KBH): (www.forbes.com) After all, one should understand that the real estate prices do not shoot up and high prices may exist due to some speculative influences which are trying to take over the company and…… [Read More]

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Official Legal Definition of Contradiction

Words: 4563 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55696657

This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.

Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…… [Read More]

Reference:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000].  http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm " Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.

National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
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Identity Theft the Objective of

Words: 416 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45035329



4. File your complaint with the FTC. The FTC maintains a database of identity theft cases used by law enforcement agencies for investigations. Filing a complaint also helps us learn more about identity theft and the problems victims are having so that we can better assist you. (FCC, 2006)

II. SIGNS OF IDENTITY THEFT

The FCC consumer alert entitled: "What To Do If Your Personal Information Has een Compromised" states that signs of identity theft having occurred are inclusive of:

receiving credit cards that you didn't apply for;

being denied credit, or being offered less favorable credit terms, like a high interest rate, for no apparent reason; and getting calls or letters from debt collectors or businesses about merchandise or services you didn't buy." (FCC Consumer Alert, 2005)

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The article reviewed has clear and concise steps the individual should take if they believe that identity theft may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

What To Do If Your Personal Information Has Been Compromised (2005) March Online available at  http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/infocompalrt.htm .

Welcome to the Federal Trade Commission: Your Resource about Identity Theft" (2006) Online available at  http://www.consumer.gov/idtheft/ .

Issues of Law: Identity Theft
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Industrial Economic Regulations According to the Organization for

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91303075

Industrial/Economic egulations

According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) defines economic regulations (industrial regulations) as "intervening directly in market decisions such as pricing, competition, market entry, or exit ("Economic regulations," 2002). The main reason for economic regulation is because it is permits the straightforward businessman to succeed in the economy and decrease business relations within the economy from being broken by the illegal activity that takes place (Black, 2010). However, within the economy the market has four different structures that industries are classified under that the government uses to help control the advantages and limitations of supply and demand. The goal of the four structures is to look at how it "affects the outcomes in the market with impacts on the motivations, opportunities, and decisions of economic buyers and sellers through their behaviors within market competition" states Fischer (n.d.). The OECD defines social regulations as an impact…… [Read More]

References

Black, W. (2010, January 11). Inside the fed's secret war on good regulation. Retrieved from  http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23879_Page_1_19.pdf 

Boyer, P. (2001). Federal regulatory agencies. The oxford companion to United States history. Retrieved May 18, 2011 from  http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119FederalRegulatoryAgencies.html 

Department of Trade, Federal Trade Commission. (2011). Ftc guide to the antitrust laws. Washington, DC: Government Website. Retrieved from  http://www.ftc.gov/bc/antitrust/antitrust_laws.shtm 

Economic regulations. (2002, July 31). Retrieved from  http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=4639
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Sculpture an Unconventional Equestrian Statue Adorns the

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11993242

Sculpture

An unconventional equestrian statue adorns the outside of the Federal Trade Commission building in Washington, D.C. Rather than riding astride his horse, the man depicted in the statue by Michael Lantz is wrestling with the animal. The physical exertion on the part of both man and horse is immediately apparent in their expressive body language, tense musculature, and fervent facial expressions. Erected in 1942, the "Man Controlling Trade" is deeply symbolic and perfectly representative of the core mission of the FTC. The FTC exists to regulate business, with goals of preventing monopolies, stimulating healthy competition, and encouraging entrepreneurship. In Lantz's statue, the horse represents unregulated trade. The massive creature is, ironically, one that has been tamed for use by human beings for centuries if not thousands of years. The horse has been used as a mode of transportation and beast of burden, and was used as both up until…… [Read More]

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Organizational Studies While There Is Focus Upon

Words: 943 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79459276

organizational studies. While there is focus upon the articles and their contents, the greater focus or endeavor of the paper is to analyze the writing techniques and approaches to research. At the center of the assignment is the relationship among the construction of the research question, the research question, and the research. By studying and referencing the methods of master researchers and writers, the paper forges a path into the unknown, yet mandatory territory of conducting research and sharing it with the academic community. The paper identifies research questions in scholarly articles. The paper further categorizes the research question providing support for the category choice.

Identifying and Categorizing esearch Questions

The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising by Denise DeLorme,

Jisu Huh, Leonard N. eid & Soontae An

A primary research question of this article could be "What public literature about OTC drug advertising is accessible to the…… [Read More]

References:

DeLorme, D.E., Huh, J., Reid, L.N., & An, S. (2010) The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 4(3), 208 -- 231.

Voss, G.B. (2003) Formulating Interesting Research Questions. Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 31(3), 356 -- 360.
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Case Study Antitrust

Words: 984 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 85329124

Antitrust

I don't have the proper bibliographical info for the book chapters. I noted the number from the two PDFs of the book where appropriate. You might wish to add the proper info and change the notes to fit.

MAKET CONDITIONS in the U.S.: It would seem highly unlikely that this information alone would be sufficient to bring an antitrust action. Prudent and even gutsy or aggressive business people might well seek such information to generate a competitive advantage with little intention toward manipulating the market (Fried Frank, 2002). Even if it does lean toward some expected restraint of trade (Sherman Act), what is occurring at this point clearly passes the reasonableness test. Talking of such issues is not collusive price fixing and suggests no conscious parallelism, for example, which might indicate that their association is for inappropriate purposes (pg. 468).

DETAILS of INDIVIDUAL SALES: In this instance the burden…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bern, R. (1995). A Biblical Model for Analysis of Issues of Law and Public Policy: With illustrative applications to contracts, antitrust, remedies and public policy issues. Regent University Law Review, Vol. 6. 103-196.

Elzinga, F. (n.d.). CASE 9: Collusive Predation: Matsushita v. Zenith (1986). Viewable at www.oup.com/us/pdf/kwoka/0195120159_09.pdf.

Fried Frank (2002). Firm Hit with $1 Billion Antitrust Verdict for Aggressive Marketing Practices. Fried Frank Antitrust and Competition Law Alert. Viewable at www.ffhsj.com/practice_groups/antitrust.htm.

FTC (2007). International Aspects of Antitrust Enforcement. Prepared Remarks of Commissioner Roscoe B. Starek, III. Viewable at  http://www.ftc.gov/speeches/starek/starekda.shtm .
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Social Engineering Information Security

Words: 3036 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47978737

Social Engineering and Information Security

We are in an age of information explosion and one of the most critical problems facing us is the security and proper management of information. Advanced hardware and software solutions are being constantly developed and refined to patch up any technical loopholes that might allow a hacker attack and prevent consequent breach of information security. While this technical warfare continues, hackers are now pursuing other vectors of attack. Social engineering refers to the increasing employment of techniques, both technical and non-technical, that focus on exploiting the cognitive bias in humans as the weakest link in computer security. What is shocking is the fact that in spite of the great vulnerability to human exploitation, there prevails a seemingly careless attitude in this regard in the corporate world. While more and more money is spent on beefing up hardware security and in acquiring expensive software solutions, little…… [Read More]

References

1) Christopher Hadnagy (2011), 'Social Engineering: The Art of Human Hacking', Wiley Publishing Inc.

2) Greg Sandoval, (Feb 2007), 'FTC to Court: Put an end to pretexting operations', Retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from,  http://news.cnet.com/FTC-to-court-Put-an-end-to-pretexting-operations/2100-7348_3-6159871.html?tag=lia;rcol 

3) Mindi McDowell, (Oct 2009), 'National Cyber Alert System: Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing attacks', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST04-014.html

4) Sonja Ryst, (July, 2006), ' The Phone is the latest Phishign Rod', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from,  http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2006/tc20060710_811021.htm
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Merger Acquisition and International Strategies

Words: 1876 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26737515

International Strategies

Whole Foods Market (WFM) is a grocery store chain that has operations in the U.S., Canada and the UK. Competitor The Fresh Market (TFM) is based only in the United States at this point. While Whole Foods is substantially bigger, these two companies are close competitors of one another based on the similarity of their product lines and their target markets. This paper will analyze the strategic tactics of each of these companies, based on their respective growth strategies.

The Merger & Evaluation

By 2007, Whole Foods was becoming the dominant player in the natural foods grocery business. It sought to grow further, and decided to purchase struggling competitor Wild Oats (Fineman, 2007). At the time, Whole Foods paid $18.50 in cash for each share of Wild Oats. There was concern from the Federal Trade Commission about the deal, because it put Whole Foods in a dominant position…… [Read More]

References

Bartz, D. (2009). Whole Foods, FTC settle on Wild Oats merger. Reuters. Retrieved November 30, 2013 from  http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/03/06/us-wholefoods-ftc-idUSTRE5253AL20090306 

Fineman, J. (2007). Whole Foods agrees to buy Wild Oats; profit declines. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 30, 2013 from  http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aZtDQutxeDsU 

MSN Moneycentral. (2013). Whole Foods. Retrieved November 30, 2013 from  http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=WFM&ocid=qbes 

MSN Moneycentral. (2013). The Fresh Market. Retrieved November 30, 2013 from  http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=TFM&ocid=qbes
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Public Funding and the Police

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47453829

Law Enforcement and the Budget
The most important stakeholders in the public finance of law enforcement organizations are the tax payers. Without taxes collected, the government could not afford to fund organizations. Municipal taxes, bonds, grants and more all go to fund law enforcement organizations. State and local taxes pay salaries and pensions for retiring officers, and yet still many municipal, state and federal level law enforcement agencies are required to borrow in order to meet structural requirements. Many cities run a continual budgetary deficit, with mounting debts putting pensions at risk. This is common across America with states like Kentucky and Illinois essentially sitting on a time bomb of debt. This impacts the other stakeholders—the workers in the law enforcement agencies, as well as the public, who are served by the law enforcement workers and the elected officials who must oversee the plans for allocating sources for budgetary purposes.…… [Read More]