Cracking and Protecting My Genetic Code
Cracking Your Genetic Code
Genetics has advanced to the point that it is inevitable that genotyping services will become commonplace and increasingly inexpensive, unless legislatures take action to limit the public's access to this information. Since genotyping services are essentially businesses catering to the public and providers of medical services, an issue about quality and the relevance of findings becomes important. Near the beginning of the Nova film Cracking Your Genetic Code, the filmmakers introduce the topic about whether the public should have access to their own genetic information without the need of getting a doctor's permission. There are obvious merits to this concern, especially in light of how customers will interpret the statistical results.
The dangers inherent to receiving genetic information in the form of probabilities are that a customer will not understand the significance of a result and will fall prey to…… [Read More]
cheap genomic sequencing has widespread and unforeseen cultural, political, and societal implications that have only just begun to reverberate through the human population at large. Genomic sequencing not only reveals some of the causes and connections behind certain diseases or disorders, but also puts the lie to certain forms of bigotry which assumed that dramatic phenotypic differences represented a similarly dramatic genetic or biological difference (put another way, genome sequencing reveals just how little skin color says about a person). The implications of full genome sequencing can largely be broken down into a few distinct but related categories, including healthcare, notions of race and ethnicity, and social and criminal justice. Examining the use of genetic information with an eye to these categories reveals not only the implications of genomic sequencing for society at large, but also how it may affect minorities and those wishing to protect their right to maintain…… [Read More]
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…… [Read More]
The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).
Curbing gene disorders
Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive…… [Read More]
To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).
In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.
(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff
Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…… [Read More]
Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.
Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…… [Read More]
Heather D's decision not to be tested for the Huntington's gene a wise one?
Heather D's decision not to be tested for Huntington's is unwise given that Heather is about to become a mother. If she develops the disease, this could significantly impair her ability to parent a child. She should make provisions for the child if she has the mutation and should discuss the situation with her husband. The genetic test for Huntington's is not a test that merely indicates a tendency or a likelihood of developing the debilitating condition -- because of the fairly narrow chromosomal area affected by the mutation, scientists can predict with a great degree of certainty who will or who will not develop the disorder (579).
Q2. Does the genetic counselor's suggestion provide a satisfactory solution to the problem?
No. Most individuals who are opposed to abortion also view the termination of fertilized embryos…… [Read More]
CPT coding is a fact of life in the provision of healthcare today. CPT stands for Current Procedural Terminology, and is a system first developed by the AMA (American Medical Association) in 1966 "to convert widely accepted, uniform descriptions of medical, surgical and diagnostic services rendered by healthcare providers into five-numeric codes" (Medical Coding Experts, p. 1). CPT codes are necessary in order for accurate reimbursement to be obtained for services rendered and procedures performed. Inaccurate coding may result in a loss of reimbursement or, should extra codes be assigned and/or submitted, insurance fraud.
Category one CPT codes are the standard set of codes, and are divided into six sections. These sections are: evaluation and management; anesthesiology; surgery; radiology; pathology and laboratory; and medicine (Medical Coding Experts, p. 4). Each section has a discrete span of numbers that applies to the procedures classified under that section heading. They…… [Read More]
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…… [Read More]
technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…… [Read More]
Through the maintenance of proper scientific and ethical standards, the knowledge gained from this research could revolutionize the field of criminal justice and public rehabilitative systems.
Lowenstein, L. (2003). "The Genetic Aspects of Criminality." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 8(1), pp. 63-78.
Peele, S. & DeGrandpre, . (1995). "My genes made me do it." Psychology today 28(4), pp. 50-7.
Pieri, E. & Levitt, M. (2008). "isky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence." Bioethics 22(9), pp. 509-18.
eif, A.; osler, M.; Freitag, C.; Schneider, M.; Eujen, M.; Kissling, C.; Wenzler, D.; Jacob, C.; etz-Junging, O.; Thome, J.; Lesch, K. & etz, W. (2007). "Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment." Neuropsychopharmacology 32(11). pp. 2375-83.
eitz, W.; eitz-Junginger, P.; Supprian, T.; Thorne, J. & osler, M. (2004). "Association of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism with violence: relation…… [Read More]
Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)
Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…… [Read More]
At times, marvel how far have come. Ever since was a young boy, under the influence of my father, a molecular biologist, dreamed of researching genetically inherited diseases. Today, live that reality in my current field of work and research as a graduate student in neuroscience.
Thus, long before most children, because of my early exposure to the field of biology, was intimately aware that one's genetic inheritance could determine an individual's future physical and emotional health. Perhaps it comes as no surprise that soon decided was genetically coded to become a medical researcher. will receive my Ph D. n the summer of 2006 in neuroscience. But my current studies in the field of genetics have also soberly reminded me of how far both my own learning and the field of genetics need to be stretched, before the objectives of genetic research into inherited diseases can be realized.…… [Read More]
positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.
In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)
In the past…… [Read More]
Environmental Influences, Domain Specificity, and Heterozygous Potential:
Environmental influences have also contributed profoundly to human sexual behavior, which becomes particularly evident when one examines certain statistical tendencies pertaining to both conscious and unconscious choices in female mate selection (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). As is the case with many sexually reproducing organisms, human females have evolved a marked preference for both physical and behavioral male traits consistent with the ability to provide physical protection and to garner both natural and social resources. Females of many species prefer male suitors who display characteristics such as large relative body size, robustness, good health, and those suggesting physical strength, aggressiveness, and leadership (Margulis & Sagan 1999).
Whereas some of those traits are observable externally (such as relative size), others are imperceptible on any conscious level. This is particularly true as regards heterozygous potential conducive to healthy offspring, such as the marked unconscious preference demonstrated…… [Read More]
Harvard college's "oncomouse," which is a mouse that has been genetically engineered to make it more susceptible to cancer, and thus of more use in research, could be patented under Canadian patent law. The Patent Examiner refused to grant the patent, stating that higher life forms were not inventions under the applicable law because they were not compositions of matter. The majority opinion upheld the Patent Examiner's decision. Justice Binnie dissented to the majority's opinion. Justice Bastarache wrote the majority opinion.
The majority opinion, authored by Justice Bastarache represents the court's actual decision. Majority opinions represent the decision of the court. In some cases, there is no actual majority opinion because of partial dissents and concurrences, but that is not applicable in this case. The majority felt that Parliament did not intend for every conceivable subject matter to be patentable, and points to the fact that Parliament wrote an exhaustive…… [Read More]
Think of a great sports star. This individual needs certain genetic gifts -- height, flexibility, and coordination -- that he or she must be born with, as every mediocre athlete knows who has had 'the right coaching,' and the right parental and financial support yet still is only adequate on the field. Yet that same sports star, had his talents not been nurtured, had he or she not been given the correct equipment, instruction, and chance to play would never have developed his or her extraordinary skills. This is also true for intellectual gifts. Thus heredity is perhaps 'the hand you are dealt' in the poker match of life, and there is only so much you can overcome, but you need to learn to play your genetic cards 'right' to truly benefit from them.
Cloninger, C. Robert. Is schizophrenia inherited? The Open Mind. March 28,…… [Read More]
human DNA sequence composed of a series of letters such as 'accagacagt' and the objective was to decipher this jumble of letters and interpret the results. I suppose I should report that the process went smoothly and that after a bit of research I now consider myself an expert in regard to the new science of DNA Sequencing. However, I have a thousand more questions now than before I began and even the answers I came up with may or may not be correct. I do know for a fact that this is a pretty new art or science and its potential seems limitless. "DNA itself has thus far shown only modest evidence of possessing any intrinsic catalytic activities, although the prospect that more will be discovered in the future is surely plausible." (Cantor & Smith, 1999, xv)
The internet has made so many sites and processes available to the…… [Read More]
Principles of Management and Technology
Multiculturalism and Diversity
"Diversity is desirable for innovation, flexibility, and organizational success."
Diversity can be a valuable asset for any organization. Having people from different backgrounds and cultures offers a broader range of different perspectives and different opinions. Having this as an asset can spawn higher levels of innovation and flexibility because of the depth of perspective -- more people with different ideas can collaborate in a way that ultimately leads to organizational success. Today's most successful organizations embrace diversity however the results of diversity are not always successful. hile many organizations have sought to increase the diversity of their workforces, researchers have found both positive and negative effects of demographic diversity on organizational outcomes (Olsen & Martins, 2012).
New Business Ventures
Discuss the reasons why small businesses are so important to the U.S. economy.
Small business accounts for the bulk of the…… [Read More]
In 1866, Mendel discovered that there are "recessive" and "dominant" traits in plants, paving the way for understanding how genes work in predictable ways, and plowing the ground for later science, although his work wasn't "discovered" until 1900. In 1944, three scientists at the Rockefeller Institute in New York discovered that DNA is the carrier of the genetic information within the body.
In the early 1950s, scientists were by now aware that DNA was genetic material and that is was an acid made up of sugars, phosphate groups, and "equally matches bases," the Dolan center points out. That was all well and good, but the big question remained: HAT AS NATURE'S GENETIC CODE?
The man most responsible for "breaking the genetic code" was MARSHALL NIRENBERG in 1961; but "breaking it" (or identifying it) was only part of the puzzle. And then in 1965, NIRENBERG (working at the National Institutes of…… [Read More]
Hence, genetic factors underlie the stability or continuity of psychological traits.
Mutations play a vital role in genetics, although they cause different disorders living things. Sometimes heredity causes disorders that affect the normal genetic development. Genetic processes control how humans develop from a single cell to adult human beings. Genes control the nervous system cells, and re-growth of skin and hair cells. Genes make humans dynamic organisms capable of development, growth and change.
Parents pass most genes to the children, at birth through genetic inheritance processes. At conception egg and sperm combines and each has unique characteristics from the parent. Each has 23 chromosomes, with threadlike structures in the nucleus with genetic material. The chromosomes combine producing 23 chromosomes (autosomes). The 23rd chromosome is the X or Y chromosome, either determines the sex of the child. The chromosomes have deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), which have chemical compounds that cause…… [Read More]
The information is then transcribed into the traits and phenotypes of the offspring depending on the dominance and recessive alleles within the gene (erg, Tymoczko, & Stryer, n.d). The egg is fertilized by the sperm from the mother and their nuclei fuses together to form a zygote. The zygote contains 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 from the father. From this combination of genes and the environmental conditions of the uterus, the traits and phenotypes of the individual are determined.
The principle of segregation for all organisms is as follows:
1. Hereditary traits are determined by specific genes. In the DNA molecule, genes are coded to specify a certain, single characteristic; this includes height, weight, eye color, etc. Any variations of the gene that correlates to the same trait are called alleles.
2. Individuals carry two genes for each trait, one from the mother's egg and one from the…… [Read More]
It has been argued that GMOs are needed in order to supply the world's food needs. However, cautionary positions by environmental groups must be heeded as well. Technology must move forward and concentrate on underserved areas of the world. However, technology must be cautious in its actions and make certain that what they produce is safe. This issue has extremists on both ends of the spectrum. hat is needed is a union between these two philosophies. More productive crops and production methods are needed, but this development must proceed with even more caution than the green revolution due to the ability to defy nature and combine plant material in a way that is not possible using green revolution methods.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Evenson, R.…… [Read More]
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…… [Read More]
The experiment was designed to first extract DNA, take it through the steps of amplification and detachment, and then prepare it for analysis. The question was what type of bacteria was being sequenced. The steps used were: 1) Extraction of genomic DNA, 2) Amplification of genetic region, 3) Verification, 4) Clean PC Products, 5) Quantify DNA concentration, 6) Cycle the sequence, and, 7) Precipitate cycle-sequenced products for analysis. In this case, a virtual laboratory was used, with the user being guided to the appropriate tools and equipment (Virtual Bacterial Identification).
Max ident gi|39295|Z11684.1
.henselae 16S rNA gene
Bartonella henselae 16S ribosomal NA, partial sequence
Discussion- The BLAST search displays the matching sequences in the database in descending order of the degree of the match. Most of the top scorers are either Bartonella henselae or ochalimaea…… [Read More]
Charges are oftentimes leveled that geneticists are playing the role of God. One can only wonder if the geneticists are genetically disposed towards acting that way, and if so, can their behavior be changed through gene manipulation?
Aberg, K.; Sun, G.; Smelser, D.; Indugula, S..; Tsai. H.; Steele, M.S.; Tuitele, J.; Deka, .; McGarvey, S.T.; Weeks, D.E.; (2008) Applying novel genome-wide linkage strategies to search for loci influencing Type 2 Diabetes and adult height in American Samoa, Human Biology, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 99-123
Acosta, M.T.; Castellanos, F.X.; Bolton, K.L.; Balog, J.Z.; Eagen, P.; Nee, L.; Jones, J.; Palacio, L.; Sarampote, C.; ussell, H.F.; Berg, K.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Muenke, M.; (2008) Latent class subtyping of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid conditions, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 797-807
Duren, D.L.; Sherwood, .J.; Czerwinski, S.A.; Chumlea, W.C.; Lee, M.;…… [Read More]
Chromosomal Abnormality: Down Syndrome
Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality which is accompanied by both serious physical and mental developmental problems, and it is one of the most common genetic syndromes. According to Rebecca Saenz (1999), Down Syndrome occurs in one out of every 800 to 1,000 live births, which is an extremely high rate of incidence. This disorder occurs equally among both boys and girls. There are several genetic occurrences that can cause Down Syndrome to appear in a child, but all of them lead to the same chromosomal abnormality. An extra chromosome, which is the unit of genetic information that exists within each cell, appears in the genetic code of the affected person. When a baby is normally conceived, the egg cell of the mother and the sperm cell of the father each contribute 23 chromosomes to the genetic makeup of the child. In some cases, there may…… [Read More]
Kringlen also published more extensive case records for his monozygotic twins than any other researcher had done (pp. 7-8)."
The information gained by these studies was significant. One, in particular, conducted by William Pollin and his colleagues set out to disprove the biological or genetic factors, and to establish the basis for.".. psychodynamic, interpersonal phenomena that might have some significant etiologic role with respect to schizophrenia (Torrey, p. 9)." What Pollin and his colleagues found, instead, was that there were significant physiological conditions in the twins examined who had schizophrenia (p. 9).
The most significant findings were a history of lower birth weight and more obstetric complications in the affected twins in discordant pairs, and more neurological abnormalities in the affected twins (Pollin & Stabenau, 1968; Mosher et al., 1971). The findings, said these researchers, suggested that "the intrauterine experience of one twin, relative to the co-twin, tends to be…… [Read More]
This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.
Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.
Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…… [Read More]
River Out of Eden, by Richard Dawkins. The review provides summaries of the main arguments from each chapter, and a discussion, in particular, of the different thresholds mentioned by Dawkins.
The book River Out of Eden is divided into five chapters, entitled The Digital River, All Africa and er Progenies, Do Good By Stealth, God's Utility Function, and The Replication Bomb.
In the first chapter, The Digital River, Dawkins introduces the idea of evolution by comparing it to a river, metaphorical, and changing over time. The river, he tells us, contains all of the DNA that has survived up until that point, and through the course of time, the river has deviated from its original path, producing different routes for the river, different branches, as he calls them. On each of these different branches of the river, he says, different combinations of DNA have been put together, and different genes…… [Read More]
Genomics and Implications for the Future
The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]
James Dewey atson
The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James atson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA allowed scientists to begin to understand the mechanism behind inheritance. hile many scientists over the years had studied heredity, beginning with Gregor Mendel, no one had been able to discover the exact mechanism for how heredity actually works. It was not until the technology of the time advance to a point where scientists could determine the structure of molecules that the discovery of the structure of genetic material could be determined. After much research, and some failures, two scientists, working together, finally determined the molecular structure of the genetic molecule, allowing for the study of the exact mechanism to begin. James atson was one of the scientists responsible for the discovery of the DNA…… [Read More]
Search of the Perfect Host
The Origins and Specificity of Parasites
The door opens. You walk into the room. You hear your favorite music. You see your best friends. Your favorite drink is waiting on the bar. Smiling, the hostess approaches, "I did it all for you." Ah, what a dream - the perfect party, the perfect host! While such a fantasy may not always be the lot of the human guest, it is real life for many microbial visitors. Every parasite has its "perfect host," the one organism that is ideally suited to its needs. Of course, this perfect pairing of guest and host did not evolve by accident. Over the course of time, parasites have evolved in tandem with the organisms upon which they live. It is a unique relationship, the host organism providing a complete environment for the parasite. The parasite has so completely adapted itself to…… [Read More]
In 1953, the true structure of DNA and the mechanisms by which it passes on genetic information from one generation to the next was discovered by Crick and Watson at the University of Cambridge who proposed that DNA was structured as a double helix which could unwrap itself and thus create exact copies. Undoubtedly, "This was the culmination of a brilliant piece of detective work" and turned out to be the biological key to molecular biology and modern biotechnology. Exactly how Watson and Crick managed to unravel the mysteries of DNA is still not clear, yet they did manage to "assemble the information like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle to produce their model of the structure of DNA" (2009, "The Search for DNA," Internet). Following the work of Watson and Crick in 1953, the genetic code itself was revealed between 1961 and 1965 and in 1972, the first successful DNA…… [Read More]
Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.
Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics
Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses
Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.
Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe
Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…… [Read More]
We now have the means to study the evolution of the human genome more closely than ever in the past. One of the key ideas presented by the authors is the idea of transmission fidelity. This means that culture can act as an inheritance system, promoting the transmission of certain genetic traits in a predictable fashion. This type of cultural inheritance results in distinct societies that not only share the same cultural traits, but also share similar genetic traits as well. In the past, geography and proximity to others was a factor in this process as well. Richerson, oyd, and Henrich (2010) concluded that cultural evolution and biological evolution occur simultaneously. They also suggested that cultural evolution had a significant influence on biological evolution.
This research supports the supposition that cultural evolution has a significant effect on biological evolution. This research focused on cultural evolution, as opposed to placing the…… [Read More]
6). But this evidence of a strong fetal environmental predisposition for homosexuality ignores the admission of the authors that "the odds of homosexual participants being NCRH [non-consistently-right-handedness]" was 39% "although the odds for homosexual women alone" were 91%, thus significantly greater than for homosexual men 34% (Kauth 2008, p.6).
If these numbers were so different, the question arises as to why left-handedness is more common in female homosexuals, versus male homosexuals, and also, the criteria used by researchers in their categorization of female homosexuality. Thus invisible, subconscious biases about the nature of homosexuality, and the acceptance of one's cultural construction of homosexuality as a self-evident fact underlines the fact that science, particularly the science of sexuality, always takes place in a social context that affects the perception of the researchers.
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632.…… [Read More]
(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.
Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…… [Read More]
The popular media's negative coverage of the insanity defense in contested cases when a defendant claims not to have the rational capacity to commit a crime or has a diminished capacity to conceptualize a criminal intent has caused the public to dismiss forensic psychiatry as providing rationalizations or excuses for bad behavior, rather than possessing a real scientific method. The use of the insanity defense is clearly subject to sociological and societal factors, such as the statistically greater willingness to believe a man who kills his child is competent vs. A woman. However, the authors contend that this ignores the many cases where the defense and the prosecution both agree that the criminal in question was not competent and was operating upon a different schema of 'reality' that affected his or her ability to judge circumstances in the same fashion as a sane person. (It might be argued, in the…… [Read More]
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.
Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…… [Read More]
David's life calmed down, but there were years of mixed-messages and confusion that plagued him the rest of his life. He eventually married as a male, but later committed suicide.
From a sociological perspective, the case shows how perceptions can be influenced by incomplete research. Dr. Money reported the decision as a success, despite Brenda/David's clear uncomfortability during childhood. Dr. Money's beliefs were used as a basis to 'assign' gender to hundreds of boys born with extremely small sexual organs, or a lack of a penis, and raised as girls. The relevency of the book, however, goes beyond the scientific. It is a clear account for those who are interested in transgender issues, who either know someone or are feeling uncomfortable themselves in gender related issues. The human issue centers around comfortability -- an individual's right to live in a way that is most productive for them. Certainly, it is…… [Read More]
Nano particles and nano tubes are on the small scale of a virus, which is why the living organism is crucial for downsizing the materials that are customarily used in portable rechargeable batteries. The new batteries will be more powerful and also prove less taxing on the environment. Manufacturing the virus-assisted batteries will also be more efficient and safer, as no solvents are needed to manipulate them and engineers do not have to use high heat or resort to high-pressure procedures. Instead, only water is necessary.
Although prior research has revealed ways to genetically manipulate viruses to create a material suitable for the anode of a battery, the most recent research revealed ways to use viruses for the cathode of the battery too. The first genetic manipulation revealed the potential for the virus to cover itself in nano-particles of iron phosphate. The most recent research showed that this genetic manipulation…… [Read More]
The pro-choice group really does not have an argument other than the right to choose. It is, unfortunately, not much of a choice when it involves killing a living thing without reason. The political ramifications have reached such a point that the abortion is the only medical procedure that has no age restrictions (or require parental consent). Abortion also goes against the scientific laws of nature. In the creative scheme of things, after God, women occupy a very important place. Such power cannot be misused. Even atheists would concede the powerful natural forces at work here. A woman's body goes through significant changes as it readies it self to create a brand new human being. Abortion cuts this process short.
Then there are guilt feelings and burdens of society. Obviously, a woman who goes through abortion merely for convenience would be guilt ridden for a long time (if not for…… [Read More]
Sociobiology offers an evolutionary approach to human behavior and psychology. The fundamental tenet of sociobiology is that psychological traits have adaptive functions and are often embedded in DNA. Psychological traits, like physical features, are passed down through the generations. Some traits will manifest with greater likelihood than others, and thus, traits evolve in a process of natural selection. The intellectual roots of sociobiology stem from the theory of evolution in biology, as well as from sociology and anthropology. The study of sociobiology originated with Wilson, who also refers to the field as behavioral ecology (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000). Methodologies include biological and genetics research, as well as the methods of data collection employed in the social sciences such as observation. To avoid complications with longitudinal studies and long-range data collection, sociobiologists use frequency models including those resembling game theory (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000).
Sociobiology is concerned more with how and…… [Read More]
Tibetan uddhism's doctrine that human consciousness has a primordial oneness with the universe and is eternal is perhaps best understood through a comparison with Western thought on the subject. The study of human consciousness by Western civilization has been dominated by scientific materialism. As a result, although major breakthroughs have occurred in understanding mind and body phenomena, the tendency has been to reduce the mind to no more than biological processes in the brain.
This conceptual framework of human consciousness is supported by the theory of evolution, which maintains that human emotions and behavioral traits are necessary for survival in the outer physical universe.
Viewed from this context, the assumption that human consciousness ceases at the moment of death seems fairly logical. Tibetan uddhism, however, has a very different view of the origins, nature, and role of consciousness in the natural world.
In stark contrast to Western beliefs, Tibetan uddhism…… [Read More]
For example, if birds feed on seeds and a certain variety of insect, without the seeds, the birds may disappear, and the insects would then overpopulate the area.
In addition, the cost of GM crops is initially high to the farmer. These seeds cost much more to develop and test, and so, they are much more costly to the farmer. They might benefit Third World agriculture in many ways, but few Third World farmers could possibly afford the increased cost of these seeds, and so, they would not be available to a majority of the people that need them the most. Cost is an important factor in the continued growth of GM crops, and so, manufacturers must eventually address the cost of these seeds, and reduce the cost so that more people can afford to plant them.
While no study has found GM food to be harmful to humans, opponents…… [Read More]
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…… [Read More]
Lewis Maltby's proposition that employers should not do drug testing (or other testing related to off-work conduct) but should instead focus on impairment testing when an employee is entering the workplace. Instead of using drug testing in a punitive and time-consuming manner, Lewis Maltby holds that the technology exists to see if any safety or impairment issues are present in certain occupations in a way that is non-invasive and far more relevant. For instance, a train engineer, bus driver or airline pilot might be impaired due to stress, illness, sleep deprivation, etc. They could be tested using something akin to a video game, which captures their baseline performance and then compares it to the values at a certain test-time. If the individual is not able to perform the duties, then they are simply bumped for that shift.
Discuss privacy in social media websites. What sort of policies should exist? Does…… [Read More]
Emotional regulation -- the ability to control one's emotions so that they are within the "average" for the population surrounding them
In-utero- while the child is developing in the woman's uterus
Schizophrenia -- a serious mental illness affecting the person's perceptions of the world around them
Stimuli -- an input from a person's environment, something that the person experiences
Braungart-ieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger eactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The oles of Temperament, egulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.
Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. etrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html
DiGirolamo, a. & amirez-Zea, M. (2009). ole of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.
Lozoff, B.,…… [Read More]
While on the one hand many are concerned that scientific discoveries like the atomic bomb could mean the end of civilization, others like the inventor ay Kurzweil argue that, "to relinquish technologies because they could be used for ill means giving up their good uses -- and it also means totalitarian control." (Creating a More Intelligent Future) in other words if we focus on the many creative aspects of modern technology this opens up a very positive picture of the future.
There are many aspects that could be considered here. One of the many advances in modern technology is the fascinating creation of "interfaces" or a more intelligent interaction between technology, like computers, and human beings. This would mean that technology would no longer be "alien" or a threat to humanity but would become more acceptable and adjusted to the human environment. As some experts argue, "...it becomes possible to…… [Read More]
"It is not just a Catholic and Protestant Debate"(13).
Some Catholic statements, like the 1968 papal encyclical Humanae Vitae, condemn the practice on grounds of the created order, which is thought to be structured in such a way that all sexual expression must be open to procreation. Other statements, notably various declarations issued from 1969 to 1989 by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) in the U.S. appeal instead to the nature of the human person and the idea that life begins at conception. Abortion must be rejected, such statements argue, because it terminates a human life. Yet a third subgroup can be identified. Statements like the NCCB's well-known 1983 pastoral on peace and the Catholic bishops of France's 1979 declaration do not emphasize the doctrines of creation and human persons but argue against abortion by granting priority to the gospel.
In addition, in the Protestant Church, several statements…… [Read More]
Abortion & Democracy
The author of this report is going to tackle the subject of abortion primarily through the lens of democracy and doing what is right for a republic of people and groups that at are supposedly free and able to do the right thing. The author will use two sources to whittle away at the subject. Namely, the Pojman and Beckwith treatise as well as a sample from Mary Anne Warren will also be employed. While abortion should not be left solely to an up and down vote, the bullying and hard-handed events of extremely thin Supreme Court precedent as well as the antics of some anti-abortion groups should be met in response and with full force of democracy and the true voice of the moral majority of the United States.
Democracy Not Yet At Work
When it comes to the Warren work, a few things come to…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Foods
' There has been a great deal of controversy over genetically modified foods (GMOs). First, many individuals and organizations oppose the concept of altering the genetics of foods for any reason. And secondly, there is a hot debate as to whether or not food manufacturers should publish / label their packages as containing GMOs. This paper covers the controversies and provides several angles to the debates.
The way in which companies modify food genetically is through " ... the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup" of the seeds to be changed materially (Schneider, et al., 2014). There are two ways GMOs can be produced through "recombination": either by moving genes from one organism to another organism; or by making changes in genes within an organism "that are already present" (Schneider, p. 1). The changes that occur after being genetically engineered result in…… [Read More]
Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.
The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…… [Read More]
Cain and Abel represent the competition over land resources arising out of the domestication of farm animals and the use of large swathes of land for agriculture. God's preference for Abel over Cain suggests the beginning of class conflict that continues to plague human existence.
Henry & Scott's (1835) interpretation is awash in inferences and jugements that have no basis in sincere scholarship. The authors note, "Cain was wicked and led a bad life, under the reigning power of the world and the flesh; and therefore his sacrifice was an abomination...God had no respect to Cain himself, and therefore none for his offering," (p. 40). The authors imply that Cain's agricultural work symbolizes sin because of the proximity of the man with earth. Earth, representing the pleasures of the flesh, is somehow representative of original sin and possibly evocative of the serpent that tempted Cain's mother. This interpretation is tempting…… [Read More]
" In all likelihood, theistic religions will eventually be replaced with more inclusive and real world-oriented social and moral values and thereby eliminate the most pervasive source of international war and societal conflicts.
Nevertheless, especially in the short-term, it could be very difficult to overcome the degree to which religion has become entrenched within societies and the minds of individuals. By the time children are indoctrinated with religious beliefs and the psychological orientation involving a connection between human morality and "gods," it can be impossible to overcome that orientation later by introducing contradictory perspectives. Then again, that is largely true about other forms of intellectual prejudices, such as those that account for beliefs and attitudes about the respective races and others that have been successfully overcome over time.
Personal Values and Significant Influences
Given our understanding of the reality of the universe and human existence, it would seem that the…… [Read More]
Christ died on the cross in order to prove the infinite love of god towards his creatures. Using fear as a catalyst for faith has people acting out of hatred.
The second consequence is that people are more easily to be controlled. Fear is an instrument of control. It is highly efficient because it practically means getting into people's heads. Afterwards, small inputs are necessary in order to achieve the desired actions. Fear is connected with a way of being (living) focused on having as opposed to the paradigm focused on being.
When an individual is controlled by somebody else this clearly implies that the latter part is the stringer one. Therefore such doctrines as the one of Augustine regarding baptism serves a mechanism through which power is installed and maintained. It is highly efficient through the immense psychological power which it induces.
A third implication regarding faith supported by…… [Read More]
eligion provides a valuable source of spiritual meaning for those who might feel lost psychologically without a larger purpose to their lives. eligion contributes a comprehensive moral framework for human social interactions that generates a motivation for ethical conduct in the human community.
One of the most profound benefits of religion is the extent to which it allows some people to negotiate emotionally trying circumstances, especially in relation to the loss of loved ones. Irrespective of whether or not religious beliefs about the afterlife and the continuous existence of the human soul after physical death are true, they undoubtedly help countless people cope with emotional loss.
eligious traditions enable the efficient passage of social culture from one generation to the next and serve to connect the current generation to those in the past in a manner that also allows entire communities to maintain a unified social system and a shared…… [Read More]
Or, Men are from Earth, Women are from Venus
Science fiction and speculative fiction have always enjoyed playing with popular conceptions of feminine roles. Speculative authors were among the first to bring us societies without sexual prejudices, and aliens who suffer role-reversals. Unfortunately, Sci-fi has also been a prime venue for enhanced machismo, and stereotypical treatments of women. ig-breasted space babes have always had their place in -films. The film Species, which revolves around a half-human, half-alien woman learning about sex in the real world has elements that fall into both categories. What is most striking about the film, however, is the way in which it quite literally calls alien those elements of female experience which are (over)sexed, instinctive, or violent. It is quite common for today's society to be in denial about female sexuality and violence, and to try to ignore its prevalence. Pigeonholing perpetrators as "aberrations" or…… [Read More]