Start Off With An Introductory Term Paper


Ian Wimut and Keith Campbell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated embryo cells. (History of Cloning) Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to be cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly by Ian Wilmut, an extensive debate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on December 5, 1997 about his objective of cloning a human being prior to ban of the process by enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lamb from skill cells grown on a lab and with its alteration genetically to incorporate a human gene, in July 1997. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry, and Teruhiko Wakayama of the University of Hawaii claimed in July 1998 that they had cloned fifty mice from adult cells since October 1997. (History of Cloning)

The different types of cloning and how they work - an overview:

Only one case of cloning that is reproductive cloning was taken into consideration by the media while reporting on it. However, there existed several types of cloning and the technologies of cloning can effectively be applied for other purposes than simply generating genetic twin of another organism. The awareness of various kinds of cloning is considered fundamental to have an informed attitude on the present public policy concerns and to advance the best possible personal conclusions. Three kinds of cloning technology are generally debated such as Recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning, Reproductive cloning and Therapeutic cloning. The Recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning indicates the process where the transfer of a specific DNA fragment from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element like bacterial plasmid is generated. The specified DNA can then be conveniently proliferated in a foreign host cell. This technology is in operation ever since 1970s and it has become the common experience in molecular biology labs presently. (Cloning Fact Sheet)

The Reproductive Cloning is a tool applied to create an animal having similar nuclear DNA like that of another previously or presently existing animal. Dolly was generated with the application of reproductive cloning technology. The scientists attempt to transfer genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg where the nucleus and thus the genetic material is removed by means of a process known as 'somatic cell nuclear transfer'-SCNT. The reconstituted egg consisting of DNA from a donor cell is required to be treated with chemicals or electric current in order to stimulate cells division. The cloned embryo is transferred to the uterus of a female host once the cloned embryo attains an appropriate stage in its process of development and continues to grow until birth.

The Therapeutic cloning also known as the 'embryo cloning' is considered generation of the human embryos for its application in research. The objective of this process is not to generate the cloned human beings, but to harvest stem cells that can be applied to study human development and to treat disease. The stem cells are considered significant in the field of biomedical researchers since they are conveniently applied to produce any sort of specialized cells in the human body. Stem cells are extracted from the eggs after its division for 5 days. The egg at this stage of development is known as a blastocyst. The ethical concern arises out of the fact of destruction of the embryo in the extraction process. (Cloning Fact Sheet)

2. Legal Section

The lawmakers all over the country are struggling to find out the structure of laws on cloning both at the federal and state levels. Most of the law-makers perceive therapeutic cloning as infusing optimism among the millions of Americans with sufferings of debilitating diseases are they are to be encouraged and even funded by the government. According to some others cloning irrespective of its uses- reproductive or therapeutic is to be condemned in its entirety. (Cloning: what's stopping us? Law) Human cloning has been banned by state laws in seven states presently. These states are: California, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, Rhode Island, and Virginia. However, the laws implemented differ widely in its scope with some banning only state funding of human cloning research and others banning...


It is remarkable that California while banning reproductive cloning, simultaneously became the first state in enacting legislation backing the therapeutic stem cell research and other states are presently on a move to enact such legislations. Irrespective of the fact that such state legislations banning cloning have not yet been challenged legally, yet some legal authorities raised doubts on the justifiability of the governmental restrictions on human cloning from the point-of-view of the U.S. Constitution. (the Regulatory Environment for Human Cloning)
The federal government has not yet enacted laws banning the therapeutic or reproductive cloning, however, a general outline of legislative action in the controversial issue during the contemporary period is worth reviewing. (U.S. Federal Cloning Policy) the U.S. congress recently passed a federal bill in the House for prohibition of all sorts of cloning, however, the Senate has not voted on that. (Cloning: what's stopping us? Law) on December 3, 2001 the U.S. Senate condemned the strategy of imposing a 6-month moratorium on human embryo cloning. It has incorporated prohibitive measure against the attempt of cloning human embryo, violation of which would have entailed fine to the tune of $1 million and imprisonment up to 10 years. The prohibition also included the persons engaged in shipping or importing cloned embryos or products derived from them. The amendment made by Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS), was rejected 1-94 on a procedural vote that necessitates at least 60 votes to go through. George W. Bush on August 10, 2001 announced that the federal funds can be used only for research involving the 64 stem cell lines already in existence. (U.S. Federal Cloning Policy)

The United States House of Representatives voted to prohibit all sorts of human cloning and fixed the penalties of imprisonment up to 10 years and a fine of $1 million for attempting to clone humans on August 2001. The House hearing by the Subcommittee on Health and Sub-committee on Oversight and Investigations proposed the H.R. 1644, Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001, and H.R. 2172, Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001 during the summer of 2001. The Congressmen Weldon and Stupak proposed H.R. 1644 and the Congressmen Greenwood and Deutsch proposed H.R. 2172. H.R. 1644 sought to ban the generation of such cloned human embryos. The H.R. 2172 is proposed to prohibit cloning of human embryos from implanting them in a surrogate mother. The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 1998-105th Congress, 2nd Session: S. 1599, Human Cloning Prohibition Act. 105th Congress, 1st Session. H.R. 923, better known as the Bond-Frist bill in the Senate and the Ehlers bill in the House, prescribed banning of all cloning experiments that apply to human cells. (U.S. Federal Cloning Policy)

At the same time a bill generated in line with the one proposed by Senators Feinstein and Kennedy was expected to ban the implementation of an embryo developed by the technology into a human uterus with an objective of generating a child, but it would safeguard the research on Somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone molecules, cells and tissues. It is also aimed at preventing all state laws and simultaneously contains a 'sunset' clause that would terminate the prohibition in 10 years. These were prohibited by other legislations and were not given effect to. (U.S. Federal Cloning Policy)

3. Ethical Section

On the basis of the capability of predicting the result of an action the utilitarian ethical theory has been devised. The alternative that earns the greatest advantage to most people is the choice considered by the utilitarian to be ethically correct. One advantage of the ethical theory is that the utilitarian that compares equivalent predicted solutions and uses a point system to indicate the alternatives is more beneficial for more people. The point system entails a logical and justification argument for each of the decisions undertaken and permits a person to apply it on a case-by-case context. (Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles) Irrespective of the fact that genetic engineering and cloning seems to be a good idea for some, the subject generates many ethical and scientific issues. (the Cloning Controversy) the private companies have been indicated to exert regulation over what some are naming as the ultimate human frontier, the design and manufacture of human embryos, cells, tissues and organs. The consequence is that it is quite open for commercial use of embryos and research on stem cells. (Will Companies…

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