Gene Therapy Essays (Examples)

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Sickle Gene Therapies for Sickle

Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95693355

Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length.

Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1202: 59-63.

Though the clinical trial these two researchers are involved in does not yet have results that are ready for publication, the review of the risks they provide regarding the use of stem cell mobilization with G-CSF in patients with sickle cell is highly useful information. So, too, is the practice of pre-treating patients with hydroxyurea before administering the stem cell treatment, which the authors describe in detail and which forms the basis of the related clinical trial. Potential reduction of risks appears to be quite promising, though final results from the clinical trial and other supporting evidence will of course be required.

Ye, L.,…… [Read More]

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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]


Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL:

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000)

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL:
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Gene Tech Biological Basis Personalized Genomics and

Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5682887

Gene Tech

Biological Basis

Personalized genomics and personalized medicine refers to a collection of technologies and techniques designed to custom design pharmaceutical treatments according to the patient's genome sequence. The starting point for personalized medicine, which has also been called "stratified medicine" or "precision medicine" is the completion of the Human Genome Project (NHMC, 2014). The Human Genome Project has permitted unprecedented access to genetic information and the implications the information has on human health factors.

A genome is the entire collection of genes, about 23,000 different ones, embedded in each cell of the body (The Jackson Laboratory, 2014). According to Snyder, Du & Gerstein (2010), determining a genome sequence involves "identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] and structural variations [SVs], assembling new sequences, and phasing haplotypes," (p. 423). Although only two percent of the human genome is actually comprised of genes themselves, the human genome "influences how we look, our genetic…… [Read More]


The Jackson Laboratory (2014). Personalized medicine and genomics. Retrieved online:

"Personalized Medicine," (n.d.). U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved online:

National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2014). Personalized medicine and genetics. Australian Government. Retrieved online:

Snyder, M., Du, Jiang & Gerstein, M. (2010). Personal genome sequencing: current approaches and challenges. Genes and Development 2010(24), 423-431.
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Physical Life Science Genes Are

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53783681

During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]

4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]

5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…… [Read More]


Cherie Dimaline, "Inheriting Sickness When Finding Your Roots is a Matter of Life or Death" Accessed on 15th December 2004,

Dr. Joseph F. Smith, "Genetic Counseling," Accessed on 15th December 2004,

IBAC, "The Basics of Life," Accessed on 15th December 2004,

CMGS, "Disturbance of Gene Frequencies in a Population," Accessed on 15th December 2004
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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…… [Read More]


Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: 

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: 

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online:
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Expanding the Traditional Definition of a Gene Through Epigenetics

Words: 1301 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8617150

Expanding Traditional Definition of a Gene

Expands Traditional Definition A Gene

Expanding the traditional definition of a gene through epigenetics:

Changes to the human gene through exposure to external forces in the environment

Increasingly, the field of epigenetics is challenging traditional conceptions of what constitutes the human gene. While it has long been acknowledged that parents can pass their DNA onto their offspring, epigenetics acknowledges the potential for changes in human DNA which subsequently causes a change in the genetic composition of the child. Epigenetics acknowledges "the external environment's effects upon genes can influence disease, and some of these effects can be inherited in humans" (Simmons 2008). While it is difficult to design a study to test environmental factors, historical and experimental research does support this hypothesis. "For example, Swedish scientists recently conducted investigations examining whether nutrition affected the death rate associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes and whether these…… [Read More]


Egger, G. (et al. 2004) Epigenetics in human disease and prospects for epigenetic therapy. Nature 429, 457 -- 463. Retrieved from: 

Roseboom, T. (et al. 2001). Effects of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine on adult disease in later life: an overview. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 185 (2001) 93 -- 98.

Retrieved from: 

Herrera, B. (et al. 2011). Genetics and epigenetics of obesity. Maturitas, 69(1): 41 -- 49.
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Reality and Feminist Therapy Order

Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28642336

"Briefly, feminists believe the personal is political. Basic tenets of feminism include a belief in the equal worth of all human beings, recognition that each individual's personal experiences and situations are reflective of and an influence on society's institutionalized attitudes and values, and a commitment to political and social change that equalizes power among people. Feminists are committed to recognizing and reducing the pervasive influences and insidious effects of oppressive societal attitudes and society" (Chappell 2000). In its current incarnation, feminist therapy's stress upon liberating individuals from oppressive social attitudes does not just pertain only to gender, but all negative social attitudes. Thus, at its most universal, feminist therapy's central tenant that the personal and political are intermeshed, and that one's political reality creates one's cognitive reality, can be applied to many contexts beyond gender.

Although it deals with the psychology created by oppression, feminist therapy still stresses personal choice…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chappell, Marcia. (2000). Feminist therapy code of ethics. Feminist Therapy Institute.

Retrieved August 14, 2009 at

Reality therapy. (2008). International Journal of Reality Therapy.

Retrieved August 14, 2009 at
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Application of Personality Theories to Counseling and Therapy

Words: 2507 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86383313

Personality Therapy

Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.

Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…… [Read More]

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Schizophrenia and Genetics These Three Genes Offer Some Clue

Words: 2024 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84771633

Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia

Their Impact on Neuro-development

Search Improvement over Published Methodology

rief Introduction -- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterized by delusions, lack of drive and interest, changed or unusual emotional reactions and generally disorganized behavior (Kirov et al. 2012). Some signs may begin from childhood but main features become apparent in the late teens and early adulthood. Outcomes and treatment are varied but relapses are frequent. Remissions are also often only partial along with significantly reduced social and occupation involvement. Persons with this disorder are among the most vulnerable, ostracized, and thus disadvantaged in society. A recent meta-analysis reported that about 15.2 out of every 100,000 persons are afflicted with it (Kirov et al.).

Genetic epidemiological studies theorize that varied susceptibility to schizophrenia appears to be strongly genetic (Kirov et al. 2012). These studies have identified many potentials links between genes and chromosomal abnormalities. Increasing…… [Read More]


Brian, I. P. et al. 2005. 'Techniques for the identification of genes involved in psychiatric

disorders', Vol. 39, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

Hamshere, M. L. et al. 2012. 'Genome-wide significant association in schizophrenia to ITIH3/4,

CACNA1C and SDCCAG8 and extensive replication of associations reported by Schizophrenia PGC', Molecular Psychiatry, [Online] Available at
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Genetic Pathway of Breast Cancer

Words: 2282 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53395187

, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…… [Read More]


Abaan, O. D and Criss, Wayne E (2002). Gene therapy in human breast cancer. 32

(2002): 283-291 Turkey Journal of Medical Science: Tubitak. Retrieved on April 15,

2010 from

Lowery, A.J., et al. (2009). MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor,
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Oncology Nurse the Maxim 'Prevention

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1995504

[Paula Trahan, 450]

Genetic Nurse and Genetic research

Asides these important aspects of care giving for a cancer patient, an oncology nurse is now also involved in the proactive approach of screening for potential cancer patients. Since the successful mapping of the human genome and the identification of genetic components that cause the onset of cancer, oncology nurses have taken on a new and important role in preventive diagnostics. They gather family history, construct pedigree and interpret them based on the genetic predisposition to cancer. The oncology nurse also offers counseling service to people thus identified to be at risk. Thus there is an emergence of the oncology nurse as a genetic service provider. oth the international Society of Nurses in Genetics (ISONG) and the ANA (American Nurses Association) have already formulated credentialing standards for genetic nurses keeping in view the quality concerns in this new and evolving role of…… [Read More]


Michele Gaguski, MSN, RN, (Aug 2006) 'Oncology nurses play a pivotal role in cancer prevention', ONS vol 21, No 8

Paula Trahan Rieger (April 2001), 'The role of oncology nurses in gene therapy'

The Lancet Oncology - Volume 2 Issue

Connie Henke Yarbro, Margaret Hansen & Michelle Goodman, (2005) "Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practices," Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sixth edition
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Krabbe Disease

Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90314131

Krabbe Disease

Genetic Components of the Disease

Metabolic Components of the Disease

Causes of the disease

Symptoms of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease

Treatment of the disease

Cord lood Transfusion

Treatment for Late on-set Form

Gene Therapy

Incidence and Longevity of the disease

Socioeconomic Factors

Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)

Genetic Components of the Disease

GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…… [Read More]


(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease:

Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.

Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics

Words: 2012 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94040147

Genomes and Comparative Genomics

Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.

The Role of DNA

One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…… [Read More]


Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
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Technology Has Revolutionized Society Communication Transportation Commerce

Words: 1736 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84215378

technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…… [Read More]


About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database: 

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report:

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from:
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Philosophy the Murder-Cannabalism of Bernd

Words: 1953 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6521115

Question 5:

Since the events of September 11th, terrorism has been a crucial concern for Americans specifically, and the global society in general.

As Wilkins (2005) notes, although it is generally agreed to be justifiable to commit violence in the act of self-defense against aggressors, many of the victims of terrorism are innocent of any crime, and that the question of "collective guilt" must come into play when determining the justification for terrorism. There is a "distinction between moral guilt and metaphysical guilt (which) can be explained partially in terms of the difference between the failure to do one's duty and the failure to perform a supererogatory act. We have a duty to mutla aid to other human beings" (p. 340).

Therefore, it is justifiable to inflict violence upon innocent individuals when this guilt is apparent, such as the case of the plight of the Jews and the aggression of…… [Read More]


An-Na'im, A.A. "Islam, Islamic Law." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 101-108.

Bolte, A. "Do Wedding Dresses Come in Lavender? The Prospects and Implications of Same-Sex Marriage?" Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 399-410.

Goering, S. "Gene Therapies and the Pursuit of a Better Human." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 659-668.

Leth, F. "Confessed Cannibal Given 8.5-Year Prison Sentence." Title of Source. Day Month Year: pages.
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Cogito Ergo Sum as Stated

Words: 1796 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51847710

As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…… [Read More]


Andrews, Lori B (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York, Henry Holt and Company.

Descartes, Rene. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences. 2 June. 2004 Retrieved Dec. 22, 2004 at

Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, (2000). 29th Edition, W.B. Saunders Company,
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Adoptive Antigen-Specific Immunotherapy Manuscript Review

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21304671

The current protocols of T cell transduction involve in vitro activation to achieve T cell proliferation that is required for effective retroviral infection. Adoptive transfer of such minimally stimulated cells will reveal whether in vivo transfer of TC transduced resting T cells provides more effective protection from disease and better memory development than transfer of fully activated T cells.

TC gene transfer can also be used to produce antigen-specific CD4+ helper T cells. The in vivo interaction of conventional CD4+ T cells is restricted to MHC class II-positive professional antigen-presenting cells. ecognition of DC presented antigen triggers the production of cytokines by conventional CD4+ T cells. IL-2 has a direct effect on the CD4+ T cells and triggers proliferation and can prevent anergy induction. Other cytokines, such as IFN-, can activate macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells and enhance the functional activity of CTL. In addition, IFN- can have antitumor…… [Read More]


Xue, S., Gillmore, R., Downs, a., Tsallios, a., Holler, a., Gao, L., et al. (2005). Exploiting T cell receptor genes for cancer immunotherapy. Clin Exp Immunol, 139(2), 167-172.
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Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]


O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.
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Prions Proteinaceous Infectious Particles Recent Cases of

Words: 2056 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79151408


Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"

Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.

Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…… [Read More]


Inherited prion disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2004, at

Kightly, R. (n.d.). Prion replication and spread at the cellular level. Retrieved April

21, 2004, from Mad Cow Disease Images & BSE Pictures

Web site:
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Human Genetic

Words: 417 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22151116

human genetic. There are four references used for this paper.

There are remarkable advancements being made in the field of genetics. It is important to examine whether the material should be transferred between organisms, as well as the effects on food today.

Genetic Material

Many people wonder if genetic material should be transferred from one organism to another.

hile benefits have been shown in biotechnology, it is important for scientists to utilize technology carefully and wisely, since "any technology has the potential for being abused, and there is the possibility that genetically engineered 'monsters' could be created with the use of recombinant DNA techniques (Phillips)."

Although gene therapy research is increasing, in a majority of cases it is still too ineffective to be beneficial. Humans should not compete with or alter nature since "gene therapy alters an individual's genetic blueprint, which in time could lead to 'selective breeding' (unknown)."

Biotechnology…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conko, Gregory. The benefits of biotech: as the world's population grows, environmental stewardship will require science to find ways to produce more food on less land.

Agriculture). Regulation. (2003): 22 March.

Phillips, G.C., M.A. O'Connell, I.M. Ray, R.G. Cantrell, and C. Sengupta-Gopalan.

The Importance of Plant Biotechnology in the Future Development of Arid
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Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning

Words: 3339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19327581

(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]


AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human

Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at

Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"

Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at
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Human Genome Project and Its

Words: 2561 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46535812


The ethical concerns about the ability to obtain this information revolve around the possibility of discrimination against people who have less than superior gene pools and that those people will be shunned from society, or worse yet, rounded up and locked up before they have ever done anything wrong.

In addition there is also the concern that the wealthy will be able to genetically order perfect children with the highest IQ's the healthiest DNA and the best looks, while those who are not wealthy will have children the old fashioned way and there will be an eventual class distinction between the children who have been genetically ordered and those who are a toss of the dice.

The other ethical issue involves a perceived right to privacy. The recent health care privacy act has worked to further protect a person's right to decide who has information about him and why…… [Read More]


Bailey, Ronald (2001) Does Genetic Engineering Endanger Human Freedom?

The American Enterprise


The Nation
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Morality of Cloning in Her Book Discovering

Words: 3583 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99058078

Morality of Cloning

In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…… [Read More]

Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.

Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.

Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
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Most Significant Advancement's

Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25812474

Medical Advancements in Medicine and Health

Write a three-page paper on what you believe is the most significant medical advancement (s) in medicine and health and support your argument.

Genetic engineering is one of the most significant medical advancements of the century and will have a major impact on medicine, health, politics and church and state relationships.

Genetic engineering. A controversial issue or a blessing in disguise? The Human Genome Project (HGP), sponsored in the United tates has created the field of genomics --understanding genetic material on a large scale.

But what actually is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering in theory, allows cells to grow in a petri dish, with the end result of creating the type of genetic alteration you want. Imagine the medical ramifications of being able to genetically create the characteristics we want in a species. Think of the benefits to mankind and the enhancements that would be…… [Read More]

Sources of Information:

Publications" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project

Books" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care


Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program
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Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific

Words: 2630 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36451192

This was based on what little normative science could be carried out through crossing different animals. It was an accepted fact to many in the animal husbandry business. The first creative breakthrough occurred in 1868 when a young Swiss physician, Freiderich Meischer, isolated something that had not been seen before. This creative scientist isolated nucleic acid, a compound found in both DNA and RNA (Fredholm). This discovery sparked a quest to understand more about nucleic acid and its connection to Mendel's pea experiments just two years earlier. Mendel believed that the traits seen in peas were passed on through "packages" that contained the information (Fredholm). These packages later turned out to be DNA.

These discoveries led to the normal science processes and a quest to learn more about DNA and its connections to selective breeding. However, in mainstream practice, many had not heard of DNA yet, it had not reached…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fredholm, L. The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA - The Double Helix. 2003.


Accessed July 3, 2009.
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Genetic Load in Modern Humans

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84851293

By treating genetic disorders, natural selection is interrupted -- these individuals do not die as they naturally would have, and so their genetic disadvantage no longer selects against them. iT could be argued, however, that humans have stopped evolving as biological creatures anyway; technology has provided the "cure" to many issues of natural selection, both from the species end of things and from the supply side (i.e. In making more resources more available to more people). Therefore, it is not really detrimental to the species as a whole to save the individuals with lethal alleles. Since we are no longer really evolving, and the prevalence of most lethal alleles is incredibly low anyway, the species as a whole is not made less healthy by the presence of these individuals or their alleles, despite the increased chance they have at procreating.

This means that traditional medical ethics, which demand that an…… [Read More]

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Sister's Keeper by Jodi Picoult

Words: 2811 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25651277

A biopsy of the bone marrow is the only way to be sure that it is leukemia.


Treatments for leukemia can vary depending on the stage, the age of the patient, the type of leukemia, and the advanced or infant stages that it is in, but most leukemia patients do go through a host of treatments that include chemotherapy.

Treatment also depends on the stage that the disease is placed in. Staging is simply a method by which the cancer is categorized for the purpose of developing a treatment plan and for research purposes with regards to cure rates and treatment successes or failures (Leukemia (

In most cases of the disease, including Kate's case the treatment of choice is chemotherapy. There is a scene in the novel in which Anna, Kate and their mother are dancing around the kitchen together after shaving their heads so Kate would not…… [Read More]


Leukemia (Accessed 11-11-06)

Signs and Symptoms (accessed 11-12-06)
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Hemophilia the Most Common Genetic

Words: 3476 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95055081

The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).

All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy

Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia

Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Ground Breaking and Innovative Instances

Words: 2229 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71397766

The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)

Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…… [Read More]

References (2009). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from BBC. (2003). Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'

ChemoCare. (2005). Taxol. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from

Elements4health. (2009). PET Scans Reveal Plaques and Tangles In Alzheimer's Retrieved April 18, 2009, from

Feng, J.A., Crasto, C.J., & Matsumoto, Y. (1998). Deoxyribose phosphate excision by the N-terminal domain of the polymerase beta: the mechanism revisited. Biochemistry, 37(27), 9605-9611.
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Detection and Intervention in Childhood Mental Health

Words: 10566 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97642961

detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?

Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…… [Read More]


AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).

Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964

Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at Accessed on 12/08/2003

Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
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Use of Stem Cells in Parkinson's Patients

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79904362

Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's

Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges

was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").

ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?

There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from .

Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.

Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.

Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
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Treatment History of Cystic Fibrosis

Words: 1699 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91316181

Treatment History Of Cystic Fibrosis

The field of pediatric nursing is a particularly large one in which its members may find themselves having to counsel both young patients and their families suffering from a myriad of diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF), in particular, is a debilitating disease that strikes many young people. In the first years following its discovery, many children could not expect to make it to their teen years. Today, with advances in the management and care of this disease, patients are living into their 40s. It is even possible that there will one day be a cure.

This paper will look at CF from a historical perspective. The timeline of its discovery and research will be briefly presented, as will a few of the significant "milestones" in the history of the treatment of CF and what these mean for people battling this disease.

References to cystic fibrosis were…… [Read More]


Author not available. (1994). Genetic Therapy Possible Cure for Several Diseases. Morning Edition (NPR).

Baroni, M.A., Anderson, Y.E., and Mischler, E. (1997). Cystic fibrosis newborn screening: Impact of early screening results on parenting stress. Pediatric Nursing. 23, 143(9).

Hopkin, Karen. (1998). Understanding Cystic Fibrosis. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Orenstein, David M. (1997). Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for Patient and Family. 2nd ed., Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
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History and Industry Trends

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10587961

Information Technology

1985 "Hacking," or entering / gaining unauthorized access to a computer system, has been committed by a group of young computer programmers. The victims of this new incidence of hacking were the Pentagon and the telecommunications company, AT&T.

Nuclear energy became the primary source of energy used in weapons making, characterized to be more efficient and powerful compared to its predecessor, the atomic bomb (energy).

1986 The first operation was conducted which granted a patient an artificial heart, lengthening the life survival of patients who have poor heart conditions.

1988 Stealth bomber aircrafts were manufactured and introduced by the United States. These new aircrafts provide ease and increasingly rapid speed of flight without being detected by enemy radar (especially during war time).

1990 Switzerland had produced the first solar-powered vehicle, which runs on solar power alone, without the use of excessive fuel energy. This project aims to provide…… [Read More]


Daniel, C. (Ed.). (1993). Chronicle of the 20th Century. NY: JL International Publishing.

McNeil, I. (2002). An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. NY: Routledge.

Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Corporation 1983-2001.
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Baldness and Thinning Hair Are Common and

Words: 1673 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66118409

aldness and thinning hair are common and the ultimate fate of almost all men and women as they age. In fact, hair loss is genetic in origin, and as we come to a greater understanding of the biology and genetics of hair loss, we are beginning to find novel solutions to this age-old "problem" of the human condition. We have come a long way from the treatments for hair loss in ancient Egypt, which used a mixture of crocodile fat and hippopotamus dung to combat baldness. Another ancient cure for baldness included eating fried leeches. Men have been attempting to treat their hair loss for over 5000 years, beginning in approximately 3500 C, when a list of treatments was passed on from generation to generation and incorporated into the medical libraries of Egyptian healers. In 1553 C, the Ebers Papyrus, discovered in Luxor, Egypt, suggested a baldness prescription of iron,…… [Read More]


Bruning, Nancy Paul. What You Can Do About Chronic Hair Loss (The Dell Medical Library) Dell, 1993.

Jacobs, Sheila. The Big Fall: Living With Hair Loss Next Century Books, 1992

Kobren, Spencer David; Eisman, Diane B; Eisman, Eugene H. The Bald Truth: The First Complete Guide to Preventing and Treating Hair Loss, Pocket Books. 2000

Kobren, Spencer David; Christiano, Angela. The Truth About Women's Hair Loss: What Really Works for Treating and Preventing Thinning Hair. Mcgraw Hill, 2000.
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Tourette's in Children

Words: 1840 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86979836

Tourette Syndrome in Children

hat is Tourette Syndrome?

Tourette Syndrome (TS) is an inherited neurological disorder generally associated with tics. Tics are defined as either involuntary body movements, or involuntary vocal sounds that are usually repetitive. The occurrence of TS in children is about 1 of every 2000 children, with an increased occurrence in boys as opposed to girls. The syndrome itself is named for the French neurologist Dr. George Gilles de la Tourette, who diagnosed the first patient with the illness in 1885.

How do you know if you have it? (Symptoms and Diagnosis)

Diagnosis specifics vary from one source of information to the next. Some publications, such as the website for the Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children, suggest waiting until the tics are present for at least one year, and that multiple tics must be shown - vocal and physical (though not at the same time). Other sites…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome 2002

Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002. 2002

Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. "Tourette Syndrome's Frequently Asked Questions" 3 Apr 2002.

Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002.
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Hemophilia Is Not One but

Words: 1361 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69626859

Occurrence of inherited hemophilia is slightly more likely in Caucasians (1.3%) as opposed to African-Americans (1.1%) and Hispanic (1.2%). Asian populations appear to inherit the gene far less likely, about 1/4 of that of Caucasians. However, modern demographics result in marriage between ethnic types far greater than previous, and statistics show a blending to about 1% of most populations (Soucie,, 1998.)

Abnormality -- as a genetic occurrence, hemophilia infects about 1 in 5,000 male births, but carried in another 5,000 female births. The disease is recessive in females (carried on X-chromosome). Thus, a carrier female has a 50% chance of passing on the defective X chromosome to her daughter, while a male who is affected will always pass on that defect to progeny.

Screening/Testing -- Genetic testing based on family history is the primary mechanism for discovering hemophilia, but certain other tests help quantify the assurance:

Pronounced bleeding at…… [Read More]


Agaliotis, D., (2009). "Hemophilia -- Overview." EMedicine. Cited in:

Handin, R.,, eds. (2003). Blood Principles and Practice of Hemotology."

Thomas Stossel.
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Beta Thalassemia

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45245449

Beta Thallasemia

Beta Thalassemia

Beta thalassemia is the severer of the two main types of thalassemia -- an inherited blood disease resulting from defective production of hemoglobin. About 100,000 people are born worldwide every year with beta thalassemia which occurs most frequently in people of Italian, Greek, Middle Eastern, Southern Asian and African Ancestry. (Learning about...," 2004) People with beta thalassemia usually develop anemia, resulting in inadequate delivery of oxygen to the body's tissues and it proves fatal in most cases, if left untreated. In this paper we shall discuss the disease develops; the types of beta thalassemia, how it is inherited, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

How Beta Thalassemia develops?

Hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen in the blood, is made up of four chains of amino acids: two identical alpha chains and two identical beta chains. Thalassemia is the result of an imbalance in the production of beta…… [Read More]


Beta Thellasemia." (2001) Child Health A-Z. Website of Children's Hospital, Boston Updated on 04/03/2004. Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at

Beta Thellasemia." (2004) Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at

Learning About Thalassemia." (2004) National human Genome research institute. Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at

Nathan, David G. And Nisbet-Brown, Eric. (2003). "Thalassemia." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
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Engineered Crops the Rapid Advancements

Words: 1088 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80687274

Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]

Gene Contamination

Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…… [Read More]


1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004

2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,

Vol 182 Issue

3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,
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Alopecia Areata Is a Systemic Hair Loss

Words: 2403 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97622246

Alopecia areata is a systemic hair loss disorder, which affects roughly around 4.7 million people in the United States alone. [NAAF]. It is characterized as an autoimmune disease that leads to either localized or complete hair loss. The disease is independent of race, gender or age specifications, and hence affected people represent a diverse group. The effects of the disease may either be permanent or reversible depending on the nature and extent of damage to the hair follicles. It is believed that both genetic as well as environmental factors have an influence in the onset of the condition. However, the pathology of the disease is yet to be ascertained concretely. Though there is no physical distress accompanying the disease the psychological devastation suffered by the affected person is debilitating. Let us have a brief overview of the different types of alopecia before we discuss in detail the possible pathophysiology and…… [Read More]


1) NAAF, "What is Alopecia Areata," Accessed on March 8th 2005,

2) Ralph Paus, M.D and George Cotsarelis, M.D, "The Biology of Hair Follicles," NEJM, Vol 341, No 7, Pg 491.

3) Kyle Kennedy, M.D, "Management of Alopecia," Accesses on March 9th 2005,
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Trends in the Provision of Health Sciences Information Resources

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52990908

Health Sciences Information esources

Ernst & Young (2001) describe the global health sciences marketplace as "a web created by pharmaceutical companies, biotech firms, eHealth companies, hospitals, physicians and other practitioners and medical device manufacturers" to name a few (p.1). This web or library of information is the wave of the future. Health sciences information libraries of the future will not just serve as global resources of health care information, but will rather serve as collaborative and interactive repositories where patients will be able to discover individualized treatment options and health care providers can collaborate on new biotechnological advances and discoveries.

The global health sciences marketplace and libraries are inexorably changing as technology is better enabling corporations, individuals and providers to provide services in new and faster ways. Trends developing within the industry that will affect health sciences libraries include providing health products and services that are delivered "Through integrated alliances"…… [Read More]


Aday, L.A., Begley, C.E., Lairson, D.R. & Slater, C.H. (1993). Evaluating the medical care system: Effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Ann Arbor: Health Administration Press.

Anton, P.S., Schneider, J. & Silberglitt, R. (2001). The global technology revolution:

Bio/Nano/Materials trends and their synergies with information technology. Santa Monica: Rand.

Brook, R.H., Damber, C. & Ker, E.A. (1998). Health information systems: Design issues and analytic applications. Santa Monica: Rand.
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Hemophilia Is an Inherited Disorder

Words: 729 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54516905

Gene therapy is another method that can help replace defective genes in carriers to protect future generations but this is a highly expensive procedure that not everyone can afford. Hemophilia has a long history and it has been found in members of the royal family of England.

There are some important facts that we should know about hemophilia since they help in dispelling popular myths. Not all forms of hemophilia are caused by deficiency in Factor VIII. While 80% of hemophilic cases are like that, the rest are affected by hemophilia B. that is actually a deficiency in Factor IX.

It is also believed that patients with hemophilia have medical family history of the disease. But that is not entirely true. In almost 1/3 cases of hemophilia, there was no family history found. It is claimed that in these patients, the onset of disease is spontaneous. Some abrupt gene mutation…… [Read More]


Hemophilia" the Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; 4/22/2004

New treatment for hemophilia. (Updates) FDA Consumer; 11/1/2003
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A Nurse Themed Reflection

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25680657

difficult because I was being introduced to everything. I had no idea that being a nurse meant integrating information for so many diverse fields. When I finished the week I had learned and grown so much as an individual and as a nursing student. I learned that I needed to be acquainted with various subjects in order to pull information and reference things that could help me perform my duties as a nurse. I also learned of the many new topics of interest in current healthcare and how a field like genetics could play a role in medicine and treatments. The focus of nursing is quality improvement and the first week helped me understand how to pursue quality care.

The second course week I learned how to build processes that promote quality improvement as well as safety in healthcare delivery. I had to learn how to be a leader and…… [Read More]


Gibbon, S., Joseph, G., Mozersky, J., Zur Nieden, A., & Palfner, S. (2014). Breast Cancer Gene Research and Medical Practices. Routledge.

Glazer, G., & Fitzpatrick, J. (2013). Nursing leadership from the outside in. New York: Springer Pub. Co.

Lilley, L., Collins, S., & Snyder, J. (2015). Pharmacology and the nursing process (p. 98). Elsevier Health Sciences.
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Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease in This

Words: 1599 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71218996

Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease

In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.

Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…… [Read More]


'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from 'Do We Know What Causes Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from

"Hodgkin's Disease." (2000) The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press: New York.

'Hodgkin's disease: Overview" (2004) Oncology Channel Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from / 'How is Hodgkin's Lymphoma and the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Different?" (2004) Lymphoma Information Network. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from 

'How Is Hodgkin's Disease Treated?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from
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Stem Cells and Umbilical Cords

Words: 4604 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68647678

Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.

Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.

Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.

Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
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CONNEXIN43 Expression Following Retinal Ischemia

Words: 4785 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33589871

" (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003)

Prior to visualization of the molecule of interest it is necessary to "fix and section the brain tissue. Double-labeling immunofluorescence is stated to detect "localization of a protein of interest as well as the distribution of the protein relative to another marker such as a neurochemical or organelle marker." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003 Fluorescence imaging labeled tissue through use of confocal makes provision of "high-resolution analysis of the extent of colocalization, with a theoretical limit of resolution of 0.1 to 0.2 um." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) Immunofluorescence techniques are stated to "in general...utilize secondary antibodies conjugated to a flurosphore." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) It is important according to Volpicelli-Daley and Levey to choose flurosphores with "minimal background staining and a minimum overlap of excitation/emission spectra...when performing double labeling experiments." (2003)


The work of Coling and Kachar (1997) entitled: "Theory and Application of…… [Read More]


Apoptosis (2009) Protocol Online. Available at: 

Coling, Donald and Kachar, Bechara (1997) Theory and Application of Fluorescence Microscopy. Current Protocols in Neuroscience. John Wiley & Sons.

Gallagher, S., Winston, S.E, Fuller, S.A. And Hurrell, J.G.R. (2004) Immunoblotting and Immunodetection. Current Protocols in Neuroscience 2004. John Wiley & Sons.

Introduction to Immunohistochemistry (2009) IHC World Life Science Information Network. Online available at:
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Controversial Bioethical Issues of the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3993568

Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.

However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.

orks Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at

Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at
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Moral Analysis the Food and

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73000088

I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.

There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Van Arnum, P. (2010). Healthcare reform draws mixed reviews from pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from
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Skills Regarding Nursing Care Nursing

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1093923

Informed Decision Making (Nursing Role)

The nurse has the utmost responsibility in educating the patient and his/her family about the proposed treatment plan, the availability of alternative interventions, and in general plays a vital role in promoting informed decision making. [ANMC], (2005)] The nurse being more familiar with the patient has a better understanding of the patient's understanding capabilities and can therefore decide as to what type of teaching method a patient is best suited for. While for some patients a simple printed information leaflet is suffice for others a more detailed presentation involving a video maybe necessary. This again helps the patient better understand the procedures and helps them in their decision making process. [Mark H. eers, (2006)] In the case of new treatment modalities that are available with recent medical advancements, the nurse can greatly assist the patient in making well-informed decisions about the available treatment choices. Gene…… [Read More]


1) ANMC, (2005), ' Code of Ethics of Nurses in Australia', retrieved 5th Sep 2010, from, 

2) Jeanette Ives Erickson, RN, (2005), 'Caring for Patients while Respecting their Privacy: Renewing our Commitment ', retrieved 5th Sep 2010, from,

3) ISONG, (2005), 'Informed Decision Making and Consent: The Role of Nursing', retrieved Sep 5th 2010, from,

4) Mark H. Beers, MD & Thomas V Jones MD, (June 2006) 'The Merck Manual of Geriatrics: Chapter 8: Nursing', Pub by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
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Healthcare World Industries the Healthcare

Words: 836 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95538372

Human Resources planning and strategy will be 'key' in enabling the organization to deal with pandemic situations. This leads to another primary challenge that the health care industry faces which is the shortage of nursing staff in today's health care organizations and institutions. Nursing staff in the healthcare industry re under great stresses on staffing due to an inadequate supply of individuals pursuing their nursing degree with an."..unprecedented demand for nursing services" however, colleges and universities as well as health care institutions have failed to develop effective workforce supply. The work of leich and Hewlett (2004) entitled: "Dissipating the Perfect Storm - Responses from Nursing and the Health Care Industry to Protect the Public's Health" published by the Journal of Issues in Nursing states: "In spite of the progress in nurse recruitment, the prognosis for balancing supply with demand is still precarious, at best. Sadly, AACN (2003a) reports that more…… [Read More]


Bleich, Michael R. And Hewlett, Peggy O. (2004) Dissipating the Perfect Storm - Reponses to Nursing and the Health Care Industry to Protect the Public's Health. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 9 No.2, May 2004. Online available at 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Career Guide to Industries, 2008-09 Edition, Health Care, on the Internet at (visited March 11, 2008).

Business Continuity Planning for the Global Healthcare Industry (2007) International Federal of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations. Jan 2007 IFPMA.

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Sensory Loss in the Aged

Words: 2128 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41165511

If an underlying condition is the cause of the loss, then the logical procedure would be to treat the underlying cause. In some cases the sense of smell may return and for others the loss will be permanent.

Research supports the existence of changes in smell due to age. The causes of this loss are varied. There has not been considerable research into searching for a treatment as with other sensory declines. Loss of out sense of smell is not considered to be of greater consequence in our society. ith the rare exception of those whose careers depend on it, there is little societal impact caused by a loss of sense of smell. For the person, they may not enjoy all of the things that they used to, but it does not carry any significant impairment with it.

There has been no formal effort dedicated towards research to restore the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arabi, A. (2004) Cochlear Implants: My Perspective. Term Paper. NBB421 - Effects of Aging on Sensory and Perceptual Systems. Professor Halpern. Friday, December 3, 2004. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Bauman, N. (2004) Hair Cell Regeneration -- Overcoming the Challenges. Center For Hearing Loss Help. November 2004. Accessed December 15, 2006.

Cain, W., Stevens, J. (1989) Uniformity of olfactory loss in aging. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 561, 29-38.

Cochlear Implants. The Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center at the (2006a) Total Costs for the Procedure. Accessed December 15, 2006.
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Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77212600

(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]


Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
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Information Technology IT Is a Broad-Based Term

Words: 1674 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29344536

Information Technology (IT) is a broad-based term that includes a combination of the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of information in a computing or telecommunications platform. In terms of a scientific discipline, it is relatively new, appearing in a 1958 article in the Harvard Business Review in which the authors said, "this new technology does not yet have a single established name. e shall call it information technology (IT)" (Dunn, 2011). The field has been part of the tremendous growth in computing and telecommunications, and remains vital -- it is behind the recent emergence of next generation web technology, bioinformation, cloud computing, global information systems, and large scale databases.

The IT area manages technology in a wide variety of fields that include software, hardware, information systems, and programming languages. IT professionals perform a wide variety of functions from installation of applications and hardware to designing and maintaining complex networks and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benefits of Technology use. (2003, January). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education:

Pros and Cons of Modern Technologies. (2008, September 17). Retrieved from Tech Aid: 

Technology Transfer in the Food Industry. (2-11, October 14). Retrieved from CSIRO:

Dunn, J. (2011, November 11). The Fascinating History of Information Technology. Retrieved from
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GlaxoSmithKline and AIDS Drugs in South Africa

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32122473


As per our previous discussion, there is little doubt anymore but that our HIV / AIDS drugs are well positioned to go to the next level of modern emergent medicine. Whatever treatment modalities that will arise in the future will be ICT-based (Information Communication Technology) and will be executed in practice utilizing mHealth (mobile) practices that are part of a network of eCare (electronic), eServices, eSurvellience and eLearning structures (Sorenson et al., 2008). The past prediction appears accurate that by this year (2012), half of all people in remote but developing areas of the world will have access to mobile technology (Singh, nd). It is therefore incumbent upon GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) to establish itself as a leader in facilitating how these efforts can complement our pharmaceuticals interventions, particularly since it is now well accepted that antiretroviral interventions are the only known approach for slowing the disease progression in infected individuals.…… [Read More]

E1: The first step in this process will revolve around doing further preparation on what constitutes an effective organization that is purposefully developed to take advantage of proven organizational theories (Laguerre, 2010). GSK is already well grounded in this regard, but moving to an eGSK requires contemplating how existing resources can be focused complimentarily on multiple objectives. Our goal should be to not interfere with existing operations or personnel, but instead to tag the new e-model on to what already works well. ICT has the ability to profoundly scale the impact value of what already exists, and it is clear that this project can be an exceptional example of multiple a bottom line ROI (GIIN, 2012). We should be able to extract from each department enough of what is needed for this eLearning experience to ensure that in the future it cannot be easily separated from the other profit-making priorities of the company. An appropriate eTeam (okay, enough of the e's!) will be created to mirror each of the critical departments; and space will be preserved for including either internal or external stakeholders who may be shown to otherwise be excluded because of our business configuration. The team will include lower- and upper management representatives, scientific professionals, operational experts, and creative representatives of stakeholder departments. HR and IT representatives will either be included and/or specialized technical expertise in these and other hands-on components will be made available to the team.

E2: Specific attention in regard to this recommendation will be directed at all of the corporate elements associated with governance, business operations, production, diversity and community/global integration now in place (GSK, 2012). We have established communication and flow diagrammatic representations of these sectors. In reviewing them, the oversight team will be guided by what already exists and will look toward integrating ICT with an eye toward making the organizational documents and flow patterns interactive to support further change.

E3: Our recommended guide for this element comes from the writings of Joshua C. Laguerre (2010) on how to develop leadership utilizing researched and philosophically grounded leadership theories. He bases his findings on Yukl's 2010 "Leadership in Organizations," which he supplements with the findings of other critically reviewed operational foundations. Laguerre chose Yukl because of his comprehensive and appealing definition of leadership, which incorporates the recognized important elements of effective leadership and was geared toward sustaining future leadership development via a dynamic or
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Type 1 Diabetes

Words: 1149 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36732156

Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes has been among the illnesses that need rigid and proper attention to maintain the normal condition of the patient's body. Among the stages and types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes is the illness type that usually hits both the young and adults. This disease is preventable though. However, if the health condition of the patient with type 1 diabetes is not properly managed, the risk to serious complications such as heart ailments, damage in kidney and nerve, blindness, and many others, is high.

In any kind of illnesses, it is essential that one acquire enough information to prevent from getting or developing a disease. In view of this, in relation to type 1 diabetes, this paper finds it important to discuss the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes. This paper aims to provide useful information on the following.

History of Type 1 Diabetes

Symptoms of Type 1…… [Read More]


2002). Clinical practice recommendations: 2002. Diabetes Care.

American Diabetes Association. 25, 21.

Ackinson, M.A., Wilson, S.B. (2002). Fatal Attraction: Chemokines and Type 1 Diabetes.

The Journal of Clinical Investigation, (110)11, 1611.
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Health Care There Are a Number of

Words: 930 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98514660

Health Care

There are a number of innovations that can lower the cost of health care. The first category of innovation is prevention. esearchers are studying the issue of prevention more intently, as the cost benefits of avoiding illness, or of early detection, are evident. Exploration of the human genome is particularly important in helping the health care industry in early detection, and prevention. Gene therapy and other innovations can help keep people from getting certain conditions in the first place, and when such innovations are focused on chronic conditions, they can dramatically lower the total cost of health care.

Another type of innovation that can lower the cost of health care is anything that reduces the length of stay or the invasiveness of procedures. Many such innovations, such as arthroscopic surgery, have already contributed to lowering the costs associated with certain procedures. obotics is a major player here, having…… [Read More]


Aamodt, M (2013). Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Wadsworth Cengage: Boston

Chaffee, J. (2012). Thinking Critically. Wadsworth Cengage: Boston.

Domoff, S., Hinman, N., Koball, A., Carhart, V., Baik, K. & Carels, R. (2012) . The effects of reality television on weight bias: An examination of The Biggest Loser. Obesity. Vol. 20 (5) 993-998.

Greenwald, H. (2010) Health Care in the United States:: Organization, Management and Policy. John Wiley & Sons: San Francisco.