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One of the ways that scholars have seen Ozdamar as collapsing preexisting cultural boundaries is through a meandering picaresque novelistic structure. Indeed, onika Shafi argues that Ozdamar "borrows from the comic and picaresque traditions [using] a theatrical, performance-based approach to identity and interaction."
Shafi's reading prompts one to acknowledge the 1960s cultural climate in which Ozdamar wrote. Specifically, she wrote at a time in which the theatrical writings of leftist intellectuals such as Bertolt Brecht and the documentary theater of playwrights such as Peter Weiss were quite popular. The performative novelistic structure was viewed as an indispensible method for engaging the reader in an intellectual rather than emotional manner. The overt political agenda of Brecht is may also exist in a latent form in Ozdamar's work; in contrast with scholars like Ebel that have viewed Ozdamar as somewhat primitive, a Brechtian subtext might prove the efficacy of claims such as…
Monika Shafi, "Joint Ventures: Identity Politics and Travel in Novels by Emine Sevgi Ozdamar and Zafer Senocak," Comparative Literature Studies, Vol.40. No.2 (2003): 193-214.
Frank a. Stone, the Rub of Cultures in Modern Turkey: Literary Views of Education (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973).
Karen Jankowsky, "German Literature Contested: The 1991 Ingeborg-Bachmann-Prize Debate, "Cultural Diversity," and Emine Sevgi Ozdamar," the German Quarterly, Vol.70, No.3 (Summer 1997): 261-276.
German television market has been a major part of the country's cable network operations that has continued to generate huge revenues in the recent past. Actually, the digital television market accounts for more than 70% of cable network operators as usually forecasted. There are three major drivers of growth in the nation's cable television market i.e. digital Pay Television, telephony, and the Internet. As the revenues from Pay TV continue to experience steady growth, the Internet has played a crucial role in the German Television market. While there were fears that the Internet would replace private television channels in the country, it has complemented it and contributed to its significant growth. The role of the Internet in the expansion and growth of the German television market is evident in the fact that over 15% of cable TV customers receive Internet access from the cable provider ("German Cable Market 2012," n.d.).…
Bens, E. & Hamelink, C.J. (2007). Media between culture and commerce. Chicago, IL: Intellect
Books, The University of Chicago Press.
Cushion, S. & Lewis, J. (2010). The rise of 24-hour news television: global perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Data Monitor (2003, January 1). German -- Digital TV: Digital TV Industry Profile. Business Source Complete, 1-13.
After unification, Germany's trade surplus shrank for several years, yet West Germany had shown a dramatically high trade surplus during the late 1980's and into the early 1990's, reaching almost $80 billion U.S. dollars in 1988; by 1991, a united Germany showed a much lower surplus. As of 1999, exports reached $610 billion, made up of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs and textiles. Germany's main exporting partners, as of 1998, were the European Union, France, Great ritain, Italy, the Netherlands, enelux, the United States and Japan. Import-wise, as of 1999, the figure stood at $587 billion with the import products comparing favorably with the exports; Germany also imports goods from the same exporting countries ("The German Economy," Internet).
eginning in 2000, annual average real growth in Germany reached 3.0%, almost double since unification in 1990. In 2001 and 2002, real growth was at about 0.6%, but in 2003, Germany "experienced…
Economy of Germany." Answers.com. Wikipedia. Internet. Accessed June 20, 2005. http://www.answers.com/topic/economy-of-germany .
Economy of Germany." EconomyWatch.com. Internet. 2005. Accessed June 20, 2005. http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/germany .
Tatyana, Gordeeva. "German Economy." German Culture. Internet. 2004. Accessed June 20, 2005. http://www.germanculture.com.ua/bl_economy.htm .
The German Economy." Abacci Atlas. Highbeam Research. Internet. 2005. Accessed June 20, 2005. Http://www.abacci.com/atlas/economy3.asp?countryID=203.
Another barrier to the development of a unified German national identity in the 19th century was a strong sense of regionalism and patriotism on the local level. This was particularly true in the southern German states, which had benefited enormously from Germany's re-ordering by the Napoleonic forces.
This resulted in many conflicts between nationalists (who typically belonged to the larger German states) and regionalists (who typically belonged to the smaller, southern German states.)
Perhaps the biggest impact on the development of nationalism in Germany was the occupation of all of Germany west of the Rhine by France between the years of 1794 and 1814. France's occupation would leave long-lasting affects upon the German judicial, legal, and administrative systems, and cause on-going disputes between the two nations long after France's occupation came to an end.
The year 1813 marked a turning point in Germany's ongoing battles with France, with the former…
Blackbourn, David, History of Germany: 1780-1918, the Long Nineteenth Century, 2nd edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.
Fulbrook, Mary, a Concise History of Germany, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2004.
Kitchen, Martin, a History of Modern Germany: 1800-2000. Malden, MA: Blackwell
Technology was being deliberately advanced at a very rapid pace, much more rapidly than in peacetime, because of the competition between enemies, and because of the need to protect soldiers and civilians from those that would invade and destroy. Because of II, the world in general advanced faster, at least for a time, than it would have otherwise. hile the war was certainly not an enjoyable thing, there were good things that came from it. The way that the U.S. treated others was not one of those 'good things.'
Society is shaped by the things that have occurred in the past, and II was certainly a very important piece of history that will never be forgotten. It allowed the United States to emerge from the war as the most powerful nation in the world, and even though it did not have the economic power that Europe and Japan had, the…
Albert, Michael. (2003). PARECON: Life After Capitalism. London: Verso.
Americanization Dept. Veterans of Foreign Wars of U.S. (1925). America: Great crises in our history told by its makers.
AP Mod Review. (2003). Westport. 7 October 2003 http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/muson/AP%20Mod/World%20War%20II/wwii_timeline.htm.
Barnes, Harry Elmer. (1970). The genesis of the world war: an introduction to the problem of war guilt. Howard Fertig, Inc.
omanticism is nothing but a philosophical movement that started as a result of the increased growth of nationalism, the war of liberation and the reforms in the literary and cultural realms. In philosophy, the term is also related to emotionalism. The German romanticism is found as different from most of the other romanticism that spread across the world. The political revolution that happened during the 19th century is the vital reason for the birth of omanticism. Napoleon is regarded as the prime factor in bringing out the revolution. He was considered as the champion of the revolution, because the armies of France demolished the old order that prevailed in Germany.
We should not forget that Germany, more than any other country, had suffered very much from the conception of The Holy oman Empire. During earlier centuries German monarchs tried to establish themselves as oman emperors. Wherever the armies…
Fichte's Beginnings (1762-1794)" Retrieved at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/fichtejg.htm# (a) Fichte's philosophical vocation accessed on 03/22/2004
Myers, Ellen. "Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788), Preacher of Christ in the Wilderness of the Enlightenment" The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved at http://creationism.org/csshs/v07n3p19.htm . Accessed on 03/22/2004
Romanticism and Freemasonry" Retrieved at http://tracingboard.com/romanticism.htm . Accessed on 03/22/2004
German unification occupies a significant place in the history of this great European power. Otto Von Bismarck, once the prime minister of Prussia, is responsible for single-handedly engineering this unification through clever strategies and creative tactics. The paper sheds light on the role of this German Chancellor in the unification of Germany.
OLE OF BISMACK IN GEMAN UNIFICATION
Germany has seen and experienced more than its fair share of troubles, wars and turbulence. The country has been divided and unified twice and on both occasions, German population made huge sacrifices. But compared to reunification of 1989, the first unification was a gory affair because it was largely sponsored and supported by German military. Whenever military gets involved in any event, possibility of bloodshed looms large and that is exactly what happened in Germany in the decade of 1860-1870. It was the time when Otto Von Bismarck had come to power…
Stephan Gallagher, German History: Chapter 1A. Early History., Countries of the World, 01-01-1991
AJ.P. Taylor, Bismarck and the German Empire, 3d ed. 1968
OTTO VON BISMARCK., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition, 01-01-2002
ANNE MCELVOY, A century on, Germany is still haunted by the ghost of Bismarck., Independent on Sunday, 07-19-1998, pp 4.
178) One of the most effective weapons against the U-boats and one of the main elements which led to their decline, was the deployment very long-range (VL) aircraft, particularly the Liberator B-24 bombers. (Lightbody, 2004, p. 178)
The Germans attempted to counter these stratgies with the deployment of the XXIII and XXI improved U-boats. These new U-boats were able to achieve higher speeds underwater, which were increased to approximately 20 knots, compared to the average 4 knots of the previous U-boats. (Lightbody, 2004, p. 178) They were also capable of operating at twice the depth of the ordinary U-boats and had had six torpedo tubes in place of the four on conventional craft. The new U-boats also had a hydraulic loading system, which was a radical improvement of the manual loading systems in older models. (Lightbody, 2004, p. 180)
These various countermeasures and improvements instituted by the German's were not…
Blue Max Militaria. Retrieved September 4, 2006, at http://stevenbaffa.tripod.com/bluemaxmilitaria/id42.html .
Harbron, J. (1996, June). Fran Josef's Forgotten U-Boat Captains. History Today, 46, 51+. Retrieved September 4, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000361217
Kemble, Mike. U boat War (2001) Retrieved September 1, 2006, at http://www.mikekemble.com/ww2/uboat.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002310722
3 the executive branch of the government is headed by President Horst Koehler as the Chief of State while the official head of the government is Chancellor Angela Merkel. All German Federal Ministers are appointed by the President as recommended by the chancellor. 4
The modern German government also has a Parliament which is made up of the Federal Assembly or undestag and all members are elected by popular vote "under a system combining direct and proportional representation," and the Federal Council or undesrat. The judicial branch of the German government is known as the Federal Constitutional Court or undesverfassungsgericht with "half of the judges elected by the undestag and the other half by the undesrat. 5 of course, the current government of Germany is considered as a democratic system, due to having elected officials and seats of government which share power and are elected by the German people as…
Germany." CIA World Factbook. 2008. Internet. Retrieved October 17, 2008 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html .
German History." World History International. 2008. Internet. Retrieved October 17, 2008 at http://history-world.org/German%20History.htm.
German History -- All Facts and Events." 2007. Internet. Retrieved October 17, 2008 from http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/history/bl_german_history.htm .
Halsall, Paul. "Modern History Sourcebook: Frederick II: Essay on Forms of Government."
S. And many EU countries are seeking to isolate Iran's leaders as pariahs" (einthall, 2011, p. 9). Once again, Germany chose to protect its own economic interest and global diplomatic effectiveness rather than kowtow to the interests of its allies. However, perhaps even more galling (at least to the United States and Israel) is the fact that Germany "supported a Lebanese sponsored UN Security Council resolution which condemned Israeli settlement construction as 'illegal'" soon after its election to a temporary seat on the Security Council (it failed in its bid for a permanent seat in 2005, which The Economist presciently predicted would allow Angela Merkel to overtake then-Chancellor Schroder). It is worth pointing out the symbolic importance of Germany's support for the UN resolution, because it is in the end almost entirely symbolic. Israel's settlements are already illegal under international law, so Germany's vote served more to establish itself as…
Anonymous. (2011, May 14). Europe: the unadventurous eagle;
German foreign policy. The Economist, 399(8733), 48.
Hellmann, Gunther. (2009). Fatal attraction: german foreign policy and ir/foreign policy theory. Journal of International Relations and Development, 12(3), 257-292.
Overhaus, Marco. (2005). German foreign policy and the shadow of the past. SAIS Review, 25(2), 27-41.
y the time of 10th of February 1937 was again under state ownership.
During 2nd World War, the German Railway played a major role on the tyranny brought forth by Adolf Hitler and the 3rd Reich Nazi.
The end of World war II, the occupation of Germany took place with the arrival of allied forces of ritain, France, America and Russia compelling the German 3rd Reich from both east and west. With the incoming division of Germany, the railways were divided and were not allowed to cross over boundaries from East and West Germany. The Deutsche undesbahn in the west and the Soviet occupied Imperial Railways in the east. Until the unification of Germany on 1990, wherein liberated transport were again allowed of trains from the east to west.
German Technology ehind the Railroad
Among the countries in Europe, Germany was way behind the development of technology on its railway…
Bibliography brief history of German railways
Author: John Oxlade, Salfords, Surrey, United Kingdom (email: John Oxlade.)
Transport in Germany
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transportation_in_Germany
Small states are unable to protect their subjects." By alluding to the vulnerability of scattered German states before the strong Prussian state arrived to unite and lead them, he attempts to justify the dominance of the German Confederation by its strongest state, Prussia.
Also indicative of the more defined notions of the German identity during the period of expansion are the rants of Richard Wagner. In Wagner's extended rant about Jews, he claims that Jews lack the profundity, passion, and soul which so typify German people. To prove this, he points to the lack of Jewish representation in Music and Poetry, later breaking down famous Jewish composers and poets who might defy this categorization.
Unlike the nationalist rhetoric of the expansionist period, Hitler's speech defines Germany solely by the offenses committed upon her by outsiders, be they the French trespassing in the Rhineland, the Jews infiltrating Germany's political offices, or…
In 1942, they were two of the Germans who were picked up by the FBI. Several FBI agents with machine guns entered the H.I. Voss Engineering Company in Bronx, New York, and arrested Alfred Heitmann. This may have been related to the German submarine landing on Long Island, which resulted in a great deal of war hysteria that made many people believe that German spies were everywhere in New York (Tolzmann 32).
Heitmann's internment resulted from the unconstitutional investigations of the government based on hearsay from informants whose reliability was never seriously checked out. Many informants' names suggest that they were of German origin, who perhaps were afraid of their own internment and thus willing to give evidence to protect themselves from intense questioning. Their comments now appear ridiculous, including such theories that Heitmann took many photographs although he never owned a camera, as later confirmed by a FBI search,…
Bohan, Suzanne. Internment camp survivors tell their tales. May 6, 2007. Inside Bay Area
20, May 2007 http://www.insidebayarea.com/ci_5831892?source=rss
Fox, Stephen. America's Invisible Gulag. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 2000.
Friedman, Max Paul Trading Civil Liberties for National Security: Warnings from a World War II Internment Program. Journal of Policy History. 17.3 (2005). 294-307
Toilet paper is a product used by virtually everyone in modern society, and this the potential market size for biodegradable toilet paper in Germany is limited only by the size of the German population, for all practical purposes. As the offered product is highly differentiated, it will have a distinct advantage over competitors at least insofar as appearing obviously different from standard toilet paper rolls. At the same time, the lack of familiarity of the new product might be off-putting for German consumers, and with a commodity at once as necessary and yet as cheaply and readily available as toilet paper, there really is no way to create extra demand, expand markets, etc. Differentiation, then, is the key selling point of biodegradable toilet paper, and the environmental sensibilities of the average German consumer will likely be a major factor in their decision to change to the new product.…
Karl Marx on the German Ideology:
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels collaborated to produce The German Ideology, which was one of the classic texts generated by the two. Even though The German Ideology stands our as one of the major texts produced by the two, it was never published during Marx's lifetime. This was a clear expression of the theory of history by Marx and its associated materialist metaphysics. One of the main reasons this text is a classic text by these philosophers is the fact that it introduces students to the basic tenets of the philosopher's approach. Notably, Karl Marx produced The German Ideology in 1846 as a critique of George Friedrich Hegel and his followers in Germany. The philosophers sought to differentiate their concept of socialism from existing ones and exhibit how socialism emerges ordinarily from the social conflicts embedded in capitalism.
Background to the Introduction of The…
Delaney, Tim, and Bob Schwartz. "A Critique of The German Ideology." Marxists Internet Archive. Progress Publishers, 23 Aug. 2000. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. .
"Karl Marx (1818 -- 1883)." Sparknotes. SparkNotes LLC, n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. .
Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. "The German Ideology." C.W. Anderson. C.W. Anderson, Sept. 2011. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. .
German Culture (history, art, food, music, literature, film, architecture, .) a topic essay. Please DO NOT choose topics Oktoberfest, German Beer, orld ar II overdone. However, choose a topic related specific, fine.
Martin Luther and the German Reformation
The Catholic Church had a particularly influential character during the sixteenth century and this was perfectly reflected by the fact that many individuals across Europe subjected to it and felt that it was essential for them to act in accordance with its legislations. Even with this, a great deal of people considered that the institution had an abusive nature and that particular values that it promoted were immoral. Martin Luther was one of the individuals in Germany who felt that people needed to open their eyes concerning the morally wrong acts committed by the Catholic Church. The German reformation is one of the most important events in the country's religious history.
Lindsay, Thomas M. "Luther and the German Reformation 1900," (Kessinger Publishing, 01.08.2003)
Expressionists€ ™ view of German cities to the Surrealists€ ™ vision of Paris in visual arts and literature and film (give examples of artworks).
German Expressionism vs. Surrealism:
Contrasting views of the urban landscape in visual arts and film
The 20th century art movement of Expressionism is particularly associated with Germany. Expressionist art is distinguished by its intense colors, distorted shapes, and focus upon the darker aspects of modern, urban life (Pioch 2002). The bright colors may have had their roots in Fauvism and Post-Impressionism, but the expressionists used these colors to invoke a sense of hostility, even despair, rather than joy (Pioch 2002). Rather than beauty even the brightest colors were used to convey a sense of distortion and fear. This can be seen in Ernst Ludwig Kirchner's 1913 Berlin Street Scene where the colors are used to convey a sense of violence and the visual texture has been…
Ernst, Max. Une Semaine De Bonte: A Surrealistic Novel in Collage.
Dover Publications, 1976.
Pioch, Nicholas. "Expressionism." Web Museum. 14 Oct 2002. 9 Feb 2013. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/tl/20th/expressionism.html
Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig. Berlin Street Scene, 1913. 9 Feb 2013.Available:
80, and the one-off charges became EUR 81.12 and the basic connection at EUR 70.56 and for the takeover at 34.94 for discontinuing it or for a transfer at EU 50.71. These are regulated by the Telecommunications Act of 1996.
d. Describe the connection technologies available to retail consumers. What were DT's price structures for these connection technologies? How were retail prices in the market for telephony services regulated?
The connection technologies that are available are worth mentioning. These include those that is through an analogue connection. They also can access it through a means of a digital narrowband connection, such as ISDN. The price structure is as follows. One will have a subscription fee of EUR 10.93, and for the retail one-off charges for that of analogue and ISDN will remain at EUR 22.22 and the EUR at 44.45 for the connection to become serviceable. All of these are…
Counterargument: 1. Margin squeeze is relevant. 2. A margin squeeze can exist between wholesale and retail prices.
f. The article ends in 2001. What has happened to DT and to Germany's telephony services since then? i.e. describe current market conditions, DT's competition, were the price caps effective etc.
Since 2001, DT has continued to provide services to people in the industry as well as maintained the margin squeeze. The current market is under much regulation from that of the Telecommunication Act of 1996. This has prevented any monopolies from occurring since then. Many new businesses have entered the market since the 1996 telephone industry getting regulated. One can concur that the price caps were effective because this made it to where it was affordable for retailers and wholesalers to maintain business for those that are interested in expanding in other areas with DT maintaining their standards as well. All of the organizations have learned to co-exist and DT is not as dominant as it was in the past, which has provided revenue for everyone involved.
German leader, Adolph Hitler took over in the country before the second world war, he had goals he succeed in accomplishing, and one of his main focuses during that time in the 1930s was what his aim was in foreign guidelines and what measures he went to in attaining those objectives. The first idea Hitler sought after, that his followers also felt sense they had been defeated in orld ar I, abolishing the Treaty of Versailles because it was unjust in Hitler's eyes. Building up the German army, and regain their lands and bringing their population within the Reich ("Google Scholar" 207).
According to the scholarly document, first, Adolf Hitler did not budge to reduce the size of his military or another league because France would not consent to the parity. This scholarly document stated that Hitler used conservative communication while smoothing over his opponent as a way to get…
Hitler's Pre-War Policy and Military Plans, 1933-1939." Google Scholar (1967): 207. Web. 8
May 2011. .
Krishnan, Sri Balan. "Why Did the WWII Break Out in the Asia-Pacific?" Class Jump (2010):
n. page. Web. 8 May 2011
World War I was not the product of a failed foreign policy. Rather it resulted from ismarck's narrow social synthesis. This left many Germans out in the cold and produced a virulent class conflict. It was this class conflict that pushed the German Elite into the decision for war."
The decision of the German Elite to enter World War I was caused by the aggression of the country and its allies. The political, military and economical environments inside the Germany made the war possible, at least partly because of ismarck's narrow social synthesis. These environments each contributed to the initiation of the war by the German Elite.
ismarck, first Prime Minister of Prussia and then Chancellor of the German Empire that he established, set about the construction of Germany through created a state ruled by the German Elite.
ismarck's welfare state, which led to the separation of classes, started in…
Keylor, William. The twentieth Century World Third Edition. Oxford University Press, 1996.
Run Lola Run
Some of the most effective artistic productions are those which can seamlessly integrate a commentary on their own particular medium into their narrative and aesthetic content, and Tom Tykwer's film Run Lola Run is prime example of this phenomenon. Though the film is eighty-one minutes long, the story only takes place over the course of twenty, but these twenty minutes are repeated in a series, with each retelling demonstrating how small actions culminate in dramatically different conclusions. Examining Run Lola Run with an eye towards the small details which result in these different conclusions reveals how the film challenges the viewer's assumptions regarding time, narrative consequences, and the nature of reality as it relates to the medium of film itself. Ultimately, Run Lola Run suggests that the experience of time and narrative is not based on the conceptualization of a single, unbroken thread, but rather temporal segments…
Bianco, Jamie. "Techno-Cinema." Comparative Literature Studies. 41.3 (2004): 377-403. Print.
Bordwell, David. "Film Futures." SubStance. 31.1 (2002): 88-104. Print.
Koepnick, Lutz. "Free Fallin': Tom Tykwer and the Aesthetics of Deceleration and Dislocation."
The Germanic Review. 82.1 (2007): 7, 30, 111.
..traveler, naturalist, geologist and is famous for his works entitled as follows:
1) 1805-14 Maps in Voyage de Humboldt et onpland Numerous re-issues;
2) 1811-1-2 Atlas Gegographique et Phisique de Royaume de Ia Nouvel/e Espagn; 3) 1814-34 Atlas du Nouz'eau Continent (arrister, 2007)
arrister additionally relates that nearing the end of the century approximately between 1799 and 1804, "the German naturalist and traveler, Alexander von Humboldt, made epic journeys in South American and, although not primarily a cartographer, he added immensely to knowledge of the northern areas of the continent. His travels and studies there led him to formulate new theories in the spheres of meteorology, geology and oceanography which had world-wide application. Indeed, after Napoleon and Wellington, he was the most famous man of his time in Europe and his ideas made a major contribution to German and European cartography in the nineteenth century. In particular, his assertion that…
Alexander von Humboldt - the Explorer the Scientist. Centarus Vol. 49, Issue 1 February 2007. Online Blackwell Synergy available at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1600-0498.2007.00058.xOnline available at http://www.1worldglobes.com/images/historyloc/images/gm021001 .jpg
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ci ncias (2005) an. Acad. Bras. Ci nc. vol.77 no.2 Rio de Janeiro June 2005 doi: 10.1590/S0001-37652005000200010
Barrister, David (2007) Chapter 12: Germany and Austrilia an. Acad. Bras. Ci nc. vol.77 no.2 Rio de Janeiro June 2005 Online available at http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0001-37652005000200010&script=sci_arttext
Department of Economic and Social Geography, Center of Latin American Studies, Institute of Geography, University of Tubingen, Hlderlinstrasse 12, D-72074 Tubingen, Germany Online available at
Family Heritage -- German Culture
My family represents a dichotomous social history that reflects simultaneous identification with and allegiance to two concepts that have a fundamental basis for potential antagonisms. That is because I am of German-Jewish decent. My ancestors date back to the town of Frankfurt am Main, a suburb of the German town of Frankfurt, as far as the middle of the 18th century. My grandfather fought heroically in World War I for the Keiser and largely without any conceptual understanding of the wartime international conflicts that took the lives of so many of his companions. Part of our family heritage was defined by his experiences as young soldier who survived the Western Front trench warfare. Throughout his life, my grandfather maintained the perspective of a military officer and the value of military service was instilled in all of the male children in my family from a very…
Germans, Post World War 2
Evil, German attitudes through the Twentieth Century, and humanity
The Second World War has had a terrible impact on society as a whole and it is safe to say that it shaped the way that people perceived the idea of being human and of life in general. Michael Hanake's 2009 motion picture The White Ribbon discusses with regard to a series of events happening in a fictional German village during the era leading to the First World War. While the film discusses ideas that apparently have nothing to do with the Second World War or with the National Socialist ideology, an in-depth analysis would make it possible for someone to find parallels between many of the concepts it contains and values promoted in Nazi Germany.
Haneke's film provides viewers with the image of an apparently perfectly organized village in which everyone is well-acquainted with…
Schwab, Gabriele. Haunting Legacies: Violent Histories and Transgenerational Trauma. ( Columbia University Press, 13 Aug 2013)
Dir. Michael Haneke, The White Ribbon. Filmladen (Austria) X Verleih AG (Germany), 2009.
German-Jews. The history of German-Jewish conflict is widely known but many might wonder why it started in the first place. Why would Germans show such extreme hatred for an ethnic group while the other did not seem to have threatened the latter? This question is certainly strange but answer is worth seeking which also helps us understand the concepts of conformity and social perception that affects global conflicts of such magnitude. The German-Jewish conflict is as much grounded in ugly realities of imperislaims and racism as any other. Arendt discovered two important innovations that were cultivated during the rise of modern imperialism i.e. "race as a principle of the body politic" and "bureaucracy as a principle of foreign domination." (Arendt, p. 185) While racism was seriously grounded in the fear of the white man, bureaucracy emerged as a result of over exaggerated and entirely false sense of protection that white…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1976
Du Bois. The Souls of Black Folks.
Germany has had many tumultuous events in its past, especially before and after World War II. Although Germany experienced turmoil before the start of the war, after the war, they decided to take a different approach to foreign policy and focused on rebuilding their economy as well as improving their skilled labor force. Now Germany has a stable economy and healthy and skilled workforce. The old saying: "German engineering" shows the caliber of artisanship involved in German manufacturing. They reduced their need to prove their military might in lieu for labor force development and reduction of foreign military interference.
In a recent article by Kundnani, the writer details the determination of Germany to remain out of foreign affairs. "…it illustrates the strength of Germany's ongoing reluctance to use military force as a foreign-policy tool even in a multilateral context and to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe" (Kundnani, 2011, p. 31). This…
Brakman, S., Garretsen, H., & Schramm, M. (2004). The strategic bombing of German cities during World War II and its impact on city growth. Journal Of Economic Geography, 4(2), 201-218. doi:10.1093/jeg/4.2.201
Crafts, N., & Toniolo, G. (1996). Economic growth in Europe since 1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kundnani, H. (2011). Germany as a Geo-economic Power. The Washington Quarterly, 34(3), 31-45. doi:10.1080/0163660x.2011.587950
Maier, C. (1977). The politics of productivity: foundations of American international economic policy after World War II. International Organization, 31(04), 607. doi:10.1017/s0020818300018634
In the music field, Germany boasts of some of the world's most renowned producers, composers and performers. Germany is the third largest music market in the world and the largest in Europe. The earliest roots of the music culture in Germany are within monastic chants and religious music. The 12th century saw the mystic abbess Hildegard who was from Bingen writing storing compositions and hymns. These were sought to be free musical expressions coming from narrow conventions. Between the 12th and 14th century, minnesingers who were wandering nobles and knights wrote and recited love poems in country version in the tradition of French trovers and troubadours. Out of the many minnesingers during that period of time, einmar Von Hagenau and Walther Von de Vogelweide were the most famous ones. Apart from the minnesingers there was also the development of a secular folk music tradition. There are collections of…
Joseph, A. (2012). Ten Reasons to love German culture: German Giants of classical Music. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://theculturetrip.com/europe/germany/articles/ten-reasons-to-love-german-culture-german-giants-of-classical-music-/
InterNations.org. (2014). The German Music scene. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://www.internations.org/germany-expats/guide/16030-culture-shopping-recreation/the-german-music-scene-16028
Countriesquest. (2009). Culture, Music. Retrieved September 26, 2014 from http://www.countriesquest.com/europe/germany/culture/music.htm
Germans and Jews After I
Germans and Jews After orld ar I
In orld ar I, more than 12,000 Jews lost their lives fighting for Germany (Flannery, 43). They were a large part of the culture there, and had intermingled as much as they were able to. However, despite the way they were involved in so much of what was taking place in the country, they were also never really accepted. After I, Germany's official position on Jews changed. Much of that took place because the German leaders did not want to take any blame for the problems that had caused them to lose out in the war. Because they wanted to make sure the people saw them in a good light, and they did not want to admit past mistakes, they looked for scapegoats. One of the main groups for that scapegoating was the Jewish people. Even though many…
Anti-Semitism in History: World War 1. United States Holocaust Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 2014. Print. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007166
While Anti-Semitism is nothing new in society, this article spells out clearly what was taking place in Germany after WWI and how that shaped the beliefs of the Germany people when it came to their feelings about Jews in their country.
Elon, Amos. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, 1743 -- 1933. New York, 2002. Print.
The Jewish people in Germany never really had much of a chance to be a part of the country, at least not on a proper level. They were marginalized from the very beginning, and that only got worse after WWI, finally culminating in the atrocities of WWII.
In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…
Bartee, Wayne C. 2000. A time to speak out: The Leipzig citizen protests and the fall of East Germany. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Berger, T. 2001. German unification and the Union of Europe. German Politics and Society 19(1):80.
Conradt, D.P. 2002. Political culture in unified Germany: The first ten years. German Politics and Society 20(2):43.
Edwards, Vincent, Gennadij Polonsky, Danijel Pucko, Malcolm Warner and Ying Zhu. 2004. Management in transitional economies: From the Berlin Wall to the Great Wall of China. New York: Routledge.
German immigration to the United States prior to 1877. Specifically, it will discuss to what extent and how did they influence life in the U.S.A. German immigrants to the United States influenced thought and culture in a variety of ways, but they have nearly always managed to hold on to their own culture while adapting to their surroundings.
While America has always been a melting pot of different cultures blending to form a whole, Germans have always managed to blend into society while nevertheless retaining their own special culture and society. The Germans are one of the few races to hang on to their culture so powerfully, while still successfully merging with U.S. culture. One of the most important ways they held on to their culture was by continuing to speak German, especially in the homes, and raising their children to also speak the native language. They also tended to…
Editors. "Germans in America: Chronology." Library of Congress. 1 May 2001. 10 March 2003. http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/european/imde/germchro.html
Hoyt, Dolores J. "19th Century German Immigration in Historical Context." Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. 8 Oct. 1998. 10 March 2003. http://www-lib.iupui.edu/kade/nameword/context.html
Spencer, Aaron Fogleman. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Wittke, Carl. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1952.
The next one approaches; again you have to defend your skin. Again and again the mad murdering is repeated, all night long."
Entitling Chapter Five "Story of Murderous Flights in the Night" reveals the author's definite moral judgement of war as equivalent to murder. The author does not distinguish between killing on the battlefield and killing on the street. This marks a certain shift in social values, as killing in battle is frequently depicted as being an honorable and justifiable act. In a telling section, the German deserter explains how the individual can justify murder to himself. He notes that soldiers become desensitized to death the longer they remain on the battlefield. "When a man is accustomed to step over corpses with a cold smile on his lips, when he has to face death every minute day and night, he gradually loses that finer feeling for human things and humanity,"…
ecause the Republic was weak, it was open to failure, and open to a takeover by a powerful group such as Hitler's Nazis. asically, the failure of the Republic allowed Hitler to take control of the government, which ultimately led to World War II, the persecution of the Jews, the Holocaust, and millions of deaths. Thus, the fall of the Weimar Republic was extremely significant to world history, and it was because it was created as a weak Republic that it could fall so quickly and have so many weaknesses that Hitler and his party capitalized on. This shows a very diachronic relationship between the Army, the legislative branches, and the Chancellor, because they could not work together harmoniously, and so, they created friction that led to the failure of the Republic. A more synchronic relationship may have created more strength in the Republic, and led to a much different…
Author not Available. (2005). The French National Assembly. Retrieved from the French National Assembly Web site: www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8al.asp22 July 2005.
Mahler, Gregory S. (2003). Comparative Politics: An Institutional and Cross-National Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rempel, Gerhard. (2000). The Weimar Republic I: Economic and Political Problems. Retrieved from the Western New England College Web site: http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/germany/lectures/23weimar_collapse.html22 July 2005.
These young men were not immersed in the high modernist traditions of Virginia Woolf and T.S. Eliot: rather, they were immersed in the experience of war and their own visceral response to the horrors they witnessed.
Thus a multifaceted, rather than strictly comparative approach might be the most illuminating way to study this period of history and literature. Cross-cultural, comparative literary analysis is always imperfect, particularly given the linguistic challenges presented by evaluating German poetry in relation to its British counterparts. Contextualizing the British war poets requires a certain level of understanding how the war was seen by the other side, and by alien eyes. More is likely to be gained than lost by reading the German war poets in translation. Yet reading the German poets in translation allows the reader to appreciate the influence of symbolism and expressionism in their work that was not present even in the harsh…
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…
Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar
Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.
"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.
22 Mar 2012.
Meanwhile, Adolf Hitler took advantage of the people's dissatisfaction with the treaty and in the hands of the Nazis, this issue was used to rationalize brutal persecution of entire ethnic minorities and political groups. This effort against previous international settlements enabled a junction of their political programs, war aims, and racist ideologies.
Hitler has also decreed that the SS were to be treated as "organizations in the service of the State," and thus, achieved a very high status in the society. The special position of the SS man meant that he must be dealt with in a special way. With that, no state court, nor even a Nazi Party court, had the right to judge an SS man. If so, this was to be the sole privilege and responsibility of SS judges and high ranking officers.
It was so obvious that because of the privileges that were granted to the…
Hofer, Walther (ed.). Der Nationalsozialismus Dokumente 1933-1945 (Frankfurt (I am Main: Fischer Bucherei KG, 1957), p. 71.
Oath of Loyalty." Taken at http://ddickerson.igc.org/oath-of-loyalty.html, Retrieved on November 15, 2006
Snyder, Louis L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich (New York: Paragon House, 1989), pp.
156 and 257.
Fisher saw the ritish Navy as overstretched, deploying unnecessarily large numbers of the wrong types of ships in all the wrong places. He scrapped the light cruisers, sloops, gunboats and guardships that showed the ritish flag across the world from the Caribbean through Africa and India to the Far East, seeking to concentrate the Navy's strength in a smaller number of much more powerful ships based mainly in home waters - where he believed the main threat to ritain to be located, in the form of Germany. His belief in big, efficient, modern warships was embodied in his two great creations: the battlecruiser 'Invincible' and the revolutionary all-big-gun 'Dreadnought'.
The principle characteristics of both these vessels were speed and firepower; the main difference between them was armor protection, the battlecruisers being much more lightly armed than ships of the 'Dreadnought' type on the principle that a fast ship could always…
Evans, R.J.W. And Hartmut Pogge von Strandman, the Coming of the First World War (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).
Ion, a. Hamish and B.J.C. McKercher, Military Heretics: The Unorthodox in Policy and Strategy (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994).
Jane's Fighting Ships of World War I (London: Random House, 1990).
Kennedy, Paul, the Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (3rd edn., London: Fontana, 1991).
Kandinsky was unique, however, in his adventurous, abstract, and color-filled endeavors to radically juxtapose: color; light; landscape; music; nature, spirituality, and other essences as a way of expressing meaning within art. Vassily Kandinsky was, indisputably, the founder of abstract expressionist painting. And, though he remained a Russian national up until his death, and fled Germany during orld II for a new life in Paris, Kandinsky nevertheless was, in spirit and in fact, the very truest of German Expressionists.
Barron, Stephanie, and olf-Dieter Dube. German Expressionism. New York:
Hughes, Robert. The Shock of the New. New York: Knopf, 1980.
Le Tagat, Francois. Kandinsky. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.
Robles, Everet A. "Kandinsky Color Theory." 4 ever Art E-Zine. December 2002.
Retrieved February 1, 2005, from .
"Theosophy." ikipedia. January 31, 2005. Retrieved February 2, 2005, from:
"assily Kandinsky (1866-1944)." Kandinsky. January 31, 2005. Retrieved
February 1, 2005,…
Barron, Stephanie, and Wolf-Dieter Dube. German Expressionism. New York:
Hughes, Robert. The Shock of the New. New York: Knopf, 1980.
Le Tagat, Francois. Kandinsky. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.
Market esearch -- Germany
German IT Market
German is the biggest and most mature IT industry in European countries. Its high levels of urbanization, knowledge, and affluence combined with its powerful economic efficiency makes it a welcoming IT market. It is expected that there will be powerful pre-paid customer growth in the in German market. Major players include Vodafone with 33% share of the market, T-Mobile with 32%, E-Plus with 18% and O2 with 15%. Since Vodafone released Germany's first commercial 3G solutions in 2004, 3G solutions are becoming progressively frequent. All the four IT providers are expected to invest in the development and update of their 3G network. Vodafone, Deutsche, and O2 are in the process of establishing Long-Term Evolution (LTE) systems, following the sale of new frequencies (Antonelli, 2008). This paper seeks to highlight the retailing trends and challenges facing German IT Market.
Trends in the area of…
Antonelli, C. (2008). New information technology and industrial change: The Italian case. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers for the Commission of the European Communities.
Beck, S., & Klobes, F. (2005). Surviving globalization? Perspectives for the German economic model. Dordrecht: Springer.
Ba-umer, U., Kreutter, P., & Messner, W. (2012). Globalization of professional services: Innovative strategies, successful processes, inspired talent management, and first-hand experiences. Berlin: Springer.
CBEMA Industry Marketing Statistics. (2009). Information technology industry establishment analysis. Washington D.C: CBEMA Industry Marketing Statistics.
Run Lola Run
The German new wave of cinema was a direct commentary of the nation's post-orld ar II disharmony. Instead of the ideal Germany portrayed in Nazi era propaganda, the modern Germans films show a dirtier, grungier, and far more realistic depiction of the nation in its current sensibility. In Tom Tykwer's Run Lola Run, the present Germany is one which has prevalent violence and severe repercussions for choices that are made. The thesis of the film Run Lola Run is that any moment can change the whole outcome of our lives, as well as the people who exist on the peripherals of our lives. Through the use of plot, alteration of film and cinema convention, visual iconography, color, and tribute to past films of the action and thriller genres, director Tom Tykwer creates a completely original story that transcends film movements and genre to make a point about…
Bellantoni, Patti. If It's Purple, Someone's Gonna Die: the Power of Color in Visual Storytelling.
Oxford, UK: Focal Press. 2005. Print.
Haase, Christine. "Bambi, Zombie, Gandhi: The Cinema of Tom Tykwer." When Heimat Meets
Hollywood: German Filmmakers and America, 1985-2005. 2007. 162-196. Print.
leading German expressionists of Die Brucke period, Edward Munch. The orks Cited two sources in MLA format.
Unlike Impressionism, German Expressionism "is not a name for a definite group of people with a common artistic direction. Rather, it is a term used to indicate a permanent tendency in art - particularly during the period 1910-20," which was sub-divided into Die Brucke and the Blaue Reiter. (Expressionism)
The leading expressionists of the Die Brucke group (founded in 1905) reflected intense emotions thereby leaving greater impact on the human psychology with short and wild brushwork, dazzling colors, feeling of subjugation, straight, well defined lines and blatant, vehement combination of colors with the entire works by German artists wrapped in palpable simplicity and elegance (Expressionism).
Apart from Max Beckman, James Ensor, Emil Nolde, Chaim Soutine and Kirchner, the marvelous painter that received inspiration from Van Gogh's style of painting and left…
Expressionism. Art and Design: History of Art Notes. Available at http://www.jghs.edin.sch.uk/expressarts/artnotes/expressionism.html (October 20, 2002)
Edward Munch (1863-1944). Available at http://www.norwegian-scenery.com/facts/culture_science/munch.html (October 20, 2002)
CONVERSATIONS ITH GOETHE
The German poet, novelist, translator, scientist, dramatist, and instrumentalist, Johann olfgang von Goethe (1749 -- 1832)turned out to be the last worldwide mastermind of the est and a ruler of world literature, the writer of ilhelm Meister, Faust and The Sorrows of Young erther,. There is not anywhere else that one can meet a more all-pervading, multifaceted, and Private Goethe than in the astonishing Conversations (1836) which was done by Johann Peter Eckermann (1792 -- 1854), a German scholar and writer in addition to Goethe's acquaintance, archivist, and editor. Even though simply thirty-one at the time of the meeting of the seventy-four-year-old literary expert, Eckermann rapidly dedicated himself to helping Goethe throughout his preceding nine years though never fading to document their far-ranging dialogue. The book gives us Goethe's thoughts on Byron, Delacroix, Hegel, Shakespeare, Carlyle, and Voltaire, in addition to his opinions on astronomy, art, and…
Eckermann, J.P. (1998). Conversations of Goethe with Johann Peter Eckermann. New York: Da Capo Press .
Nationalism was a global trend by the time the Great War broke out. Each nation state developed its own national identity via the use of myths, symbols, and ideology that ranged from ethnic solidarity to political values. Nationalism in Germany became especially potent after the Franco-Prussian War, during which Bismarck wielded his political and military prowess in formidable ways. Crucial to winning the war campaign was a sense of national pride and identity, which Otto von Bismarck promoted through an idealized unity between disparate religious and cultural groups within the various German-speaking states. In addition to promoting a sense of regional identity, Bismarck also championed the vision of an epic, legendary, heroic German state grounded in a sense of power and prestige. Also characteristic to German nationalism was a sense of pride in the act of struggle itself, another point that Bismarck promoted through his speeches. German nationalism had been…
Bismarck, Otto von. The Imperial Proclamation, January 18, 1871
Otto von Bismarck: Letter to Minister von Manteuffel, 1856
Otto von Bismark: Nationalist Speech. April 1, 1895. Retrieved online: https://kquazza.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/blood-and-iron-nationalist-speech.pdf
Johann Gustav Droysen: Speech to the Frankfurt Assembly, 1848
Stategic Planning fo Maket Enty
Baies to Enty
Maket Enty Stategy Selection
Agents, Distibutos and Tading Houses Agents
Distibution and Sales Channels
Stategic Alliances, Licensing and Fanchising
Foeign Diect Investment
Finding the Right Patne
Negotiating a Patneship Ageement
The Ageement Checklist
Have the salient points of the ageement been ageed upon in pinciple?
Paticipants and thei Roles
Section 10: Managing Intenational Business Opeations
In this wok, the case study of Tesla Motos has been taken as an example to undestand the stategies of intenational businesses with paticula attention to Gemany. The wok begins with exploation of stategies pevasive in intenational makets with close attention to enty issues. The vaious foms of foeign investments and business like Geenfield, acquisitions, meges, and Joint Ventues…
Alon, I. (2012). Global franchising operations management: cases in international and emerging markets operations. Upper Saddle River, N.J, Financial Times.
Aswathappa, K. (2010). International business. New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill Education.
Baron, R.A., & Shane, S.A. (2008). Entrepreneurship: a process perspective. Mason (OH), Thomson/South-Western.
Benjamin Levi, K.J. (2006). Market entry strategies of foreign Telecom companies in India. Wiesbaden, Dt. Univ.-Verl. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-8350-9453-6 .
orld ar I and orld ar II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after I and through II and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post I culture of German.
According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.
Members of the movement believed…
Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Barnett, Victoria J. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=79117010
Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford U.S., 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97937045
Holocaust Memory in East and West Germany
In Bernhard Schlink’s Guilt about the Past, the author writes about it what it is like to live under the “long shadow of the past” (26). Schlink states that the Germans felt oppressed by this guilt that their soldiers committed. They are happy to forget it, for example, when the German soccer team scores a goal at the World Cup and shouts, “We are somebody again!” as though the goal erased everything, as though the German soccer team somehow brought respectability to the German nation once more. It was an instance of a man wanting to get back into the light. Yet, after WWII, there was not much light to get into. Just like after WWI, the Germans were saddled with guilt. Only this time, after WWII, they were really made to feel it. They learned that their people had committed a…
Environmental Concern on Green Products Purchase: Empirical Study of German etailers
Evaluation of results
The analysis exhibits various results about the perceptions of German consumers with reference to green products. The findings have been able to achieve the research objectives and test the hypothesis based on the demographic characteristics of the sample population. The results reveal that all the sample population is well educated with 84% of participants have completed the graduate programs. Thus, the participant has advanced knowledge of health benefits of green products. They also have knowledge about the impact of conventional products on the environment, which influences consumer buying decisions of sustainable products. Larsson, & Arif Khan (2011) argue that green awareness motivates consumer's choice of pursuing the green criteria, and consumer's choice of product is also influenced by earlier purchases experience. When informed consumers decide to purchase sustainable products, they search for both primary and secondary…
Andrea K. M. (2016). Buying organic -- decision-making heuristics and empirical evidence from Germany, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(7): 552 -- 561.
Delafrooz, N. Taleghani, M. & Nouri, B. (2013). Effect of green marketing on consumer purchase behaviour. QScience Connect:5.
Larsson, S. & Arif Khan, M. (2011). A Study of Factors That Influence Green Purchase. Umea School of Business and Economics.
Moser, A.K. (2016). Consumers' purchasing decisions regarding environmentally friendly products: An empirical analysis of German consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 31: 389 -- 397.
Deciphering the Enigma
Attempting a machine that would make codes impossible to break, the German military, as seen above, made a number of modifications to their Enigma machines. The plug board for example enabled the machine to increase its number of possible cipher starting points to something between two and three billion. The Enigma's rotors were also interchangeable while being wired differently, adding even more protection and encryption. In order to decipher codes created in this way, the code breaker would need to know not only the positions of each rotor, but also each starting position. Incredibly, according to Cooper, 100 machines working 24 hours per day would take 5.8 years to exhaust all the possibilities created in this way. It was therefore impossible to decipher the codes without the actual machine, the cipher key, and the correct rotor placements.
Nevertheless, there were those who attempted the impossible, and eventually…
Carlson, Andy. About Enigma and its Decryption. 2000. http://homepages.tesco.net/~andycarlson/enigma/about_enigma.html
Cooper, Charles. The Enigma Machine. Probs and Stats, 16 April 2002. http://web.usna.navy.mil/~wdj/sm230_cooper_enigma.html
Kozaczuk, Wladyslaw. The Origins of the Enigma/Ultra Operation. 2001. http://www.enigmahistory.org/text.html
Lycett, Andrew. Breaking Germany's Enigma Code. BBC History, 4 Feb 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/enigma_01.shtml
GERMANY & COMPOSITION OF GOVERNMENT. The research focus CURRENT ( year ) developments composition government. Preferred Resources: 1)The Economist 2) BBC News .
Development and Composition of German Government
Federalism is a key feature of the political system of Germany and its governance. Federalism dates back in the period after orld ar II when Germany was under the leadership Prussians. At this time, "Germany" consisted of a patchwork of states. These states formed the "Old Empire" (Altes Reich) with a common institution, the so-called Immerwahrender Reichstag in Regensburg (1663 -- 1806), composed of representatives of the respective territories. Its key features were power-sharing, bargaining and compromise-seeking (Kitschelt and olfgang 16).
Following the dissolution of that Empire in 1806, 39 territories formed, under Napoleon's protectorate, the Rheinbund (Rhine-Confederation) which was unwieldy and inefficient. The Vienna Congress in 1815 established, the confederal Deutscher Bund, as successor of the Old Empire and with…
Kitschelt, H., and S. Wolfgang. "Germany: Beyond the Stable State (Special Issue),, 26:4." West European Politics 26.4 (2010): 12-26. Print.
Scarrow, Susan. "Party Subsidies and the Freezing of Party Competition: Do Cartels Work?" West European Politics 29.4 (2010): 619-39. Print.
Streeck, Wolfgang, and Thelen. Kathleen. . Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies (Eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
The Economist. "Ready for a Bush Hug " The Economist 2006: 15-19. Print.
World War I
The First World War began in the summer of 1914 with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. The conflict lasted through late 1918, concluding with the treaty of Versailles. The war to end all wars, as it was commonly known, was dominated by trench warfare. Due to numerous advances in defense technology and a lack of tactical advances, both the Allied Nations and the Central Powers, were stymied by a lack of military advances. Early victories in France, by the German army, and in Serbia by the Austrian/Hungarian forces proved to be less than decisive, due to miscommunication between the two Central powers.
Not only was this the First war between so many great world powers, additionally this was the first war to be affected by, and ultimately fought, not only on the battle field but also in the press rooms. Due to expansion in…
In many ways, the entry into World War II was very similar to World War II for all the countries involved. Germany, just as before, was the main instigator of the war, and many people feel they would not have had the strength and opportunity to do this if their army had been disbanded after their defeat at the end of World War I. This was not done, and it gave them enough power to attempt to take over most of Europe under their leader, Adolph Hitler. German aggression started this war, and it helped develop new allies among European nations, and ultimately the world.
In March 1939, the Germans took over Czechoslovakia, and in September, they invaded Poland. The Nazis, under Hitler, were aligned with Italy and later signed a "non-aggression" pact with ussia, while Great Britain was aligned with Poland and France. Germany was bent on taking over…
Pullman, P. The golden compass. New York: Ballantine Books, 1997.
Luther "On Christian Liberty'" Appeal German Nobility. 1.hat complaints Papacy "Appeal German Nobility'? 2.Outline Luther's position saving power faith works 'On Christian Liberty'? Do's fair? Reading: Shakespeare Richard II 1.
Martin Luther's "Appeal to the German Nobility" was meant to stand as an attack on Rome with regard to the Catholic Church's failure to support reform. He emphasized three walls of the Romanists in the document and discussed about the reasons why it was essential for society to acknowledge the Church's failure to act in accordance with its early principles.
The first idea relates to how there is no difference between the secular and temporal states and that the Book of Revelation actually supports the belief that baptism enables individuals to act as priests. This first issue was meant to provide the masses with information concerning how priests were little more than functionaries.
The second idea denounces the Pope's authority…
Luther, Martin, "On Christian liberty," (Augsburg Fortress, Publishers, 2003)
Shakespeare, William, "Richard II," (Bell, 1786)
Reacting to the Fate of the German Energiewende
In contrast to the United States, many European nations have made substantial investments in green energy. Germany is one of the most committed of all EU countries to ensuring there is a source of clean, green power for future generations. Yet the organization German Energiewende unfortunately met with a sad fate, despite what seemed like a promising business model of developing so-called Q-cells to satisfy the nation’s energy needs. According to McKillop (2013), the company grew complacent from receiving heavy subsidies from German federal and local government. Despite interest from private investors at first, this was not enough to sustain the organization. It eventually was forced to file for bankruptcy. The company is a cautionary tale about the fact that green energy must have a sustainable environmental model to fulfill its promises within a relatively constrained time period. Although it can take…
The impact of Marx's theories was not as significant during his lifetime as in the 20th century after his death. Nevertheless, his ideas about class struggle were considered so dangerous by the governments dominated by the elite class that he was repeatedly prosecuted and exiled from major European countries such as France and Germany for propagating revolution. Besides his writings, he formed the Communist League and the First International to promote working class revolutions in the industrial countries, putting his own belief that "there is no point in gaining a deeper insight into the world unless it is a means of changing the world." ("Karl Marx: Man of Millenium.") After his death, however, with the growth of the labor movement in Europe, Marx's theories began to take on greater significance.
Various socialist movements around the world took up his analysis of capitalist economy, his theory of historical materialism,…
Karl Marx: Man of the Millennium." (n.d.) Retrieved on March 17, 2005 at http://www.swp.ie/resources/KARL%20MARX.htm
Kreis, S. (2004). "Karl Marx, 1818-1883." History Guide Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Last Revised May 13, 2004. Retrieved on March 17, 2005 at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html
Marx, Karl." (2005). Article in Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, 2005. Retrieved on March 17, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761555305/Karl_Marx.html
Samuels, W.J. (1993). "The Status of Marx after the Disintegration of the U.S.S.R." Challenge,
The nineteenth century German philosopher Immanuel Kant presented an ethical code that assigned a strict "right" or "wrong" to every action. Called the categorical imperative, Kant believed that it does not matter what the consequences or outcome of actions are; there are certain things that are right and certain things that are wrong. These ethical categories of right and wrong are not negotiable. It can never be "sometimes" ok to tell a white lie, or to steal. Instead, Kant created easy to understand categories that apply theoretically to all cultures and all people at all times. Human beings are always morally obliged to do the right thing in any given situation, even if doing so leads to suffering. Therefore, it would be considered right to tell the truth to a murderer and subsequently die rather than to lie to the murderer and survive. Davis (n.d.). uses the example of…
Davis, S.P. (n.d.). Three-minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. [video] Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw
"Ethics." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/kant.html
Johnson, R. "Kant's Moral Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved online: .
tatus of Open Data in Europe
Open data refers to the idea of having certain data freely available for people to republish and use as they wish (Open Government Data, n.d). There are no restrictions like patents, mechanism control, or copyright placed on the person using the data. Open data is mainly aimed at allowing governments to share their information with the public. This brings about Open Government Data that refers to any data commissioned or produced by a government that can be freely used, redistributed, and reused by anyone. For data to be considered open, it should be readily available and the person requiring the data should not have to make a request (Bedini et al.). The advancement of the internet and World Wide Web has pushed for open government data. The advancements made on the internet have allowed people from across the world to access data…
Sheridan, J., & Tennison, J. (2010). Linking UK Government Data. Paper presented at the LDOW.
Vienna City Administration. (N.D,). Open Data in Vienna, from http://www.wien.gv.at/english/politics-administration/open-data.html
Wonderlich, J. (2010). TEN PRINCIPLES FOR OPENING UP GOVERNMENT INFORMATION, from https://sunlightfoundation.com/policy/documents/ten-open-data-principles/
Although the German Air Force, largely thanks to the daring talents of the von Richthofen and his squadron, established dominance in the air, the ar on the ground was not developing well for the Central Powers. As the year 1917 came to a close the fortunes of the Central Powers were waning and in early 1918 matters worsened as they lost their best aviator in the form of von Richthofen. The details of how von Richthofen lost his life are debated but the fact that it occurred on the morning after he registered his 80th aerial kill is not. The German high command had been urging von Richthofen to retire from combat and to retire to a desk position but, at the tender age of 26, von Richthofen was not ready to do so. As a result of his reluctance to retire, Germany and the Central Powers lost a great…
Franks, N. (2001). Fokker Dr. I Aces of World War I. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
Kilduff, P. (2000). Richthofen: Beyond the Legend of the Red Baron. London: Brockhampton Press.
King, H. (1980). Sopwith Aircraft 1912-1920. London: Putnam.
life of Martin Luder (Luther) and how he discovered the truth behind the Church of Rome and its corruption. It also looks at the way he helped the German people during the revolt of 1525.
Bibliography cites five sources APA format.
Religion throughout the years has had many preachers and evangelists who have talked and called for a new wave in the way many have come to follow Christ, for example many years ago the famous evangelical churches of England and Canada were stating that the Holy spirit was coming like a tidal wave, yet few turned to Christ.
ith there methods being somewhat questionable and with the lack on evangelical attitudes what is their left for the church to argue and what ammunition or work can they utilize to provide a positive attitude for members of the church. Today the view of the church and how it…
Wiles Maurice,; (1974). 'The Remaking of Christian Doctrine, The Hulsean Lectures, 1973', London: SCM Press
Metzger, B. (1992).'The Text of the New Testament; Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration', (3rd ed). New York, Oxford University Press;
Radford, B (2002) Luther [online] accessed at http://home.inforamp.net/~radfordr/1550d.html
orld Health Care Systems
Taking into account that this PBS Frontline production is several years old, and was produced before the Affordable Care Act was signed into law, some of the details shown in the video are certainly not current. Still, the comparison between the German healthcare system and the U.S. healthcare system shows a wide gap in service, in cost, in consumer satisfaction and in results. Meantime, the positive parts of the German healthcare system are far better and far fairer for the consumer than the system in the United States.
The German Healthcare System vs. The U.S. System
The PBS reporter states that the philosophy in Germany since the time of Otto von Bismarck (Prussian leader in the late 1800s) has been that "A government has to provide mechanism so all its people can get medical care when they need it (PBS). "The Bismarck model is used all…
Frontline. "Sick Around the World." Public Broadcast System. Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org . 2007.
Klein, Ezra. "Ten Reasons Why American Health Care Is so Bad." The American Prospect.
Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://prospect.org . 2007.
Justinian Institutes true test of the validity of a written philosophy, work of art or literature, or law is its endurance: How long it is used or appreciated and by how many people, and its reach to other cultures and societies. Based on this definition, the Institutes of Justinian have a very strong, enduring history of validity. Although written as far back as 535 CE, the ideas behind this set of Roman laws is still very relevant today.
Justinian's Institutes were composed in Constanstinople. It is one of the greatest legal documents of ancient times, summarizing over a thousand years of legal expertise. Justinian was the Roman Emperor in late antiquity, the last time that this empire could go on the offensive with any hope of winning. However, Justinian accomplished much during his tenure. His extensive building program has left the world some of the finest examples of Byzantine ecclesiastical…
Plight of a Stranger
The writer German sociologist Georg Simmel has provided many fine glimpses into his views of society. Simmel has provided unique looks at different aspects of our society and his essay The Stranger offers another look into societal fragmentation. Simmel looks at how the entrance of a stranger into a group changes the group dynamics and how such change affects the group. He looks critically at the marginal personality but finds value in its existence.
Simmel's stranger is not just someone passing through on his way to somewhere else. Instead his stranger is someone who comes into the community and stays. He is not the proverbial wanderer always on his way to somewhere else. He is simply not a member of the group but brings new qualities and features that the group lacked before he came into it. The group itself has behavior that is termed as…
Golmohamad, M. (2004). World Citizenship, Identity and the Notion of an Integrated Self. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 131-148.
Karakayali, N. (2006). The Uses of the Stranger: Circulation, Arbitration, Secrecy and Dirt. Sociological Theory, 312-330.
Lechner, F.J. (1991). Simmel on Social Space. Theory, Culture, and Society, 195-201.
Spykman, N. (2004). The Social Theory of Georg Simmel. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.