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II. WHAT WAYS to TRADITIONAL GENDER EXPECTATIONS FACILITATE PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT?
The traditional gender expectations that have passed through many generations greatly facilitate personal development of the individual. For example, it is well-acknowledged among researchers that girls are less-often geared toward the mathematics and engineering fields by teachers, parents, and other's known to impact the life of the young individual in college and career choices. For instance, when viewing the following two figures labeled Figure 1-a and Figure 1-, the general reaction of most Americans to the first picture is that something is out of place because here is the man in the kitchen however, the second picture appears more normal. This is due to gender socialization of the sexes.
Source: (iStockphoto, nd) http://www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview
Again, in the following two pictures the first picture is one that has traditionally not been viewed as normal while the second picture…
Global Women Writers - Key Terms and Definitions. Online available at http://mlhopps.faculty.tcnj.edu/GWWTermsDict.htm#Gender
Married Women's Employment, Gender Socialization, and Divorce Rates.(2008) eSSORTMENT Online available at http://wi.essortment.com/genderrolesoc_rivr.htm
Michel, Sonya (1999) Child Interests/Mother's Rights: The Shaping of America's Child Care Policy. Yale University Press. New Haven, CT.
Kryzanowski and Stewin (1985) Development implications in Youth Counseling: Gender Socialization" International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 1985.
In the only ad involving men and food, the man is a cartoon delivery man carrying cookies. 13% of the ads dealing with women also involve children in the picture -- 86% of the ads involving adults and children involve women as the adult. The one exception is a tragic ad about heart disease in which the female figure has been cut out of the picture leaving a stricken husband and family behind. An approximately equal number of ads show men and women as having jobs or being involved in business. While an overwhelming number of the beauty and hair product ads are targeted at women, a surprisingly large number of perfume and deodorant ads are targeted at men. Glamorized, idealized bodies being used to sell products are only slightly more likely to be female (13 ads) than male (12 ads) -- this difference may be explained by the tendency…
Males and females are socialized differently in that respect from their earliest years as toddlers, throughout their later childhood years, and especially, during adolescence and young adulthood. As a result, even after factoring out the influence of socioeconomic class, specific exposure to criminality, and other external influences on the behavior of the individual, males are involved in all types of crimes more than women, and the difference is even greater with respect to crimes of violence (Ogle, Maier-Katkin, & Bernard, 1995; Schmalleger, 2009; West & Zimmerman, 1987).
Different Pathways to Violence based on Gender
One of the most prominent differences apparent in data profiling violent criminals by gender is the manner in which males and females become involved in violent crime in particular (Ogle, Maier-Katkin, & Bernard, 1995; West & Zimmerman, 1987). Specifically, males typically become involved in violent crime habitually and in conjunction with numerous other closely associated aggressive…
Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Ogle, R., Maier-Katkin, D., and Bernard, T. "A Theory of Homicidal Behavior among
Women." Criminology, Vol. 33, No. 2 (1995): 173-193.
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
role of video games in gender socialization of children growing up. For example, what would parents buy their 9-year-old son on his birthday and would it be different if it was a daughter. Also the effects of video games on the age groups that play them."
For the past four decades video games have been a top seller in the electronic market. Millions of parents line up each year to purchase the latest and greatest video games for their children. They come in all forms, including violence, games, activities, sports and others. The video game advent came on the heels of the women's movement getting up to speed, which has made it difficult to gauge the exact gender impact the games have had since they hit the market. Now, four decades later video games are being blamed for everything from murder to failing out of school with little attention to…
Violent Video Games Affecting our Children.
Grand Theft Auto' creators sued for $100m over killing.(News)
Computers, video games, and literacy: What do girls think?(Statistical Data Included)
Popular video games: quantifying the presentation of violence and its context.(Industry Overview)
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…
Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37
Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.
Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209
Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).
Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.
Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…
Humphrey, J. (2003 - Mar). "Guthrie's six degrees of separation and provocative."
Oracle Online, 115(7): 1. Retrieved:
Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
The pressures created by single parenting and more specifically the need, by women to contribute economically to the household has also correlated to increase in crime among girls and boys. It is also clear that as the gender roles and expectations of girls as opposed to boys changes and in many ways overlaps there will and have been logical increases in the number of girls in the system and generally experiencing acts of juvenile delinquency.
Many link the decrease in the gap between violent offences among girls and boys to social change, often associated with the lack of paternal involvement. Yet, it is also true that the same can be said of boys, as boys without paternal involvement are much more likely than those with it to offend, in a myriad of ways. Yet, more common "split" and single parent situations are demonstrative of increased female offences. (Schaffner, 2006, p.…
Bridges, G.S. & Myers, M.A. (Eds.). (1994). Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, a., Rutter, M., & Silva, P.A. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Peters, S.R. (2001, December). Relationships' Role in Female Juvenile Delinquency. Corrections Today, 63, 76.
Schaffner, L. (2006). Girls in Trouble with the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
I use the above family as an example that I think that the socialization of children remains the primary job of the parent and that parents can help determine how external society influences impact their children. Whether society freaked out because of an image of a little boy with pink toenails is not nearly so important as how a family reacts if a little boy wants to paint his toenails pink. The little boy in the family I described accompanies his mom and sister to the salon and I have seen him with green painted toenails (his favorite color) and know there would be no objections if he wanted pink ones. His sister has rejected the "girl" Legos in favor of "boy" sets, but will vehemently argue with you if you suggested that Ninjago was marketed towards boys.
I do not think that there was less gender stereotyping in toys…
Klein, M. (2011, April 13). J. Crew's toenail-painting ad causes pink scare. Retrieved March
9, 2012 from Ms. Magazine blog website: http://msmagazine.com/blog/blog/2011/04/13/j-crews-toenail-painting-ad-causes-pink-scare/
Melanie. (2008, October 5). Gender socialization in the media from childhood to adulthood.
Retrieved March 9, 2012 from FeministFatale website: http://www.feministfatale.com/2008/10/gender-socialization-in-the-media-from-childhood-to-adulthood/
Low socioeconomic status brings with it many concerns and stressors, including uncertainty about the future and less access to community and health care resources. Money and power issues contribute to feelings of passivity, negativism and lack of self-esteem, all of which contribute to depression.
In addition, women are more likely to be sexually abused as children (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2006). And victims of sexual abuse are more likely to experience depression at some point in their lives than are those who weren't abused. This means that female undergraduates who were sexually abused have a higher incidence of depression than their male counterparts.
This paper aims to analyze some of the fundamental cultural links to women's depression in college, and compare depression rates of females to males.
While most experts agree that understanding gender differences in depression is important, many believe that it is also important…
William E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Kathryn+E.+Kelly " Kathryn E. Kelly, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Franklin+C.+Brown " Franklin C. Brown, http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qa=Hillary+B.+Kelly " Hillary B. Kelly. (March, 1999). Gender Differences in Depression Among College Students: A Multi-Cultural Perspective.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (September 20, 2006). Depression in women: Understanding the gender gap. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/MH/00035.html.
Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Girgus, Joan S. (May, 1994). The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence. Psychological Bulletin. Vol 115(3), 424-443.
Shields, S.A. (2000). Thinking about gender, thinking about theory: Gender and emotional experience. In a. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 3-23). New York: Cambridge University Press.
These and other linguistic phenomenon can be traced to social status issues, just as the class notes suggest. would further hypothesize that uncertainty in women's speech is directly related to women's lower social status vs. men. Women are socialized to be less domineering than men are and their speech may reflect that. n the class notes, this phenomenon is referred to as cooperative speech vs. aggressive speech.
Likewise, women are socialized to be politer and more deferential than men are, and their communication styles reflect that as well. This line of thought coincides with the thesis offered Deuchar (1988) outlined in the class notes. Women may use standard forms instead of prestige forms "to maintain face in interactions that offer them little power." When women do use prestige forms, they may do so to assert their power…
I am familiar with each of the examples of gender-based language listed in the class notes. In fact, I can think of many more ways in which women and men use language differently from each other. For example, many women use terms like "like," or "y'know" more than men do in casual conversations. Women tend also to converse using more empathy than men, who may speak from personal experience before saying, "Oh, I know exactly how you feel." Moreover, I have noticed that more women than men will make a simple statement sound like a question by raising the tone of the final word of a sentence. The effect conveys insecurity and uncertainty, just as the use of "like" and "y'know" does.
These and other linguistic phenomenon can be traced to social status issues, just as the class notes suggest. I would further hypothesize that uncertainty in women's speech is directly related to women's lower social status vs. men. Women are socialized to be less domineering than men are and their speech may reflect that. In the class notes, this phenomenon is referred to as cooperative speech vs. aggressive speech.
Likewise, women are socialized to be politer and more deferential than men are, and their communication styles reflect that as well. This line of thought coincides with the thesis offered Deuchar (1988) outlined in the class notes. Women may use standard forms instead of prestige forms "to maintain face in interactions that offer them little power." When women do use prestige forms, they may do so to assert their power directly.
" This temporary lesson actually applies on a wider scale to life. Clothing, in our society, is closely integrated with sexuality and gender definition. Men often determine who they will have a sexual interest in based on the clothing of the person in question. A woman in a housecoat is not generally seen as a sexual target in the same way that a woman in a leather miniskirt is. ecause women are seen as weaker than men and as belonging to them sexually based on the gender roles of our society, men tend to think they have power over people wearing women's clothes, whether that person be a boy or a girl. This is a power they would not assume that they have over boys, and it is the association with femininity and the stereotypes that are perpetrated about females in general that causes this.
A reflection of how gender…
Kortenhaus, Carole. "Gender Role Stereotyping in Children's Literature: An Update." Sex Roles a Journal of Research. February, 1993. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n3-4_v28/ai_13810759
Peters, John. "Gender Socialization of Adolescents in the Home: Research and Discussion." Adolescence. Winter, 1994. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n116_v29/ai_16477249
Witt, Susan. "Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles." Adolescence. Summer, 1997. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n126_v32/ai_19619406
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.
Power and identity are both socially…
Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.
Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.
Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.
Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)
Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.
However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465.
Feldman, Lorelei "Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping" Retrieved, November 20, 2007 at http://www.unc.edu/~lorelei/sexroles.html
Garfinkle, Harold. Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Polity. 1991.
Spykerman, Sara "Gender Roles and Work: Recent Research" 1997, Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep/genroles.html
Gender and Counseling
The past few years have seen significant advances in the field of counseling. Psychologists and psychiatrists have gained a better understanding of the human psyche. Based on their insights, they have been able to identify new problems and propose more effective methods of treatment.
Many of the problems identified affect the mental health and role of men in society. This is a significant advance, since men's problems have previously been ignored. However, despite such advances, many men are still reluctant to seek help for their mental of psychological problems.
The first part of this paper examines the various gender roles that have been assigned to men in American society. It studies how, through a process of socialization, men are required to acquire several key characteristics that are defined as "masculine," such as aggression, competitiveness and the ability to restrain their emotions.
The next part then examines how…
Allen, Jo Ann and Sylvia Gordon. 1990. "Creating a Framework for Change." Men in Therapy: The Challenge of Change. Richard L. Meth and Robert S. Pasick. New York: The Guilford Press.
Connell, Robert W. 1987. Gender and Power. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Eckert, P. 1989. "The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation," Language Variation and Change (Cambridge), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 245-267
Grant, J. 1988. "Women as managers: What they can offer to organizations," in Organizational Dynamics (New York), Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 56-63.
Gender in omeo and Juliet
Judith Lorber, author of "Night to his Day: The Social Construction of Gender" asserts that gender is not biologically determined, but is a construct of society. This would indicate that the process of socialization is a prime determinant in the development of gender. In other words, how a child is raised will determine his or her gender-based behavior. With this theory in mind, it is interesting to examine traditional gender roles in literature; to examine how literature of the past treated the traditional roles of male and female. William Shakespeare's omeo and Juliet is one of the most famous works of literature in Western culture. It was written around the end of the 1500's, at a time when actors were exclusively male, and therefore all the women's roles would have been played by men. This alone would be enough to base a discussion on the…
Lorber, Judith. "Night to his Day." Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven: Yale UP. 1994.
Shakespeare, William. "Romeo and Juliet Script." Scribd. Web. 13 July 2011. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13433084/Romeo-Juliet-Script
esearch shows that females and males start school on a level playing field or with girls outperforming boys on most measures (Chapman 2010). Yet by the time of middle and high school, females have already begun to ghettoize themselves. The ghettoization of females is tacitly supported by educators. Attempts to reach out to female students has been criticized harshly as an attempt to "feminize" education and take something away from boys rather than give something to all students (Frawley 2005, p. 1). The very notion that helping girls would be detrimental to boys is a sexist belief. Gender biases also represent a fundamental failure to recognize the "middle ground" for children who "are not strongly gender-typed" at any age (Frawley 2005, p. 2).
Female students may be discouraged from reaching peak athletic performance because of gender bias too. Stereotypes are often reinforced in classrooms, as female students are "negatively sanctioned...for…
Banks, T.L. (1990). Gender bias in the classroom. 14 S. Ill U.L.J. 527 (1989-1990).
Chapman, a. (2010). Gender bias in education. Critical Multicultural Pavillion. Retrieved online: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/genderbias.html
Frawley, T. (2005). Gender Bias in the Classroom: Current Controversies and Implications for Teachers. Childhood Education. Retrieved online: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3614/is_200507/ai_n14683848/
Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?
In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…
Antill, John K., Cotton, Sandra, Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Russell Graeme. (1996) The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks. Journal Title: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 3-4. p215.
Babcock, Linda; & Laschever, Sara (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Blanton, Kimberly (2003, June 13). Study Finds Men Routinely Ask for More Money Than Women in Salary Negotiations. The Boston Globe Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.
Cardwell, Margaret (2003). Babcock, Linda & Sara Laschever. Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Library Journal, 128, 101.
Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.
3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…
Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.
Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59441463
Enos, T. (1996). Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=42471043
Mussap, A.J. (2008). Masculine Gender Role Stress and the Pursuit of Muscularity. International Journal of Men's Health, 7(1), 72+. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035170430
At the end of the party he took a card out of his wallet and gave it to me. He said, "Here, I'll give you my phone number. If you'd like to call me up, I'd love to hear from you." called him two days later and we made a date. Turned out he didn't drive so I had to pick him up. Since I had called him and I was going to be the driver, I bought a small bouquet of flowers and brought them to him. It was fun to reverse roles. Philip was the only man I ever met who didn't have a driver's license. He said he didn't want or need to drive. He liked taking buses and having his friends drive him places.
Dinner was a success. He paid for everything in the traditional manner. Philip told me he was a feminist. He had never…
Furman, Frida K. Facing the Mirror: Older Women and Beauty Shop Culture. New York:
Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.
Wood, Julia T. Gendered Lives.
Those conversations also invariably include expressions of success or confidence as well. However, they discuss their feelings and those of others relatively rarely. In many cases, even the closest of male friends maintain a relationship that is sustained largely by common interests such as in sports or recreational interests. They may know one another for many years without ever really discussing their feelings or their intimate thoughts about personal matters. Women, tend to do the exact opposite, focussing on discussions about people instead of inanimate objects or impersonal interests. Close female friends typically know everything there is to know about one another and they invariably know one another better and more fully than their respective husbands or boyfriends know them.
As Tanner explains, these tendencies are likely functions of both biology and social learning. From the evolutionary biological perspective, males would have had to worry more about projecting their strength…
Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3
This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.
urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…
Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.
Kornienko, O., Santos, C. E., Martin, C. L., & Granger, K. L. (2016). Peer influence on gender identity development in adolescence. Developmental psychology, 52(10), 1578.
I. Statement of the Problem
a. Research Topic
The topic of the research is the impact of peer influence on the development of gender identity amongst adolescents
b. Research Question and Hypothesis
The article investigates peer influence on gender identity through the use of panel data on gender identity and friendship networks gathered from students in the 7th and 8th grade from an ethnically diverse public middle school. The main hypothesis of the study is that adolescents would alter their gender identity self-concepts to become akin to their friends and that such effects would take place even when network selection impacts were controlled. The second hypothesis of the study is that stronger peer influence effects on between-gender dimensions of gender identity than within-gender dimensions of…
statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.
Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…
Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology
Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.
Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That
Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
Query: How can we overcome sexual harassment in our schools?
Sexual harassment needs to be framed as a community issue and not as isolated incidents. A complex issue, sexual harassment becomes embedded in a culture of violence, one that condones normative gender bias and other forms of power abuses. Resolving the problem of sexual harassment in our schools requires honest self-insight, into the values that guide the organization. On a conscious level, most educators will recognize that sexual harassment does violate core concepts of social justice, yet patterns of violence and conflict are frequently unconscious and irrational. Conflict is subtle and often manifests below “conscious awareness,” (Holton, 1995, p. 79). Thus, formal policies are sometimes ineffective for addressing sexual harassment because they fail to uncover and deal with the underlying issues that are triggering the violent behavior.
To cultivate the values of social justice, educators need to create a culture…
Gender and Identity
Perhaps the most important question facing any human, be they male or female, is that of the discovery of their own identity. The majority of child development theories, from Freud onward, have dealt with the way in which children must learn to disengage their own identity from that of their parents (mothers in particular) and discover who they are as adults. Yet this process is far from over when one reaches physical maturity, and one may even see many other psychological theories, from Maslow to the existentialists, as exploring the stages through which one continues to define one's true identity as distinct not only from one's parents but also from one's biological and social circumstances. It is somewhat ironic that the word identity which was originally used to note categories of same-ness and unity (Connell 2002) is now so vitally bound up with defining distinctness. At the…
Bessant, J. And Watts, R. (1999) 'Sex and Gender in Australia' (Chapter 7) in J. Bessant and R. Watts (eds) Sociology Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, pp. 164-193
Connell, R.W. (2002) Gender, Oxford: Blackwell. (Chapters 1, 2 and 5).
Connell, R.W. (1995) 'The Social Organization of Masculinity' (Chapter 3) in R.W. Connell (ed) Masculinities, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. pp. 67-86.
Kidd, W. (2002) 'Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality' (Chapter 11) in W. Kidd (ed) Culture and Identity, New York: Palgrave. pp. 171-189.
Typical socialization agents that most people are exposed to from a young age include family—mother, father, brothers or sisters, grandparents, cousins, uncles, aunts and so on—then there are neighbors, teachers, peers at school. Other socialization agents include people at church, people on the TV that the children watch—even if they are cartoon characters, they still represent a socialization agent in a way. Over time these socialization agents will change. The individual will stop relying so much on family and start focusing more on technology or mass media or peers or school or religion for socialization. Family is probably the most important agent of socialization in the younger stages of development, but once the individual begins to have a sense of independence, that socialization process kicks over into a different direction and the individual wants to be more accepted in other groups than just one’s family. So a church group…
More specifically, whereas certain components of human behavior are hard wired, many other components are learned from exposure to others in society. According to this view, the individual learns by watching others, starting in early childhood. By adulthood, those expectations transmitted through social learning are completely internalized by the individual and not perceived as matters that one learns from others.
By imitating adult role models and emulating behaviors expected of males and females in society, the developing individual learns what it means to be a male or female in that particular society. For example, if male role models and authority figures model aggressive or belligerent mannerisms in self-expression, male children absorb their exposure to these displays of masculinity and eventually come to identify with and exhibit those characteristics themselves. Similarly, if female role models and authority figures model passive or accommodating behaviors, female children come to identify with and exhibit…
The media greatly influences and shapes the society’s knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and worldviews about diverse topics. Much of what different audiences within the society know and are concerned about is shaped by narratives, symbols, and images propagated by television, radio, and other forms media (Brooks & Hebert, 2006). These narratives and symbols play a crucial role in the construction of social identities – racial identity, gender identity, sexual identity, urban identity, and so on.
Advertisements are some of the media texts that shape social identities. Commercial organizations have time and again used ads not just to sell products and services, but to propagate certain narratives, especially with respect to race and gender. The propagation of those narratives has particularly gone a notch higher in the age of social media. This paper demonstrates and analyses the representation of race and gender in a selected advertisement. More specifically, the paper pays attention…
Typically, male and female infants are presented with very different types of toys and encouraged to pursue very different activities throughout childhood. Female infants are dressed in pink and encouraged to participate in certain types of games and interactions, such as those that emphasize cooperative activities. Meanwhile, male infants are dressed in blue, presented with toys that reflect societal roles consistent with cultural concepts of masculinity and encouraged to pursue games and activities that emphasize competition and more physical pursuits.
Therefore, in many respects, the respective tendencies of male and female children to exhibit characteristic behaviors associated with gender are highly influenced by external environmental factors as well as hormonal factors, making it difficult to understand exactly how much each set of factors is responsible for apparent gender-based behavioral differences. In that respect, some of the most useful information comes from individuals with gender-identity issues that persist in spite of…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Zuk, Marlene. (2002) Sexual Selection: What We Can and Can't Learn about Sex from Animals. Berkeley: University of California.
The different "isms" such as sexism, heterosexism, and racism are creating very real schisms -- in our minds, and between people. The chasms of communication that are created by hatred and misunderstanding are socially constructed. They can be socially deconstructed too. Such rifts occur between groups of people and between whole cultures. In some pockets of the United States, social conservatism threatens to erase the social progress made since the Civil ights movements of the 1960s. There are still people in the United States that believe that homosexuality is unnatural, even immoral. The idea that heterosexual marriage is in some way superior to homosexual marriage is rooted in outmoded religious doctrine and not in positive social progress. Within these "isms" are the chasms of misunderstanding that create social strife and inequality. Income disparity, for example, is closely linked with race as well as gender. Women still get paid less than…
Brennan, D. Selling sex for visas.
Collins, P.C. "Prisons for Our Bodies; Closets for Our Minds." In Black Sexual Politics. New York: Routledge.
Katz, J.N. The Invention of Heterosexuality. University of Chicago.
Lareau, a. Unequal Childhoods: Class, race, and family life. University of California Press.
Based on those responses, the BSRI assigns a characterization of either "sex- typed" or "androgynous" depending on how much subjects identify only with adjectives considered desirable of their gender or with desirable traits of both genders, respectively.
The PAQ uses similar methodology to generate results that link identification with adjectives considered desirable in both genders with high self-esteem in subjects of either gender.
Generally, both instruments have been criticized because it is virtually impossible to ignore the influence of social learning on the degree to which individuals identify with gender-specific attributes. In effect, a diagnostic questionnaire may answer little else besides the identification of particular attributes associated positively with masculinity or femininity in the social culture in which subjects were socialized. More specifically, the PAQ has been criticized for equating identification with desirable male attributes with high self-esteem in "androgynous" females without considering the greater degree to which society reinforces…
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…
Sociolinguistics - How gender influences the way people speak?
Definition of keywords
Sociolinguistics: This is a study of language in respect of social, class, regional, gender and occupational factors.
Gender: It is the condition of being a female or a male and is mostly used in relation to cultural and social differences.
Gender Equality: A condition in which the opportunities and rights are not affected by the change of gender.
Speak: To say in order to express or convey feelings or conversation (oxforddictionaries.com)
Within the study of discourse, comparative analysis of the way women and men use language has been a topic of interest for quite some time. However, to date no coherent framework for gender differences in language and its use has been established empirically, despite relatively extensive theorizing. One reason for this lack of framework lies in the absence of a consensus in how language, whether written or…
Bridges of Madison County.(2010). Daily Motion.com. (Video) Retrieved from: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xehubk_the-bridges-of-madison-county-1995_music
Cameron, D., 2007. The Guardian. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/01/gender.books [Accessed 29 November 2014].
Carli, L.L. (1999). Gender, interpersonal power, and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 81-99.
Freilino, J.P., Caswell, A. & Laasko, E., 2012. The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages. Springer, pp. 268-281
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
Since males of all sexually reproducing species are naturally drawn to signs of fertility in females (Zuk 2002), they naturally express more interest in females when they ovulate, or come into heat in the vernacular applied to non-human animals. In many other species that do not rely as much on a monogamous pair bond for the survival of the fetus (Barash & Lipton 2001), females exhibit very clear external signals corresponding to their ovulation. This system is very well suited to species where a single male (or several) mate with many females, such as among lions and many mammals; in fact, it probably reduces any potential for conflict among harem females for male attention.
Human females replaced the outward signals of ovulation and fertility by evolving a suppression of any outward manifestation, precisely, to ensure that males provided for, guarded, and protected them continually rather than only that portion of…
Ackerman, Diane. (1995) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage
Angier, Natalie. Birds Do it. Bees Do it. People Seek the Keys to it; the New York Times (Apr. 10/07)
Barash, David, P. And Lipton, Judith E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, Nathaniel (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Family, Mass Media and Education as Socialization Factors
A growing body of evidence confirms that agents of socialization play crucial roles in the social development of an individual. Certain agents are identified as being more influential than others, with these agents being responsible for causing the most influence in our lives and playing a major role in the altering of our self-images over the course of our lives. Some of these agents include family (especially parents), schools and peers, work environment, gender and the mass media, among others. The development of a social life and the social relationships of an individual are inextricably related to the influence from these respective agents and how they are manifest in people's day-to-day lives (Henslin, 2013). There are several agents of socialization that have most significantly affected my life, including most especially family, mass media and education. These socialization agents were selected based on…
Henslin, J. (2013). Sociology: A down-to-earth approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Western Sexual Mores and Fundamental Beliefs about omantic Love:
Beyond the unfair effect of gender-based differential sexual socialization on sexually liberated women in dating relationships, another component of American social psychology often undermines romantic happiness. Specifically, the many messages about romance and marriage that help shape the American view of love suggest that: (1) sexual desire between couples who love each other is exclusive; (2) sexual desire for others indicates a failure of a relationship (or lack of character or sincerity of one's partner); and (3) sexual jealousy is an indication of romantic love (Branden 2002).
Sexual jealousy is practically universal in romantic love within Western society (Buss 2000), but the fact of the matter is, at least in human beings, it is a learned reaction that is virtually unknown in several known aboriginal societies (Barash & Lipton 2001).
Despite the fact that psychologists consider sexual fidelity a matter of…
Ackerman, D. (1994) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, N. (2002) the Psychology of Romantic Love.
Sociology and Socialization: Gender Differences Examined
Go to any card shop and take a look at the birthday cards. Birthday cards display numerous messages about society's attitudes toward gender, age, mental status and more. Most of the birthday cards available in a typical Hallmark store, the store examined, display what might be considered gender 'norms'. For example, girl's birthday cards are mostly offered in pink, showing pictures of flowers or bunnies or other soft items. Male birthday cards often depict pictures of sporting items, blue colors, or even women. The cards available suggest that differences exist between what men and women like, and emphasize that these 'norms' have become social institutions. The messages provided in cards suggest that women want to hear flowery messages of love and caring, whereas men would rather here a good joke or look at a picture of a member of the opposite sex.…
Shepard, J.M. (2001). Sociology, 9th ed. West Publishing Company.
Bullying and Conflict in Relation to Learning About Gender and Other Forms of Equity
One of the harsh realities of life in the United States is the potential for bullying behaviors to adversely affect the learning environment for young victims, transforming the school environment from a place of learning into one that is dreaded and feared. Moreover, bullying behaviors can have a profound effect on the manner in which young people are socialized concerning gender roles as well as their perspectives concerning equity later in life. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper provides a review of the literature to develop a discussion concerning the issues of bullying and conflict in relation to learning about gender and other forms of equity and the implications these have for students and teachers. Finally, following this discussion, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in…
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
the toys themselves had a distinctly gendered feel.
While the author recalled Legos as gender-neutral, they did not appear
gender neutral in the toy-store setting. Instead, the Lego products were
based on action movies, such as tar Wars and Indiana Jones or else
featured something called a Bionicle, which appeared to be some type of
robot. There were some Legos called Clickits, which were pink and white
and featured teenage-looking cartoon-character girls. However, the Lego
sets from the author's youth, which featured blocks and other features to
build gender-neutral items like towns, simply were not present. Instead,
the Legos seemed less free-form and more structured, and came in boxes to
build specific designs, almost all of them masculine in stereotyping.
The other building materials were similarly gender-differentiated.
While the toy store had apparently gender-neutral building toys like Tinker
Toys and Mega Blocks, they also managed to capitalize on stereotyping.…
Sex Roles, 54 (9/10), 717-726).
Green, V.A., Bigler, R., and Catherwood, D. (2004). The variability and
flexibility of gender-
typed toy play: A close look at children's behavioural responses to
counter-stereotypic models. Sex Roles, 51 (7/8), 371-386.
Myth About Men and Women
Gender Differences esults from Socialization and Culture
The development of an individual's personal identity is influenced by the socialization process and culture of respective society. The socialization process guides individuals in how they interact with each other. It teaches one on interaction behavior including how to ask, whom to ask, in what circumstance, and the appropriate language and words to use (Devor, 2001). Culture defines the way of doing things and the measures in coming up with norms in the society. In the each and every society, the members ascribed to a particular way of life defined by their culture and taught through a socialization process. The culture and socialization process ensures that members of a society relate to each other in harmony and cohesion. In the society members are socialized to uphold certain norms and adopt specific culture (ways of doing things).
Bebel, A. (2004). Woman under Socialism. United States: University Press of the Pacific, 2004.
Colombo, G., Cullen, R., & Lisie B. (2007). Rereading America. Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Seven Edition. Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Devor, H. A. (2001). "Becoming Members of Society: Learning the Social Meanings of Gender" Rereading America, 9th ed Ninth Edition Ed. Gary Colombo, Ed. Robert Cullen, Ed. Bonnie Lisle Boston/New York: Bedford ST. Martin's,
In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.
Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…
Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.
Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35
Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Diversity Socialisation for Newcomers
Head of Human Resources
XYZ Investment Limited
Re: Diversity Socialisation for Newcomers
The significance of organisational socialisation cannot be overemphasised. Through the process, new employees are equipped with the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours necessary for successful organisational membership (Cable, Gino & Staats, 2013). In most cases, however, the process of socialisation focuses on aspects such as the goals of the organisation, individual role and responsibilities, behavioural patterns, as well as rules and principles pertaining to the organisation. Often, there is little or no attention to workplace diversity issues (Mcmillan-Capehart, 2005; Graybill et al., 2013). This is particularly true for XYZ Investment Limited, a hypothetical investment firm with operations across the U.S. The organisation could be at a considerable disadvantage given that workplace diversity has increasingly become a vital source of competitive advantage for organisations of different sizes and in diverse sectors and industries. Though…
"Greater freedom has increased female participation in the public sphere," which would expose greater numbers of women to criminal behaviors and the opportunities to commit crimes (Steffensmeier & Allan1996, p. 469). Combined with social control theory, opportunity theory offers a plausible explanation for the gender gap in criminal behavior. Social control theory and opportunity theory share in common the basic assumption that deviance is a natural human instinct; that left to their own devices both men and women are predisposed to crime. Criminal behavior is always an option, according to social control theory and opportunity theory. The two sociological theories suggest that deterrents to committing crime, such as a lack of opportunity or strong social bonds, determine patterns of criminal behavior. Moreover, social control theory and opportunity theory emphasize sociological variables at the expense of psychological or personality-based ones.
The opportunity theories such as theories of routine activities present deviance…
Chapple, C.L., McQuillan, J.A., & Berdahl, T.A. (2004). Gender, social bonds, and delinquency: a comparison of boys' and girls' models. Social Science Research 34(2005): 357-383.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2005). Crime in the United States: Ten-Year Arrest Trends. Table 33. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_33.html
Smith, D.A. & Paternoster, R. (1987). The gender gap in theories of deviance: Issues and evidence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 24(2): 140-172.
Steffensmeier, D. & Allan, E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology. 22: 459-487.
Rewards of Solitude and Socialization
America has always idolized outsiders in its literary imagination. Consider the figures of the heroic outsider, the rugged individualist, and even the stalwart homesteader upon the frontier. All of these individuals are positive constructions of the solitary outsider in American society. These lonely ideals span the range from Emerson's essays to Thoreau's life at alden Pond, to Hemingway's fiction. But in reality, and in ordinary conversation, solitude and solitary people are often suspected by the neighborhoods in which they might choose live. The other side of the outsider in American life is the television camera pointed at the glazed features of the neighbors of a serial killer, as the police dig up the individual's backyard. Invariably, they respond. 'He was quiet. He always kept to himself.'
The poet and essayist May Sarton offers neither extreme in her positive view of living outside the societal fold,…
Sarton, May. "The Rewards of Living a Solitary Life." From Chapter 7. Hands Across Borders: A Multicultural Reader for Writers. New York: Pearson, 2004.
Instead of liberating women from the unjustified and prejudicial sexual double standard, the suggestions offered in connection with securing marriage proposals actually do the exact opposite by encouraging women to play into preconceived stereotypes and attitudes that ensure their continued social and sexual inequality.
Conversely, according to contemporary psychologists with formal training in human relations and psychosexual development, redressing the social and sexual inequality still faced by women in modern society requires a diametrically opposite approach to understanding the fundamental basis of moral judgment. Specifically, it requires recognizing the illusory, illogical, and unfair assumptions that are responsible for generating completely different sets of rules and behavioral expectations based on gender
(Branden, 1999; 91, 98, 111). Instead of encouraging women to continue conforming their behavior to traditional expectations imposed by invalid presumptions of "acceptable" female social and sexual conduct, the more sound advice would be to critically evaluate the worth of…
Ackerman, Diane. A Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage (1995).
Baker, Robert, and Elliston, Frederick. Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus (1998).
Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).
Fein, Ellen, and Schneider, Sherrie. All the Rules: Time Tested Secrets for Capturing the Heart of Mr. Right. New York: Grand Central Publishing (2007).
Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development do you believe are most affected by social isolation? Explain your reasoning. 200 words.
Although social isolation will affect a person's cognitive development at all stages, the earliest stages of cognitive development might be the most severely impacted. During the sensorimotor stage and the preoperational stage, the infant needs to hear language and this can only be done through regular contact with other people. In the absence of social contact, the infant's language growth may be seriously stunted and could impact the child's development at later stages. It is certainly possible that social isolation during the first few stages of development could lead to impaired ability to learn. Social isolation might also minimize the infant's contact with information and objects that help fundamental learning processes. Social isolation naturally implies fewer stimuli necessary for cognitive and social development. If social isolation occurs at a later…
Fisher, G.A. & Chon, K.K. (1989). Durkheim and the social construction of emotions. Social Psychology Quarterly 52(1): 1-9.
Macionis, J. (2014). Society: The Basics.
Macionis, J. (2011). Sociology. 13th Edition. Lecture notes: http://www.ivcc.edu/uploadedfiles/_faculty/_mangold/soc%201000%20chapter%205%20lecture%20notes.pdf
Sills, S.J. (2010). Sociology 101: Introduction to sociology. Retrieved online: https://uncgsoc101.wordpress.com/module-4-groups-and-organization/part-2/
Our media is a major element of socialization for a number of reasons. The first is that it is, to some degree, a representation of the world we live in. While much of what is depicted is fiction, the way that people's home and work lives are presented on television is an influencer with respect to how we view our own lives, and the types of things to which we aspire. We pick up behavioral cues from the characters on TV shows, for example, but also cues about social structures and how we interact with one another. Our media is the means by which the majority of ideas are transmitted to us in the modern world, with television, the Internet and radio all receiving hours every day of exposure.
An example of this can be found in the sitcom. The sitcom as a medium is intended to generate…
Kendall, D. (2015) Sociology in Our Times, Tenth Edition. Cengage.
atch movie Sex •atch movie Sex City COLLECT ANALYSIS ? 1-2 pages (250-500 words) analysis. Answer research hypothesis: hat impact media gender socialization society?
Use sociological terms text chapters chapter 3 socialization chapter 9 Inequalities Gender Age.
Gender and the City: Setting Expectations through Popular Film
The film Sex and the City is an example of popular culture taking aim at its impressionable female fans, socializing them to believe that being a woman means being consumerist, romance-starved, and accepting of second-class status. The two primary dramatic storylines feature female protagonists who must decide whether to forgive a man who has mistreated them. In both instances, the man wins out, and viewers are left with the message that these women, for all their independent posturing, live lives subject to the whims of their significant others.
The viewer is told that "women come to New York for the two L's: labels and…
Sex and the City. Dir. Michael Patrick King. Perf. Sarah Jessica Parker, Kim Cattrall, Kristin
Davis, and Cynthia Nixon. New Line Cinema Corporation, 2008.
successful aging as viewed by Generation X versus Baby Boomers over the age of
Successful Ageing: Generation X versus Baby Boomers
Numerous studies have focused on understanding and defining the constituents of successful aging. The term "successful aging" is popular in the gerontological literature to cover processes in aging. The processes of aging are positive, and at times, the term has shown relations to "vital aging" or "active aging" implying that later life is characterized by sustained health and vitality. According to Moody (2005), "successful aging" suggests main ideas including life satisfaction, longevity, freedom from disability, mastery, and growth, active management with life and independence.
According to Dubey et al. (2011), as people grow older, they have incidences of illnesses. However, an older population has numerous needs as compared to a younger population. Life satisfaction continues to be an important aspect in the study of aging. This is because it…
AARP. (2007). Leading a multi-generational workforce. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/cs/misc/leading_a_multigenerational_workforce.pdf
Berkman, L., Unger, J.B., McAvay, G., Bruce, M.L., Seeman, L., (1999). Variation in the impact of social network characteristics on the physical functioning in elderly persons.
The Journals of Gerontology, 54(B), 245-251
Bovbierg, V.E., McCann, B.S., Brief, D.J., Follette, W.E., Retzlaff, B.M., Dowdy, A.A.,
Spheres of Influence
Politics is that one course of action by which the choices and decision that influences our lives directly are reached. In simple words, politics can be described as a tool that is responsible for the shaping up and changing peoples' lives. It is not an untold secret that it is the sole responsibility of the government to fulfill the needs of its people. Society changes due to politics. Thus, politics influence almost every aspect of our lives. Not only does it tell us how much tax we are obliged to pay, it also sets the price of gasoline. The political leaders are not the same. However, they all affect our mentalities in one way or another by their leadership styles and decisions they make for the betterment or nuisance for the people. Everything that a person loves about his/her country (apart from the scenic beauty)…
Crossman, A. (n.d.). Sociology of Gender: Studying the Relationship between Gender and Society. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Gender.htm
Hardegree, E. (n.d.). 5 Economic Factors that Influence People's Behavior. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_6951654_5-factors-influence-people_s-behavior.html
Hudson, C. (2007, March 02). How Politics Affects Our Lives. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://www.novanewsnow.com/News/Politics/2007-03-02/article-603796/How-Politics-Affects-Our-Lives/1
Triandis, H.C., & Suh, E.M. (2002). Cultural Influences on Personality. Annual Reviews Psychology, 53, 133-160. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/suh/file/Cultural influences on personality.pdf
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
omen in Corporate Professions
The American workforce is increasingly reflecting the changing American demographic. "Minorities" like women and people of color are occupying more management and leadership positions in the business world and corporate America. Their presence has begun to trigger changes in how companies are managed and in the broader areas of corporate culture.
However, in many ways, women in business continue to face unique problems because of their gender. This paper discusses how these difficulties continue to form barriers for women in the business world. The effects of gender stereotypes and expectations can be seen in virtually all aspects of employment -- from hiring practices to wages, from chances for advancement to retirement benefits. This paper examines how factors like unequal pay and a male-dominated corporate culture help to ensure that the American corporate world remains largely an enclave of men.
Unfair hiring and advancement practices
Antilla, Susan. Tales from the Boom Room: Women vs. Wall Street. New York: Bloomberg Press, 2002.
Baugh, S.G. "On the Persistence of Sexual Harassment." Journal of Business Ethics, 16(3): 899-908.
Book, Esther Wachs. Why the Best Man for the Job is a Woman: The unique female qualities of leadership. New York: Harper Business, 2000.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Statistics & Data." Women's Bureau. March 2003. Department of Labor. 6 November 2004 .
An American worldview assumes, for instance, that a person as the right to worship as he or she wishes. Not all cultures value religious freedom.
Religion, culture, gender, socio-economic status, and nationality all impact worldview. orldview in turn affects outlook on life in all its dimensions. Self-concept and identity are products of worldview, as people continually compare themselves to others. Beliefs about fundamental issues like human nature are related to worldview because the way we view the world is akin to the way we view human beings. How we treat other sentient beings including animals is related to our worldview. orldview even affects a person's beliefs about health and well-being: some value quality over quantity of life. orldview affects beliefs about aesthetics, what is beautiful and what is artistic or musical. Priorities and values, such as whether restrictions on personal freedom are valuable to protect law and order or whether…
Shimony, Tali Tadmor. Gender Socialization in National Education and the Formation of a New State: Israel as a Case Study. History of Education, v34 n6 p639-656 Nov 2005. Retrieved on ERIC June 21, 2008 at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ721411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ721411
Worldview Diversity." Retrieved June 21, 2008 at http://www.teachingaboutreligion.org/WorldviewDiversity/wvdiversity.htm
Young, Mary Isabelle. Pimatisiwin: Walking in a Good Way. Winnipeg: Pemmican, 2005.
Stresses associated with migration itself, discrimination against racial minorities in this country, poverty, unemployment, and crowded living conditions heighten the chance that a husband will become abusive" (p. 1402). From the Vietnamese-American perspective, these issues are even more pronounced and they are discussed further below.
a. Male dominance. One of the most powerful forces affecting Vietnamese families at home and abroad today is Confucian ideology, an ideology that is predicated on the dominance of men over women (Kibria, 1993). According to Lowe and her colleagues (2003), some gender socialization influences on Vietnamese men are similar to those that are typically experienced by men in other Asian cultures. "Similarities in gender role socialization that Vietnamese men share with other Asian men arising from shared influences of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist philosophies include messages about appropriate family roles, emotional expressiveness, and the role of assertive behavior" (Lowe et al., p. 246). For…
Anderson, M.J. (1993). A license to abuse: The impact of conditional status on female immigrants. Yale Law Journal, 102(6), 1401.
Daniel, A.M., & Yi, J.K. (2001). Substance use among Vietnamese American college students. College Student Journal, 35(1), 13.
Do, H.D. (1999). The Vietnamese Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Doan, J.H.D., Huer, M.B., & Saenz, T.I. (2001). Understanding the Vietnamese American community: Implications for training educational personnel providing services to children with disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 23(1), 27.
The counselor will then need to help Judy understand the process of assimilation into American culture, so she can decide whether this is right for her or not. By visiting a counselor with her partner, she would demonstrate appropriate cultural loyalty by asking her husband to be the care seeker, or person who aligns with the psychotherapist to make decisions so her partner does not become violent or engage in overly masculine behaviors that may harm Judy's spirit (Nghe, Mahalik & Lowe, 2003). The counselor may be able to express the need for Judy to first attend to work to help support her partner before having her baby, in a manner that considers her partners potential insecurities at allowing Judy to take on a non-traditional role in the family. This change however is likely, especially as more and more Asian families adopt a more Western cultural belief system (Nghe, Mahalik…
Nghe, L.T., Mahalik, J.R., Lowe, S.M. (2003), Influences on Vietnamese men:
Examining traditional gender roles, the refugee experience, acculturation, and racism in the United States. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31(4): 245
Sue, D. & Sue, D. (1993), Ethnic identity: Cultural factors in the psychological development of Asians in America, in, D.W. Atkinson, G. Morten, & D.W. Sue (Eds), Counseling American minorities: A cross-cultural perspective (4th Ed.). Dubuue, IA: Brown.
Tung, T.M. (1985), Psychiatric care for Southeast Asians: How different is different
In so doing the commodity market and global trade developed a new history for chocolate, one that makes it a very fitting liberator in the small French village depicted in the film.
This new history is a story of sweetness and power, that is, the power to define what constitutes refined taste (Mintz 1985). All these accounts relate how Spanish nuns or monks were the first to domesticate a bitter, cold drink judged to be "more fit for pigs than for human consumption" (compare Constant 1988, 29; Robert 1990, 20). Chocolate was supposedly tamed by adding heat, sugar, and more refined flavorings such as vanilla, cinnamon, amber, and musk. This triumphant transformation heralded the introduction of chocolate to European nobles at court. "Hot, flavored, sweet; virtually nothing recalled its savage origins and, throughout the seventeenth century, the brown ambrosia would attract new followers" (Schiaffino and Cluizel 1988, 18).…
Barrette, Gene. "Spiritual Direction in the Roman Catholic Tradition." Journal of Psychology and Theology 30.4 (2002): 290.
Charlie's Chocolate Fact-Ory; SOME TASTY FACTS ON OUR FAVOURITE SNACK 2 ozs Can Kill a Dog Was Once a Medicine 400 Beans Make 1lb It Speeds Heartbeat." The People (London, England) 17 July 2005: 24.
Jacobs, Robert N. Chocolat, Movie, 2000.
Clarence-Smith, William Gervase. Cocoa and Chocolate, 1765-1914. London: Routledge, 2000.
However, it has been found that there are many ethnic and racial differences among groups. Another study found significant differences in regards to issues such as gender identities and the types of offenses, how victims report crimes, and injury as well as other statistical difference that were present in race in anti-gay victimization crimes (Kuehnle & Sullivan, 2001). Such examples indicate that forensic psychology should fully integrate as much research results on the subject of multiculturalism as can possibly be found. Insights acquired through these means could significantly improve the likelihood that forensic psychology can provide an accurate portrayal of the criminals' psychology. Forensic psychologists would be better able to understand the motivations of criminals from different backgrounds better if they were better able to see things from their perspective.
Treatment of Multicultural Counseling in Correctional Psychology Textbooks. (1989). Psychological Reports, 521-522.
APA. (2002). Guidelines on Multicultural Education,…
Treatment of Multicultural Counseling in Correctional Psychology Textbooks. (1989). Psychological Reports, 521-522.
APA. (2002). Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists- American Psychological Association. Retrieved from American Psychology Association: http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/policy/multicultural-guidelines.aspx?item=8
APA. (N.d.). Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations. Retrieved from American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/policy/provider-guidelines.aspx
Kuehnle, K., & Sullivan, a. (2001). Patterns of Anti-Gay Violence an Analysis of Incident Characteristics and Victim Reporting. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 928-943.