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Gettysburg & Vicksburg
The battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg were two of the ultimate and deciding events of the United States Civil War. The Gettysburg battle was far and away the bloodiest battle in the war and was a direct defeat for General Lee and his puruit of the North. Vicksburg was also a demoralizing defeat for the Confederates given that they held on for dear life for more than a month and finally had to surrender after a prolonged siege. Both battlefronts hit their climax in July of 1863 and, in concert, spelled the end for the Confederates in the Civil War.
Details of the Battles
The Gettysburg battle was significant because it emphatically and definitely cut off the incursion of the Confederate Army into the North in 1863. aging on for a couple of days in early July of 1863, both sides sustained more than 23,000 casualties with…
Riley, MB. "Top Ten Civil War History Highlights from Gettysburg and Vicksburg, July 4
Battles of 150 Years Ago." The University of Cincinnati, in Cincinnati, Ohio, is a public, research university founded in 1819., University of Cincinnati.
http://www.uc.edu/news/NR.aspx?id=17932 (accessed October 7, 2013).
In a long war of attrition, which the Civil War became after 1861, all of the economic, financial and population advantages would favor the North since the South was a mostly agrarian region that imported its manufactured goods. Initially, both sides had expected that the war would be short and decisive, although by 1862 it was clear that it might drag on indefinitely. Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and the other Southern leaders realized that their best chance would be to win a series of rapid military victories early in the war then appeal to Britain, France and other European nations for diplomatic recognition. They did not wish to conquer the North nor did they ever imagine that they had the capacity to do so. Their only goal was to gain independence and force the other side to end the war, but the longer it lasted, the more the…
On July 3rd, Lee ordered a final attack by Ewell on Culp's Hill, which was thrown back. After this failure, he ignored Longstreet's advice again and ordered an attack on the Union center at Cemetery Ridge. The Confederate artillery fired until they ran out of ammunition at about 3 PM, and then Gen. George Pickett advanced with 12,500 men. After the bombardment lifted, the Northern troops were surprised to see the enemy marching in rows across open ground, and began to chant "Fredericksburg, Fredericksburg!" As a reminder of the defeat the Union had suffered there after attacking a well-fortified opposing force. Then the Union artillery and infantry opened fire with devastating effect, killing or wounding half of the attackers. They reached the Union lines only at one point, known as the Bloody Angle or 'the High-water Mark of the Confederacy." This was where Gen. Louis Armistead started waving his hat on the end of a sword to urge the Confederates on, but was then shot down. In cavalry engagements on the same day, Gen. George Custer Michigan cavalry distinguished itself against Confederate cavalry under Jeb Stuart and Wade Hampton, preventing a flanking attack on Cemetery Hill.
Modern historians calculate that the total casualties of this three-day battle were about 57,000, with about 3,000 dead on the Union side and nearly 5,000 for the Confederates, making it the deadliest single engagement of the war. Nearly one-third of the Confederate generals were casualties. On July 4, 1863, one day after Lee retreated from Gettysburg, the fortress city of Vicksburg surrendered, effectively cutting the Confederacy in two. Although there would be two more years of very bloody fighting, the South remained on the defensive and was slowly ground down in a relentless war of attrition. Had Britain and France intervened militarily and diplomatically on the side of the South, it might well have tipped the balance in favor of Confederate independence. After the defeats at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in 1863, the South's hopes for foreign recognition and intervention faded, although they still hoped that Lincoln might lose the 1864 election to the conservative, pro-slavery Democrat George McClellan. When Union military victories like General William T. Sherman's capture of Atlanta in 1864 made Lincoln's reelection inevitable, the Confederate leaders realized they had no more cards to play, for Lincoln had always been determined to fight the war to the finish. At least some Confederate leaders probably began to turn to truly desperate ideas in the final months of the war like kidnapping or even assassinating Lincoln, but this was grasping at straws. Their only hope for independence had always been a decisive military victory in a short war, before all the structural advantages of labor, population, resources and antislavery, free labor ideology all came into play to the advantage of the North.
The Civil War was a battle that tore the United States into two dividing loyalties and families across the states. That it is a scar that still rankles the North and South cannot be doubted and yet, one event during the war is remembered over all others -- the Battle of Gettysburg. The battle took place for three days and yet, even today we see almost 1.3 million people visit the same ground in hope of reliving the event that took place on July 1 and 3, 1863. 75,000 Confederate soldiers under the leadership of General obert E. Lee and almost 84,000 Union soldiers who came under the command of General George G. Meade fought the Battle of Gettysburg. With about 51,000 casualties and more than 10,000 soldiers dead Gettysburg was considered to be one of the most tragic battles of the American history and one that changed the…
SCHENSUL, JILL Staff Writer, ECHOES OF GETTYSBURG., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 06-20-1993, pp t01.
Cobb, Ron Post-Dispatch Travel Editor, BEHIND EVERY GOOD GETTYSBURG MONUMENT IS AN EVEN BETTER STORY., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 12-16-2001, pp T1.
Shaara, Micheal The killer Angels. New York: Ballantine Books 1974.
Peters, John U, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address., The Explicator, 10-01-2001, pp 22.
However, Lee won out, and the solid line attacked. It was a fatal decision as Union forces literally mowed down Confederate troops by the thousands.
One historian later concluded, "Apparently it never occurred to him that the position [the Union line on Cemetery idge] could not be taken" (Wert 101). While the numbers vary, most people agree the South lost between 3,900 to 4,500 men, while the Union lost about 3,155 during the three days of battle. Clearly, not nearly as many men died at Gettysburg as did at Antietam. The turning point did not rely on the number of men killed or wounded in battle. Ultimately, it depended on the momentum of the army and its leader. Lee made some mistakes on the battlefield, such as demanding a long, united line. It cost him thousands of men, the battle, and ultimately the war. The South turned toward home after…
Editors. "Antietam National Battlefield." National Park Service. 2007. 2 May 2007. http://www.nps.gov/anti/battle.htm
Kinsel, Amy J. "9 From Turning Point to Peace Memorial: a Cultural Legacy." The Gettysburg Nobody Knows. Ed. Gabor S. Boritt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 203-222.
McPherson, James M. Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Nofi, Albert a. The Gettysburg Campaign, June-July 1863. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Publishing, 1997.
Both days featured fierce fighting and thousands of deaths. Doyle points out that the Union troops had an advantage by retreating to "Little Round Top" and "Big Round Top," hilly areas that had many boulders, some of which the Union troops had piled high enough to be walls.
On that second day while the Union troops were "firmly in place on the high ground," Lee made a decision to attack both Round Tops. Lee's trusted officer, General Longstreet, urged Lee to attacked the rear of the Union position, but Lee went for the hilly locations instead. Because the Union troops had built "breastwork fortifications of diabase boulders" on the hill, that made it tougher to penetrate. The boulders kept the Confederate troops back even though the Union soldiers on top of the hills were far fewer than their opponents trying to scale the hills, according to Doyle.
Day three (July…
Doyle, Peter. "Military Geology and the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1863." Geology Today,
22.4 (2006): 142-149.
eHistory. "Gettysburg (1863) American Civil War." Retrieved July 24, 2012, from http://ehistory.osu.edu/world/battleview.cfm?bid=42 . 2008.
National Parks Service. "History & Culture: The Battle of Gettysburg." Retrieved July 24,
Antietam and Gettysburg
While most of the battles of the American Civil War took place on Southern territory, there were two major battles which took place in the North: Antietam and Gettysburg. In both cases, the Union forces were fighting off a Confederate invasion aimed at forcing the North to accept Southern secession. In both instances, the North was victorious, and these victories had a significant impact in the outcome of the war.
The Battle of Antietam took place near the town of Sharpsburg, Maryland on September 17, 1862. Southern forces, under the command of General obert E. Lee, had invaded the North in hopes of capturing the capitol Washington D.C.. However, an Union army under the command of General George McClellan intercepted Lee's army and fought it to a standstill. Outnumbered two to one, Lee retreated back into Virginia, however, the meek McClellan did not pursue and Lee's army…
Goldfield, David, R. et al. (2008). The American Journey. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Instead, he writes to poem to discuss the essence of Douglass's work. Until true justice is achieved, and until there is true social equity, Douglass's narrative will remain just a work of history. Hayden dreams of a world in which freedom is second-nature and we no longer need to study slave narratives to know why.
A focal point of the poem is the term "freedom," which is "beautiful and terrible" and as "needful to man as air." Hayden repeats the word "needful" in the last line of the poem to emphasize the necessity of freedom for human life, thereby implying that a life led without freedom is no life at all. Hayden's poem is empowering, as he focuses on the "dream of the beautiful, needful thing" rather than on the bitterness of the enslavement that prompted the poem in the first place.
Hayden incorporates a number of poetic devices to…
Hayden, Robert. "Frederick Douglass."
Lincoln, Abraham. The Gettysburg Address
Stars in Their Courses: The Gettysburg Campaign June-July 1863
About the Author
Shelby Foote was born in Mississippi. His father died when he was five leaving his mother to raise him alone, he was also an only child. He was a reader from his early years, mainly because he was so alone. He was a teenager during the Great Depression. At the age of thirteen he became friends with Walker Percy, who he would remain friends with for 60 years and whose friendship is recorded in a book of the letters between the two friends.
Foote was editor of his high school paper and after high school went on to the University of North Carolina, where he contributed to the literary magazine. He dropped out of college during the second world war and joined the National Guard. He began writing fiction while waiting to go to war and in 1946…
American Academy of Achievement. Shelby Foote: Novelist & Historian Biography. American Academy of Achievement, 2002. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/foo0int-1 ?rand=2649' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Killer Angels by Michael Shaara (1993) gives a detailed account of the attle of Gettysburg -- the war that lured the dueling North and South to the tiny town of Gettysburg and was the first step in splitting the Union. Shaara gives his readers a view of the attle of Gettysburg as seen by generals and men who were at the heart of the battle. "The Killer Angels" is a historical tale that goes beyond the factual accounts of history textbooks, adding a personal touch that makes its readers feel like they are a part of the story.
The story takes place in Gettysburg, a small town near the Pennsylvania-Maryland border. Shaara tells the story of the attle of Gettysburg from both Northern and Southern perspectives, which serves as an excellent way to make the reader listen to and sympathize with both sides. Neither side is completely antagonized.
Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels. Ballantine Books, 1993.
The Killer Angels
Clearly General Lee is fed up with the lack of intelligence; "I know nothing," he is thinking; Lee believed he could depend on the troops but "…can you count on the generals?" (173). On July 1, when all this activity began Lee ordered General Ewell to "take" the Powell Hill. Lee did say in the novel that Ewell should take the hill if it is "practicable" to do so (181). Lee was committed to taking the two "rounded hills" above Gettysburg, but it was not to be.
Ewell's excuse to Lee (as to why he didn't take the hill) was that it wasn't "practical" to do so and that Ewell's forces were "…waiting, ah, for many reasons" (226). Ewell went on to admit that he was perhaps too cautious, too careful (236). And it turned out to be a big mistake that Ewell was too cautious, and failed to follow…
Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels. New York: Random House (Large Print), 1974.
War can be seen as a pillar of te American tradition. We are a nation born of war - our Revolution - and defined by war - our Civil War.
Tere were a number of circumstances tat led to te colonists' rebellion against England and te monarcy. Tensions began to rise wen King George III issued te Proclamation of 1763, banning Englis settlements west of te Appalacian mountains and ordering anyone in tose regions to return east.
In 1764, te Sugar Act was passed, increasing duties on imported good, and establised a court to deal wit custom matters.
Te Currency Act proibited colonists from issuing paper money as legal tender, tus, destabilizing te colonial economy, and colonists called for a boycott of Britis luxury goods.
Te Stamp Act of 1865 ordered colonists to pay tax directly to England and te Quartering Act ordered colonists to ouse and feed Britis troops.…
Prelude to Revolution -- Civil War. The History Place
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…
"Civil War Overview." 2008. Son of the South. 26 April 2009
Ferland, R.W. 2009. AuthorsDen.com. 26 April 2009
Lincoln's Speech Compared
The Evolution of Lincoln's Thought in His Speeches
Abraham Lincoln is one of the most celebrated and popular Presidents in the history of the United States. Lincoln presided over the Presidency at a difficult time for the country, when the unity of the nation was at stake and the question of slavery deeply polarized the society into two. Lincoln was able to preserve the Union, but at a great cost which made him as controversial as he was popular. But it is uncontroversial among his contemporaries and the readers of his speeches today that the sixteenth President of the United States was a great orator, able to address a broad range of audience: rich and poor, literate and illiterate, freemen and slaves; and he possessed a rare skill of persuasion. Lincoln was able to address a divided nation with great care and measurement. He was reserved when…
All the references come from The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, edited by Roy P. Basler, and is available online at (Accessed: February 19, 2011).
It appeared almost as if the South might win, and many of Lincoln's advisers "said that there was no way to win the war and he might need to compromise on slavery," (Moreton, 2008). However, Lincoln would not budge. It would have certainly been the politically expedient thing to do for Lincoln to surrender and make a compromise that would result in the preservation of the union on the South's terms. Lincoln did not want to preserve the union at the expense of its moral integrity, though. For Lincoln, the emancipation of the slaves was integral to the creation of a "more perfect union." eferring to the tremendous loss of life that the Civil War caused, Lincoln (1863) stated in the Gettysburg Address, "It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced." The…
Goodwin, D.K. (2005). Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Lincoln, a. (1863). Gettysburg address. Retrieved online: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/gettyb.asp
Moreton, C.L. (2008). 10 Qualities that Made Abraham Lincoln a Great Leader. HRBLR. Retrieved online: http://hr.blr.com/whitepapers/Staffing-Training/Leadership/10-Qualities-that-Made-Abraham-Lincoln-a-Great-Lea
Phillips, D.T. (1992). Lincoln on Leadership. New York: Warner.
" (p. 164) the army of Charles was defeated in this battle however, it was not destroyed. The total loss of life in this campaign for each side of the battle was astronomical.
The work of Lieutenant Colonel Herman L. Gilster entitled: "Robert E. Lee and Modern Decision Theory" published in the Air University Review (1972) states in the attle of Chancellorsville, in Virginia in May 1863 involved a battle between the Union Army of the Potomac, headed by Major General Joseph L. Hooker and the Army of Northern Virginia, led by General Robert E. Lee. Specifically stated is:
During the campaign, Lee, with a force approximately half the size of Hooker's, repulsed the North's advance into Virginia and achieved a strategic victory that has been studied by students of military art throughout the world. However, today's critics of the quantitative-oriented decision tools being used by our military services…
Alexander, Bevin (2007) How the South Could Have Won the Civil War. Online available at: www.bevinalexander.com/books/how-the-south-could-have-won.intro.htm.
Bell, Jason (2006) Lost Triumph: Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg - and why it failed" Army Lawyer 1 Aug 2006. Online available at http://www.encyclopedia.com/printable.aspx?id=1G1:155294558
C.H. Lanza, ed., Napo/eon and Modern War. His Mi/itary Maxims (Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., 1949), Maxim 77. In Ross (1985)
Carhart, Tom (2005) Lost Triumph: Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg and Why it Failed.
Essentially little more than a last-ditch suicide run, Chamberlain's out-of-ammunition bayonet-charge captured a good portion of the Alabama brigade and turned the tide of attle of Gettysburg in favor of the Union.
It was the cry of men like Chamberlain to hold the line and orders like Vincent's, "Don't give an inch!" that made all the difference in the attle of Little Round Top and the conflict that continued at Gettysburg.
Cross, David F. "Mantled in Fire and Smoke," America's Civil War, 4 (Jan. 1992): 39-
rann, James R. "Defense of Little Round Top." America's Civil War, November 1999,
Goellnitz, Jenny. "Strong Vincent: The Hero of the attle of Little Round Top." 2010,
Henning, Jeff. "Spiritual Lessons We Learn from Great Military attles of History."
JeffsOpinion, 2009, http://jeffsopinions.blogspot.com/2009/06/spiritual-lessons-from-little-round-top.html
Lee, Robert E. "Letter to CSA President Jefferson Davis." The American Civil War:
The attle of Gettysburg,…
Cross, David F. "Mantled in Fire and Smoke," America's Civil War, 4 (Jan. 1992): 39-
Brann, James R. "Defense of Little Round Top." America's Civil War, November 1999,
attle of ristoe Station led many to question the Confederacy's grasp of tactics as it was a strategic blunder. In many respects, it confirmed assumptions made after the battle of Gettysburg that the leadership of the Army of Northern Virginia's officer corps was not infallible. It is the principle battle of the ristoe campaign, one in which General Lee attempted to separate the Army of the Potomac from its supply lines and prevent the North from sending more troops to Georgia to make inroads into the Confederate interior. On October 14, A.P. Hill's corps stumbled on two Corps of the retreating Union army at ristoe Station and attacked without proper reconnaissance. In fact, his opponents were Union soldiers of the II Corps, that lay to his right. elieving re-enforcement troops to be close at hand, Hill ordered Henry Heth's division to attempt to breach General Warren's well-fortified line behind the…
Downey, Fairfax. The Guns at Gettysburg. New York: D. McKay, 1958. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=6839287
Draper, John William. History of the American Civil War. Vol. 2. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1867. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=14877569
Robin Higham, and Steven E. Woodworth, eds. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=1712535
Hosmer, James Kendall. Outcome of the Civil War, 1863-1865. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1907. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=9901102
He was put in a difficult position, since "Lincoln and the Republicans could not tolerate for long the presence of the most famous Rebel army on Northern Soil" (Gallagher 127). Meade himself "arrived upon the battle-field at one in the morning, pale, tired-looking, hollow-eyed, and worn out from want of sleep, anxiety, and the weight of responsibility" (Rhodes 672). He proceeded to lead with a commitment that matched that of his older, more experienced adversary.
ith significantly less troops at the outset of the battle, the North turned the tide of the war in their favor. They achieved this with patient and careful decision-making. Meade, to his credit, "decided to await attack, and if he had studied closely the character and history of his energetic adversary, he might have been almost certain it would come" (Rhodes 672). As in many other instances in life, the choice of when to be…
Gallagher, Gary W. Three Days at Gettysburg: Essays on Confederate and Union Leadership.
Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1999.
Rhodes, James Ford. "The Battle of Gettysburg." The American Historical Review 4.4 (1899):
On July 3, Generals Lee and Longstreet continue to face-off, creating strife within their own troops. The political problems that Lee and Longstreet embody are mirrors for the brother-fighting-brother theme that is central to any civil war. Thus, Shaara presents another paradox of war: when is it reasonable to fight and kill one's bretheren? Also, Lee is in charge of the Confederate Army but General Longstreet still has a considerable amount of clout among the troops. Both Longstreet and Lee are presented as relatively poor leaders given how far they had come by the Battle of Gettysburg, practically pushing the Union to surrender until Gettysburg changed everything. Union troops suffered considerable losses but thanks to Colonel Chamberlain, the troops succeeded and helped preserve the union. Shaara does not so much glorify the Civil War as the author does elucidate the underlying issues that pit North against South.
"General James Longstreet,…
The military of the United States of America is currently comprised of four branches: the Army, the Navy, the Marines, and the Air Force. This, of course, was not always the case. Before the era of modern vehicles and modern technologies, the grandest branch of the American militia was the cavalry. In the early period of American history, from the American Revolution and up to the Second orld ar, the horse was the primary source of quick transportation and the most effective method of giving and receiving information from long distances apart. The cavalry were mounted militia which was considered among the toughest and most effective branch of the military then in existence. In the present moment historically, the cavalry have been relegated to the margins of the armed forces, used primarily for formal iconography that military function. This being the case, it is quite easy to forget the…
Beattie, Daniel (2008). Brandy Station 1863: First Step Towards Gettysburg. UK: Osprey.
Black, Robert W. (2004). Cavalry Raids of the Civil War. PA: Stackpole.
Fordney, Ben (2008). George Stoneman: a Biography of the Union General. USA: McFarland.
Heidler, David (2000). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio. 378-
Civil War and Its Meaning
The Civil War defined Americans because it was the war fought over the Constitution as it was written. It was the war of States' ights and the War of Northern Aggression. It was the war that brought about the totalitarian drive of the central state, where the President assumed for himself authoritarian powers. There were actually many facets to it: the election of Lincoln, the low tariffs set by Southern Congressmen, which upset Northern Industrial magnates, the Homestead Act and the rise of the transcontinental railroad -- both of which could be seen as maneuvers by Northern states to take over the Midwest in a move to block out Southern influence and expansion to the West (Egnal, 2001, p. 30); and the issue of slavery (flamed to inferno-like levels by men like the radical abolitionist John Brown).
The South regretted surrendering because they didn't just…
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History, 41(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War. NY: Random House.
Gettysburg Casualties. (2015). History.net. Retrieved from http://www.historynet.com/gettysburg-casualties
Killer Angels: A Novel by Michael Shaara. Specifically it will contain a summary and analysis of the book. "The Killer Angels" is a work of fiction that won the Pulitzer Prize in 1975. It tells the story of the Battle of Gettysburg from the viewpoints of two of the generals fighting there -- obert E. Lee and James Longstreet. Shaara says he wrote the book because he wanted people to know what it was like to be there in the middle of battle. He writes, "He wanted to know what it was like to be there, what the weather was like, what men's faces looked like. In order to live it he had to write it. This book was written for much the same reason" (Shaara vii). This is the thesis for writing the book, and why the book exists. Critics have called it one of the best historical novels…
Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels: A Novel. New York, Ballantine Books, 1974.
What was the war's bloodiest day? Was it Gettysburg? No. It occurred in September, 1862, at Antietam Creek in Maryland, when 22,700 soldiers died. "[General] Lee "hoped to win decisively...but the Union army prevailed."
Meantime, the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1 through July 3, 1863, was the bloodiest battle of the war. It was the "most famous and most important Civil War Battle... [General Lee] believed his own [rebel] army was invincible..." Potter asserts. But in fact the Confederates suffered an estimated 28,000 casualties (out of 75,000 men in battle) and the Union lost 23,000 out of 88,000 - albeit, the Union won the battle. Doing the math one comes up with around 51,000 deaths on that blood-drenched, corpse-cluttered battlefield.
On July 1 and July 2, 1863, the Confederate army had gotten the best of the fighting, but Friday, July 3, 1863, would be another day, and would end quite…
Victory speech" offer close readings of presidential speeches given during times of crisis. Safire's essay analyzes Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," which was delivered during a commemoration ceremony soon after one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil ar. ood's essay analyzes Barak Obama's victory speech after Obama won the presidency in 2008. Obama, the first African-American elected to the office of the presidency, took power during a time when America was at war and facing its deepest financial crisis since the Great Depression.
Safire analyzes the Gettysburg Address to encourage the reader reconsider the speech in a new way, given that the Address has become a kind of cliche, rather than a living, breathing document that inspires people. Safire notes the number of times the word 'dedicate' is articulated in the speech, and the determination and self-sacrifice called upon by Lincoln. He analyzes how the speech is broken down, paragraph…
Safire, William. "A spirit reborn." The New York Times. September 9, 2002. [March 24, 2011]
Wood, Victor. "A spirit reborn." The New Yorker. November 17, 2008. [March 24,
(Steamboats, incidentally, did even better.)
Due to the heavy emphasis on steam transportation, especially by rail the government was better equipped to man and supply vast areas of the nation in combat. The train also traveled at a far greater speed than other more traditional forms of transport, as much as 5 times faster than the mule-drawn wagons of the day. Therefore fewer vehicles were needed and supplies and people arrived in far better condition than they had in the past.
Troops traveling by train rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and fewer instances of straggling and desertion, even though the freight cars used for most troop movements were anything but comfortable. Supplies hauled by rail were more likely to reach the troops in useable condition, owing both to the speed of delivery and to the shelter afforded by enclosed railroad cars.
There are countless examples of the alterations…
Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.
Black, Robert C. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Fite, Emerson David. Social and Industrial Conditions in the North during the Civil War. Williamstown, MA: Corner House, 1976.
Gable, Dr. Christopher R. "Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy " at http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/gabel4/gabel4.asp
During this time he was known for allowing his troops to engage in tactics that were considered to be brutal. This is because he felt that the constant Indian attacks on the railroads and settlers were unacceptable. As a result, he allowed soldiers to attack women, children and men when they were sweeping villages. At the same time, he helped to establish the Command and General Staff College along with writing his autobiography called Memoires. Once he retired from the army he was inducted into the Kappa Psi fraternity and the Irving Literary Society. Upon his death in 1891, Sherman was remembered for being brilliant military tactician and as someone who was willing to give something back to society. This is significant, because it is showing how Sherman's life was focused on military and public service after the end of the Civil War. The answers the question we are studying,…
"George Meade." History of War, 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
"Joshua Chamberlin." Defense Media Network, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
Lanning, Michael. The Civil War 100. Naperville, IL: Source Books, 2006. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
The Battle decimated the troops, but it also affected their morale and their own belief they could win the war. It was a decisive battle for both sides, and when the South lost, it was another element that would lead to their defeat. Union victories in the West (Vicksburg and Port Hudson) simply added to the South's woes as they retreated from Gettysburg.
Finally, the third important factor in the South's defeat was President Lincoln's reelection. The Democrats made the war a major part of their platform, especially the freeing of the slaves in the Emancipation Proclamation, and their candidate, had he won, might have recalled the petition and changed the tide of the war. However, Lincoln's reelection showed a majority of the country supported the president and his policies, and that included his staunch position on the war. The Democrats wanted peace at any cost, but their nominee (General…
McPhearson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw Hill.
Robert E. Lee was a significant figure in history and his actions impacted history in many ways. Lee is considered to be among other things, a great solider. He was also an ideal strategist and his decisions did lead to implications that can be seen today. Perhaps the most significant of his actions was choosing to support the Confederates. For example, had he decided to side with the North, the Civil ar might have lasted less than a year. In addition, Lee's actions had a ripple effect on the Emancipation Proclamation as well as the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. His life is a constant reminder of how individuals can shape history.
Robert E. Lee was born on January 19, 1807 in Virginia. Lee wanted to follow in his father's footsteps and serve in the military and due to financial reasons, ended up joining est Point in 1825. There he proved…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David.
The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1990.
Murrin, John, et al. Liberty Equality Power: A History of the American People. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1999.
Social Policy Websites Using the CAAP Method: Implications for Human Services Professionals
Human services professionals increasingly obtain information from the internet. Given the critical nature of the human services field, ensuring that information is correct, up-to-date, credible, and verifiable is crucial. The CAAP tool (Currency, eliability, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose) is a useful tool human services professionals may use to achieve this. In this paper, three policy-oriented websites were evaluated using the tool. The selected websites were Aclu.og, ProCon-org, and Vaccineresistancemovement.org. Scoring 11 points in total, ProCon.org was found to be the most useful website. Aclu.org scored slightly lower than ProCon.org, achieving a total score of 10 points. Though ProCon.org and Aclu.org have high scores, it would be prudent to confirm their information with other sources as they did not reach the score for an excellent source of information. Vaccineresistancemovement.org scored the least, with 6 points. This means that it…
Gettysburg College. (2016). How to evaluate resources. Retrieved from https://www.gettysburg.edu/library/research/tips/webeval/index.dot
Qakseclib.weebly.com (n.d.). The C.R.A.P test. Retrieved from http://qakseclib.weebly.com/uploads/2/6/7/8/26787452/webeval.pdf
European Parliament, Democratic Legitimacy and the EU
The EU has three legislative aspects—the supranational aspect (the Commission), the intergovernmental aspect (the European Council and the Council of the EU), and the parliamentary aspects (the EP). Yet, only one of these bodies is directly elected in a democratic fashion (the EP), which means that the overwhelming majority of the EU’s legislative totality is specifically non-democratic in character. In other words, the only way the people of Europe can directly and democratically influence the shaping of EU policy is through the EP. This is undoubtedly why, as Ronald Holzhacker points out, “scholars, politicians and the public have bemoaned a lack of democratic legitimacy in the European Union (EU) for decades.”[footnoteRef:2] [2: Ronald Holzhacker, "Democratic legitimacy and the European Union." European Integration 29, no. 3 (2007), 257.]
The Central Question
The question this essay aims to answer is: To what extent does the…
The decisive moment in the Virginia theater came down to this: on the first day of the ilderness, the new commander Grant stood behind the line and met Union troops that had been routed. Rather than ordering them to return to ashington as McClellan might have, admitting defeat, he merely sent them back down a transverse road to attack at another point. All that was left was a battle of attrition which the South could never hope to win.
Ambrose Bierce was one of the leading American literary figures of his generation, approaching the rank of his contemporary, Mark Twain. He was the only first class author to fight in the Civil ar and to write extensively about it in both fiction and non-fiction genres. He enlisted as a private a few days after Fort Sumter fell and served until wounded in early 1865, reaching the rank of major. Decorated…
Bierce, Ambrose. n. d. "The Nature of War," in Russell Duncan and David J. Klooster, eds. 2002. Phantoms of a Blood-Stained period: the Complete Civil War Writings of Ambrose Bierce. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 309-10.
Elmer Ellsworth and the Zouave Craze. 2000. http://220.127.116.11/craze.html (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Famous American Duels. 2005. http://www.law.gwu.edu/Burns/rarebooks/exhibits/duel_american.htm (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Keegan, John. 1987. The Mask of Command. New York: Viking.
James Longstreet, January 9, 1821 -- January 2, 1904, was one of the foremost generals of the American Civil ar, who later enjoyed a successful post-war career working as a diplomat and administrator for the government of his former enemies.
Longstreet was born in Edgefield District, South Carolina, grew up in Augusta, Georgia, and at the age of twelve, his father died and the family moved to Somerville, Alabama.
In 1838, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy by the state of Alabama, and graduated from est Point in 1842, just in time to serve with distinction in the Mexican ar and rise to the rank of major.
In June 1861, he resigned from the U.S. Army to join with the Confederacy during the Civil ar.
Already highly regarded as an officer, Longstreet was immediately appointed as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army, and after fighting at…
Lincoln's econstructions Plans
Lincoln's econstruction Plans
In 1863, Abraham Lincoln was in a very difficult position. What was happening is the Union was not able to secure total victory against the South. Instead, everything hinged on: a series of miscalculations or the inability of the generals to effectively lead their forces into battle. This caused the war to drag on and the opposition to increase surrounding the policies that Lincoln had enacted in order to keep the nation united.
Then, after the victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, is when Lincoln felt confident that the South's days were numbered. This is because several situations occurred that created a fundamental shift in the momentum of the war. In the case of Vicksburg, the Union victory allowed Grant's forces to seize control of the entire Mississippi iver (effectively cutting the South in two).
To relieve pressure on the Western Confederacy, Lee believed that…
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan. Spark Notes. http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/reconstruction/section1.html (accessed March 5, 2012)
Campbell, James. Reconstruction. New York, NY: ABC CLIO, 2008.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction. New York, NY: Peter Smith Publication, 2001.
Haltway, Herman. How the North Won. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
battles Civil War. Identify explain impact war. Reference: Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.
he Civil War was quite easily the most devastating war to occur on American soil. Prior to World War II, it would remain one of the deadliest martial encounters that the United States was involved in. Although there were several different battles that produced a profound impact on this war, some of the most pivotal ones occurred in 1863 and included the Battle of Gettysburg, the Battle of Vicksburg, and the Battle of Chancellorsville.
hese three battles would produce a critical impact on the outcome of the war. It is important to remember that despite the fact that the South had more accomplished military commanders at the inception of the Civil War, it was a fledgling nation with a tenuous financial situation. Moreover, it was considerably outmanned by the more populous North, which could also utilize martial assistance…
This possibility became even more remote following the conclusion of the Battle of Vicksburg, which took place the day after the Battle of Vicksburg. Grant was able to win his lengthy siege in Mississippi, which resulted in a devastating blow for the South (Faragher et al., 2009, p. 425). With back-to-back defeats in major battles in a day's time, the South was left in a position in which its crumbling chances would certainly not allow for foreign intervention. In fact, these twin victories for the Union would prove to be the turning point of the war, which would pave the way for more crucial victories, such as William Sherman's capturing of Atlanta. At this point it was just a matter of time and obstinacy on the part of the South before it conceded.
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A history of the American people, Volume I (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. (pg. 405-432).
Slavery was one, but not the only, cause of the Civil War. In fact, the institution of slavery represents a combination of social, political, and economic forces at play throughout the United States. For one, Westward expansion and the principle of Manifest Destiny gave rise to the important issue of whether to allow slavery in new territories or to leave the question of slavery up to the residents in the new territory or state. he Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision, the formation of the new Republican party and the election of Lincoln, the Nat urner rebellion, the introduction of Uncle om's Cabin into popular culture, and especially Westward expansion were among the most important events that led up to the outbreak of the Civil War.
he Compromise of 1850 was disastrous in that it accomplished nothing to promote human rights…
The Compromise of 1850 was disastrous in that it accomplished nothing to promote human rights and civil liberties. California was admitted to the union as a free state. In exchange, other new lands gained in the Mexican War had no restrictions on whether slavery was or was not permitted. The slave trade was being phased out, but the practice slavery itself was preserved in the District of Columbia. The fugitive slave laws were enhanced too. So disastrous was the Compromise of 1850 that northerners did not take the Fugitive Slave Law seriously and did not enforce it. Another disastrous piece of legislation that preceded the Civil War, and helped spark it, was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The Act overturned the Missouri Compromise and divided Kansas and Missouri into two states: one slave and one free. As Brinkley states, "No other piece of legislation in American history produced so many immediate, sweeping, and ominous political consequences," (327). Significant regarding the build-up to the Civil war, the Kansas-Nebraska Act caused the creation of the new Republican Party. Also, the Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the "bleeding Kansas" episode during which abolitionist and pro-enslavement advocates battled in pre-Civil War skirmishes.
Both the Nat Turner Rebellion and the popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin represented the darker sides of slavery and promoted the politics of liberation. However, no other event in American history illustrates so well the way racism has permeated American politics as the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision. The Supreme Court took a strong racist stance that bolstered the pro-slavery cause immediately prior to the Civil War. Clearly, the nation was divided. On the one hand, decisions like Dred Scott showed that racist Americans served in positions of power at the federal level and could forever impact the quality of the country. On the other hand, abolitionists saw the necessity for a swift end to slavery in order to preserve the Constitutional rights and ideals upon which the nation was founded. The southerners could not foresee a means to have a viable economy without free and forced labor; the northerners did.
Even Democrats were divided, leading to the eventual election of the Republican candidate for President in 1860. Lincoln, who was "not an abolitionist" but who also believed that "slavery was morally wrong" steered the United States in a direction different from what most Southern whites wanted (Brinkley 332). After Lincoln was elected, the Southern states viewed the federal government as being illegitimate and decided one by one to cede from the union. The differences between slave-owning and free states were too great to overcome at the time. The economy and lifestyle of the south depended on slavery, whereas the Northern point-of-view favored sanity and genuine freedom.
A stronger Navy allowed the North to enforce the blockade more effectively than the Confederacy could overcome it. The second significant part of the Anaconda Plan was similar in scope and strategic significance: to take control of the Mississippi. When the Union Army eventually did gain control of the mighty Mississippi, the South was effectively split in two. The Anaconda Plan was fulfilled. Not only did the Union have the means by which to enforce their strategies: the Confederacy also lacked as clear a military plan.
While the blockade was nearly automatic and put into place toward the beginning of the war, control over the Mississippi was harder-fought. It meant encroachment deep into Southern territory, where most of the war was fought. Not until 1863 and the Union victory at the Battle of Vicksburg did the Union manage to infiltrate the iver and successfully set up its second major and…
Debating Who Actually Won the Civil War." Dummies.com. Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.dummies.com/WileyCDA/DummiesArticle/id-1229.html
Feldmeth, Greg D. "Secession and Civil War." U.S. History Resources. 31 March 1998. Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html
The History Place. "The U.S. Civil War 1861-1865." Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/
Why did the North Win the Civil War?" Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Lesson_35_Notes.htm
I have frequently felt her head, and found it nearly covered over with festering sores, caused by the lash of her cruel mistress. I do not know that her master ever whipped her, but I have often been an eye witness of the revolting and brutal inflictions by Mrs. Hamilton; and what lends a deeper shade to this woman's conduct, is the fact, that, almost in the very moments of her shocking outrages of humanity and decency, she would charm you by the sweetness of her voice and her seeming piety." (149) Slavery thus causes, what Douglass states are "THE BANEFUL EFFECTS OF SLAVEHOLDING ON MY DEAR AND GOOD MISTRESS," upon women in particular. omen are suggestible and such a bad institution as slavery corrupts even good hite females as well as harms the tender bodies of Black females -- again a very persuasive appeal to a hite Northern audience…
Amelia, a Lowell Factory Worker, on Wage Slavery." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Douglass, Frederick, My Bondage and My Freedom. With and Introduction by James M. Cune Smith. Retrieved at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=DouMybo.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=10&division=div2 [2 Feb 2005]
Lincoln: First Inaugural." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Lincoln: Gettysburg Address." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Language Limits Our World
When Wittgenstein said, "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world," he was very likely speaking of philosophical limits, and not phenomenological ones. However, inherent in the very possibility of considering language and limitations is the possibility of a phenomenological meaning as well. Indeed, it one has language that is too impoverished to admit of various experiences, one is very unlikely to have them, or, if one does have those experiences, of recalling them. We recall our lives in language.
This may help explain, to use a completely pedestrian example, the idiotic answers people give to questions asked by Jay Leno on his Jaywalking segments. The ignorance shown by the interviewees is legendary, and it also involves mistakes with and misconstructions of language. For example, he might ask who wrote the Gettysburg Address, and he might get the answer, "The guy who founded…
CO Teaching and emember the Titans
emember the Titans as an example of CoTeaching
Creating a collaborative and cooperative environment can prove to be difficult at times, especially within an educational setting. Conflict within an educational setting, specifically athletics, is evident in emember the Titans (2000). In the film, coach Herman Boone, played by Denzel Washington, must teach fellow staff members and students to overcome their social differences and preconceived notions of race in order to become a successful and "perfect" football team.
emember the Titans (2000) is set in 1971 Virginia in the recently desegregated T.C. Williams High School. The central conflicts between T.C. Williams High School's former football head coaches, primarily coach Bill Yoast whom Boone is replacing, and black and white football players that are combined into a single football team instead of separate, segregated teams, center on issues of race. Coach Boone had several obstacles that…
Bowers, E.M. (2004). Practical Strategies for Middle School Inclusion. Verona, Wisconsin:
Attainment Company Publications.
Remember the Titans. (2000). Directed by Boaz Yakin. United States: Buena Vista Pictures.
Wormeli, R. (2001). Meet Me In the Middle: Becoming an Accomplished Middle School Teacher.
inning the Civil ar
The American Civil ar is considered the most costly of all the wars fought by this nation in terms of the human lives that were lost and the casualties which left young men mutilated, amputated, and barely able to carry on. Approximately 750,000 young men died by the war's end either from wounds inflicted in battle or from infection and lack of sanitation in hospitals.[footnoteRef:1] At the end, to warring sides were once again united as a single nation rather than two countries torn apart by ideological differences. Four years of bloodshed and violence officially ended at Appomattox Court House in Northern Virginia when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. It is believed that the Union won the war because the nation was reunified; however this assumption is based on the belief that there can ever be a winner in…
Alexander, Bevin. How the South Could Have Won the Civil War: the Fatal Errors that Led to Confederate Defeat. New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 2007.
Civil War Trust, "Robert E. Lee." Last modified 2011. Accessed November 14, 2012.
Covert, Thomas M. "To his Wife." Stafford Court House, VA. 1863.
Truths by Mortimer Adler.
Review current literature.
Mortimer Adler was a man who made significant contributions to the field of education
The following information is provided to create a better understanding of the man and his writing. Mortimer Adler is known for his many contributions to the field of education and philosophy. Throughout his professional and personal life, he was consumed with the desire to learn and to teach others. His approach to education became instrumental in advancing the idea that philosophy is integrated with other disciplines such as Literature, cience, and Religion.
He was the author of numerous books and articles and played a significant role in American educational reform in the twentieth century. He is best known for his efforts in promoting the Great Books of the Western World for reflection and systematic study. He was ultimately responsible for publishing the Encyclopedia Britannica's "Great Books of the Western…
Steven Puro, Political Science Dept., St. Louis Univ.Copyright 1987 Reed Business Information, Inc.
Mortimer Jerome Adler. http://www.education.miami.edu
Mortimer J. Adler: Reforming Education. http://www.classicalhomeschooling.com.Summer 2000.
Scrimshaw: As History and Currency of a Bygone Era
The art of Scrimshaw is an art of idle hands. Scrimshaw, as we know it today dates back to the early part of the nineteenth century. Sailors on long idle whaling expeditions would use the leavings of the hunt to create art. haling required many more crew than was actually needed to man the ship, as the animal required many men to finish the kill once it was injured and also many to ground it, bring it on board or on shore and hundreds sometimes to quickly finish the butchering and harvest. (Paszkiewicz 1)
haling was even seen as a punishment for young evil doers and in that way
Scrimshaw could be compared at least somewhat to prison art, probably its closest folk art neighbor. "haling, after all, was better than most systems of peonage that flourish to-day, for it released…
Dunkelman, Mark H. Gettysburg's Unknown Soldier: The Life, Death, and Celebrity of Amos Humiston. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
This is the biographical interpretation of the life of the famous civil war soldier
Amos Humiston. The importance of the work for this application is in regard to Humiston's life aboard the whaling ship Harrison prior to his service in the civil war. It chronicles the life of a novice whaler and also the fascinating history of a Gettysburg celebrity.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1921.
Civil War Field Artillery
In many ways, the Civil War was the first modern war. The scorched earth policy implemented during Sherman’s March to the Sea introduced “total war” to the world (Cummings, 2012). And it involved the use of weaponry that would come to define the modern age of war: advanced, technological and devastating. As Gen. Hunt put it, artillery should be “a separate arm”—a specialized force of the army that could be used to maximum advantage (Hazlett, Olmstead & Parks, 2004). Field artillery weapons included the 6-pounder gun made of bronze which shot a 6 lb. projectile at a speed of 1,400 feet per second with a range of 1,500 yards; the M1857 12-pound “Napoleon” made of bronze, which weighed 1,227 lbs. and shot the 12-lb. ball at a speed of 1,440 feet per second with a range 1,600 yards; the 24-pounder Howitzer made of bronze, which…
As these preferences are determined, the algorithm then determines the best invitations to treat to present to the consumers. Today, these processes are powerful and can drive business at these websites, but they do not yet constitute bona fide interaction between the travel provider, the agent (website) and the consumer. Rather, the algorithms merely produce smarter sales pitches. At such a point when algorithms can literally cater to consumers' needs based upon the consumers' interactions the travel industry will be on the cusp of experiencing genuine co-creation. Co-creation at this point, however, is not an automated process. It must be conducted by humans. Given that more people are purchasing travel online than ever before, this would point to a decline in co-creation. It may be, however, that this technology will emerge in the next few years and truly transform the travel industry into one where co-creation is the norm.
Binkhorst, E. (no date). The co-creation tourism experience. Unpublished. In possession of the author.
Prahalad, C. & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing. Vol. 18 (3) 5-14.
Porter, M. (1980). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
WTO. (2009). Tourism highlights, 2009 edition. United Nations World Tourism Organization. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from http://www.unwto.org/facts/menu.html
The main causes of the war relied in the issue of slavery as well as the right of the states to be part of a federal entity with equal rights and voices. The implications for this war were enormous as it provided a different future for the colonies and for the U.S. As a whole.
The main cause of the war was, as stated, the issue of slavery. In this sense, the Mexican war played an important role. It pointed out the importance of the slavery issue even in an apparently international situation. The Wilmot Proviso is essential in this way. Thus, it represented an additional act to a bill that enabled the U.S. To satisfy the financial needs of Mexico. The act in itself however was not passed because it pointed out the fact that none of the territories acquired during the Mexican war should be opened to slavery;…
Africans in America. The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act. 2007.Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html
Caughey, John Walton. The California gold rush. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1975.
Civil Rights Act of 1866. Historycentral.com. 2000. Available at http://www.historycentral.com/documents/civilrightsact.html
Cornell University Law School. "13th Amendment." United States Constitution. 2010. Available at http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiii
A metaphor is used to describe this relationship, Schachter says, because it creates a situation where we can see if a different way of viewing citizen roles shifts the emphasis to necessary changes for improving the effectiveness of government.
One of the major topics Schachter addresses in einventing Government or einventing Ourselves is the semantic and methodical framing of reform efforts. She speculates about how effective reform efforts would be in the case that their focus was on modifying the structure of government, rather than modifying the patterns of the behavior of the public. Schachter additionally wonders if administration reform efforts should aim at modifying people's perceptions of themselves, and suggests that if people were taught to perceive themselves as true "owners" of the government, "efforts to improve government efficiency and responsiveness [might] be more successful" (p. 179).
H. George Frederickson is a scholar at the forefront of the public…
Arnstein, S. (1969). "A ladder of citizen participation." Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35, (2), 216.
Box, R.C. (1998). Citizen Governance: Leading American Communities into the 21st Century.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Frederickson, H.G. NO REFERENCE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN TEXT -- SEE #16 IN
All profits went to slave owners so the South "could feed itself, but do little else" (29). The South turned a blind eye to the innovations of the industrial revolution because of selfishness. A few wealthy landowners held control of large portions of the local economy. The South was supported by a working population in the field. It had to purchase most manufactured goods from the North. The effects of the war on the South were indescribable and ironic, according to Davidson, because the "demands of war fundamentally transformed the southern economy, society and government" (Davidson 432). The failing economy and worsening conditions drove many slaves to move from the South. Supplies of "labor, already inadequate, shrank further as men were called into military service" (Olegario). Once things started going downhill, it was difficult to regain strength. hile the Southern army was losing energy, the Northern army was gaining energy.…
Norton, Mary Beth, ed. A People and a Nation: Third Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company. 1990. Print.
Rowena Olegario. "War and the Economy (1754-1783)." American Eras. Gale Research,
Reproduced in History Resource Center. Site Accessed July 29, 2010.
Education and training required
i. NCO training is sometimes a specialized course, but many ascend to the rank by excelling in basic and specialist training as well as in field combat as non-officers.
d. Skills demanded by the position
ii. Tactical abilities iii. Combat valor
IV. Variables of the Career
a. Combat implications of non-commissioned officer role
i. Non-commissioned officers differ from commissioned officers in that they are more often in combat situations
b. Field leadership expectations
i. NCOs must command under the duress of combat, requiring genuine dedication from troops to exact fast and intelligent decisions.
c. Strategic leadership expectations
i. NCOs will often play a key part in devising strategic and practical maneuvers for use in combat
a. Overview of non-commissioned officer
i. The NCO is a key part of the history and present for the U.S. military, operating as a key link in…
Army NCO. (2009). The Year of the Non-Commissioned Officer. United States Army. Online at http://www.army.mil/yearofthenco/home.html
Corporate Conjecture (CC). (2003). What is a Non-Commissioned Officer? WiseGeek. Online at http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-non-commissioned-officer.htm
Elder, D. (2006). The Center for the Advanced Studies of the NCO. NCO History. Online at http://www.ncohistory.com/
Headquarters Department of the Army (HDA). (2002). The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide. United States Army.
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
Therefore, the South felt she could count on the aid of France and Great Britain at some time during the war. This of course, did not happen, and so, the South did not have the luxury of external support that the United States had enjoyed during the evolutionary War (Donald, 1996, p. 15-16).
The South also had over 3 million slaves they could conscript into the Army, but these slaves could also stay behind and work, while the whites fought the war, and this gave the South a distinct advantage over the North. While she did not have more manpower, their operations were smaller, and they could move more effectively. They were also on the defensive, which gave additional impetus to their cause, and their coastline was short and sheltered, which held off blockading of supplies they needed (Donald, 1996, p.16). In addition, they were more attuned to the war…
Donald, DH Why the north won the Civil War.
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Atzerodt also made a statement claiming knowledge of a Confederate plot to bomb the White House. The Union's failed raid on Richmond was also approved by Lincoln, and it was later believed that he ordered the death of Jeff Davis in a strategy to end the war. Such speculations were extremely damaging for the strength of the government, and similar conspiracy theories fascinate historians to this day. In this, at least one part of ooth's ideal was realized: government weakness. This however did not result in a revival for the South, which was in fact the ultimate aim.
In conclusion, Lincoln's death meant that his attempts at countrywide reform were immediately nullified. Without his leadership, and in concomitance with the many conspiracy theories at the time, the government was unable to carry further such work. The country was not nearly strong enough to benefit from the good work done by…
Norton, R.J. 1996-2008. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Research Site http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/Lincoln75.html
Norton, R.J. 1996-2008. Conspiracy Theories. The Abraham Lincoln Research Site http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/Lincoln74.html
The White House History. 2008. Abraham Lincoln. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html
Lincoln's speech during the dedication ceremony of the military cemetery at Gettysburg (the White House History. 2008. Abraham Lincoln. (
" The U.S. railroads stated featherbedding bill figures to be approximately $500 million a year. (Time & CNN, 1959; paraphrased)
Summary and Conclusion
One cannot presume to visit any city or town in the United States in today's world without seeing or hearing a train as it chugs down the railroad tracks from one destination to another every busy. While not much attention is given to today's railroad companies, it is certain that the railroad in the United States is still going just as strong as in its' historical heyday. As a matter of fact, the railroad is the oldest form of across land transportation in the history of the United States excepting the horse and wagon originally used by settlers in the establishing of the United States of America.
Samson, William D. And Previts, Gary John (1995) Reporting for Success: The altimore and Ohio Railroad and Management Information…
Samson, William D. And Previts, Gary John (1995) Reporting for Success: The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and Management Information 1827-1856. Culverhouse College of Commerce. Online available at http://www.h-net.org/~business/bhcweb/publications/BEHprint/v028n2/p0235p0254.pdf
Reading Co." A Brief History (nd) Reading Company Technical & Historical Society, Online available at http://www.readingrailroad.org/reading/rdg_history.html .
Union Railroad (nd) Trainweb.org online available at http://www.trainweb.org/pt/union.html .
Central Railroad of New Jersery (nd) Trainweb.org online available at http://www.trainweb.org/pt/crnj.html
" The rebel army thought nothing of stealing food and good drinking water from the citizens of Vicksburg. The rebel army authorities put 100 men in charge of securing homes and lives, but "over seventy-five of the men selected" for the policing duty were Creoles who spoke little or no English, and the troops pretty much took what they wanted. Many people became refugees and moved into tent cities outside the range of the Union guns. "There was something tangible about stealing a pig or helping oneself to a buck of water," alker explained on page 123.
Prices for food and other necessary items went through the roof during the build-up to the battle. Brandy was $40 a gallon on December 3; on December 29, "when Sherman was knocking on the gates of the city," brandy went up to $60 a gallon (p. 128). On December 20, the Vicksburg City…
Arnold, James R. Grant Wins the War: Decision at Vicksburg. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Confederate Military History, Vol. 7, Chapter IX. "The Vicksburg Campaign." The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 - July 4, 1863). Retrieved 23 Nov. At http://www.civilwarhome.com/siegeofvicksburg.htm .
Faust, Patricia L. "The Battle of Vicksburg." Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved 20 Nov. 2006 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/battleofvicksburg.htm .
Grant, Ulysses S. "The Vicksburg Campaign." The Siege of Vicksburg. Retrieved 22 Nov. 2006 at
Civil War in Alabama
The American civil war was a political turmoil that took place during the later years of the 18th Century, particularly between 1775 to 1783, where 13 British colonies joined together to liberate themselves from the British Empire and unite to from the United States of America (American evolutionary War, 2011). It all began with the rejection of the Parliament of the Great Britain as governing body from overseas without their representation and consequently rejecting and sending away all the royal officials and representatives. In turn they formed Provincial Congress in 1774 which made up the self-governing state. This prompted the British to send troops to America to reinstate the direct rule and in return, the Second Continental Congress was formed in 1775 to wade off the British troops and also to defend their decision towards self-governance. This was what was and still is famously know as…
American Revolutionary War, (2011). American Revolutionary War. Retrieved May 24, 2011
Civil War Trust, (2011). James Longstreet: Lieutenant General. Retrieved May 25, 2011 from http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/biographies/james-longstreet.html
The Alabama Civil War Round Table, (2011). A Discussion on the American Civil War.
Thus, what makes Vatz's view of rhetoric so much more applicable to rhetorical theory today is that it gives the study of rhetoric an actual purpose and a means of expanding knowledge and understanding. Bitzer's view is ultimately reductive, removing the potential for greater analysis and the uncovering of how humans make meaning by suggesting that any meaning exists already, and as such requires no further investigation. In essence, Bitzer's view of rhetoric is a thought-terminating exercise, because it reduces the object of rhetorical theory to a mere side-effect of reality, suggesting it is only worth examining as a corollary to central topic, which would be Bitzer's all-powerful situations. This is due to the fact that Bitzer begins his entire endeavor with a flawed assumption regarding meaning, such that the rest of his thesis can only progress towards a reductive and ultimately incorrect conclusion. In fact, one might not need…
Bitzer, Lloyd. "The Rhetorical Situation." Nature and Relevance. 17-24. Print.
Vatz, Richard. "The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation." Philosophy and Rhetoric. 6.3 (1973):
He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…
Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..
Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
God" in Pledge Allegiance in Schools
The Alternative Would e "One Nation Under a Flag."
(Keeping our Alleigances in Order)
The Pledge of Allegiance is one of the greatest symbols of our most wonderful and blessed nation. Just the mention of it stirs to mind images of young children developing an understanding of devotion as they together face the classroom flag and chant in unison, of diverse people of all colors and walks of life finding a common goal as they recite the pledge, and of wartime veterans and the families of fallen heroes together saluting the America worth dying for. The Pledge of Allegiance is an important unifying and morale boosting element of our nation's history. However, recently it has come under attack by those who do not understand the importance of the Pledge as it is written today and the importance of it remaining intact for future generations…
Bellamy, Francis. "The Pledge of Allegiance." The Youth's Companion. September, 1892.
The First Amendment of the United States Constitution.
Jefferson, Thomas et al. The Declaration of Independence. 1776.
The ible, he argued, cites the creation of Eve for Adam as proof that a wife is man's support, as well as many other examples of humble and devoted wives.
The knight told his brother that he desired a young wife, who was no older than thirty, for she would be more pliable. Placebo cautioned that it takes great courage for an older man to marry a young woman (Classic Notes, 2004). He warned him that a young woman who married an older man may have ulterior motives, which the man would never know until he was married. Despite the fact Placebo has a wonderful wife, he understands what faults she has and advises January to be aware of who he marries.
The brothers argue about the merits of marriage, with Placebo predicting that January would not please his wife for more than three years, but Placebo eventually agrees to…
Kittredge, George. (2000). Chaucer's Discussion of Marriage. Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Hall/1170/chaucerhtml/marriage.html.
Classic Notes. (2004). Canterbury Tales. The Wife of Bath's Tale. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/canterbury/ .
Classic Notes. (2004). Canterbury Tales. The Merchant's Tale. Retrieved from the Internet at
In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a brief but stirring speech while the country was in the process of tearing itself apart in a civil war. During that speech President Lincoln stated a phrase that has helped to capture what democracy means. Lincoln told the audience that had gathered to dedicate a soldier's cemetery that the government that had been formed "of the people, by the people, for the people" would not "perish from the earth." In that phrase, Lincoln summarized what the founding fathers had hoped to capture in documents that shaped the system of government they believed was essential for prosperity and happiness for all mankind. The fact that the United States has remained in existence for more than 200 years does not necessarily mean that the ideals Lincoln spoke of are in existence today. In fact, many would argue that the concepts Lincoln captured in his…
Hamilton, Alexander, "Federalist Paper 79," Independent Journal 18 Jun. 1788
Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 37," Daily Advertiser 11 Jan. 1788
Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 52," New York Packet 8 Feb. 1788