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The treatment of genetic diseases has appeared a daunting challenge because there seemed little to be done if the immutable basic blueprints of the body have a serious imperfection (Beutler Pp). Even fifty years ago it was possible to greatly improve the quality of life and to actually "save the lives of patients with some such genetic diseases" (Beutler Pp). Success approaches included dietary manipulation as in phenylketonuria or galactosemia, surgery to correct various deformities, and often avoidance of inciting factors in the environment, "as in acute intermittent porphyria" (Beutler Pp). However, until the latter part of the twentieth century, the possibility of actually changing the faulty genetic blueprints was beyond the imagination of the realistic medical scientist (Beutler Pp).
Today it is certain that success in gene therapy will require the application of various technique that are tailored to the disease that is being approached (Beutler Pp).…… [Read More]
When these cells behave in an abnormal manner, it can lead to acute myeloid leukemia. Various gene therapy-based tests have been conducted on the guinea pigs as model animals. The gene therapy-based experiments have shown that deafness can be cured with the help of gene therapy. One of the main reasons of the deafness is the destruction of hair cells in the cochlea. A gene that has been known to stimulate hair growth in the cochlea is Atoh1 and this gene has been tested by being delivered through adenovirus. When the gene was delivered with the adenovirus, the hair regrowth in the cochleae was triggered based on which more than 80% regrowth of the hearing was repaired. New experiments are being conducted on the delivery of genes that can repair errors in the messenger NA because of the presence of defective and nonfunctional genes. Using this technique, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia…… [Read More]
gene therapy. The writer looks at its history, its use and the possible problems it presents. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Medical science has done amazing things in recent years. Through the use of research the average lifespan is longer than ever before, and the quality of life continues to rise. ecently it seems there is nothing medical science cannot make happen. Today the world stands at the edge of some of the most exciting technology than it ever dreamed possible. Gene therapy is a reality and the world currently debates whether or not it wants to take the leap. There are some who are excited and believe it will save lives and provide cures for things that used to mean long suffering death, while others fear it is going to open the world to clones and untested waters. The religious sectors believe gene therapy is…… [Read More]
In the case of Jesse Gelsinger it was found out later that there were many rules and regulations that were in place not followed to the letter of the law like they should have been. When peoples lives are at stake it is imperative that not only are their strict rules and regulations set down but that there is a process in place to make sure that those involved are following them as they are intended.
When looking at the idea of Germ-Line gene therapy and its development one can see that there are good arguments both for and against it, but in the end progressing medical treatments has been a long standing tradition and should be continued. As mentioned earlier, progression in modern medicine has been the foundation of why the human population continues to exist today. There have been had diseases and illnesses in the history of mankind…… [Read More]
Of this there are two types:
Splicsome mediated - the delivery of RNA (a Repair Method) a. Strand that pair specifically with the intron next to the mutated segment of mRNA and leaves the correct strand.
b. Simultaneous delivery of a correct version of the segment to replace the mutated piece in the final RNA product.
Translation of the repaired mRNA to produce the normal functional protein.
Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotide: Oligonucleotides that bind the double strand of the mutated gene's DNA and actually forms a triple strand that blocks the mutation.
Antisense Technology is used to turn off a mutated gene in a cell by targeting the mRNA transcripts copied from the gene according to Crabtree. Further discussed in the role of Ribozymes (RNA enzymes). It is possible to have delivery of RNA strand that has been engineered to function as ribozymes to the cell, the RNA is encoded by…… [Read More]
Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length.
Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1202: 59-63.
Though the clinical trial these two researchers are involved in does not yet have results that are ready for publication, the review of the risks they provide regarding the use of stem cell mobilization with G-CSF in patients with sickle cell is highly useful information. So, too, is the practice of pre-treating patients with hydroxyurea before administering the stem cell treatment, which the authors describe in detail and which forms the basis of the related clinical trial. Potential reduction of risks appears to be quite promising, though final results from the clinical trial and other supporting evidence will of course be required.
Ye, L.,…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]
Personalized genomics and personalized medicine refers to a collection of technologies and techniques designed to custom design pharmaceutical treatments according to the patient's genome sequence. The starting point for personalized medicine, which has also been called "stratified medicine" or "precision medicine" is the completion of the Human Genome Project (NHMC, 2014). The Human Genome Project has permitted unprecedented access to genetic information and the implications the information has on human health factors.
A genome is the entire collection of genes, about 23,000 different ones, embedded in each cell of the body (The Jackson Laboratory, 2014). According to Snyder, Du & Gerstein (2010), determining a genome sequence involves "identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] and structural variations [SVs], assembling new sequences, and phasing haplotypes," (p. 423). Although only two percent of the human genome is actually comprised of genes themselves, the human genome "influences how we look, our genetic…… [Read More]
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]
5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.
Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…… [Read More]
Expanding Traditional Definition of a Gene
Expands Traditional Definition A Gene
Expanding the traditional definition of a gene through epigenetics:
Changes to the human gene through exposure to external forces in the environment
Increasingly, the field of epigenetics is challenging traditional conceptions of what constitutes the human gene. While it has long been acknowledged that parents can pass their DNA onto their offspring, epigenetics acknowledges the potential for changes in human DNA which subsequently causes a change in the genetic composition of the child. Epigenetics acknowledges "the external environment's effects upon genes can influence disease, and some of these effects can be inherited in humans" (Simmons 2008). While it is difficult to design a study to test environmental factors, historical and experimental research does support this hypothesis. "For example, Swedish scientists recently conducted investigations examining whether nutrition affected the death rate associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes and whether these…… [Read More]
"Briefly, feminists believe the personal is political. Basic tenets of feminism include a belief in the equal worth of all human beings, recognition that each individual's personal experiences and situations are reflective of and an influence on society's institutionalized attitudes and values, and a commitment to political and social change that equalizes power among people. Feminists are committed to recognizing and reducing the pervasive influences and insidious effects of oppressive societal attitudes and society" (Chappell 2000). In its current incarnation, feminist therapy's stress upon liberating individuals from oppressive social attitudes does not just pertain only to gender, but all negative social attitudes. Thus, at its most universal, feminist therapy's central tenant that the personal and political are intermeshed, and that one's political reality creates one's cognitive reality, can be applied to many contexts beyond gender.
Although it deals with the psychology created by oppression, feminist therapy still stresses personal choice…… [Read More]
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…… [Read More]
Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia
Their Impact on Neuro-development
Search Improvement over Published Methodology
rief Introduction -- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterized by delusions, lack of drive and interest, changed or unusual emotional reactions and generally disorganized behavior (Kirov et al. 2012). Some signs may begin from childhood but main features become apparent in the late teens and early adulthood. Outcomes and treatment are varied but relapses are frequent. Remissions are also often only partial along with significantly reduced social and occupation involvement. Persons with this disorder are among the most vulnerable, ostracized, and thus disadvantaged in society. A recent meta-analysis reported that about 15.2 out of every 100,000 persons are afflicted with it (Kirov et al.).
Genetic epidemiological studies theorize that varied susceptibility to schizophrenia appears to be strongly genetic (Kirov et al. 2012). These studies have identified many potentials links between genes and chromosomal abnormalities. Increasing…… [Read More]
Q1. Discuss the physicians changing perceptions of the nature of cholera, its treatment, and therapy in 1832, 1849, and 1866. How did these factors change? Why?
Today, the general public and physicians alike are well aware of the need for proper sanitation in the public water system. But during the 19th century, knowledge about the spread of germs and disease was less widespread, and cholera, although widely accepted as a serious threat to public health, was still controversial in its ascribed origin. The hero of cholera research is John Snow, who, through the use of city mapping was able to trace an 1854 London epidemic to a single water pump and even was able to identify the microbe that had caused it, using an ordinary microscope. Such particles were not found in other pumps far away from the disease outbreak. Before Snow, such as during the 1832 epidemic, many physicians…… [Read More]
, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…… [Read More]
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…… [Read More]
Genomes and Comparative Genomics
Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.
The Role of DNA
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…… [Read More]
technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…… [Read More]
Since the events of September 11th, terrorism has been a crucial concern for Americans specifically, and the global society in general.
As Wilkins (2005) notes, although it is generally agreed to be justifiable to commit violence in the act of self-defense against aggressors, many of the victims of terrorism are innocent of any crime, and that the question of "collective guilt" must come into play when determining the justification for terrorism. There is a "distinction between moral guilt and metaphysical guilt (which) can be explained partially in terms of the difference between the failure to do one's duty and the failure to perform a supererogatory act. We have a duty to mutla aid to other human beings" (p. 340).
Therefore, it is justifiable to inflict violence upon innocent individuals when this guilt is apparent, such as the case of the plight of the Jews and the aggression of…… [Read More]
As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…… [Read More]
The current protocols of T cell transduction involve in vitro activation to achieve T cell proliferation that is required for effective retroviral infection. Adoptive transfer of such minimally stimulated cells will reveal whether in vivo transfer of TC transduced resting T cells provides more effective protection from disease and better memory development than transfer of fully activated T cells.
TC gene transfer can also be used to produce antigen-specific CD4+ helper T cells. The in vivo interaction of conventional CD4+ T cells is restricted to MHC class II-positive professional antigen-presenting cells. ecognition of DC presented antigen triggers the production of cytokines by conventional CD4+ T cells. IL-2 has a direct effect on the CD4+ T cells and triggers proliferation and can prevent anergy induction. Other cytokines, such as IFN-, can activate macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells and enhance the functional activity of CTL. In addition, IFN- can have antitumor…… [Read More]
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]
Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"
Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.
Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…… [Read More]
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]
human genetic. There are four references used for this paper.
There are remarkable advancements being made in the field of genetics. It is important to examine whether the material should be transferred between organisms, as well as the effects on food today.
Many people wonder if genetic material should be transferred from one organism to another.
hile benefits have been shown in biotechnology, it is important for scientists to utilize technology carefully and wisely, since "any technology has the potential for being abused, and there is the possibility that genetically engineered 'monsters' could be created with the use of recombinant DNA techniques (Phillips)."
Although gene therapy research is increasing, in a majority of cases it is still too ineffective to be beneficial. Humans should not compete with or alter nature since "gene therapy alters an individual's genetic blueprint, which in time could lead to 'selective breeding' (unknown)."
Biotechnology…… [Read More]
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…… [Read More]
Medical Advancements in Medicine and Health
Write a three-page paper on what you believe is the most significant medical advancement (s) in medicine and health and support your argument.
Genetic engineering is one of the most significant medical advancements of the century and will have a major impact on medicine, health, politics and church and state relationships.
Genetic engineering. A controversial issue or a blessing in disguise? The Human Genome Project (HGP), sponsored in the United tates has created the field of genomics --understanding genetic material on a large scale.
But what actually is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering in theory, allows cells to grow in a petri dish, with the end result of creating the type of genetic alteration you want. Imagine the medical ramifications of being able to genetically create the characteristics we want in a species. Think of the benefits to mankind and the enhancements that would be…… [Read More]
By treating genetic disorders, natural selection is interrupted -- these individuals do not die as they naturally would have, and so their genetic disadvantage no longer selects against them. iT could be argued, however, that humans have stopped evolving as biological creatures anyway; technology has provided the "cure" to many issues of natural selection, both from the species end of things and from the supply side (i.e. In making more resources more available to more people). Therefore, it is not really detrimental to the species as a whole to save the individuals with lethal alleles. Since we are no longer really evolving, and the prevalence of most lethal alleles is incredibly low anyway, the species as a whole is not made less healthy by the presence of these individuals or their alleles, despite the increased chance they have at procreating.
This means that traditional medical ethics, which demand that an…… [Read More]
A biopsy of the bone marrow is the only way to be sure that it is leukemia.
Treatments for leukemia can vary depending on the stage, the age of the patient, the type of leukemia, and the advanced or infant stages that it is in, but most leukemia patients do go through a host of treatments that include chemotherapy.
Treatment also depends on the stage that the disease is placed in. Staging is simply a method by which the cancer is categorized for the purpose of developing a treatment plan and for research purposes with regards to cure rates and treatment successes or failures (Leukemia (http://www.emedicinehealth.com/leukemia/article_em.htm).
In most cases of the disease, including Kate's case the treatment of choice is chemotherapy. There is a scene in the novel in which Anna, Kate and their mother are dancing around the kitchen together after shaving their heads so Kate would not…… [Read More]
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]
The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)
Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…… [Read More]
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…… [Read More]
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…… [Read More]
Treatment History Of Cystic Fibrosis
The field of pediatric nursing is a particularly large one in which its members may find themselves having to counsel both young patients and their families suffering from a myriad of diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF), in particular, is a debilitating disease that strikes many young people. In the first years following its discovery, many children could not expect to make it to their teen years. Today, with advances in the management and care of this disease, patients are living into their 40s. It is even possible that there will one day be a cure.
This paper will look at CF from a historical perspective. The timeline of its discovery and research will be briefly presented, as will a few of the significant "milestones" in the history of the treatment of CF and what these mean for people battling this disease.
References to cystic fibrosis were…… [Read More]
1985 "Hacking," or entering / gaining unauthorized access to a computer system, has been committed by a group of young computer programmers. The victims of this new incidence of hacking were the Pentagon and the telecommunications company, AT&T.
Nuclear energy became the primary source of energy used in weapons making, characterized to be more efficient and powerful compared to its predecessor, the atomic bomb (energy).
1986 The first operation was conducted which granted a patient an artificial heart, lengthening the life survival of patients who have poor heart conditions.
1988 Stealth bomber aircrafts were manufactured and introduced by the United States. These new aircrafts provide ease and increasingly rapid speed of flight without being detected by enemy radar (especially during war time).
1990 Switzerland had produced the first solar-powered vehicle, which runs on solar power alone, without the use of excessive fuel energy. This project aims to provide…… [Read More]
aldness and thinning hair are common and the ultimate fate of almost all men and women as they age. In fact, hair loss is genetic in origin, and as we come to a greater understanding of the biology and genetics of hair loss, we are beginning to find novel solutions to this age-old "problem" of the human condition. We have come a long way from the treatments for hair loss in ancient Egypt, which used a mixture of crocodile fat and hippopotamus dung to combat baldness. Another ancient cure for baldness included eating fried leeches. Men have been attempting to treat their hair loss for over 5000 years, beginning in approximately 3500 C, when a list of treatments was passed on from generation to generation and incorporated into the medical libraries of Egyptian healers. In 1553 C, the Ebers Papyrus, discovered in Luxor, Egypt, suggested a baldness prescription of iron,…… [Read More]
Tourette Syndrome in Children
hat is Tourette Syndrome?
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is an inherited neurological disorder generally associated with tics. Tics are defined as either involuntary body movements, or involuntary vocal sounds that are usually repetitive. The occurrence of TS in children is about 1 of every 2000 children, with an increased occurrence in boys as opposed to girls. The syndrome itself is named for the French neurologist Dr. George Gilles de la Tourette, who diagnosed the first patient with the illness in 1885.
How do you know if you have it? (Symptoms and Diagnosis)
Diagnosis specifics vary from one source of information to the next. Some publications, such as the website for the Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children, suggest waiting until the tics are present for at least one year, and that multiple tics must be shown - vocal and physical (though not at the same time). Other sites…… [Read More]
Occurrence of inherited hemophilia is slightly more likely in Caucasians (1.3%) as opposed to African-Americans (1.1%) and Hispanic (1.2%). Asian populations appear to inherit the gene far less likely, about 1/4 of that of Caucasians. However, modern demographics result in marriage between ethnic types far greater than previous, and statistics show a blending to about 1% of most populations (Soucie, et.al., 1998.)
Abnormality -- as a genetic occurrence, hemophilia infects about 1 in 5,000 male births, but carried in another 5,000 female births. The disease is recessive in females (carried on X-chromosome). Thus, a carrier female has a 50% chance of passing on the defective X chromosome to her daughter, while a male who is affected will always pass on that defect to progeny.
Screening/Testing -- Genetic testing based on family history is the primary mechanism for discovering hemophilia, but certain other tests help quantify the assurance:
Pronounced bleeding at…… [Read More]
Beta thalassemia is the severer of the two main types of thalassemia -- an inherited blood disease resulting from defective production of hemoglobin. About 100,000 people are born worldwide every year with beta thalassemia which occurs most frequently in people of Italian, Greek, Middle Eastern, Southern Asian and African Ancestry. (Learning about...," 2004) People with beta thalassemia usually develop anemia, resulting in inadequate delivery of oxygen to the body's tissues and it proves fatal in most cases, if left untreated. In this paper we shall discuss the disease develops; the types of beta thalassemia, how it is inherited, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
How Beta Thalassemia develops?
Hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen in the blood, is made up of four chains of amino acids: two identical alpha chains and two identical beta chains. Thalassemia is the result of an imbalance in the production of beta…… [Read More]
Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]
Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…… [Read More]
Alopecia areata is a systemic hair loss disorder, which affects roughly around 4.7 million people in the United States alone. [NAAF]. It is characterized as an autoimmune disease that leads to either localized or complete hair loss. The disease is independent of race, gender or age specifications, and hence affected people represent a diverse group. The effects of the disease may either be permanent or reversible depending on the nature and extent of damage to the hair follicles. It is believed that both genetic as well as environmental factors have an influence in the onset of the condition. However, the pathology of the disease is yet to be ascertained concretely. Though there is no physical distress accompanying the disease the psychological devastation suffered by the affected person is debilitating. Let us have a brief overview of the different types of alopecia before we discuss in detail the possible pathophysiology and…… [Read More]
Gene therapy is another method that can help replace defective genes in carriers to protect future generations but this is a highly expensive procedure that not everyone can afford. Hemophilia has a long history and it has been found in members of the royal family of England.
There are some important facts that we should know about hemophilia since they help in dispelling popular myths. Not all forms of hemophilia are caused by deficiency in Factor VIII. While 80% of hemophilic cases are like that, the rest are affected by hemophilia B. that is actually a deficiency in Factor IX.
It is also believed that patients with hemophilia have medical family history of the disease. But that is not entirely true. In almost 1/3 cases of hemophilia, there was no family history found. It is claimed that in these patients, the onset of disease is spontaneous. Some abrupt gene mutation…… [Read More]
difficult because I was being introduced to everything. I had no idea that being a nurse meant integrating information for so many diverse fields. When I finished the week I had learned and grown so much as an individual and as a nursing student. I learned that I needed to be acquainted with various subjects in order to pull information and reference things that could help me perform my duties as a nurse. I also learned of the many new topics of interest in current healthcare and how a field like genetics could play a role in medicine and treatments. The focus of nursing is quality improvement and the first week helped me understand how to pursue quality care.
The second course week I learned how to build processes that promote quality improvement as well as safety in healthcare delivery. I had to learn how to be a leader and…… [Read More]
Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease
In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.
Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…… [Read More]
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]
" (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003)
Prior to visualization of the molecule of interest it is necessary to "fix and section the brain tissue. Double-labeling immunofluorescence is stated to detect "localization of a protein of interest as well as the distribution of the protein relative to another marker such as a neurochemical or organelle marker." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003 Fluorescence imaging labeled tissue through use of confocal makes provision of "high-resolution analysis of the extent of colocalization, with a theoretical limit of resolution of 0.1 to 0.2 um." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) Immunofluorescence techniques are stated to "in general...utilize secondary antibodies conjugated to a flurosphore." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) It is important according to Volpicelli-Daley and Levey to choose flurosphores with "minimal background staining and a minimum overlap of excitation/emission spectra...when performing double labeling experiments." (2003)
IV. FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY
The work of Coling and Kachar (1997) entitled: "Theory and Application of…… [Read More]
Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.
However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…… [Read More]
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…… [Read More]
Informed Decision Making (Nursing Role)
The nurse has the utmost responsibility in educating the patient and his/her family about the proposed treatment plan, the availability of alternative interventions, and in general plays a vital role in promoting informed decision making. [ANMC], (2005)] The nurse being more familiar with the patient has a better understanding of the patient's understanding capabilities and can therefore decide as to what type of teaching method a patient is best suited for. While for some patients a simple printed information leaflet is suffice for others a more detailed presentation involving a video maybe necessary. This again helps the patient better understand the procedures and helps them in their decision making process. [Mark H. eers, (2006)] In the case of new treatment modalities that are available with recent medical advancements, the nurse can greatly assist the patient in making well-informed decisions about the available treatment choices. Gene…… [Read More]
Human Resources planning and strategy will be 'key' in enabling the organization to deal with pandemic situations. This leads to another primary challenge that the health care industry faces which is the shortage of nursing staff in today's health care organizations and institutions. Nursing staff in the healthcare industry re under great stresses on staffing due to an inadequate supply of individuals pursuing their nursing degree with an."..unprecedented demand for nursing services" however, colleges and universities as well as health care institutions have failed to develop effective workforce supply. The work of leich and Hewlett (2004) entitled: "Dissipating the Perfect Storm - Responses from Nursing and the Health Care Industry to Protect the Public's Health" published by the Journal of Issues in Nursing states: "In spite of the progress in nurse recruitment, the prognosis for balancing supply with demand is still precarious, at best. Sadly, AACN (2003a) reports that more…… [Read More]
If an underlying condition is the cause of the loss, then the logical procedure would be to treat the underlying cause. In some cases the sense of smell may return and for others the loss will be permanent.
Research supports the existence of changes in smell due to age. The causes of this loss are varied. There has not been considerable research into searching for a treatment as with other sensory declines. Loss of out sense of smell is not considered to be of greater consequence in our society. ith the rare exception of those whose careers depend on it, there is little societal impact caused by a loss of sense of smell. For the person, they may not enjoy all of the things that they used to, but it does not carry any significant impairment with it.
There has been no formal effort dedicated towards research to restore the…… [Read More]
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]
Information Technology (IT) is a broad-based term that includes a combination of the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of information in a computing or telecommunications platform. In terms of a scientific discipline, it is relatively new, appearing in a 1958 article in the Harvard Business Review in which the authors said, "this new technology does not yet have a single established name. e shall call it information technology (IT)" (Dunn, 2011). The field has been part of the tremendous growth in computing and telecommunications, and remains vital -- it is behind the recent emergence of next generation web technology, bioinformation, cloud computing, global information systems, and large scale databases.
The IT area manages technology in a wide variety of fields that include software, hardware, information systems, and programming languages. IT professionals perform a wide variety of functions from installation of applications and hardware to designing and maintaining complex networks and…… [Read More]
As per our previous discussion, there is little doubt anymore but that our HIV / AIDS drugs are well positioned to go to the next level of modern emergent medicine. Whatever treatment modalities that will arise in the future will be ICT-based (Information Communication Technology) and will be executed in practice utilizing mHealth (mobile) practices that are part of a network of eCare (electronic), eServices, eSurvellience and eLearning structures (Sorenson et al., 2008). The past prediction appears accurate that by this year (2012), half of all people in remote but developing areas of the world will have access to mobile technology (Singh, nd). It is therefore incumbent upon GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) to establish itself as a leader in facilitating how these efforts can complement our pharmaceuticals interventions, particularly since it is now well accepted that antiretroviral interventions are the only known approach for slowing the disease progression in infected individuals.…… [Read More]
Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes has been among the illnesses that need rigid and proper attention to maintain the normal condition of the patient's body. Among the stages and types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes is the illness type that usually hits both the young and adults. This disease is preventable though. However, if the health condition of the patient with type 1 diabetes is not properly managed, the risk to serious complications such as heart ailments, damage in kidney and nerve, blindness, and many others, is high.
In any kind of illnesses, it is essential that one acquire enough information to prevent from getting or developing a disease. In view of this, in relation to type 1 diabetes, this paper finds it important to discuss the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes. This paper aims to provide useful information on the following.
History of Type 1 Diabetes
Symptoms of Type 1…… [Read More]
There are a number of innovations that can lower the cost of health care. The first category of innovation is prevention. esearchers are studying the issue of prevention more intently, as the cost benefits of avoiding illness, or of early detection, are evident. Exploration of the human genome is particularly important in helping the health care industry in early detection, and prevention. Gene therapy and other innovations can help keep people from getting certain conditions in the first place, and when such innovations are focused on chronic conditions, they can dramatically lower the total cost of health care.
Another type of innovation that can lower the cost of health care is anything that reduces the length of stay or the invasiveness of procedures. Many such innovations, such as arthroscopic surgery, have already contributed to lowering the costs associated with certain procedures. obotics is a major player here, having…… [Read More]
The value of ABV's equity per share can be calculated as follows. First, calculate the value of the operating assets, so EBITDA less the tax rate, adjusted downward for the reinvestment rate and then multiplied by the perpetual growth rate. This is then divided by the cost of capital less the growth rate:
To this, the cash should be added, the debt subtracted to get the value of the equity:
And this is divided by the number of shares 200 million, to give an earnings per share of:
If there are equity options on the shares, then those options would be subtracted from the share value. The value of the options is 50 * 5 = $250 million. This is then subtracted from the equity value above 799.90-250.00 = 599.90
And this is then divided by the number of shares outstanding
599.90 / 200 = $3.00
With the…… [Read More]
Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males and 1 in 2000 females (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Fragile X syndrome is the result of a single gene mutation, a mutation of the FM1 gene, located on the X chromosome. Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes). Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes and one pair is an allosome, also known as sex the chromosomes. The allosomes determine the person's gender. Female infants receive two X chromosomes (one each from mother and father), whereas males receive one X chromosome (from the mother) and one Y chromosome (from the father). The site of the Fragile X mutation is on one of these X chromosomes (Sadock & Sadock, 2007).
The…… [Read More]
Edwards Syndrome, Trisomy 18 8 sources ( 4-5 Print Sources 3-4 online Sources) All questions answered essay ( mandatory): -What ? (Discription genetic disorder) -What genes chromosomes linked disorder? -Describe populations affected Edwards Syndrome (Include gender, age & number affected USA wordwide.
Edwards syndrome which is also known as Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder that is caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 18 instead of the normal two copies. The extra 18th chromosome comes as a result of nondisjunction of the chromosomal material during meiosis. As a result of failure in the segregation of a chromosome to the daughter cells, there can be errors in the meiotic division leading to an extra chromosome. This extra chromosome usually occurs before conception and it is the second most common autosomal trisomy that carries to term after Down syndrome though it is more common in females than males…… [Read More]