Gene Therapy Essays (Examples)

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Gene Therapy
PAGES 3 WORDS 715

Gene Therapy
The treatment of genetic diseases has appeared a daunting challenge because there seemed little to be done if the immutable basic blueprints of the body have a serious imperfection (Beutler Pp). Even fifty years ago it was possible to greatly improve the quality of life and to actually "save the lives of patients with some such genetic diseases" (Beutler Pp). Success approaches included dietary manipulation as in phenylketonuria or galactosemia, surgery to correct various deformities, and often avoidance of inciting factors in the environment, "as in acute intermittent porphyria" (Beutler Pp). However, until the latter part of the twentieth century, the possibility of actually changing the faulty genetic blueprints was beyond the imagination of the realistic medical scientist (Beutler Pp).

Today it is certain that success in gene therapy will require the application of various technique that are tailored to the disease that is being approached (Beutler Pp). The majority….

When these cells behave in an abnormal manner, it can lead to acute myeloid leukemia. Various gene therapy-based tests have been conducted on the guinea pigs as model animals. The gene therapy-based experiments have shown that deafness can be cured with the help of gene therapy. One of the main reasons of the deafness is the destruction of hair cells in the cochlea. A gene that has been known to stimulate hair growth in the cochlea is Atoh1 and this gene has been tested by being delivered through adenovirus. When the gene was delivered with the adenovirus, the hair regrowth in the cochleae was triggered based on which more than 80% regrowth of the hearing was repaired. New experiments are being conducted on the delivery of genes that can repair errors in the messenger NA because of the presence of defective and nonfunctional genes. Using this technique, cystic fibrosis,….

Gene Therapy
PAGES 4 WORDS 1230

gene therapy. The writer looks at its history, its use and the possible problems it presents. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Medical science has done amazing things in recent years. Through the use of research the average lifespan is longer than ever before, and the quality of life continues to rise. ecently it seems there is nothing medical science cannot make happen. Today the world stands at the edge of some of the most exciting technology than it ever dreamed possible. Gene therapy is a reality and the world currently debates whether or not it wants to take the leap. There are some who are excited and believe it will save lives and provide cures for things that used to mean long suffering death, while others fear it is going to open the world to clones and untested waters. The religious sectors believe gene therapy is….

In the case of Jesse Gelsinger it was found out later that there were many rules and regulations that were in place not followed to the letter of the law like they should have been. When peoples lives are at stake it is imperative that not only are their strict rules and regulations set down but that there is a process in place to make sure that those involved are following them as they are intended.
When looking at the idea of Germ-Line gene therapy and its development one can see that there are good arguments both for and against it, but in the end progressing medical treatments has been a long standing tradition and should be continued. As mentioned earlier, progression in modern medicine has been the foundation of why the human population continues to exist today. There have been had diseases and illnesses in the history of mankind….

Human Gene Therapy - The
PAGES 2 WORDS 580

Of this there are two types:
Splicsome mediated - the delivery of RNA (a Repair Method) a. Strand that pair specifically with the intron next to the mutated segment of mRNA and leaves the correct strand.

b. Simultaneous delivery of a correct version of the segment to replace the mutated piece in the final RNA product.

Translation of the repaired mRNA to produce the normal functional protein.

Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotide: Oligonucleotides that bind the double strand of the mutated gene's DNA and actually forms a triple strand that blocks the mutation.

Antisense Technology is used to turn off a mutated gene in a cell by targeting the mRNA transcripts copied from the gene according to Crabtree. Further discussed in the role of Ribozymes (RNA enzymes). It is possible to have delivery of RNA strand that has been engineered to function as ribozymes to the cell, the RNA is encoded by a mutated gene preventing….

Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length.
Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1202: 59-63.

Though the clinical trial these two researchers are involved in does not yet have results that are ready for publication, the review of the risks they provide regarding the use of stem cell mobilization with G-CSF in patients with sickle cell is highly useful information. So, too, is the practice of pre-treating patients with hydroxyurea before administering the stem cell treatment, which the authors describe in detail and which forms the basis of the related clinical trial. Potential reduction of risks appears to be quite promising, though final results from the clinical trial and other supporting evidence will of course be required.

Ye, L., Chang, J.,….

Gene Technology
PAGES 4 WORDS 1232

Gene Technology
Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as maize, soya beans,….

Gene Tech
Biological Basis

Personalized genomics and personalized medicine refers to a collection of technologies and techniques designed to custom design pharmaceutical treatments according to the patient's genome sequence. The starting point for personalized medicine, which has also been called "stratified medicine" or "precision medicine" is the completion of the Human Genome Project (NHMC, 2014). The Human Genome Project has permitted unprecedented access to genetic information and the implications the information has on human health factors.

A genome is the entire collection of genes, about 23,000 different ones, embedded in each cell of the body (The Jackson Laboratory, 2014). According to Snyder, Du & Gerstein (2010), determining a genome sequence involves "identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] and structural variations [SVs], assembling new sequences, and phasing haplotypes," (p. 423). Although only two percent of the human genome is actually comprised of genes themselves, the human genome "influences how we look, our genetic predispositions for certain….

During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]

5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus like….

Gene Technology
PAGES 3 WORDS 976

Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant DNA technology involves….

Expanding Traditional Definition of a Gene
Expands Traditional Definition A Gene

Expanding the traditional definition of a gene through epigenetics:

Changes to the human gene through exposure to external forces in the environment

Increasingly, the field of epigenetics is challenging traditional conceptions of what constitutes the human gene. While it has long been acknowledged that parents can pass their DNA onto their offspring, epigenetics acknowledges the potential for changes in human DNA which subsequently causes a change in the genetic composition of the child. Epigenetics acknowledges "the external environment's effects upon genes can influence disease, and some of these effects can be inherited in humans" (Simmons 2008). While it is difficult to design a study to test environmental factors, historical and experimental research does support this hypothesis. "For example, Swedish scientists recently conducted investigations examining whether nutrition affected the death rate associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes and whether these effects were passed from….

"Briefly, feminists believe the personal is political. Basic tenets of feminism include a belief in the equal worth of all human beings, recognition that each individual's personal experiences and situations are reflective of and an influence on society's institutionalized attitudes and values, and a commitment to political and social change that equalizes power among people. Feminists are committed to recognizing and reducing the pervasive influences and insidious effects of oppressive societal attitudes and society" (Chappell 2000). In its current incarnation, feminist therapy's stress upon liberating individuals from oppressive social attitudes does not just pertain only to gender, but all negative social attitudes. Thus, at its most universal, feminist therapy's central tenant that the personal and political are intermeshed, and that one's political reality creates one's cognitive reality, can be applied to many contexts beyond gender.
Although it deals with the psychology created by oppression, feminist therapy still stresses personal choice….

Personality Therapy
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.

Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic personality traits….

Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia
Their Impact on Neuro-development

Search Improvement over Published Methodology

rief Introduction -- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterized by delusions, lack of drive and interest, changed or unusual emotional reactions and generally disorganized behavior (Kirov et al. 2012). Some signs may begin from childhood but main features become apparent in the late teens and early adulthood. Outcomes and treatment are varied but relapses are frequent. Remissions are also often only partial along with significantly reduced social and occupation involvement. Persons with this disorder are among the most vulnerable, ostracized, and thus disadvantaged in society. A recent meta-analysis reported that about 15.2 out of every 100,000 persons are afflicted with it (Kirov et al.).

Genetic epidemiological studies theorize that varied susceptibility to schizophrenia appears to be strongly genetic (Kirov et al. 2012). These studies have identified many potentials links between genes and chromosomal abnormalities. Increasing evidence sustains the….

Q1. Discuss the physicians changing perceptions of the nature of cholera, its treatment, and therapy in 1832, 1849, and 1866. How did these factors change? Why? Today, the general public and physicians alike are well aware of the need for proper sanitation in the public water system. But during the 19th century, knowledge about the spread of germs and disease was less widespread, and cholera, although widely accepted as a serious threat to public health, was still controversial in its ascribed origin. The hero of cholera research is John Snow, who, through the use of city mapping was able to trace an 1854 London epidemic to a single water pump and even was able to identify the microbe that had caused it, using an ordinary microscope. Such particles were not found in other pumps far away from the disease outbreak. Before Snow, such as during the 1832 epidemic, many physicians ascribed….

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Disease

Gene Therapy

Words: 715
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Gene Therapy The treatment of genetic diseases has appeared a daunting challenge because there seemed little to be done if the immutable basic blueprints of the body have a serious…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Genetics

Gene Therapy the Concept of

Words: 1649
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

When these cells behave in an abnormal manner, it can lead to acute myeloid leukemia. Various gene therapy-based tests have been conducted on the guinea pigs as model…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Disease

Gene Therapy

Words: 1230
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

gene therapy. The writer looks at its history, its use and the possible problems it presents. There were four sources used to complete this paper. Medical science has done…

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3 Pages
Essay

Medicine

Ethics Gene Therapy the Dangerous

Words: 771
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

In the case of Jesse Gelsinger it was found out later that there were many rules and regulations that were in place not followed to the letter of…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Genetics

Human Gene Therapy - The

Words: 580
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Of this there are two types: Splicsome mediated - the delivery of RNA (a Repair Method) a. Strand that pair specifically with the intron next to the mutated segment…

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4 Pages
Annotated Bibliography

Genetics

Sickle Gene Therapies for Sickle

Words: 1128
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Annotated Bibliography

Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length. Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy…

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4 Pages
Essay

Agriculture

Gene Technology

Words: 1232
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Gene Technology Genetically Modified Crop Plants The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through…

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4 Pages
Essay

Medicine

Gene Tech Biological Basis Personalized Genomics and

Words: 1095
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Gene Tech Biological Basis Personalized genomics and personalized medicine refers to a collection of technologies and techniques designed to custom design pharmaceutical treatments according to the patient's genome sequence. The starting…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Genetics

Physical Life Science Genes Are

Words: 698
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a…

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3 Pages
Research Paper

Agriculture

Gene Technology

Words: 976
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science…

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4 Pages
Essay

Genetics

Expanding the Traditional Definition of a Gene Through Epigenetics

Words: 1301
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Expanding Traditional Definition of a Gene Expands Traditional Definition A Gene Expanding the traditional definition of a gene through epigenetics: Changes to the human gene through exposure to external forces in the…

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2 Pages
Thesis

Psychology

Reality and Feminist Therapy Order

Words: 761
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Thesis

"Briefly, feminists believe the personal is political. Basic tenets of feminism include a belief in the equal worth of all human beings, recognition that each individual's personal experiences…

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7 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Application of Personality Theories to Counseling and Therapy

Words: 2507
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Personality Therapy Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way…

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8 Pages
Essay

Medicine

Schizophrenia and Genetics These Three Genes Offer Some Clue

Words: 2024
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Essay

Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia Their Impact on Neuro-development Search Improvement over Published Methodology rief Introduction -- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterized by delusions, lack of drive and interest,…

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2 Pages

Biology

Treatment and Therapy of Cholera

Words: 400
Length: 2 Pages
Type:

Q1. Discuss the physicians changing perceptions of the nature of cholera, its treatment, and therapy in 1832, 1849, and 1866. How did these factors change? Why? Today, the general public…

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