Gender Socialization Essays (Examples)

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Gender Identity Disorder and Gender

Words: 1852 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90743680

Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.

It is generally accepted that gender socialization…… [Read More]

References

Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37

Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.

Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209

Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
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Gender and Society the Biologically-Based

Words: 1551 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43689532

Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).

Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.

Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…… [Read More]

References

Humphrey, J. (2003 - Mar). "Guthrie's six degrees of separation and provocative."

Oracle Online, 115(7): 1. Retrieved:

http://www.hamline.edu/oracle/archives/031803/?entertainment/ent5.html

Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Gender and Family Gender and

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54687065



The pressures created by single parenting and more specifically the need, by women to contribute economically to the household has also correlated to increase in crime among girls and boys. It is also clear that as the gender roles and expectations of girls as opposed to boys changes and in many ways overlaps there will and have been logical increases in the number of girls in the system and generally experiencing acts of juvenile delinquency.

Many link the decrease in the gap between violent offences among girls and boys to social change, often associated with the lack of paternal involvement. Yet, it is also true that the same can be said of boys, as boys without paternal involvement are much more likely than those with it to offend, in a myriad of ways. Yet, more common "split" and single parent situations are demonstrative of increased female offences. (Schaffner, 2006, p.…… [Read More]

References

Bridges, G.S. & Myers, M.A. (Eds.). (1994). Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, a., Rutter, M., & Silva, P.A. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Peters, S.R. (2001, December). Relationships' Role in Female Juvenile Delinquency. Corrections Today, 63, 76.

Schaffner, L. (2006). Girls in Trouble with the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
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Gender Expectations for Children I

Words: 885 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39675567



I use the above family as an example that I think that the socialization of children remains the primary job of the parent and that parents can help determine how external society influences impact their children. Whether society freaked out because of an image of a little boy with pink toenails is not nearly so important as how a family reacts if a little boy wants to paint his toenails pink. The little boy in the family I described accompanies his mom and sister to the salon and I have seen him with green painted toenails (his favorite color) and know there would be no objections if he wanted pink ones. His sister has rejected the "girl" Legos in favor of "boy" sets, but will vehemently argue with you if you suggested that Ninjago was marketed towards boys.

I do not think that there was less gender stereotyping in toys…… [Read More]

References

Klein, M. (2011, April 13). J. Crew's toenail-painting ad causes pink scare. Retrieved March

9, 2012 from Ms. Magazine blog website: http://msmagazine.com/blog/blog/2011/04/13/j-crews-toenail-painting-ad-causes-pink-scare/

Melanie. (2008, October 5). Gender socialization in the media from childhood to adulthood.

Retrieved March 9, 2012 from FeministFatale website:  http://www.feministfatale.com/2008/10/gender-socialization-in-the-media-from-childhood-to-adulthood/
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Gender Differences in Depression Among

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62481007

Low socioeconomic status brings with it many concerns and stressors, including uncertainty about the future and less access to community and health care resources. Money and power issues contribute to feelings of passivity, negativism and lack of self-esteem, all of which contribute to depression.

In addition, women are more likely to be sexually abused as children (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2006). And victims of sexual abuse are more likely to experience depression at some point in their lives than are those who weren't abused. This means that female undergraduates who were sexually abused have a higher incidence of depression than their male counterparts.

This paper aims to analyze some of the fundamental cultural links to women's depression in college, and compare depression rates of females to males.

Hypothesis

While most experts agree that understanding gender differences in depression is important, many believe that it is also important…… [Read More]

Bibliography

William E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Kathryn+E.+Kelly" Kathryn E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Franklin+C.+Brown" Franklin C. Brown, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Hillary+B.+Kelly" Hillary B. Kelly. (March, 1999). Gender Differences in Depression Among College Students: A Multi-Cultural Perspective.

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (September 20, 2006). Depression in women: Understanding the gender gap. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/MH/00035.html.

Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Girgus, Joan S. (May, 1994). The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence. Psychological Bulletin. Vol 115(3), 424-443.

Shields, S.A. (2000). Thinking about gender, thinking about theory: Gender and emotional experience. In a. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 3-23). New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Gender and Language Men and

Words: 303 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4312244



These and other linguistic phenomenon can be traced to social status issues, just as the class notes suggest. would further hypothesize that uncertainty in women's speech is directly related to women's lower social status vs. men. Women are socialized to be less domineering than men are and their speech may reflect that. n the class notes, this phenomenon is referred to as cooperative speech vs. aggressive speech.

Likewise, women are socialized to be politer and more deferential than men are, and their communication styles reflect that as well. This line of thought coincides with the thesis offered Deuchar (1988) outlined in the class notes. Women may use standard forms instead of prestige forms "to maintain face in interactions that offer them little power." When women do use prestige forms, they may do so to assert their power…… [Read More]

I am familiar with each of the examples of gender-based language listed in the class notes. In fact, I can think of many more ways in which women and men use language differently from each other. For example, many women use terms like "like," or "y'know" more than men do in casual conversations. Women tend also to converse using more empathy than men, who may speak from personal experience before saying, "Oh, I know exactly how you feel." Moreover, I have noticed that more women than men will make a simple statement sound like a question by raising the tone of the final word of a sentence. The effect conveys insecurity and uncertainty, just as the use of "like" and "y'know" does.

These and other linguistic phenomenon can be traced to social status issues, just as the class notes suggest. I would further hypothesize that uncertainty in women's speech is directly related to women's lower social status vs. men. Women are socialized to be less domineering than men are and their speech may reflect that. In the class notes, this phenomenon is referred to as cooperative speech vs. aggressive speech.

Likewise, women are socialized to be politer and more deferential than men are, and their communication styles reflect that as well. This line of thought coincides with the thesis offered Deuchar (1988) outlined in the class notes. Women may use standard forms instead of prestige forms "to maintain face in interactions that offer them little power." When women do use prestige forms, they may do so to assert their power directly.
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Gender-Specific Behaviour Is Imposed on

Words: 2735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7536368

" This temporary lesson actually applies on a wider scale to life. Clothing, in our society, is closely integrated with sexuality and gender definition. Men often determine who they will have a sexual interest in based on the clothing of the person in question. A woman in a housecoat is not generally seen as a sexual target in the same way that a woman in a leather miniskirt is. ecause women are seen as weaker than men and as belonging to them sexually based on the gender roles of our society, men tend to think they have power over people wearing women's clothes, whether that person be a boy or a girl. This is a power they would not assume that they have over boys, and it is the association with femininity and the stereotypes that are perpetrated about females in general that causes this.

A reflection of how gender…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kortenhaus, Carole. "Gender Role Stereotyping in Children's Literature: An Update." Sex Roles a Journal of Research. February, 1993. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n3-4_v28/ai_13810759

Peters, John. "Gender Socialization of Adolescents in the Home: Research and Discussion." Adolescence. Winter, 1994. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n116_v29/ai_16477249

Witt, Susan. "Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles." Adolescence. Summer, 1997. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n126_v32/ai_19619406
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Gender Identity Explain Interaction Hormones Behavior Interactions

Words: 2293 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44405528

GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.

The interaction between hormones and behavior

Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.

Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.

Studies have demonstrated that…… [Read More]

References

Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.

Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.

Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.

. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from  http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
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Gender African-American Men Understand the

Words: 1906 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93712317

439).

However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.

Power and identity are both socially…… [Read More]

References

Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.

Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.

Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.

Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
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Gender Behavior the Fabric of

Words: 2067 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86726992

Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)

Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.

However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465.

Feldman, Lorelei "Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping" Retrieved, November 20, 2007 at http://www.unc.edu/~lorelei/sexroles.html

Garfinkle, Harold. Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Polity. 1991.

Spykerman, Sara "Gender Roles and Work: Recent Research" 1997, Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep/genroles.html
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Gender and Counseling the Past Few Years

Words: 2823 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58701256

Gender and Counseling

The past few years have seen significant advances in the field of counseling. Psychologists and psychiatrists have gained a better understanding of the human psyche. Based on their insights, they have been able to identify new problems and propose more effective methods of treatment.

Many of the problems identified affect the mental health and role of men in society. This is a significant advance, since men's problems have previously been ignored. However, despite such advances, many men are still reluctant to seek help for their mental of psychological problems.

The first part of this paper examines the various gender roles that have been assigned to men in American society. It studies how, through a process of socialization, men are required to acquire several key characteristics that are defined as "masculine," such as aggression, competitiveness and the ability to restrain their emotions.

The next part then examines how…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Jo Ann and Sylvia Gordon. 1990. "Creating a Framework for Change." Men in Therapy: The Challenge of Change. Richard L. Meth and Robert S. Pasick. New York: The Guilford Press.

Connell, Robert W. 1987. Gender and Power. Cambridge, Polity Press.

Eckert, P. 1989. "The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation," Language Variation and Change (Cambridge), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 245-267

Grant, J. 1988. "Women as managers: What they can offer to organizations," in Organizational Dynamics (New York), Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 56-63.
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Gender in Romeo and Juliet Judith Lorber

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24372562

Gender in omeo and Juliet

Judith Lorber, author of "Night to his Day: The Social Construction of Gender" asserts that gender is not biologically determined, but is a construct of society. This would indicate that the process of socialization is a prime determinant in the development of gender. In other words, how a child is raised will determine his or her gender-based behavior. With this theory in mind, it is interesting to examine traditional gender roles in literature; to examine how literature of the past treated the traditional roles of male and female. William Shakespeare's omeo and Juliet is one of the most famous works of literature in Western culture. It was written around the end of the 1500's, at a time when actors were exclusively male, and therefore all the women's roles would have been played by men. This alone would be enough to base a discussion on the…… [Read More]

References

Lorber, Judith. "Night to his Day." Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven: Yale UP. 1994.

Shakespeare, William. "Romeo and Juliet Script." Scribd. Web. 13 July 2011. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13433084/Romeo-Juliet-Script
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Gender Divide

Words: 3400 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32780731

Gender Divide

Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?

In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Antill, John K., Cotton, Sandra, Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Russell Graeme. (1996) The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks. Journal Title: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 3-4. p215.

Babcock, Linda; & Laschever, Sara (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blanton, Kimberly (2003, June 13). Study Finds Men Routinely Ask for More Money Than Women in Salary Negotiations. The Boston Globe Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.

Cardwell, Margaret (2003). Babcock, Linda & Sara Laschever. Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Library Journal, 128, 101.
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Gender Bias Until Relatively Recently

Words: 890 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48422014

esearch shows that females and males start school on a level playing field or with girls outperforming boys on most measures (Chapman 2010). Yet by the time of middle and high school, females have already begun to ghettoize themselves. The ghettoization of females is tacitly supported by educators. Attempts to reach out to female students has been criticized harshly as an attempt to "feminize" education and take something away from boys rather than give something to all students (Frawley 2005, p. 1). The very notion that helping girls would be detrimental to boys is a sexist belief. Gender biases also represent a fundamental failure to recognize the "middle ground" for children who "are not strongly gender-typed" at any age (Frawley 2005, p. 2).

Female students may be discouraged from reaching peak athletic performance because of gender bias too. Stereotypes are often reinforced in classrooms, as female students are "negatively sanctioned...for…… [Read More]

References

Banks, T.L. (1990). Gender bias in the classroom. 14 S. Ill U.L.J. 527 (1989-1990).

Chapman, a. (2010). Gender bias in education. Critical Multicultural Pavillion. Retrieved online:  http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/genderbias.html 

Frawley, T. (2005). Gender Bias in the Classroom: Current Controversies and Implications for Teachers. Childhood Education. Retrieved online: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3614/is_200507/ai_n14683848/
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Gender a Society Is a

Words: 2484 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48723572

Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.

3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity

The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…… [Read More]

References

Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.

Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59441463

Enos, T. (1996). Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=42471043

Mussap, A.J. (2008). Masculine Gender Role Stress and the Pursuit of Muscularity. International Journal of Men's Health, 7(1), 72+. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035170430
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Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners Research Question

Words: 3099 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52728944

Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners

ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION

On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).

The…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ethical Research Guidelines. (2012). Marketing Research Association. Retrieved from:  http://www.marketingresearch.org/ 

National Women's Law Center. (2012). retrieved from: http://www.nwlc.org/our-issues

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11

Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2012). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:
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Gender & Communication an Observation

Words: 3692 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39801058

At the end of the party he took a card out of his wallet and gave it to me. He said, "Here, I'll give you my phone number. If you'd like to call me up, I'd love to hear from you." called him two days later and we made a date. Turned out he didn't drive so I had to pick him up. Since I had called him and I was going to be the driver, I bought a small bouquet of flowers and brought them to him. It was fun to reverse roles. Philip was the only man I ever met who didn't have a driver's license. He said he didn't want or need to drive. He liked taking buses and having his friends drive him places.

Dinner was a success. He paid for everything in the traditional manner. Philip told me he was a feminist. He had never…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Furman, Frida K. Facing the Mirror: Older Women and Beauty Shop Culture. New York:

Routledge, 1997.

Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.

Wood, Julia T. Gendered Lives.
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Gender-Based Communication Differences in Her

Words: 861 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3726301

Those conversations also invariably include expressions of success or confidence as well. However, they discuss their feelings and those of others relatively rarely. In many cases, even the closest of male friends maintain a relationship that is sustained largely by common interests such as in sports or recreational interests. They may know one another for many years without ever really discussing their feelings or their intimate thoughts about personal matters. Women, tend to do the exact opposite, focussing on discussions about people instead of inanimate objects or impersonal interests. Close female friends typically know everything there is to know about one another and they invariably know one another better and more fully than their respective husbands or boyfriends know them.

As Tanner explains, these tendencies are likely functions of both biology and social learning. From the evolutionary biological perspective, males would have had to worry more about projecting their strength…… [Read More]

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Gender Success in the Classroom

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84222937



Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3

This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.

urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.

This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…… [Read More]

Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.

Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.
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Peer influence on gender identity development in adolescence

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53515537

Article Critique
Kornienko, O., Santos, C. E., Martin, C. L., & Granger, K. L. (2016). Peer influence on gender identity development in adolescence. Developmental psychology, 52(10), 1578.
I. Statement of the Problem
a. Research Topic
The topic of the research is the impact of peer influence on the development of gender identity amongst adolescents
b. Research Question and Hypothesis
The article investigates peer influence on gender identity through the use of panel data on gender identity and friendship networks gathered from students in the 7th and 8th grade from an ethnically diverse public middle school. The main hypothesis of the study is that adolescents would alter their gender identity self-concepts to become akin to their friends and that such effects would take place even when network selection impacts were controlled. The second hypothesis of the study is that stronger peer influence effects on between-gender dimensions of gender identity than within-gender dimensions of…… [Read More]

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Gender Bias in British Education Are Boys Really Failing

Words: 2252 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30458456

statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.

Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology

Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.

Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That

Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
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gender bias and'sexual harassment in'schools

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24426618

Query: How can we overcome sexual harassment in our schools?
Sexual harassment needs to be framed as a community issue and not as isolated incidents. A complex issue, sexual harassment becomes embedded in a culture of violence, one that condones normative gender bias and other forms of power abuses. Resolving the problem of sexual harassment in our schools requires honest self-insight, into the values that guide the organization. On a conscious level, most educators will recognize that sexual harassment does violate core concepts of social justice, yet patterns of violence and conflict are frequently unconscious and irrational. Conflict is subtle and often manifests below “conscious awareness,” (Holton, 1995, p. 79). Thus, formal policies are sometimes ineffective for addressing sexual harassment because they fail to uncover and deal with the underlying issues that are triggering the violent behavior.
To cultivate the values of social justice, educators need to create a culture…… [Read More]

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Importance of Gender in the Construction of Identity

Words: 3451 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44479130

Gender and Identity

Perhaps the most important question facing any human, be they male or female, is that of the discovery of their own identity. The majority of child development theories, from Freud onward, have dealt with the way in which children must learn to disengage their own identity from that of their parents (mothers in particular) and discover who they are as adults. Yet this process is far from over when one reaches physical maturity, and one may even see many other psychological theories, from Maslow to the existentialists, as exploring the stages through which one continues to define one's true identity as distinct not only from one's parents but also from one's biological and social circumstances. It is somewhat ironic that the word identity which was originally used to note categories of same-ness and unity (Connell 2002) is now so vitally bound up with defining distinctness. At the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bessant, J. And Watts, R. (1999) 'Sex and Gender in Australia' (Chapter 7) in J. Bessant and R. Watts (eds) Sociology Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, pp. 164-193

Connell, R.W. (2002) Gender, Oxford: Blackwell. (Chapters 1, 2 and 5).

Connell, R.W. (1995) 'The Social Organization of Masculinity' (Chapter 3) in R.W. Connell (ed) Masculinities, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. pp. 67-86.

Kidd, W. (2002) 'Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality' (Chapter 11) in W. Kidd (ed) Culture and Identity, New York: Palgrave. pp. 171-189.
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Sociology - Gender & Sexuality

Words: 1002 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5369565

More specifically, whereas certain components of human behavior are hard wired, many other components are learned from exposure to others in society. According to this view, the individual learns by watching others, starting in early childhood. By adulthood, those expectations transmitted through social learning are completely internalized by the individual and not perceived as matters that one learns from others.

By imitating adult role models and emulating behaviors expected of males and females in society, the developing individual learns what it means to be a male or female in that particular society. For example, if male role models and authority figures model aggressive or belligerent mannerisms in self-expression, male children absorb their exposure to these displays of masculinity and eventually come to identify with and exhibit those characteristics themselves. Similarly, if female role models and authority figures model passive or accommodating behaviors, female children come to identify with and exhibit…… [Read More]

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Race and Gender Representation in Advertisements

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88321747

The media greatly influences and shapes the society’s knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and worldviews about diverse topics. Much of what different audiences within the society know and are concerned about is shaped by narratives, symbols, and images propagated by television, radio, and other forms media (Brooks & Hebert, 2006). These narratives and symbols play a crucial role in the construction of social identities – racial identity, gender identity, sexual identity, urban identity, and so on.

Advertisements are some of the media texts that shape social identities. Commercial organizations have time and again used ads not just to sell products and services, but to propagate certain narratives, especially with respect to race and gender. The propagation of those narratives has particularly gone a notch higher in the age of social media. This paper demonstrates and analyses the representation of race and gender in a selected advertisement. More specifically, the paper pays attention…… [Read More]

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Psychology - Gender Identity the

Words: 780 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86862282



Typically, male and female infants are presented with very different types of toys and encouraged to pursue very different activities throughout childhood. Female infants are dressed in pink and encouraged to participate in certain types of games and interactions, such as those that emphasize cooperative activities. Meanwhile, male infants are dressed in blue, presented with toys that reflect societal roles consistent with cultural concepts of masculinity and encouraged to pursue games and activities that emphasize competition and more physical pursuits.

Therefore, in many respects, the respective tendencies of male and female children to exhibit characteristic behaviors associated with gender are highly influenced by external environmental factors as well as hormonal factors, making it difficult to understand exactly how much each set of factors is responsible for apparent gender-based behavioral differences. In that respect, some of the most useful information comes from individuals with gender-identity issues that persist in spite of…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Zuk, Marlene. (2002) Sexual Selection: What We Can and Can't Learn about Sex from Animals. Berkeley: University of California.
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Race Class Gender the Intersection

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4065844



The different "isms" such as sexism, heterosexism, and racism are creating very real schisms -- in our minds, and between people. The chasms of communication that are created by hatred and misunderstanding are socially constructed. They can be socially deconstructed too. Such rifts occur between groups of people and between whole cultures. In some pockets of the United States, social conservatism threatens to erase the social progress made since the Civil ights movements of the 1960s. There are still people in the United States that believe that homosexuality is unnatural, even immoral. The idea that heterosexual marriage is in some way superior to homosexual marriage is rooted in outmoded religious doctrine and not in positive social progress. Within these "isms" are the chasms of misunderstanding that create social strife and inequality. Income disparity, for example, is closely linked with race as well as gender. Women still get paid less than…… [Read More]

References

Brennan, D. Selling sex for visas.

Collins, P.C. "Prisons for Our Bodies; Closets for Our Minds." In Black Sexual Politics. New York: Routledge.

Katz, J.N. The Invention of Heterosexuality. University of Chicago.

Lareau, a. Unequal Childhoods: Class, race, and family life. University of California Press.
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Women's Studies - Gender &

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49556553



Based on those responses, the BSRI assigns a characterization of either "sex- typed" or "androgynous" depending on how much subjects identify only with adjectives considered desirable of their gender or with desirable traits of both genders, respectively.

The PAQ uses similar methodology to generate results that link identification with adjectives considered desirable in both genders with high self-esteem in subjects of either gender.

Generally, both instruments have been criticized because it is virtually impossible to ignore the influence of social learning on the degree to which individuals identify with gender-specific attributes. In effect, a diagnostic questionnaire may answer little else besides the identification of particular attributes associated positively with masculinity or femininity in the social culture in which subjects were socialized. More specifically, the PAQ has been criticized for equating identification with desirable male attributes with high self-esteem in "androgynous" females without considering the greater degree to which society reinforces…… [Read More]

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The Role Media Plays in Relation to Gender Stereotypes

Words: 4863 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20538188

Introduction

By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…… [Read More]

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Communication Style and Gender

Words: 2438 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74963573

Sociolinguistics - How gender influences the way people speak?

Definition of keywords

Sociolinguistics: This is a study of language in respect of social, class, regional, gender and occupational factors.

Gender: It is the condition of being a female or a male and is mostly used in relation to cultural and social differences.

Gender Equality: A condition in which the opportunities and rights are not affected by the change of gender.

Speak: To say in order to express or convey feelings or conversation (oxforddictionaries.com)

Within the study of discourse, comparative analysis of the way women and men use language has been a topic of interest for quite some time. However, to date no coherent framework for gender differences in language and its use has been established empirically, despite relatively extensive theorizing. One reason for this lack of framework lies in the absence of a consensus in how language, whether written or…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bridges of Madison County.(2010). Daily Motion.com. (Video) Retrieved from:  http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xehubk_the-bridges-of-madison-county-1995_music 

Cameron, D., 2007. The Guardian. [Online] Available at:  http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/01/gender.books  [Accessed 29 November 2014].

Carli, L.L. (1999). Gender, interpersonal power, and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 81-99.

Freilino, J.P., Caswell, A. & Laasko, E., 2012. The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages. Springer, pp. 268-281
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Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Words: 1596 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93496749

MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |

Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Moral Development

Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).

Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development

Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/ 

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/ 

Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
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Evolutionary Psychology - Gender Differentiation

Words: 2781 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35138307



Since males of all sexually reproducing species are naturally drawn to signs of fertility in females (Zuk 2002), they naturally express more interest in females when they ovulate, or come into heat in the vernacular applied to non-human animals. In many other species that do not rely as much on a monogamous pair bond for the survival of the fetus (Barash & Lipton 2001), females exhibit very clear external signals corresponding to their ovulation. This system is very well suited to species where a single male (or several) mate with many females, such as among lions and many mammals; in fact, it probably reduces any potential for conflict among harem females for male attention.

Human females replaced the outward signals of ovulation and fertility by evolving a suppression of any outward manifestation, precisely, to ensure that males provided for, guarded, and protected them continually rather than only that portion of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ackerman, Diane. (1995) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage

Angier, Natalie. Birds Do it. Bees Do it. People Seek the Keys to it; the New York Times (Apr. 10/07)

Barash, David, P. And Lipton, Judith E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy. New York: Henry Holt.

Branden, Nathaniel (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
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Family Mass Media and Education as Socialization

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45026593

Family, Mass Media and Education as Socialization Factors

A growing body of evidence confirms that agents of socialization play crucial roles in the social development of an individual. Certain agents are identified as being more influential than others, with these agents being responsible for causing the most influence in our lives and playing a major role in the altering of our self-images over the course of our lives. Some of these agents include family (especially parents), schools and peers, work environment, gender and the mass media, among others. The development of a social life and the social relationships of an individual are inextricably related to the influence from these respective agents and how they are manifest in people's day-to-day lives (Henslin, 2013). There are several agents of socialization that have most significantly affected my life, including most especially family, mass media and education. These socialization agents were selected based on…… [Read More]

References

Henslin, J. (2013). Sociology: A down-to-earth approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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Social Psychology of Gender-Based Sex

Words: 2019 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42182877



Western Sexual Mores and Fundamental Beliefs about omantic Love:

Beyond the unfair effect of gender-based differential sexual socialization on sexually liberated women in dating relationships, another component of American social psychology often undermines romantic happiness. Specifically, the many messages about romance and marriage that help shape the American view of love suggest that: (1) sexual desire between couples who love each other is exclusive; (2) sexual desire for others indicates a failure of a relationship (or lack of character or sincerity of one's partner); and (3) sexual jealousy is an indication of romantic love (Branden 2002).

Sexual jealousy is practically universal in romantic love within Western society (Buss 2000), but the fact of the matter is, at least in human beings, it is a learned reaction that is virtually unknown in several known aboriginal societies (Barash & Lipton 2001).

Despite the fact that psychologists consider sexual fidelity a matter of…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, D. (1994) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.

Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus

Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: Henry Holt.

Branden, N. (2002) the Psychology of Romantic Love.
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Sociology and Socialization Gender Differences Examined Birthday

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42265882

Sociology and Socialization: Gender Differences Examined

Birthday Cards

Go to any card shop and take a look at the birthday cards. Birthday cards display numerous messages about society's attitudes toward gender, age, mental status and more. Most of the birthday cards available in a typical Hallmark store, the store examined, display what might be considered gender 'norms'. For example, girl's birthday cards are mostly offered in pink, showing pictures of flowers or bunnies or other soft items. Male birthday cards often depict pictures of sporting items, blue colors, or even women. The cards available suggest that differences exist between what men and women like, and emphasize that these 'norms' have become social institutions. The messages provided in cards suggest that women want to hear flowery messages of love and caring, whereas men would rather here a good joke or look at a picture of a member of the opposite sex.…… [Read More]

Reference:

Shepard, J.M. (2001). Sociology, 9th ed. West Publishing Company.
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Effects of Gender Related Bullying and Harassment

Words: 2121 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20873531

Bullying and Conflict in Relation to Learning About Gender and Other Forms of Equity

One of the harsh realities of life in the United States is the potential for bullying behaviors to adversely affect the learning environment for young victims, transforming the school environment from a place of learning into one that is dreaded and feared. Moreover, bullying behaviors can have a profound effect on the manner in which young people are socialized concerning gender roles as well as their perspectives concerning equity later in life. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper provides a review of the literature to develop a discussion concerning the issues of bullying and conflict in relation to learning about gender and other forms of equity and the implications these have for students and teachers. Finally, following this discussion, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in…… [Read More]

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Sociological Theories Sociology of Gender

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29285085

Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies

Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"

In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.

Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]

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Running Head Gender in a

Words: 2572 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33753194

However,
the toys themselves had a distinctly gendered feel.
While the author recalled Legos as gender-neutral, they did not appear
gender neutral in the toy-store setting. Instead, the Lego products were
based on action movies, such as tar Wars and Indiana Jones or else
featured something called a Bionicle, which appeared to be some type of
robot. There were some Legos called Clickits, which were pink and white
and featured teenage-looking cartoon-character girls. However, the Lego
sets from the author's youth, which featured blocks and other features to
build gender-neutral items like towns, simply were not present. Instead,
the Legos seemed less free-form and more structured, and came in boxes to
build specific designs, almost all of them masculine in stereotyping.
The other building materials were similarly gender-differentiated.
While the toy store had apparently gender-neutral building toys like Tinker
Toys and Mega Blocks, they also managed to capitalize on stereotyping.…… [Read More]

Sex Roles, 54 (9/10), 717-726).
Green, V.A., Bigler, R., and Catherwood, D. (2004). The variability and
flexibility of gender-
typed toy play: A close look at children's behavioural responses to
counter-stereotypic models. Sex Roles, 51 (7/8), 371-386.
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Myths on Socialization of Men and Women

Words: 2044 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29211293

Myth About Men and Women

Gender Differences esults from Socialization and Culture

The development of an individual's personal identity is influenced by the socialization process and culture of respective society. The socialization process guides individuals in how they interact with each other. It teaches one on interaction behavior including how to ask, whom to ask, in what circumstance, and the appropriate language and words to use (Devor, 2001). Culture defines the way of doing things and the measures in coming up with norms in the society. In the each and every society, the members ascribed to a particular way of life defined by their culture and taught through a socialization process. The culture and socialization process ensures that members of a society relate to each other in harmony and cohesion. In the society members are socialized to uphold certain norms and adopt specific culture (ways of doing things).

Through the…… [Read More]

References

Bebel, A. (2004). Woman under Socialism. United States: University Press of the Pacific, 2004.

Colombo, G., Cullen, R., & Lisie B. (2007). Rereading America. Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Seven Edition. Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Devor, H. A. (2001). "Becoming Members of Society: Learning the Social Meanings of Gender" Rereading America, 9th ed Ninth Edition Ed. Gary Colombo, Ed. Robert Cullen, Ed. Bonnie Lisle Boston/New York: Bedford ST. Martin's,
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Criminal Justice - Gender and

Words: 3438 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98457029

In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.

Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35

Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon
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Diversity Socialisation for Newcomers

Words: 1587 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50387244

Diversity Socialisation for Newcomers
Head of Human Resources
XYZ Investment Limited

Dear Sir,

Re: Diversity Socialisation for Newcomers

The significance of organisational socialisation cannot be overemphasised. Through the process, new employees are equipped with the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours necessary for successful organisational membership (Cable, Gino & Staats, 2013). In most cases, however, the process of socialisation focuses on aspects such as the goals of the organisation, individual role and responsibilities, behavioural patterns, as well as rules and principles pertaining to the organisation. Often, there is little or no attention to workplace diversity issues (Mcmillan-Capehart, 2005; Graybill et al., 2013). This is particularly true for XYZ Investment Limited, a hypothetical investment firm with operations across the U.S. The organisation could be at a considerable disadvantage given that workplace diversity has increasingly become a vital source of competitive advantage for organisations of different sizes and in diverse sectors and industries. Though…… [Read More]

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Crime and Gender as Steffensmeier

Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12940363

"Greater freedom has increased female participation in the public sphere," which would expose greater numbers of women to criminal behaviors and the opportunities to commit crimes (Steffensmeier & Allan1996, p. 469). Combined with social control theory, opportunity theory offers a plausible explanation for the gender gap in criminal behavior. Social control theory and opportunity theory share in common the basic assumption that deviance is a natural human instinct; that left to their own devices both men and women are predisposed to crime. Criminal behavior is always an option, according to social control theory and opportunity theory. The two sociological theories suggest that deterrents to committing crime, such as a lack of opportunity or strong social bonds, determine patterns of criminal behavior. Moreover, social control theory and opportunity theory emphasize sociological variables at the expense of psychological or personality-based ones.

The opportunity theories such as theories of routine activities present deviance…… [Read More]

References

Chapple, C.L., McQuillan, J.A., & Berdahl, T.A. (2004). Gender, social bonds, and delinquency: a comparison of boys' and girls' models. Social Science Research 34(2005): 357-383.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (2005). Crime in the United States: Ten-Year Arrest Trends. Table 33. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_33.html

Smith, D.A. & Paternoster, R. (1987). The gender gap in theories of deviance: Issues and evidence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 24(2): 140-172.

Steffensmeier, D. & Allan, E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology. 22: 459-487.
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Rewards of Solitude and Socialization America Has

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73243071

Rewards of Solitude and Socialization

America has always idolized outsiders in its literary imagination. Consider the figures of the heroic outsider, the rugged individualist, and even the stalwart homesteader upon the frontier. All of these individuals are positive constructions of the solitary outsider in American society. These lonely ideals span the range from Emerson's essays to Thoreau's life at alden Pond, to Hemingway's fiction. But in reality, and in ordinary conversation, solitude and solitary people are often suspected by the neighborhoods in which they might choose live. The other side of the outsider in American life is the television camera pointed at the glazed features of the neighbors of a serial killer, as the police dig up the individual's backyard. Invariably, they respond. 'He was quiet. He always kept to himself.'

The poet and essayist May Sarton offers neither extreme in her positive view of living outside the societal fold,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sarton, May. "The Rewards of Living a Solitary Life." From Chapter 7. Hands Across Borders: A Multicultural Reader for Writers. New York: Pearson, 2004.
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Rules for Perpetuating Gender-Based Sexual

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75683487

Instead of liberating women from the unjustified and prejudicial sexual double standard, the suggestions offered in connection with securing marriage proposals actually do the exact opposite by encouraging women to play into preconceived stereotypes and attitudes that ensure their continued social and sexual inequality.

Conversely, according to contemporary psychologists with formal training in human relations and psychosexual development, redressing the social and sexual inequality still faced by women in modern society requires a diametrically opposite approach to understanding the fundamental basis of moral judgment. Specifically, it requires recognizing the illusory, illogical, and unfair assumptions that are responsible for generating completely different sets of rules and behavioral expectations based on gender

(Branden, 1999; 91, 98, 111). Instead of encouraging women to continue conforming their behavior to traditional expectations imposed by invalid presumptions of "acceptable" female social and sexual conduct, the more sound advice would be to critically evaluate the worth of…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, Diane. A Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage (1995).

Baker, Robert, and Elliston, Frederick. Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus (1998).

Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).

Fein, Ellen, and Schneider, Sherrie. All the Rules: Time Tested Secrets for Capturing the Heart of Mr. Right. New York: Grand Central Publishing (2007).
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Sociology of Self Socialization and Groups

Words: 1550 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62660910

Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development do you believe are most affected by social isolation? Explain your reasoning. 200 words.

Although social isolation will affect a person's cognitive development at all stages, the earliest stages of cognitive development might be the most severely impacted. During the sensorimotor stage and the preoperational stage, the infant needs to hear language and this can only be done through regular contact with other people. In the absence of social contact, the infant's language growth may be seriously stunted and could impact the child's development at later stages. It is certainly possible that social isolation during the first few stages of development could lead to impaired ability to learn. Social isolation might also minimize the infant's contact with information and objects that help fundamental learning processes. Social isolation naturally implies fewer stimuli necessary for cognitive and social development. If social isolation occurs at a later…… [Read More]

References

Fisher, G.A. & Chon, K.K. (1989). Durkheim and the social construction of emotions. Social Psychology Quarterly 52(1): 1-9.

Macionis, J. (2014). Society: The Basics.

Macionis, J. (2011). Sociology. 13th Edition. Lecture notes: http://www.ivcc.edu/uploadedfiles/_faculty/_mangold/soc%201000%20chapter%205%20lecture%20notes.pdf

Sills, S.J. (2010). Sociology 101: Introduction to sociology. Retrieved online: https://uncgsoc101.wordpress.com/module-4-groups-and-organization/part-2/
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Media Stereotypes and Socialization of Children

Words: 833 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96914114

Social Institutions

Our media is a major element of socialization for a number of reasons. The first is that it is, to some degree, a representation of the world we live in. While much of what is depicted is fiction, the way that people's home and work lives are presented on television is an influencer with respect to how we view our own lives, and the types of things to which we aspire. We pick up behavioral cues from the characters on TV shows, for example, but also cues about social structures and how we interact with one another. Our media is the means by which the majority of ideas are transmitted to us in the modern world, with television, the Internet and radio all receiving hours every day of exposure.

An example of this can be found in the sitcom. The sitcom as a medium is intended to generate…… [Read More]

References

Kendall, D. (2015) Sociology in Our Times, Tenth Edition. Cengage.
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Watch Movie Sex & 8226 WATCH Movie Sex City

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25477910

atch movie Sex •atch movie Sex City COLLECT ANALYSIS ? 1-2 pages (250-500 words) analysis. Answer research hypothesis: hat impact media gender socialization society?

Use sociological terms text chapters chapter 3 socialization chapter 9 Inequalities Gender Age.

Gender and the City: Setting Expectations through Popular Film

The film Sex and the City is an example of popular culture taking aim at its impressionable female fans, socializing them to believe that being a woman means being consumerist, romance-starved, and accepting of second-class status. The two primary dramatic storylines feature female protagonists who must decide whether to forgive a man who has mistreated them. In both instances, the man wins out, and viewers are left with the message that these women, for all their independent posturing, live lives subject to the whims of their significant others.

The viewer is told that "women come to New York for the two L's: labels and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sex and the City. Dir. Michael Patrick King. Perf. Sarah Jessica Parker, Kim Cattrall, Kristin

Davis, and Cynthia Nixon. New Line Cinema Corporation, 2008.
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Successful Aging as Viewed by Generation X

Words: 3822 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71404341

successful aging as viewed by Generation X versus Baby Boomers over the age of

Successful Ageing: Generation X versus Baby Boomers

Numerous studies have focused on understanding and defining the constituents of successful aging. The term "successful aging" is popular in the gerontological literature to cover processes in aging. The processes of aging are positive, and at times, the term has shown relations to "vital aging" or "active aging" implying that later life is characterized by sustained health and vitality. According to Moody (2005), "successful aging" suggests main ideas including life satisfaction, longevity, freedom from disability, mastery, and growth, active management with life and independence.

According to Dubey et al. (2011), as people grow older, they have incidences of illnesses. However, an older population has numerous needs as compared to a younger population. Life satisfaction continues to be an important aspect in the study of aging. This is because it…… [Read More]

References

AARP. (2007). Leading a multi-generational workforce. Retrieved from  http://assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/cs/misc/leading_a_multigenerational_workforce.pdf 

Berkman, L., Unger, J.B., McAvay, G., Bruce, M.L., Seeman, L., (1999). Variation in the impact of social network characteristics on the physical functioning in elderly persons.

The Journals of Gerontology, 54(B), 245-251

Bovbierg, V.E., McCann, B.S., Brief, D.J., Follette, W.E., Retzlaff, B.M., Dowdy, A.A.,
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Spheres of Influence Political Sphere Politics Is

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55192803

Spheres of Influence

Political Sphere

Politics is that one course of action by which the choices and decision that influences our lives directly are reached. In simple words, politics can be described as a tool that is responsible for the shaping up and changing peoples' lives. It is not an untold secret that it is the sole responsibility of the government to fulfill the needs of its people. Society changes due to politics. Thus, politics influence almost every aspect of our lives. Not only does it tell us how much tax we are obliged to pay, it also sets the price of gasoline. The political leaders are not the same. However, they all affect our mentalities in one way or another by their leadership styles and decisions they make for the betterment or nuisance for the people. Everything that a person loves about his/her country (apart from the scenic beauty)…… [Read More]

References

Crossman, A. (n.d.). Sociology of Gender: Studying the Relationship between Gender and Society. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Gender.htm

Hardegree, E. (n.d.). 5 Economic Factors that Influence People's Behavior. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from  http://www.ehow.com/list_6951654_5-factors-influence-people_s-behavior.html 

Hudson, C. (2007, March 02). How Politics Affects Our Lives. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://www.novanewsnow.com/News/Politics/2007-03-02/article-603796/How-Politics-Affects-Our-Lives/1

Triandis, H.C., & Suh, E.M. (2002). Cultural Influences on Personality. Annual Reviews Psychology, 53, 133-160. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/suh/file/Cultural influences on personality.pdf
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Social Control Mechanisms Sanction Interact Life a Daily

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26019704

social control mechanisms/sanction interact life a daily basis. This discussion include pressure conform norms values society informal formal rewards punishments. -How socialized gender (male female), socialized work, a student, areas life? Try developed essay theme (gender socialization, work school experience -Draw specific examples essay pertain scenario situation discussing.

Gender socialization: Pains and perils

As soon as someone is born, the first question asked is: "is the baby a boy or a girl?" No matter how much society has advanced, in terms of the way it has expanded the perceived gender roles for men and women, this fact has remained constant: gender defines everything regarding a person's perceived social character, in subtle as well as obvious ways.

As early as kindergarten, I can recall girls and boys segmenting themselves off in gender-specific play groups. Even if girls and boys would play together in their neighborhoods, in school the boys tended to…… [Read More]

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Cultural Impact on Politics Political

Words: 5093 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96410547

4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.

The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…… [Read More]

References

Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.

Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.

Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.

El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
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Progress and Problems of Women in One Particular Occupation

Words: 2301 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85582017

omen in Corporate Professions

The American workforce is increasingly reflecting the changing American demographic. "Minorities" like women and people of color are occupying more management and leadership positions in the business world and corporate America. Their presence has begun to trigger changes in how companies are managed and in the broader areas of corporate culture.

However, in many ways, women in business continue to face unique problems because of their gender. This paper discusses how these difficulties continue to form barriers for women in the business world. The effects of gender stereotypes and expectations can be seen in virtually all aspects of employment -- from hiring practices to wages, from chances for advancement to retirement benefits. This paper examines how factors like unequal pay and a male-dominated corporate culture help to ensure that the American corporate world remains largely an enclave of men.

Unfair hiring and advancement practices

In a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Antilla, Susan. Tales from the Boom Room: Women vs. Wall Street. New York: Bloomberg Press, 2002.

Baugh, S.G. "On the Persistence of Sexual Harassment." Journal of Business Ethics, 16(3): 899-908.

Book, Esther Wachs. Why the Best Man for the Job is a Woman: The unique female qualities of leadership. New York: Harper Business, 2000.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Statistics & Data." Women's Bureau. March 2003. Department of Labor. 6 November 2004 .
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Worldviews Worldview Is a Lens

Words: 1575 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58132767

An American worldview assumes, for instance, that a person as the right to worship as he or she wishes. Not all cultures value religious freedom.

Religion, culture, gender, socio-economic status, and nationality all impact worldview. orldview in turn affects outlook on life in all its dimensions. Self-concept and identity are products of worldview, as people continually compare themselves to others. Beliefs about fundamental issues like human nature are related to worldview because the way we view the world is akin to the way we view human beings. How we treat other sentient beings including animals is related to our worldview. orldview even affects a person's beliefs about health and well-being: some value quality over quantity of life. orldview affects beliefs about aesthetics, what is beautiful and what is artistic or musical. Priorities and values, such as whether restrictions on personal freedom are valuable to protect law and order or whether…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shimony, Tali Tadmor. Gender Socialization in National Education and the Formation of a New State: Israel as a Case Study. History of Education, v34 n6 p639-656 Nov 2005. Retrieved on ERIC June 21, 2008 at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ721411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ721411

Worldview Diversity." Retrieved June 21, 2008 at  http://www.teachingaboutreligion.org/WorldviewDiversity/wvdiversity.htm 

Young, Mary Isabelle. Pimatisiwin: Walking in a Good Way. Winnipeg: Pemmican, 2005.
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Vietnamese Americans Neither American nor

Words: 3898 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95505060

Stresses associated with migration itself, discrimination against racial minorities in this country, poverty, unemployment, and crowded living conditions heighten the chance that a husband will become abusive" (p. 1402). From the Vietnamese-American perspective, these issues are even more pronounced and they are discussed further below.

a. Male dominance. One of the most powerful forces affecting Vietnamese families at home and abroad today is Confucian ideology, an ideology that is predicated on the dominance of men over women (Kibria, 1993). According to Lowe and her colleagues (2003), some gender socialization influences on Vietnamese men are similar to those that are typically experienced by men in other Asian cultures. "Similarities in gender role socialization that Vietnamese men share with other Asian men arising from shared influences of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist philosophies include messages about appropriate family roles, emotional expressiveness, and the role of assertive behavior" (Lowe et al., p. 246). For…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, M.J. (1993). A license to abuse: The impact of conditional status on female immigrants. Yale Law Journal, 102(6), 1401.

Daniel, A.M., & Yi, J.K. (2001). Substance use among Vietnamese American college students. College Student Journal, 35(1), 13.

Do, H.D. (1999). The Vietnamese Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Doan, J.H.D., Huer, M.B., & Saenz, T.I. (2001). Understanding the Vietnamese American community: Implications for training educational personnel providing services to children with disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 23(1), 27.
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Adolescent Influences and Adjustments What

Words: 6386 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72263638

The key years during which experimentation occurs - between 13 and 16.

Kobus discusses influences that launch an adolescent's smoking habit from several perspectives. First, the "social learning theory": relationships that are "more intimate" and that are developed "earlier in the youth's experiences" and thought to be more important; and youths are more likely to "imitate the smoking habits" (or non-smoking habits) of those with whom they have the closes and most frequent contact. Second, the "primary socialization theory" takes into consideration influences of the family, schools, and peer clusters; this theory also gives consideration to an adolescent's "individual personality traits" like self-esteem, anxiety, "sensation seeking and psychopathology" that are "direct influences on drug use and deviance," Kobus writes. hen the bonds a youth has with family and school are "weak," the role of peer clusters is "heightened"; and of course if the individual has low self-esteem, the peer cluster…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American School Board Journal. (2007). Violent video games poison the teenage brain:

Study. National School Boards Association.

Crosby, Richard; Voisin, Dexter; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClement, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.;

Caliendo, Angela M. (2006). Family Influences and biologically Confirmed Sexually
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Vietnamese Women Case Study Vietnamese

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89355415



The counselor will then need to help Judy understand the process of assimilation into American culture, so she can decide whether this is right for her or not. By visiting a counselor with her partner, she would demonstrate appropriate cultural loyalty by asking her husband to be the care seeker, or person who aligns with the psychotherapist to make decisions so her partner does not become violent or engage in overly masculine behaviors that may harm Judy's spirit (Nghe, Mahalik & Lowe, 2003). The counselor may be able to express the need for Judy to first attend to work to help support her partner before having her baby, in a manner that considers her partners potential insecurities at allowing Judy to take on a non-traditional role in the family. This change however is likely, especially as more and more Asian families adopt a more Western cultural belief system (Nghe, Mahalik…… [Read More]

References

Nghe, L.T., Mahalik, J.R., Lowe, S.M. (2003), Influences on Vietnamese men:

Examining traditional gender roles, the refugee experience, acculturation, and racism in the United States. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31(4): 245

Sue, D. & Sue, D. (1993), Ethnic identity: Cultural factors in the psychological development of Asians in America, in, D.W. Atkinson, G. Morten, & D.W. Sue (Eds), Counseling American minorities: A cross-cultural perspective (4th Ed.). Dubuue, IA: Brown.

Tung, T.M. (1985), Psychiatric care for Southeast Asians: How different is different