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A also found that the students who were not labeled as special education also learned lessons from those who were. In the class I observed there was a special education child who was deaf. Each of the regular education students in the classroom adapted quickly to having a deaf peer in the classroom and they would make a point of being sure to have his attention before they moved on to their play activities on the playground. At the lunch table they made sure to include him as well.
Before observing this classroom I had thought that students this young were unable to give of themselves so selflessly however I found that they are not only able that they take it in stride which creates the foundational understanding and acceptance of the world's diverse nature.
One of the things I thought that turned out to be the case was that…
general education teachers increase the likelihood that students with disabilities in their classrooms will be successful both academically and socially?
One of the best ways in which students can be incorporated and taught in a regular classroom setting is by "paring" students for at least one learning activity/and/or project per day. Students should be instructed that the activity is one of mutual cooperation and instruction, and that each member is responsible for helping the other. Further, each pair should be assigned (not voluntarily chosen), and rotated, allowing the disabled student to become acquainted with each student in class and vice versa. Not only does this teach the disabled student that they are a "member" of the classroom (which they are), but it allows the typical students to learn from that child as well.
Of course, academically, it is also important to have a good grasp of the student's IEP, or…
Beyda, S.D., Zentall, S.S., & Ferko, D.J.K. (2002). The relationship between teacher practices and the task-appropriate and social behavior of students with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 27, 236-255.
Friend, M. & Bursuck, W. (2002). Including Students with Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers. Allyn & Bacon: Boston, MA.
Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (2002). Multicultural Education and Human
Relations: Valuing Diversity. Allyn & Bacon: Boston, MA.
I know feel more suited to do so; it makes me more comfortable knowing that no one is perfect and we all have insecurities. Knowing this allows me to be a more effective communicator and compassionate person. Both of these are necessary to have in school, work, and life. Often at school one needs to work in groups with different people, this is also true for work environments. A group is more effective when a basic respect & understanding for each other is in place.
General psychology is useful in showing me how much we really tell people without speaking a word. Non-verbal cues have helped people form opinions before we ever have an opportunity to do or say anything. I now know that little things I have done in the past may have been sending the wrong messages to others that I meet. Now I know to maintain eye…
Another way to help the students learn Algebra is to show them real-world problems where they can see what the purposes are for learning Algebra and how they would use Algebra. One of the ways to do this would be bring in parents or other adults that use Algebra in their day-to-day careers or jobs. They could explain why they used Algebra and how they used Algebra.
A learning objective for this subject would be "the student will use mean, median, mode and range in a set of ten problems and get seven to eight of the problems correct." The student will be able to explain or demonstrate how they arrived at their answers. They may use calculators, but still must show the steps used to find the answers.
One example that could be used in the classroom is to have each student take their pulse rate and write it…
Ferguson, B.T., Ph.D., Psychological Theory and Models of Teaching -- Understanding Origins of Teaching Methods and Approaches, 2011.
Ferguson, B.T., Ph.D., Assessment Basics and Grading, 2011.
McLeod, S.A. (2009). Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S.A. (2007). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
This paper provides an extensive review of literature on deaf students and deafness. The purpose of the literature review is to obtain an understanding of what deafness is, what causes deafness, how it occurs, and what deaf culture is like for deaf people. The review identifies schools and programs that are used to help the deaf community and it also examines the outcomes of deaf students in general education. It discusses whether deaf students are better served in an inclusive environment or whether they are better served in a deaf community based learning environment. It examines the characteristics of hearing loss and how there are different tools and ways to treat hearing loss when it occurs in cases where reversing the hearing loss is possible. In some cases, reversal is not possible but surgical solutions may exist.
One of the more remarkable qualities of deaf culture is that…
An Explication of Selected Titles of No Child Left Behind Legislation
In sum, during the period from 2002 through 2015, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) became the primary law in the United States concerning the general education of young people in grades K through 12. Some of the provisions of NCLB, especially those involving minorities and migrant children, were contentious because they operated to penalize schools that failed to demonstrate sustained improvement, a requirement that affected many schools with already marginalized learners with limited English proficiency. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the NCLB legislation as it pertains to Migrant Education (Title I), TESOL education (Title III), and Native American education (Title VII). An evaluation and analysis of the research is used to identify similarities and differences that have facilitated distinguishing the diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds of students today. Finally, the paper provides a…
Education of migratory children. (2020). Virginia Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/federal_programs/esea/title1/part_c/index.shtml
Love, P. (2016, July). Every student succeeds unleashes funding flexibility: States and districts can direct block grants to where they are most needed. District Administration, 52(7), 56.
Payne-Tsoupros, C. (2010, October). No Child Left Behind: Disincentives to focus instruction on students above the passing threshold. Journal of Law and Education, 39(4), 471-477.
Still, C. (2017, September 9). Title VII: A path to education equity. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/12/04/13still.h33.html .
Summary and purpose of NCLB title programs. (2020). U.S. Bureau of Indian Education. Retrieved from https://www.bie.edu/topic-page/supplemental-title-programs
Wright, W. E. (2019, April 1). The impact of the No Child Left Behind on ELL education. Colorín Colorado. Retrieved from https://www.colorincolorado.org/article/no-child-left-behind-and-ells.
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
Education 520 Business Law
To avoid an anti-discriminatory lawsuit regarding hiring practices, an employer should declare him or herself an 'equal opportunity employer.' To be compliant with the laws enforced by the EEOC, an employer must not discriminate based upon race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. The employer should also not discriminate on the basis of pregnancy, age, disability or genetic information (Laws enforced by the EEOC, 2012, EEOC).
If the institution wishes to pursue a strategy of affirmative action regarding the hiring and promoting of employees he or she should state it clearly in employment literature, usually in the form of the phrase that 'members of historically discriminated-against groups are encouraged to apply.' However, the employer must be careful not to use a quota system, or set a goal for how many members of such groups will be hired to positions, based upon their…
Affirmative action. (2012). Labor employment law. Retrieved:
Laws enforced by the EEOC. (2012). EEOC. Retrieved:
My work experience and responsibilities have included retail and sales, and working at the Blackwell Hotel. The hotel is affiliated with the Fisher College of Business. In this job, I have had opportunities to meet many professors and graduate students from the College while working as a server for the Grab 'n' Go sandwich shop. This work experience has helped to increase my knowledge of service-related business practices and of people in general, professionally and personally.
In addition, I have worked in the past for my aunt, who is an accomplished, and very experienced, business entrepreneur. My aunt has taught me a great deal about the business world and about interfacing with varied and diverse groups of people in a constructive business capacity. She owns a business that focuses on helping women from all walks of life begin their careers through investing in their own businesses, and themselves.
The sample will be drawn from a single school in large urban district. By framing the study this way, researchers understand that findings may produce insights into the way this subject is addressed in some school settings. However, this will lack external validity within the frame of only a single sample school.
The primary delimitation is shaped by the selected grade levels for review and by the teacher population which will drive the focus of the study. Accordingly, the methodology will center on an interview of teachers who preside over grades 6 through 8 in the selected school. The expected sample population is comprised of 11 participants, who will answer questions regarding the identification, labeling and education of students who are talented and gifted.
The study proceeds from the assumption that instructors have addressed the questions presented to them with clarity and honesty. The research is also carried by…
Baker, B.D. & McIntire, B. (2003). Evaluating State Funding for Gifted Education Programs. Roeper Review, 25(4).
Chance, P.L. (1998) Meeting in the Middle: Gifted Education and Middle Schools Working Together. Roeper Review, 21(2).
Cooper, C.R. (1995) Integrating Gifted Education into the Total School Curriculum. American Association of School Administrators: School Administrator, 52(4).
Winebrenner, S. (1999). Shortchanging the Gifted. School Administrator, 56(9)
Education of the Heart, Soul, And Mind
This paper explores the personal meaning of an education of the heart, mind, and soul.
An Education of the Heart, Mind, and Soul: Personal Meaning true education is so much more than simply learning certain facts and figures. While such rote information is useful and has its place, a true education is enriching for the entire person. All five senses are engaged and enlivened, the mind is opened up to a universe of ideas and possibilities, and the emotions are touched in many subtle, magic ways. A true education is not one of merely learning, but one of enrichment for the heart, mind, and soul. When an educational experience engages and uplifts the heart, mind, and soul, it affects the whole person in ways limited only by the imagination.
Music, art, and drama need to be included in this type of whole-person education.…
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
The therapist will read the passage aloud to Jonathan, and ask him comprehension questions orally. This process will be repeated during Week 3. Week 3 will also feature a passage and comprehension questions. This time, however, Jonathan will be asked to read the passage aloud to the therapist and answer the subsequent comprehension questions. This week will include a writing exercise, with fairly simple instructions that relate to Jonathan's passion for athletics.
During Week 4, the complexity level of the reading will be increased to Level 2, with writing instruction still remaining fairly simple. Jonathan will also be asked to learn a number of similar word pairs for a brief spelling test. For Week 5, both reading and writing will be presented at a Level 2 complexity level. This will continue up to Week 8, when the sessions will finish. During the subsequent week, the post-tests will be administered to…
Education - Classroom Management
Relationship etween the Use of ehavior Contracts and Student's Ability to Stay on Task
An Introduction to ehavioral Contracting
In dealing with children, there are cases when a teacher encounters a child who does not behave in a normal way as other children do. For instance, a child may show constant inattentiveness to learning, or may demonstrate irresponsiveness to discipline. A child with such disruptive behaviors oftentimes requires special attention and monitoring as part of a process of modifying an unpleasant behavior into an appropriate one. One strategy used to deal behavioral difficulties of a child is ehavioral Contracting. From Family Education Network (online), the following is a definition of behavioral contracting.
A behavioral contract is a written contract that specifies the child's behavioral obligations in meeting the terms of the contract and the teacher's (or parent's) obligations once the child has met his or her…
Watson, Christopher. Behavior Modification, A Proactive Intervention for the Classroom.
2003. University of Minnesota. 28 November 2003. http://ici2.umn.edu/preschoolbehavior/tip_sheets/behmod.htm
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood & Adolescence. 28 November 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2602/0000/2602000079/p1/article.jhtml
The definition of an educated person has no doubt altered over time. Certainly, many people have tried to formulate the ultimate definition of what an educated person is, and what achieving that state might entail. In my earliest thoughts about the subject, I probably thought an educated person was probably my grandmother; she seemed so wise, and certainly, I never asked her anything for which she didn't have an answer, and a good one at that. I hasten to add that I didn't necessarily think so at the time. hen an adolescent love affair of mine had gone awry and I was miserable and mopey, she would advise me that the way to get out of the pits was to work at something, really hard. I wanted to wallow in misery. It took a few years more of life before I understood that, and even now, she was better…
Drucker, Peter F. "The rise of the knowledge society." The Wilson Quarterly; 3/22/1993.
Glickman, Carl D. "Dichotomizing Education: Why no one wins and America loses." Phi Delta Kappan; 10/1/2001.
Parker, Lynette. "The Cultural Production of the Educated Person: Critical Ethnographies of Schooling and Local Practice." (book reviews) Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute; 12/1/1997.
Part of that includes instilling in students an intellectual curiosity, receptivity to learning through genuine understanding, and definitions of professional success that are motivated by positive aspirations rather than by overcompensation impulses triggered by negative assumptions, messages, or early experiences. In addition to ensuring basic literacy and computational skills required by adults in society, modern primary education must dedicate itself to producing graduates who have discovered their greatest intellectual abilities and developed a genuine interest in a specific academic and/or vocational application of those aptitudes and interests in a manner most conducive to their long-term fulfillment and (ideally) to their optimal benefit to their families and communities in adulthood.
Toward that end, modern education must adapt to the wealth of empirical evidence that traditional methodologies (such as passive lecture and rote memorization, in particular) are comparatively ineffective at achieving the highest goals of education in society. Specifically, as society becomes…
S. is a worthwhile goal, but the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is a poorly conceived approach whose deficiencies may actually do more to undermine many aspects of education than any meaningful improvement inspired by its programs.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Forgary, . (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Hendrie, C. (2002) Taking a Chance on Choice; Education Week, Oct 23, 2002. etrieved September 8, 2008, from www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=08choice.h22
Murray, C. (2006) Acid Tests: No Child Left Behind…
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice.
While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. This does not have to be strictly and explicitly defined, but rather should come more easily from the tone with which the classroom is run and how conflicts are handled when they arise (Gordon & Burch 2003). Simply guiding rather than directly instructing works until it doesn't, in other words, and once that point is reached instructions need to be followed. Even such instances are part of the educational process when it comes to building critical thinkers and careful…
Applebaum, P. (2002). Multicultural and diversity education Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Davis-Seaver, J. & Davis, E. (2000). Critical thinking in young children. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Gordon, T. & Nurch, N. (2003). Teacher effectiveness training. New York: Random House.
Winch, C. (2006). Education, autonomy and critical thinking. New York: Routledge.
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .
3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .
4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
Finding out about other peoples and cultures, through technology, will be an essential part of education in the years to come.
Numerous aspects of the current educational system will need to be improved in future years. The focus must be on children's individual needs and abilities. Today, standardized tests and general requirements frequently restrict students' opportunities to learn. Many youngsters do not get the attention they need, or the enrichment they deserve. Teachers often lack the necessary resources to prepare children for the real world, or to deal with children's real world problems. "Teaching to the test" creates its own difficulties for the educator, leaving many unprepared for atypical classroom situations. Young people have difficulties at home, or in their personal lives, and educators do not have the training to deal with these potentially serious problems. Disruptive and violent behavior can lead to tragedy. Children do not receive sufficient ethical…
The traditional prototype was the employee driving to their place of employ and repeating the same tasks daily for thirty years. Today's workplace is dynamic and ever-changing and therefore requires the same of employees. Professional development, once an unknown and unconsidered concept, is now an integral part of any organization.
Yi has written an insightful piece. With each passing day the demands of the workplace increase. New types of jobs are created while other types of jobs disappear. For today's graduates a four-year degree is only the beginning of a person's educational experience. Training to update knowledge and skills will be continual throughout a career. For all of these reasons this makes Yi's article timely and relevant and adds to the growing body of research on the topic of adult learning. I expect this article will be both a basis for future research as well as a reference piece for…
Driscoll, M.(1994).Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Ertmer, P., & Newby, TJ. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly 6 (4): 50 -- 71.
Schwen, T.M., Kaiman, H.K., Hara, N., & Kisling, E.L. (1998). Potential knowledge management contributions to human performance technology research and practice. Educational Research and Development. 46(4), 73-89.
Because spelling is such an important concern to me, my first step would be to appoint a person who is concerned with this area as I am. My first strategy would therefore to create a job advertisement in which the wording would indicate the importance of this concern for me. I would also emphasize the need for excellent research skills, so that the existing policy can be modified according to the latest information on the importance of teaching spelling, as well as strategies on how to do this. During the interview phase, I would ensure that all candidates are questioned on their devotion to teaching spelling, as well as whether they have any ideas on how to implement a policy regarding this across the curriculum. The candidate will also need considerable leadership qualities to handle not only the English department at the school, but also to help implement the…
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…
Allen, J., & Hermann-Wilmarth, J. (2004). Cultural Construction Zones. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(3), 214+.
Block, P., Balcazar, F., & Keys, C. (2001). From Pathology to Power: Rethinking Race, Poverty and Disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1), 18.
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
This deadens the educational experience and the whole idea of learning, and indeed, and Freire notes, it dehumanizes the process, too.
Society and culture play an important position in these roles students and teachers play. In our society, as Freire notes, teachers are supposed to know everything, while students know nothing. In addition, teachers are looked up to as role models by many students (and parents), and they are expected to impart knowledge and make it last. They have a difficult role to live up to, and many teachers simply do not have the talent and ability to thrive in these roles, but they are expected to anyway. In addition, they are expected to keep order in the classroom, maintain control, and see to the welfare of their students. These are all important societal roles, and they are difficult to maintain excellence in all areas.
Perhaps the most interesting and…
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum Books, 1993.
Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.
As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…
Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.
Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…
Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."
Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.
Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.
Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…
Anderson, L., & Pigford, A. (1987). Removing administrative impediments to instructional improvement efforts. Theory Into Practice, 26(1), 67-71.
Calabrese, Raymond (1987). A comparative analysis of alienation among secondary school administrators. Planning and Changing, 18(2), 90-97.
Chell, J. (1994) Introducing principals to the role of instructional leadership. SSTA Research Centre Report 95(14), 1-73.
Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
Most of the time research results are often used as the basis for a lot of other research. If a particular piece of research is done in an unethical way or has a hidden agenda to it then the ramifications of this could be very widespread.
Research must be designed and carried out so that it is as accurate as possible. Many times there are important things in people's lives that hinder on how a particular research study turns out. Another big implication is that particularly with educational research, there is usually a major university or institution that is sponsoring the research. If research is done poorly or with any major flaws then this ends up reflecting upon whoever sponsored it. This is one thing that these institutions and universities do not want to happen as it ends up doing damage to their reputations. A school with a bad reputation…
The ease of use of email systems for example generally tend to relate to high satisfaction levels. According to the study, students find it extremely convenient to be able to contact instructors at any time according to their convenience and available time frame. This does away with the inconvenience of specific office hours or telephone availability. This satisfaction is however also related to the ability of the instructor to respond to email in a speedy fashion. In Enockson's study, for example, the instructor made an effort to consistently respond within 24 hours. Students also experienced the online system as particularly convenient, as physical barriers to communication were eliminated, and students were able to set their own hours for instruction and communication. The time and costs of commuting are also eliminated by the use of such a system. This is the basic advantage of a generally online system of instruction as…
Education today has become more interesting and challenging than it has ever been before. This is particularly the case with the teaching and learning of English as a second language. Immigrants to the United States and other English speaking countries, for example, are faced with the challenge of not only learning a new language sufficiently to be able to communicate in their new environment, but also of fitting in with a lifestyle and culture that is more often than not completely foreign to them. These challenges can have both a motivating and demotivating effect on EFL and ESL learners. Teachers who are aware of these effects can then more effectively plan their lessons and work with such students to help them obtain optimal results. Hence, a myriad of research articles have seen the light regarding the challenges faced by this sector of learners. "EFL learners moving to an ESL context:…
Adriaensens, D. (2011). Further Destruction of Iraq's Higher Education: Blazing Fires, Forged Degrees And Silencer Guns. Countercurrents.org. Retrieved from: http://www.countercurrents.org/adriaensens021211.htm
Bao, D., Abdilah, H., and Chowdhury, R. (2012, Jan.). EFL learners moving to an ESL context: Motivating and demotivating factors in English language learning among Iraqis. The New English Teacher, Vol. 6.1
Griffiths, M. (2010). A Situational Analysis of Girls Education in Iraq. UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/A3F345FEB60FD713C12577AD00341F90-Full_report.pdf
McTaggart, R. (1996). 'Appraising reports of enquiry', in Social Science Methodology for Educational Inquiry: A Conceptual Overview, eds D. Caulley. H. Moore & J. Orton. Beijing Teachers College Press. Beijing.
It appears that the school systems are failing here in America. Every year test score trend downward as a continual new stream of information floods into the public consciousness. More schooling and more intensive schooling efforts have shown little if any progress in recent decades and before any more money or energy is thrown at these problems indiscriminately, a tactical pause to contemplate the situation seems in order.
New problems arise everyday in the schooling system as the complexity of the world increases seemingly exponentially. The purpose of this research is to take a view point that steps back at the situation and looks at general trends and questions the very purposes of compulsory school. To do this properly it is necessary to take an unbiased and objective reexamination of the efficacy of public schooling.
By all measurable standards of decency, it appears American society is in some…
Boli, J., Ramirez, F.O., & Meyer, J.W. (1985). Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative education review, 29(2), 145-170.
Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.L., Hanson, M.A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of educational psychology, 104(2), 407.
Rothstein, R. (1993). The myth of public school failure. The American Prospect, 4(13), 20-34.
However, the more open and creative classes were more the exception than the rule and mostly we had to endure the conservative" banking" type of education which deprived many of us of any enthusiasm for the subjects that were being taught. This was particularly depressing when the teacher required that we learn by rote and regurgitate facts and data without any critical discussion. I should also state that I often felt that the students were not the only victims or " slaves" and that many of the teachers themselves were obviously felt confined and constrained by the education system and curriculum that they were forced to follow.
On the surface the education system that I attended did promote equal learning opportunities for all with no obvious discrimination in terms of race, class or gender. There was in fact every attempt in the particular institution to stop any sign of prejudice…
In a classroom setting, there are different sets of people; they may vary from ethnic backgrounds, genders and abilities (Gravells, 2008). The constant need for equality in the classroom should be addressed, and no bias towards individuals should be displayed. Diversity must be well embraced; however this is not that easy. When introducing a set of individuals to each other, they may all react in different ways, some may be reserved and some may openly reject group conformity. A way to get by this is through ice-breakers. This is a form of team building which students can take part of and get to know each other. Ice breakers break down barriers and encourage teamwork and inclusion. Inclusion in the classroom is necessary, for no student should be left out in any way, especially because of their uniqueness; for example, they come from a different country, or they are generally…
Gravells, A. (2008). Preparing to teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector, 3rd ed. Learning Matters.
We must move from knowledge that lives in books to knowledge that lives in students.
3. Identify at least two areas of weakness in the Erickson text. Provide a rationale for selecting each area of weakness identified.
It is difficult for me to identify any weaknesses in the Erickson text. Her arguments and opinions are all supported by research. Neither her analysis nor presentation was lacking. Upon reflection - perhaps her greatest weakness is failing to truly recognize that an adaptation of curricular delivery of this magnitude requires a herculean commitment as well as an acceptance that an authentic shift to concept-based teaching is still decades away. To affect sustained change this viewpoint needs to be accepted by the general academic population and taught at the college level in education courses.
A second weakness of the text is there are not enough completed examples of units from which teachers could…
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Their recommendations, which focused on prevention and response to campus emergencies such as the deadly shootings at Northern Illinois University, included suggestions for detecting early signs of and treating mental illness. esearch has indicated that the risk of violence may increase when other risk factors are involved, such as substance abuse. Training should be targeted to campus security forces and first responders, health services personnel counselors, resident advisers, coaches, and student/minority affairs staff according to the report. The group surveyed more than 112 higher education institutions in Illinois and found that about 64% have mental health counseling services. The task force's other recommendations for colleges and universities in Illinois included: becoming part of the federal government's standardized incident management process called the National Incident Management System, implement methods such as e-mail and speaker systems to alert students of an incident on campus, engaging in practice emergency drills at least twice…
Campus Security. (2009). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from U.S. Department of Education Web
Chen, Grace. (2008). Campus Safety on Community Colleges. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www.communitycollegereview.com/articles/53
Colleges Confront Shootings with Survival Training. (2008). Community College Week. 21(2),
While it is so that more experience tends to correlate with better experience, this only holds for about three years of experience, after which the correlation becomes more level with less teaching experience. One possible reason for this, according to Darling-Hammond (2000), is that teachers who have been in the profession for a long time may become tired of their jobs, or stagnate because of a lack of opportunity to further their own education. On the other hand, more experienced teachers who do focus on improving themselves constantly, yield consistently improving results in student performance. Darling-Hammond also emphasizes that well-prepared teachers with less experience also yield favorable results. In general, it therefore appears that more experience tends to yield better student performance.
Darling-Hammond, Linda (2000, Jan 1). Teacher quality and tudent Achievement: A Review of tate Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 1, No. 8. http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/
Darling-Hammond, Linda (2000, Jan 1). Teacher quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 1, No. 8. http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/
Public Policy Institute of California (2003, August). Research Brief: New Insights into School and Classroom Factors Affecting Student Achievement. Issue #76. www.hewlett.org/NR/rdonlyres/985FC747-BAB7-4E08-8133-F763472A37C8/0/ppicsandiegobrief.pdf
Education & Politics in the Classroom
The article "Politics in the Classroom," written by Lynne Cheney, discusses one of the crucial and important issues about education and its function to the society -- how history is utilized to propagate political propagandas for particular sectors in the society. Cheney focuses on how American history is taught to students with the intention of influencing students to believe ideologies that illustrate certain sectors of the society in a positive light, while other ideologies negatively portray other sectors of the society. The author discusses how gender, race, and social ideologies serve as the primary factors that affect America's history. History, as taught in schools, may portray Westerners as conquerors or colonizers, and Africans and other societies from the Eastern region as slaves, without taking into account the fact that, in fact, that "African kings or Arab traders for centuries preceding and following the trans-Atlantic…
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/education-for-sustainable-development/cultural-diversity / (UNESCO)
This is information about cultural diversity in education, particularly in education for sustainable development found on UNESCO's website. UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and I found the information about education on their website particularly interesting because it addresses education in a global, multicultural environment.
The first important aspect on their website is the institutional framework in which the educational segment operates at UNESCO, which particularly reflects cultural diversity. This is the Johannesburg Declaration, from 2002, which stipulates that "Our rich diversity . . . is our collective strength." Moving from this declaration, it proposes three general principles that link ESD to cultural diversity. These include the fact that the educational process (ESD, as UNESCO refers to it) has to be "locally relevant and culturally appropriate," but also that ESD requires "intercultural understanding."
According to UNESCO, the educational process has…
The locus in this study would be to take the concepts of what is perceived as the duties of the resource officers and using these to determine what it is they can do to alleviate some of the concerns that face middle schools today.
Both the focus and the locus help the researcher to formulate the questions that they hope to answer by doing the research that they are looking at. Devising good questions from the beginning will help ensure that the appropriate research is conducted and good results are obtained.
SUBJECT: Generating an analytic memo
A good analytic memo should focus on a single term or idea within the research that is being done. The memo should explore the concepts characteristics while exploring the ways in which these characteristics might vary within different contexts.
In the study regarding resource officers' perceptions of their duties in suburban middle schools one…
Conceptual. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:
Empirical. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Failure to pursue professional development gradually relegates all academic instruction to the mere presentation of history instead of the transmission of applicable knowledge conducive to the professional competence of students.
Service to the College Parameter - 15%:
If teaching (including its professional development component) account for 75% of faculty responsibilities, the remaining 25% relate to professional efforts that relate indirectly to serving the college by facilitating learning on the part of students and to maintaining and continually improving the learning institution. Within that general parameter, the larger responsibility is to benefiting the college with the remainder benefiting the general community.
Service to the General Community Parameter - 10%: In principle, teaching is a service to the entire community in which specific service to the college and its students is simply the most direct and efficient method of enabling the institution to fulfill its role within the larger external community. Therefore,…
Accordingly, the ties between the psychological aspects of learning and the social aspects tend to be quite strong. Since the student's early social encounters take place within the classroom, he is learning far more than the step-by-step processes of test taking. Knowledge of his social conditions is necessary for the proper development of the student's abilities. Social and psychological features of education are so fundamentally related that they cannot be separated from each other without a sufficient loss of understanding concerning the other.
Primarily, the purpose of education is to produce functional members of society who value both each other and the work they perform. As simple as that may sound, it is an exceedingly difficult goal. In the United States the philosophical basis outlined by the Constitution demands that public institutions not only be employed, but also that they provide an equal level of schooling across geographic and social…
Cremin, Lawrence A. American Education: The Metropolitan Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
Sadovnik, Alan R. And Peter W. Cookson, Jr. Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education. Needham Heights: Pearson Educational, 2001.
In this regard, the instructor's individual characteristics should be secondary to the readiness of the instructor to recognize individual learning strengths and needs in the students.
Diversity is often taken as a term which refers particularly to difference in race, ethnicity, gender, religion or sexual orientation, to name just a few categories of cultural distinction. And indeed, it does refer to this within the context of education. However, there is yet another level to the discussion on diversity which concerns education in particularly, relating to the individual nature of learning styles. It is therefore necessary for the teacher to channel a recognition of learning styles and cultural diversity into a unified approach to the classroom. This tends to reinforce the position taken throughout this research, which is that the successful teacher will, therefore, tend to an educational strategy which diverts from strict academic prerogatives and instead approaches its subjects…
Chang, J.; De Silva, a.D.; Dien, T.T.; Mccarty, T.C.; Nordlander, a & Perez, B. (2004). Sociocultural Contexts of Language and Literacy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Haselhurst, G. (1997). Aristotle Metaphysics. Space and Motion.com.
Slavin, R.E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Steup, M. (2005). Epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Each institution must have an acceptable use policy for access to all systems including the Internet/World Wide Web. This policy must include provisions for:
protecting the confidentiality of students protecting intellectual property rights, licensing agreements and legal/ethical standards for sharing of resources with other educational entities upholding the integrity of systems, programs and information resources
The duties and responsibilities to carry out this policy are placed upon institutions, IT officials, and instructors (District Technology Plans: Essential Components and E-ate Plan Criteria, n.d.).
The Florida policies do a good job in making sure that each institution has a policy in regards to intellectual property. It deals with protecting the use rights of the systems that are being used in the course of distance learning along with student confidentiality. This is an advantage to both the institution and the individual student. What this policy does not address is how reasonable technological measures…
Bruwelheide, Janis H. (2010). TEACH Act Highlights and Resources. Retrieved January 26,
2010, from National Education Association Web site:
District Technology Plans: Essential Components and E-Rate Plan Criteria. (n.d.). Retrieved
There is no subject that exists in isolation of others. This is especially true for social studies, which is inherently cross disciplinary. Social studies encompass economics, politics, sociology, history, geography, religion, and culture. Cross-curricular integration allows students to see the inter-connectedness between the Social Studies and the other subject areas in the school curriculum. The following analysis of a course on Trinidad and Tobago provides a detailed example of how Social Studies integrates with other subjects in the curriculum. Other subjects in the curriculum include mathematics, social sciences (psychology and sociology), hard science (chemistry, physics, and biology), art, art history, music, and physical education.
The syllabus of the course on Trinidad and Tobago includes the following: history and geography; culture and people; government, politics, and transnational issues; and the economy.
History and Geography
This section of the course addresses the history and geography of Trinidad and Tobago. It is…
"Trinidad and Tobago," (2012). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved online: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/td.html
"Values and Benefits of Interdisciplinary/Cross-Curricular Teaching." (1997). Retrieved online: http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/interd1.html
"What is Interdisciplinary/Cross-Curricular Teaching?" (1997). Retrieved online: http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/interd0.html
Education Project Proposal (Nursing)
This study is intended to educate the patients (within the age group of 8-12) about the post operative treatment approaches and to prepare them to face the situation. As the main audience is the pediatric patients who have gone trough a kidney transplant, we will focus on the recovery issues with respect to this audience. This study will help these patients to learn about the general issues related to recovery of their wounds, the nutrition they are supposed to adopt during the recovery stage and the physical activity that is expected to be maintained by them. This educational activity is important for the patients because a thorough understanding of the recovery process is very important for the patient.
With an understanding of the process the patient will be able to cooperate with the nursing staff and will more actively participate in the process. From this program,…
Barbara A. Nilsen: Week by Week: Plans for Observing and Recording Young Children: Delmar Learning, January 1997
Evelyn A. Petersen: Practical Guide to Early Childhood Planning, Methods and Materials, A: The What, Why and How of Lesson Plans: Allyn & Bacon, November 1995
Linda M. Bambara & Tim Knoster: Designing Positive Behavior Support Plans: Amer Assn Mental Retardation: January 1998
Barbara Stevens Barnum: Teaching Nursing in the Era of Managed Care: Springer Publication Company, March 1999
Symbolic interactionalism thus posits a much more dynamic view of human learning, rather than the rote reception of societal norms in functionalism, or functionalism's belief in education to shape human minds in a pre-determined fashion. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…
Four 20th century theories of education." Excerpt from George F. Kneller. Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. 1962. Excerpt available 2 Jan 2008 at http://people.morehead-st.edu/fs/w.willis/fourtheories.html
McClellan, Kenneth. (2000). "Functionalism." Sociological Theories. Grinnell University.
Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 at http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Sociology of education." Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 from the Dictionary of Sociology
Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.
(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…
Benz, M.R., Lindstrom, L., Unruh, D., & Waintrup, M. (2004). Sustaining Secondary Transition Programs in Local Schools. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 39+.
Field, S., & Hoffman, a. (2002). Lessons Learned from Implementing the Steps to Self-Determination Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education, 23(2), 90+.
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…
Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;
Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm
Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm
3. How did the American professoriate change and in what ways did the American Association of University Professors contribute to that change?
During this time there was a new idea surrounding academic professionalism that was essential to the creation of a university professoriate. The gradations of rank and promotion which included instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and full professor, became the standard. The ranks were tied to the institution that is conferring tenure and the privileges of academic freedom to professors who had gained promotion. Academic freedom was institutionalized beyond the individual campus with the creation of the American Association of University Professors. This group intended to provide assurance and redress for faculty members who claimed that their academic rights had be violated by irate presidents or irritable board members (Thelin, 2004, 128).
The formation of the American Association of University Professors paved the way for tremendous change. The American…
Rudloph, F. (1990). The American College and University. Athens: The University of Georgia
Thelin, J.R. (2004). A History of American Higher Education. Baltimore: The John Hopkins
let us begin by analyzing the Pharisees.
The term itself is derived from a Hebrew word which literally means "separated." Right from the ethimological interpretation we can deduce that the Pharisees were a group of people who saw things differently compared to the majority. This difference was manifested in the religious area, but also in the political area and the social one.
The Second Temple was the period in which the Phariseean philosophy flourished. It is worth underlining that it is this very philosophy and religious thought that put the basis of the contemporary forms of Judaism.
During the reign of the king Antiochus Epiphanes in which numerous pressures were being made in order to impose the Hellenistic culture and polytheist religion, an anti-Hellenistic Jewish movement was created in order to defend the traditional views.
This movement was called the Hasidim and the Pharisees are one of the group's successors.…
Blank, Wayne. Who ere the Pharisees? From the Daily Bible Study. Retrieved May 6, 2009 from http://www.keyway.ca/htm2002/pharisee.htm
Dolphin, Lambert. Second Temple Times. Retrieved May 6,2009 from http://www.templemount.org/secondtmp.html
Essenes. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/e/essenes.html
Essenes. From The catholic encyclopaedia. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05546a.htm
In various trials in which learners were presented with different formats of video- only, auditory-only, combinations of both, and formats combining each with note-taking by students, researchers have determined that results are comparable, although more so for superior students than for average students. In that regard, average students learn better from repeated viewing in conjunction with audio-based information while superior students benefited equally regardless of the precise combination of those variables.
The author presents the results of research documenting the extent to which developers of computer-based video instruction may be overemphasizing the value of technical sophistication and suggests that the relative value of video-based lessons is substantially the same without the inclusion of all the bells and whistles available by virtue of the latest computer-based information formats. On the other hand, the author reports that vocational task-specific training effectiveness is somewhat more dependent on more sophisticated interactive information formats.
For the at-risk students that NCLB was supposed to help, this could actually make their educational situation much worse.
As a consequence, the National Education Association has proposed a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 2007 as an alternative to the rigid, punitive, and unscientific methods of NCLB (ESEA, 2006; Crawford, 2004). While the ESEA summary does include some of the same elements that are present in NCLB -- such as accountability standards -- it does so without the agreed upon flaws of the current law. The overarching purpose of the ESEA is to ensure that all necessary resources are available for educators, that the achievement gap can be closed quickly, that students leave schools with the skills the 21st century demands, and that educators and students will have more enthusiasm for the educational process (ESEA, 2006). These goals ask a lot of a single piece of…
Crawford, J. (2004, September 14). No Child Left Behind: misguided approach to school accountability for English language learners. Forum on Ideas to Improve NCLB Accountability Provisions for Students with Disabilities and English Language Learners. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
ESEA: it's time for a change! (2006, July). National Education Association. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.nea.org/esea/posagendaexecsum.html
Perstein, L. (2004, October 21). The issue left behind. The Nation. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20041108/perlstein
That leads to some problems with the new software.
We don't purchase some of the neat things that you can get. Fortunately, a number of us pressed for projectors a few years ago, and we have them in each classroom. That makes it easier for us to use the computer to teach the whole class. We don't use smart boards or other tools, other than the computers and the projectors.
What is the set up in the elementary school setting regarding labs and stations?
We generally have one or two computers per class in the elementary schools. Sometimes the teachers use it to do internet research, or to play a DVD for their class. The teachers sometimes assign remedial work to some students, who work on the computer doing exercises during school hours.
A understand from my elementary school teaching friends that there are no computer labs, and that they…
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
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Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.