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Global Issues in Public Administration
Globalization is a controversial issue perhaps because it is not yet fully understood. And while the term has recently been tossed around by businesses, sociologists, scholars, journalists and others, there is still confusion as to what globalization means. Some have claimed that globalization will "erode the sense of community and urban power structure" and others worry that through globalization new "suprastate governing agencies" will supplement or even "supplant" the other nation states that are not powerful enough to stand on their own (Farazmand, 1999). But the actual benefits and positive changes that globalization potentially offers for public administrators is the subject of this paper in terms of how my future career as a public administrator will be impacted.
Meanwhile, which globalization issues from the readings will affect my work and my career in the next five years?
Clearly globalization will have an effect -- and…
Farazmand, Ali. (1999). Globalization and Public Administration. Public Administration
Review, 59(6), 509-519.
Hou, Yilin, Ni, Anna Ya, Poocharoen, Ora-orn, Yang, Kaifeng, and Zhao, Zhirong J. (2011).
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. Vol. 21, i45-i51,
Restricted democracies limit the abilities of political parties to organize freely and expand their power bases, and undermine their ability to present viable alternative agendas."
Since the early 1990's there have been a steady 19.9% of the Arab people living below the poverty lines. However, in the rural parts of the country or the 'shadow zone' where 39% of the Arab population lives the child mortality rate is double that of the urban areas. Women are discriminated against terribly in this area with 52% of the mortality rate being attributed to 'maternal deaths.' The rate of female illiteracy is double that of the men in the region. What is it within the global framework that allows this inequality within inequality to exist or is it indeed allowed or simply a natural process such as the food chain that is a natural life process?
The author explains that in regards…
Richani, Nazih (2002) Political Parties, Justice Systems and the Poor: The Experience of the Arab States. Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper.
Amnesty International (2010) also reports that domestic violence is the major cause of death and disability for women ages 16 to 44 years. Of course, there isn't any forgetting that women in Colombia and Darfur -- places of dangerous armed conflict -- are commonly raped. Amnesty International also notes that the trafficking of women has become a global issue; women are exploited sexually, raped, forced into hard labor and are victims of severe sexual and physical abuse.
The United States must take a stance in helping to protect women across the globe. On February 4, 2010, members of Congress introduced the International Violence Against Women Act (I-VAWA), an important step in protecting, defending and empowering women around the world. This would be a groundbreaking law as we live in a world where "approximately 1 out of 3 women worldwide has been beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused in her…
European Parliament. "Background Note on the Political and Human Rights Situation in Sudan and Darfur." 2007. Retrieved on June 27, 2010, from the Web site:
Responsibility to Protect. 2010. Retrieved on June 26, 2010, from the Web site:
Global warming has become an issue of major global concern. This research explores the complexities of the issues surrounding global warming and the development of models to help curb the human contributions to its continuation. This research focuses on the UAE and its initiatives to develop sustainable cities in the future.
Evolution of Cities
environmental change and Global warming
Field Work and Case Studies
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) covers an area of approximately 777 sq. km and has a population of over 5 1/2 million residents according to 2009 statistics (Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. 2009). The country has the six largest oil reserves in the world and is one of the most developed economies in the Middle East. It has one of the most developed infrastructures in the Middle East as well. Global warming has become a key issue in developed nations that…
Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). Expat numbers rise rapidly as UAE population touches 6m. 2009 revision. uaeinteract.com. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://uaeinteract.com/docs/Expat_numbers_rise_rapidly_as_UAE_population_touches_6m/37883.htm.
Ellis, C. History of Cities and City Planning. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.art.net/~hopkins/Don/simcity/manual/history.html
Environment and Ecology. 2011. UNESCO World Heritage. XIth World Congress of the OWHC -- Sintra 2011 Climate Change. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.environment-ecology.com/unesco-world-heritage.html
Ewing, R., Bartholomew, K., & WInkel, S. et al. "Growing Coooler: evidence of urban development and climate change. Urban Land Insititute. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.smartgrowth.umd.edu/pdf/GrowingCooler-Ch1Overview.pdf
The World Bank (2012) points out that "…nearly 1.3 billion people remain below the extreme poverty line with an income of U.S. $1.25 or less a day." The global financial institution further points out that "another 2.6 billion live on less than U.S. $2 a day, another common measurement of deep deprivation"(World Bank, 2012). It is important to note that although inequalities in terms of wealth exist regardless of which country one comes from, developing countries have been hit worst by the same.
In general terms, unemployment levels in Australia are relatively low. The levels of education in this case remain relatively high. Further, given the high average incomes of a vast majority of Australians, most citizens do not encounter many of the problems faced by millions of people from other nations. In a way, some of the most common problems the word's poorest people face are occasioned…
Deen, T. (2004). Development: Tied Aid Strangling Nations, Says U.N. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from the Inter-Press Service website: http://www.ipsnews.net/2004/07/development-tied-aid-strangling-nations-says-un/
Galston, W.A. & Hoffenberg, P.H. (Eds.). (2010). Poverty and Morality: Religious and Secular Perspectives. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Joseph, S. (2011). Blame it on the WTO? A Human Rights Critique. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mizzoni, J. (2009). Ethics: The Basics. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
27 December 2011,
Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27
According to Cleveland and Laroche (2007), the global consumer is characterized as someone who fits in with global consumer culture. This is a culture that has certain characteristics that are static internationally, such that the global consumer can be subject to global marketing. The global consumer is understood in contrast to the local consumer. The local consumer bears strong characteristics of the local market, in their tastes and buying patterns. The global consumer trends more towards international norms. The global consumer is aware of and has some preference for international products and bears similarity to international buying patterns. In essence, the global consumer in Shanghai will have tastes and characteristics that relate more to other global consumers in Vancouver, London or Mumbai than to the people of the local Shanghai market.
Global consumers have emerged as the result of two key trends, identified in Czinkota and onkainen (2013).…
Andersson, S. & Servais, P. (2010). Combining industrial buyer and seller strategies for international supply and marketing management. European Business Review. Vol. 22 (1) 64-81.
Balabanis, G. & Diamatopoulos, A. (2004). Domestic country bias, country-of-origin effects and consumer ethnocentrism: A multidimensional unfolding approach. Academy of Marketing Science Journal. Vol. 32 (1) 80-95.
Cleveland, M. & Laroche, M. (2007). Acculturation to the global consumer culture: Scale development and research paradigm. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 60 (3) 249-259.
Czinkota, M. & Ronkainen, I. (2013). International Marketing. South-Western College Publishing.
Global warming occurs due to the rise in temperature. The trapping of light and heat from the sun causes this rising of temperature. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor are the green house gases, these gases trap the light and heat from the sun, and as a result, the temperature rises. This global warming hurts a large number of people, plants and animals living in the earth. There are many reasons due to which global arming is increasing day by day. Human beings also cause global warming but many other things are also responsible for it (Maslin, 2006).
The main activity that human beings perform due to which global warming occurs is to flaming the fossil fuels. Whiled riving a car, carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect. In addition to this, jet fuel in the airplane also contributes in releasing the carbon…
Archer, D. (2011). Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Karling, H.M. (2011). Global Climate Change. Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publ.
Maslin, M. (2006). Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press.
When businesses go international, they have to operate in a more competitive, uncertain, and risky business environment. The forces present in the Global environment bring a number of challenges for the businesses; making it more difficult for them to maintain their market share, enhance profitability, and keep the customers satisfied (Cherunilam, 2007). To compete successfully and ensure a sustainable future in the international markets, business organizations have to analyze these forces carefully and strategize accordingly. Globalization has also impacted the way countries use to recognize themselves as internationally competitive and advanced than other countries (Tellis, Stremersch, & Yin, 2003).
This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the positive and negative impacts of Globalization and the efforts which nations and business organizations make in order to become internationally competitive and keep up pace with the Globalization. The paper starts with a brief description of different environmental forces that are…
Benetton, (2012). The Group. Retrieved on May 3rd, 2012, from
CIA, (2012). Italy: Economy Overview. Retrieved on May 3rd, 2012, from
Cherunilam, F. (2007). International business: text and cases. India: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Dconti, (2012). Effects of Globalization on Italy. Retrieved on May 3rd, 2012, from
Major Issues of the 21st Century: Who is Responsible for Addressing Global Warming?
Global warming is one of the most pressing issues in the 21st century. In the last few decades, the world has experienced higher temperatures, increased melting of ice caps, rising sea levels, more regular and more adverse weather events (such as storms, floods, heat waves, and drought), and changing rainfall patterns. We have also observed increased rain and ocean acidification, desert expansion, as well as greater species endangerment. These occurrences have largely been linked to human activity, particularly air pollution, burning of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, industrialization, and deforestation. The issue is so pressing that it threatens the ability of future generations to sustain their lives, which is ethically unfair. Indeed, global warming threatens food security, human health, human and non-human survival, as well as socioeconomic stability in the future (Cummins, 2014; Justin, 2015).…
Importance of the Global Mindset
I agree with the assertion made by Cohen that possessing a global mindset is a key and integral part to being successful in business, particularly if global expansion is an organizational goal or aspiration. To be successful in today's marketplace, leaders must understand that the world is no longer made up of only local/regional/national customers and competitors. It has been shaped by the digitized age we live in. Customers come from everywhere, for just about everything. Similarly, competition does too. This means to be truly successful, business leaders must know how to integrate a number of geographies, cultures, demographics, tastes, preferences, and business strategies from across the globe (Gumbel 2008). Leaders need an appreciation for diverse business relationships and more specialized skills to achieve their goals.
Universal cooperation is a daily business reality. The vast majority of this is due to technological advancement…
Beechler, S, & Baltzley, D 2008, 'Creating a Global mindset', Chief Learning Officer, 7, 6, pp. 40-45, Business Source Elite, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 May 2013.
Cohen, SL 2010, 'Effective global leadership requires a global mindset', Industrial & Commercial Training, 42, 1, pp. 3-10, Business Source Elite, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 May 2013.
Gumbel, P 2008, 'Big Mac's Local Flavor', Fortune, 157, 9, pp. 114-121, Business Source Elite, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 May 2013.
Massingham, P 2013, 'Cognitive Complexity in Global Mindsets', International Journal Of Management, 30, 2, pp. 232-248, Business Source Elite, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 May 2013.
Global Strategic Business
Strategic Global Business Strategies
Globalization has become a ubiquitously used word in a relatively short time. Much of this globalization trend is centered on international economic systems becoming more intertwined which have been largely technologically driven. Technology has provided a platform in which has increased the speed of information transfer and consequently provided corporation more feasible access to foreign markets. As a result of globalization, many multi-national corporations (MNCs) have begun to drive a level of homogenization throughout the international business community. Standardizing processes and incorporating technology on a global scale creates much efficiency that can reduce redundancies in business processes. This advantage has produced enormous MNCs and the trend will continue to grow indefinitely. Four issues related to this trend were chosen from a current model of global corporate dominance and will be discussed in order to provide insights on strategies in the globalized environment (Anil,…
Anil, G., V. Govindarajan and H. Wang. The Quest for Global Dominance: Transforming Global Presence into Global Competitive Advantage. New York: Jossey-Bass, 2008. Book.
Minbaeva, D., et al. "MNC knowledge transfer, subsidary absorptive capacity, and HRM." Journal of International Business Studies 34.6 (2003): 581-599. Web.
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) Blacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, ' http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
S., who is duly aware of their hardships and struggles. Again, there are many reasons why they are not given what they need to succeed (covert imperialism, ideological differences, etc.) but one of the main reasons is global overcapacity. If there are more countries producing goods and services the supply of those goods and services continue to increase. When supply goes up, and demand remains relatively unchanged (or static) one of the only ways to earn a profit is to lower costs (Judis, 2010). Lowering costs means a smaller profit margin. A smaller profit margin means, well, less money for the CEs and shareholders.
ne may think that this theory is a bit of a reach, that there is no conspiracy to retard the efforts of fledgling countries to take a power position in this new "flat" world (Friedman, 2005). And maybe they're right, there is no coordinated effort to…
One may think that this theory is a bit of a reach, that there is no conspiracy to retard the efforts of fledgling countries to take a power position in this new "flat" world (Friedman, 2005). And maybe they're right, there is no coordinated effort to do such a thing, it's just the way the system is set up. Either way, whether it's consciously done or unconsciously done, it's the way it is. The facts bear this out.
For starters, and to circle back to that Chinese proverb, why do countries in power continue to delivery fish, instead of curriculum on fishing techniques? Here is an excerpt, from an article regarding the ill effects of food dumping, that underscores this issue, "Food aid (when not for emergency relief) can actually be very destructive on the economy of the recipient nation and contribute to more hunger and poverty in the long-term. Free, subsidized, or cheap food, below market prices undercuts local farmers, who cannot compete and are driven out of jobs and into poverty, further slanting the market share of the larger producers such as those from the U.S. And Europe" (Shah, 2010). There's two additional points to make regarding this scenario. The first is obvious and an iteration of what's just been said, the reason countries in power give away food, supplies, and other resources is because it subverts the efforts of foreign competition. The other reason countries in power donate food, food in particular, is because it helps diminish the available supply in the U.S., thus reducing global overcapacity. One has, no doubt, heard of corn farmers burning their cornfields to serve a similar end, reduce supply to keep prices high.
In the face of this evidence, one can posit that the IMF and the World Bank are two institutions that work toward helping impoverished countries make it to the big stage. After all, they provide funding and assistance to many countries in need. Well, the rebuttal to this fact is that all money comes with strings attached. Or, in short, there's no such thing as a free lunch. Here is a rather concise description of the effect the IMF and World Bank have on the countries they assist, "the way it has happened has required poor countries to reduce spending on things like health, education and development, while debt repayment and other economic policies have been made the priority. In effect, the IMF and World Bank have demanded that poor nations lower the standard of living of their people" (Shah, 2010). The IMF and World Bank don't mind loaning money to struggling nations, as long as those nations follow their orders. It's really a form of new age imperialism whereby nations in power seek to exploit cheap labor and extract resources from
The capital requirements together with reserve policies were overhauled with the entry of new leadership and avenues of the company. Moreover, the company had to align compensation with long-term returns. The strategies, which were laid by the company after its revival was to settle the dividends of the purchasers, and pay debts, which had been accrued in payments (Stonehouse, 2004).
Porter's Five Force
The Porter's Five Forces have a great influence of the way McDonald's Company has been operating in the market. Literally, the company has embraced all the five figures making up the Porter's Five Forces. These are the forces, which influence the market as it happened to McDonald's Company. The company faced the threat of new entrants into the market. When the company was introduced, it dealt with different products, most of which were also being produced by some other companies. As such, the company had to shift…
Ahlstrom, D., & Bruton, G.D. (2010). International management: Strategy and culture in the emerging world. Australia: Southwestern Cengage Learning.
Facella, P., & Genn, a.M. (2009). Everything I know about business I learned at McDonald's:
The seven leadership principles that drive break out success. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gilbert, S. (2009). The story of McDonald's. Mankato, MN: Creative Education.
The book Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy by Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Hothschild is a series of essays that explore the subject of female migration at the beginning of the 21st century. The work contains eight essays covering a range of topics, which are related to each other by a common thread. The subjects include migrant maids, prostitution as a means of gaining access to legal migration, overseas brides, and the role of global cities in female migration. The common thread to these essays is the migration of lower-wage women around the world, and the patterns than such migration takes at present. The authors and editors of this project tie these essays together under the umbrella argument that one form of modern globalization has women in the wealthier nations turning over "women's work" to women from the underdeveloped world. They note that…
Ehrenreich, B. & Hochschild, A. (2002) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the new Economy. New York: Henry Holt.
As the road is being laid the fumes from the chemical materials and the concussive force of the construction equipment are devastating to local wildlife (Forman & Alexander, 1998). The result, is displaced organisms which ultimately put increased pressure for food, land, and water on other ecosystems. The extent of these ripple effects are still yet to be fully known.
In instances where above or below ground water supplies must be altered in order to make way for a new road system the effects are if anything more dire. When laying the bed of a road, it is nearly impossible to prevent a percentage of the chemicals used in the road surface itself from leeching into the soil (Forman & Deblinger, 2000). When in the presence of water those toxins are carried the course of the water supply affecting all of the vegetation and wildlife which it comes into contact…
Global and National Hunger
Hunger can be described as a physical sensation of desiring food. Usually even the highly privileged may experience mild hunger, however brief experience will never be harmful. People suffering from hunger are a larger scale reference to individuals who are unable to eat sufficient food in meeting their basic nutritional needs for a sustained period of time. A large proportion of the world's populations are affected by hunger throughout history. Occasionally it result originates from plagues, war or adverse weather changes.
Several inter-related issues that cause hunger tend to be related to economic as well as other factors that cause poverty. A part from the named above causes of hunger we have drought, famine, diversification of land use to non-productive use, poor eating habit, inefficient agriculture, land right and ownership as other causes of hunger, (Anup Shah, 2010). As we try to solve the problem of…
References Anup Shah, ( 2010). Solving World Hunger Means Solving World Poverty" Retrieved November 4, 2012 from http://www.globalissues.org/article/8/solving-world-hunger-means-solving-world-poverty
Miguel De La Torre, (2012). Will You Eat Less to Reduce Global Hunger? Retrieved November 4, 2012 from http://www.ethicsdaily.com/will-you-eat-less-to-reduce-global-hunger -- cms-19941
World Hunger Education Service, (2011). "2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics" Retrieved November 4, 2012 from http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm
Vitousek, et al. Issues
Vitousek says the major sources of land transformation are pastureland, agriculture, and urban industrial activity. Agriculture (fisheries, artificial environments, row-crops) are high on the list of land transformation, urban industrial activity medium, and pure pastureland low, depending on human involvement.
Humans alter the oceans in many ways, although some are not easy to quantify. Population centers are concentrated near coastal areas and coastal wetlands are also altered. Fishing alters the ecology of the oceans by focusing on the top predators and throwing the system out of balance. Pollutants and other man-made activities cause algal blooms that are toxic to the ecology of the oceans as well. It is the relationship between the different parts of the food chain that are most effected by human involvement.
Part 3 -- The earth can be viewed as a system concept, with the forests the lungs, the waters…
Global Gadgets Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is any form of marketing that "allows business to communicate directly with its target market" (SEODesk.org, 2011). This contrasts with indirect marketing where the company is simply getting its message into the world, and the onus is then on the recipient to be exposed to the message. A good way of explaining the difference is a website is indirect marketing, but an email list built from that website is a tool for direct marketing.
There are many different types of direct marketing. Direct mail is a popular form of direct marketing. Examples include catalogs, product samples or advertisements. Generally for this to be direct advertising, the mailouts should be built from a list of potential customers. This method has a high fixed cost of producing the mailout, and the response rate is unknown. However, direct marketing has proven effective and it allows the company…
SEODesk.org. (2011). What is direct marketing? SEO Desk. Retrieved January 22, 2012 from http://seodesk.org/what-is-direct-marketing/
Koch Group. (2009). Direct mail tips for manufacturers' letters. Koch Group. Retrieved January 22, 2012 from http://www.kochgroup.com/directmail.html
Risley, M. (2005). 10 direct mail secrets. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved January 22, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/79016
A direct effect of the endeavor performed by environmental agencies and programs like the 1970 Clean Air Act is the fact that the level of certain pollutants slowly decreased ever since the 80s. Even with that, such successes are rare and a great deal of the progress experienced in the time period lasting from the 70s and until the end of the twentieth century have been forgotten as pollution once again became a serious issue in Houston. During the recent decade emission levels have steadily increased as people failed to realize that they first have to discover which pollutants harm them the most and to act in accordance with this discovery (Sexton et. al.).
What most cannot understand is that air pollution is a direct effect of their living style and in order to decrease emission levels and to eventually stop pollution they have to change much about the…
1. McNulty, Sheila. Air pollution: Houston's other environmental disaster." Financial Times. September 12, 2010.
2. Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Marko, Dritana; Bethel, Heidi; & Lupo, Philip J. "Comparative Assessment of Air Pollution-Related Health Risks in Houston," Environmental Health Perspectives 115.10 (2007)
3. "Getting the Big Picture on Houston's Air Pollution." Retrieved September 22, 2010, from the NASA Website: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/archives/HP_ILP_Feature_03.html
Global Business 8081
Technological and Economic Changes in Educational Sector of North America
Impact of Technological Change in Education Sector of North America
Impact of Economic Change in Education Sector of North America
Impact of Technological and Economic Changes in Educational Sector of China
The paper is providing the impact of changes in the aspects of economic and technology in the educational sector of North America. The discussion is further followed with the identification of the impacts of technology and economy changes in the China similar to that of North America.
Impact of Technological Change in Education Sector of North America
It is observed that the popularity of Massive Open Online Courses or MOOCs along with the other types of distributed learning is the form of major drivers of technological change in education sector of North America. The potential of MOOC provided the potential to open higher education to several…
Altbach, P.G., Gumport, P.J. & Berdahl, R.O., 2011. American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political, and Economic Challenges. s.l.:JHU Press.
Apple, M.W., 2012. Can Education Change Society?. s.l.:Routledge.
Bangay, C. & Blum, N., 2010. Education responses to climate change and quality: Two parts of the same agenda?. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(4), pp. 359-368.
Betz, F., 2011. Managing Technological Innovation: Competitive Advantage from Change. s.l.:John Wiley & Sons.
One of the most notable of them is the inferiority of women in the Middle East as compared to their equality with men in the West. Another example is constituted by the societies in Africa where children still die of starvation, where medicine is unavailable and where the elderly are in their 30s. In Angola and Zambia for instance, the life expectancy at birth is of 38 years -- the lowest at the global level (Central Intelligence Agency, 2010). The list of examples could go on, but fact remains that the cultural differences of states teach the individual of the importance of safeguarding human rights and supporting wealth and stability throughout the planet. Both environmental and social teachings motivate the individual to become more responsible and take action to make the world a better place.
C. Personal and group influences on other groups and cultures
The believes, attitudes, actions, values…
Hinz, M.O., Gatter, F.T., Global responsibility -- local agenda: the legitimacy of modern self-determination and African traditional authority, LIT Verlag Munster, 2006
Lenk, H., Global technoscience and responsibility: schemes applied to human values, technology, creativity and globalization, LIT Verlag Munster, 2007
Leonard, A., The story of stuff, http://www.storyofstuff.com / last accessed on October 13, 2010
The world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2010, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2102rank.html?countryName=Kuwait&countryCode=ku®ionCode=me&rank=52#ku last accessed on October 13, 2010
Global Crossing was a telecommunications company that was afflicted by serious waste and mismanagement. It was the fourth largest bankruptcy in U.S. history, and its failure in the midst of a recession had serious repercussions for the U.S. economy as well as for shareholders. The company was founded in 1997 by Gary Winnick and was based upon exploiting the expanded use of the Internet by organizations and individuals alike: "it seemed like a no-brainer at the time: As more people surfed the information superhighway, demand for bandwidth would skyrocket" (Behind Global Crossing's failure, 2002, CNET). A common cliche then was to refer to the Internet as the 'information superhighway.' Global Crossing offered to provide the paving for this highway with optical networking that would "transmit data as light through specially made glass fibers. Surrounded by protective cabling, bundles of these fibers can be laid under water to connect distant continents,…
Behind Global Crossing's failure. (2002). CNET. Retrieved:
Berman, Dennis. (2002). Global Crossing faces SEC probe of accounting practices on leases.
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:
The costs of research to establish such viability should also be calculated before considering expansion to foreign markets.
When initially globalizing then, it is perhaps wiser to expand to markets that are culturally and economically closer to the domestic market, with expansion to markets that are further removed considered only when the domestic clientele is sufficiently representative of the foreign market.
Other economic factors influencing global marketing decisions include issues such as countries under structural adjustment, foreign currency restrictions, as well as political involvement in economic issues. These should be carefully considered in global marketing. Examples of such countries are many eastern countries such as China. This country has recently undergone extreme changes in terms of not only politics, but also in economics. Taxation and currency laws are thus still in a process of transition, and some industries would be more successful than others in this country.
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
International trade permits the companies that interact in the international commercial environment to explore other opportunities existent on the market, and the letter of credit gives advantages for every interested party. Economic growth is enhanced by increased commercial activity, due to some extent to the development of these payment instruments, like the letter of credit.
The letter of credit is used by many commercial players in the world market, especially for the individual advantages and benefits it brings. From the seller's point-of-view, the letter of credit promotes certainty that all the conditions mentioned in the import-export contract are integrally observed, within the established period and the amounts stipulated in the documentation. The Seller may also offer the buyer a supplier credit, having a specific financing method: the submitted documentation is discounted under the particular export letter of credit - in this way, the payment will be made by the payer's…
1. Koudriachov, S. 'The Application of the Letter of Credit Form of Payment in International Business Transactions' (2001) 10 Int'l Trade L.J. p. 37
2. Aaron Larson - 'The Letter of Credit' - Law Office of Aaron Larson, definitions and examples found on Expert Law library, August 2004. http://www.expertlaw.com/library/finance/letter_of_credit.html
3. Marget L. Moses - 'Controlling the Letter of Credit Transaction' - Connell Folley Attorneys at Law office http://www.connellfoley.com/articles/moses1.html
Using this concept, further solutions to this problem can be solicited. By continuing to involve states, NGOs, and IGOs, a solution to this problem can be achieved eventually, but only through community response. Researchers can continue to work toward discovering scientific solutions, NGOs and IGOS can offer incentives for companies and individuals to adopt new greenhouse gas cutting policies, and governments can enforce these policies. The global nature of this problem, in addition to the global community response that fostered both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol exemplifies the importance of global community in dealing with this international issue.
A second global problem, the peak oil crisis, has established itself as a prime example of the need for global community and global community responses in this age of globalization. Since the use of fossil fuels for energy production first became mainstream, scientists and government officials knew…
The measures could be introduced through the education of the population and the breaking of these regulations should be severely fined.
2. A better recycling process - This would be supported by the selective garbage collection and would be compulsory to all organizations. Breaking the regulations would be severely fined
3. Stopping deforestation - This must be done across the entire globe and national authorities must be the only ones to grant tree cutting rights and only after intense analyses. Also, new trees must be planted. Illegal deforestation should be punished with imprisonment
4. Modernizing the technologies used by the most polluting industries - these programs should be supported with government subsidies and the states refusing should be internationally trialed
5. educing the usage of resources - this could be achieved by better control and pollution systems and would also reduce the general levels of consumerism, also in the best…
Connor, S., 2005, the Final Proof: Global Warming is a Man-Made Disaster, Independent UK, Edition of February 19, 2005
Kiehl, J.T., Trenberth, K.E., 1997, Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 78, Number 2
Thomas, E.C., 2003, Partnership for Environmental Protection, Press Information Bureau, http://pib.nic.in/feature/feyr2003/fjun2003/f030620031.html, last accessed on March 12, 2008
2005, Expert: China Overtakes U.S. As Top Consumer, China Daily, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-02/17/content_417043.html. Ast accessed on March 12, 2008
As household penetration increases, competition for products in the online marketplace also increases in those areas, as does the need for components to access the online marketplace. Further, as internet skills increase in companies and households around the world, the competitive advantage achieved from coordinating marketing across countries can be significant (Steinbock, 2000).
Microsoft, for example, has developed a huge online presence in response to household penetration increases and increases in online competition. As of November 2005, Microsoft operates websites specifically designed for each of 139 countries worldwide. Each web site contains information in the language of the country, contains products, services, and even images that reflect the culture of the country, and is aimed specifically at the household consumer and business consumer within that country. For example, when accessing the home page for the United States, advertising related products display information for new software called Microsoft Streets and Tips…
Fill, C. (2002.) Marketing Communications: Contacts, Strategies, and Applications, 3/e. New York: Prentice Hall.
Harris Poll # 97. (2004, December 8.) Different leisure activities popularity rise and fall, but reading, TV watching and family time still top the list of favorites. Harris Poll #97. Retrieved November 4, 2005 from Harris Poll Interactive Archive.
International Telecommunications Union. (2003.) World Telecommunication Development Report. Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunications Union.
Internet World Statistics. (2005.) Internet Usage and World Population Statistics. Retrieved November 4, 2005 from Miniwatts International. Web site: www.internetworldstats.com.
The Growing Consensus on Global arming
In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, many segments of the general public have begun to concede that global climate change and its various consequences are real. Moreover, as the New Jersey coast and the streets of New York experienced flooding and damage the likes of which had never been seen this far north, it has become difficult to deny that our weather patterns are changing. Global warming contends that these changes are as a result of manmade hazards. According to the Stanford Solar Center (SSC) (2008), a "panel convened by the U.S. National Research Council, the nation's premier science policy body, in June 2006 voiced a "high level of confidence" that Earth is the hottest it has been in at least 400 years, and possibly even the last 2,000 years." (p. 1) The discussion hereafter will demonstrate that the case for the…
Blue Marble. (2012). How to Help Stop Global Warming. Bluemarble4us.com.
Bryce, E. (2012). On Our Radar. The New York Times.
Lewis, M. (2012). Scientists Find No Trend in 370 Years of Tropical Cyclone Data. Globalwarming.org.
National Geographic (NG). (2011). What Causes Global Warming? Nationalgeographic.com.
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…
Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html
Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html
JunkScience (2007). "The real "inconvenient truth." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/
NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
Besides the fact that flooding destroys agricultural lands leading to a disruption of food supplies to millions of people, one also has to consider the social impact on areas where there are large population groups. This can lead to forced migration and often to refugee situations, with all the related negative social implications. .
Another important aspect is the increase in serious diseases as a result of global warming. Scientists warn that an increase in temperature also means that infectious diseases could become more widespread. Infectious diseases carried by insects and rodents may also appear in new areas and regions where the population may be unprepared to deal with them. This has already been seen in cases of serious insect -- borne disease, such as Dengue fever, Malaria, West Nile virus, and Yellow Fever.
One also has or bear in mind that in order to understand the devastating effects of…
Climate change responsible for 300,000 deaths a year. Retrieved from http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=3574
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…
Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). "Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem," 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.
S. Department of State). Since them the severity and frequency of bleaching events continues to increase. These bleaching events correlate with rising average sea temperatures on a global basis, rising sea levels, and more frequent tropical storms fueled by increasingly stronger heat masses (U.S. Department of State).
In addition to coral reef bleaching, the geographic ranges of many plants and animals are shifting. Plant and animal ranges are generally limited by climatic factors, with animals able to respond to climate changes faster than plants due to increased mobility (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). ecently, changes have been noticed in the ranges of several species. Those that cannot adapt to the new climate will quickly become extinct. Currently, nearly 20-30% of all plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future, with many of these extinctions related to climate change (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). However, climate change…
Begley, S. The Truth About Denial. Newsweek. August 13, 2007.
< http://www.newsweek.com/id/32482 > Accessed June 1, 2009.
Canadell, J., Le Quere, C., and Raupach, M., et al. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric
CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sink.
Combined with the increasing prevalence of regional trading blocs, higher transportation costs may result in a move towards regional production rather than global. In other respects, however, Lonely Planet's business will remain essentially unchanged over the coming years.
The globalization of international trade has had a profound impact on Lonely Planet's operations. It has allowed the company to use offshore production centers that are capable of serving the global market. The monetary flows even at a relatively simple, one-product firm like LPP illustrate the degree to which economies around the world are intertwined. The company receives monetary inflows from dozens of nations, and disperses monetary flows to dozens more. Including small flows, the operations of Lonely Planet contribute to the economy of nearly every nation on earth.
The recent changes with respect to the global economy will continue to impact operations into the coming years, affecting the firm's ability…
Das, Dilip K. (2003). Financial Flows and Global Integration. Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization. Retrieved April 1, 2009 fromhttp://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/2004/wp13204.pdf
Steil, Benn. (2007). The end of National Currency. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/62614/benn-steil/the-end-of-national-currency
While we know that global warming would no doubt, at the levels Epstein cites, be conditions for increased disease and even death; there is no sufficient data to suggest that global warming is going to reach the levels that Epstein is suggesting in his article. His article is alarmist in nature.
Schneider's (2002) article, in contrast to Epstein's, relies heavily on scientific data, pointing out that existing data is inconclusive as to what the future of global warming is (pp. 62-65). Schneider, who conveys the sense that he is resisting the temptation to be alarmist, is holding onto the principles of science, maintaining that there is insufficient evidence with which to make predictions on the future of climate changes at the levels discussed in the Kyoto Protocol.or that of a "non-scientific" study which is the focus of Schenieder's argument on the lack of evidence to support much of the published…
Schneider, Stephen (2002), Global Warming: Neglecting the Complexities, Scientific
American v286 no1 p62-5 Ja.
Epstein, Paul R. (2000), Is Global Warming Harmful to Health?, Scientific American v283 no2 p50-7 Ag.
Policies need be established that dictate how currency is used (Homaifar, 2003).
Trends in international banking suggests that within Europe while the euro may still be the standard currency used, often throughout the world and in international banks generally, much of currency is denominated in the form of dollars (Bertuch-Samuels & amlogan, 2007; Homaifar, 2003). The United States dollar has represented the gold standard among international financial institutions because the U.S. has relatively little exchange rate fluctuation, which lowers the potential risk within the international financial marketplace. To gain operational independence and affirm prices will remain stable, banks want to ensure the currency they use is issued in a country that is stable and holds prestige (Homaifar, 2003). This can easily be assessed by evaluating a country's financial systems, determining whether the banking systems are strong and offer policies and provisions for conducting business using foreign currency as well as…
Bertuch-Samuels, a. & Ramlogan, P. (2007, Mar). The Euro: Ever more global. Finance and Development, a Quarterly Magazine of the IMF. 44(1): 1. Accessed 11, May, 2007: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2007/03/bertuch.htm
Blount, E. (1998). Taming global market risks. ABA Banking Journal, 90(3): 38.
Homaifar, G.A. (2003). Managing global financial and foreign exchange rate risk. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Lim. E.G. (2006), the Euro's challenge to the dollar: Different views from economists and evidence from COFER and other data, IMF Working Paper, No. 06(153). Washington: IMF.
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…
Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:
Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978
Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007. http://alt-e.blogspot.com/
Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007 http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
Given the natural changes in atmosphere, to determine which problems are created by man and which parts by natural occurrences is problematic (Climate 2).
Greenhouse gas concentrations caused by additional land coverage and land use, pouring into the Earth's atmosphere will certainly continue to create additional warming of the Earth's temperatures, raising the average temperature, changing precipitation and storm patterns, as well as raising seal levels from melting glaciers. However, the U.S. Strategic Plan is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at any atmospheric level, implying that net emissions of greehouse gases will need to slow and eventually stop, hopefully reversing the effect, so that greenhouse gas emision will "approach levels that are low or near zero." (Climate 3).
Meanwhile, making small changes in individual homes and yards can create big reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and save money. Changing the kind of light bulbs used, using energy-saving appliances, maintaining heating…
Climate Change -- Science. United States Environmental Protection Agency. December 21st, 2006. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ science/pastcc.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This is true regardless of your belief on this particular issue.
In the last work to be discussed in this document "Global arming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms" there is a cry, by educators to come to terms with the facts about global warming and get a sense of how to teach these facts to educators and students. The information being given to educators is depressing, as one student educator stated and figuring out a way to teach the issues is difficult. ithout the development of a greater understanding of the "butterfly effect" of technology there will likely not be a more responsible humankind.
If the global warming trend continues, the results could be depressing indeed: melting polar ice along with thermal expansion of the oceans could raise the sea level, flooding coastal cities, and many agricultural landscapes could dry out, becoming deserts. And yet,…
Cline, William R. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1992.
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Parsons, Michael L. Global Warming The Truth behind the Myth. New York: Insight Books, 1995.
Rye, James A., Donna D. Strong, and Peter A. Rubba. "Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms." Social Education 65.2 (2001): 90.
One hundred thousand people packed into the Museumplein near the city's famous museums in Amsterdam, according to Jolly, et al., writing in The New York Times. In China, fans who decided to become vendors were profiting by the sale of vuvuzelas (those annoying horns that are blown throughout all the World Cup games) for $3 U.S. money. "They're all made in Zhejiang," the vendor said, working the rainy streets at Sanlitun, "the rowdiest place in the city." In ogota Columbia, vendors profited from the sale of "pink cotton candy" to the crowds watching the games at the Palace of Justice in olivar Square (Jolly, p. 3).
In Nigeria the results of the World Cup -- with the help of social media on the Internet -- helped change a politician's policy. In this African country, politicians are not known to be responsive to citizens. After the Nigerian soccer team's "dismal performance"…
Amabebe, Eremipagamo, 2010, 'Nigeria: Who changed the President's mind -- Facebook or FIFA?' Global Voices, Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://globalvoicesonline.org .
Elliott, Stuart. 2010, 'An Underdog Amid the Giants Lining the World Cup's Fields,' The New York Times, Retrieved July 29, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Gaffer. 2010. '2010 World Cup Final: The Most Watched Soccer Game in U.S. History,' . Epltalk.com. Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://www.epltalk.com .
Hjarvard, Stig, 2008, 'Global Media Cultures: A Research Programme on the Role of Media in Cultural Globalization,' Department of Film and Media Studies, University of Copenhagen. Retrieved July 29, 2011, from www.nordicom.gu.se/common/publ_pdf/37_hjarvard.pdf.
This behavio is not consideed dishonest; in fact, and Indian peson would be consideed ude if he o she did not ty to attempt to give a peson what has been equested.
Anothe vey impotant aspect of business cultue in India is the meeting etiquette. Meeting Etiquette is influenced by all sots of cultual elements descibed above, including social class. Fo example, in India, one must geet the eldest o moe senio fist, and when leaving a goup each peson must bid faewell individually. Though shaking hands is common, this is only in big cities, whee the natives ae accustomed to Westenes. Men and women, howeve, do not usually shake hands.
The next pat of the business cultue is knowing Indian names, and whee they oiginate. Accoding to one aticle, names ae based upon "eligion, social class, and egion of the county." Fo Hindus fo example, in the noth, people…
references taken from "India: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette." (2011). Kwintesential. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .
List provided by Shukla, M. (2011). "Guide to India." Executive Planet: Wiki. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=India >.
Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .
Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from . s
McKnight, D., Stokes, P., Vilmenay, J. (2003). "India - A Market Analysis: For Staples Incorporated." University of Maryland. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.sixsmart.com/SSPapers/subindia.htm >.
Both goods and services can be provided to a diverse group of people, provided that diversity is properly addressed and acknowledged (agin, 1994).
The changing face of globalization will also require that the labor market do some changing. More people with Internet skills will be needed, as will good writers who can get high rankings in search engines. ecent changes to Google have shown that low-quality content is no longer acceptable, and people with writing skills that are above and beyond the standard ability of anyone to put together a few sentences will be in demand. In addition to good writers, graphic designers, coders, and others who are capable of working with web sites to bring them customers and good search engine rankings will be in more demand than ever before. Management will still be a significant area in which people can excel, but the managers of tomorrow will need…
Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Jain, S.C. 1989. Standardization of international marketing strategy: Some research hypotheses. Journal of Marketing 53(1): 70-79.
Ragin, C.C. (1994). Constructing social research: The unity and diversity of method, New York NY: Pine Forge Press.
Shaw, J. 1999. Standardized international advertising: some research issues and implications. Journal of Advertising Research 39(6): 19-24.
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
Global Financial Strategy
Critical assessment of the proposal to raise capital locally rather than in the UK
In the analysis of the proposal of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, it is essential to consider four critical aspects: costs, risks, benefits/advantages, and limitations/disadvantages. In the presentation of this critical assessment, the focus will be on the four factors or aspect in order to offer reliable analysis of the situation.
In the process of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, the organization must incur several costs. One of the essential costs is the professional cost. This refers to the amount of money or financial resources paid to the legal advisors, auditors, and reporting accountants in order to execute the process of raising the capital effectively and appropriately. Another important aspect of cost is the trading cost. These are direct costs including the brokerage commissions and financial…
Burnham, P 2010, 'Class, Capital and Crisis: A Return to Fundamentals', Political Studies Review, 8, 1, pp. 27-39,
Carvalhal, A, & Camara Leal, R 2013, 'The World Financial Crisis and the International Financing of Brazilian Companies', Brazilian Administration Review (BAR), 10, 1, pp. 18-39,
'Chad' 2013, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition, pp. 1-3,
Chana Kok, T, & Yap Voon, C 2011, 'Risk Factors of Commercial Banks in Malaysia', Journal Of Modern Accounting & Auditing, 7, 6, pp. 578-587,
Employee development and training is an alternate zone. In the IT business, training is not simply about recognizing training needs and giving the presupposed training, but anticipating and reckoning the necessities and advancing suitable training to equip employees so that they can handle the challenges.
Another serious challenge is the way businesses have the ability to fuse all the sub-systems in H and help them in accomplishing a definitive objective: extraordinary performance. Individuals must be groomed to get in tune with the performance culture. Making an environment that invigorates the formation of information and its sustenance all through the organization is an enormous challenge. However, investments in Human esource Information Systems (HIS) must create, maintain, and enhance a performance driven culture. The role shifts to that of a facilitator. H will include the entire organization in this process and go about as an advisor and facilitator. This is a H…
Aswathappa, A. (2009). International business. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Bell, M.P. (2012). Diversity in organizations. Mason, Ohio: South-Western College.
Burke, R.J. (2005). Reinventing human resource management: Challenges and new directions. London [u.a.: Routledge.
Congress, E.P., & Gonza-lez, M.J. (2013). Multicultural perspectives in social work practice with families. New York: Springer Pub. Company.
Global Payments Hack
With the new advancements of technology comes the many risks and dangers is also carries along. The evolution of the internet and connect-ability technology has brought everyone closer and has nearly eliminated many communication barriers that have been present throughout recorded history. These new advances have also accompanied a rise in cyber criminals, wishing to invade a person's or business' digital information. The purpose of this essay is to examine computer hacking and hacking processes that pose risks and dangers to society. The essay will use the company Global Payments as an example of how a hacking problems effects many and highlights the dangers involved in our digital world.
This essay will view Global Payments and their hacking problem from a third party accounting system point-of-view. The company's security assessment will be analyzed and different software issues will be discussed. Finally the essay will conclude by offering…
Dignan, L. (2012). Cost of Global Payments hack likely manageable. CNet, 1 April, 2013. Retrieved from http://news.cnet.com/8301-1009_3-57407787-83/cost-of-global - payments-hack-likely-manageable/
Dubois, S. (2011). What it actually takes to prevent a hack attack. CNN, 11 July 2011. Retrieved from http://management.fortune.cnn.com/2011/07/11/what-it-actually-takes-to- prevent-a-hack-attack/
Global Payments Website. Viewed 1 May 2013. Retrieved from http://www.globalpaymentsinc.com/USA/productsServices/index.html
Kitten, T. (2013). Global Closes Breach Investigation. Bank Info Security, 15 April 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bankinfosecurity.com/global-closes-breach-investigation-a- 5684
Global Warming Trends and Impact
Global warming refers to the warming of the earth's temperature, in particular oceans and the layer of the atmosphere closest to the planet (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 114). Thus far, the total temperature increase is documented at only about one degree (Weart 43). However, even this seemingly minor change can create ripple effects that present challenges for earth and mankind. Global warming and other climate change issues are thought to be the result of both natural phenomenon and man-made activity. In order to sustain life as we know it, the earth must maintain a consistent temperature. The rapid elevation in temperature has created an imbalance making it evident that the phenomenon of global warming is real.
The rate at which arctic sea ice is melting is faster than normal which has caused sea levels to rise (Prothero 15). In addition, weather is becoming more extreme,…
Prothero, Donald R. "How We Know Global Warming Is Real And Human Caused." Skeptic 17.2 (2012): 14-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Thompson, Lonnie G., and Gioietta Kuo. "Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options." World Future Review 4.2 (2012): 114-122. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Weart, Spencer. "Global Warming: How Skepticism Became Denial." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67.1 (2011): 41-50. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
what is climate change and what is it doing?
The reality of global warming: fact vs. fiction and the marginalized greed-based business perspective
The Economics of global warming vs. The moral impact of global warming on all stakeholders including non-human ones.
Climate change, not global warming: the effects are different in different parts of the globe.
The political, social, and financial challenges that global warming creates and how the challenges can be met.
The Economic, Political, and Ethical Effects of Global Warming
Global warming, or climate change, has economic, social, and political consequences. These consequences are experienced by the non-human populations of the planet, too, and perhaps even more so. The Environmental Protection Agency points out that due to climate change and global warming, migratory birds are flying an average of thirty-five miles further north than they did just forty years ago. The recent Hurricane Sandy…
Environmental Protection Agency. "Climate Change." Retrieved online: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
Jacoby, Henry. Interview with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/warming/debate/jacoby.html
Kolbert, Elisabeth. Interview with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved online: http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/ikolbert.asp
Maslin, Mark. Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future. MBI, 2007.
People and services are not easily moved among the various countries. Although securing work and permits in the United States for Mexican and Canadian immigrants, NAFTA has also caused considerable concern in terms of legislation.
This is particularly the case in Canadian lawmaking. Several disputes resulted from NAFTA trading activities in the country. Such disputes for example include gasoline additives and possible related health concerns and nerve damage (Weintraub, 2004). Canada was also engaged in a long dispute regarding a 27% duty on softwood imports to Canada. This lasted for years before it was finally resolved in 2006. Significantly however, the decision was not ratified by either Canada or the United States (Weintraub, 2004). According to the U.S. Court of International Trade, imposing the duty was contrary to the United States law.
Other problems include the fact that Canada has lost more than 10,000 companies to foreign takeovers since NAFTA…
CIA. (2010). CIA -- the World Factbook -- France. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html
Dow Jones Sustainability Index. (n.d.). Retrieved January 10,2010 from http://www.sustainability-index.com/
Glass, a. (n.d.) World Economy Vertical vs. Horizontal FDI. Department of Economics,
Texas a&M University. Retrieved February, 22, 2010, from http://econweb.tamu.edu/aglass/VerticalVsHorizontalFDI.pdf
In clear connection with climate change, with the impossibility of plants to adapt, or their struggle to do so, is the economic effects global warming would have on the population and on Australia as a state entity. There are large parts of the continent that bases its subsistence on agricultural practices. It is by no means the sense of rural ancient agriculture; yet, despite the technologies at the disposal of the agricultural system, this may reduce its capability and productivity simply because the cropped plants cannot adapt to a different environment. In such a situation, the agricultural output is lowered and effects on the economy could become real in several decades. More precisely, "changes in precipitation and, subsequently water management, are particularly critical factors affecting the future productivity of the Australian landscape. The declines in precipitation projected over much of Australia will exacerbate existing challenges to water availability and quality…
CSIRO. Climate change impacts on Australia and benefits of early action to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. 2006. http://www.csiro.au/files/files/p6fy.pdf (accessed April 5, 2011).
Global Changes. Global Warming in Australia: A Climate Changing. 2009. (accessed April 5, 2011).
Litke, Mark. Global Warming Alarm: Doomsday for Australia? 2007. http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/GlobalWarming/story?id=2866985&page=1 (accessed April 5, 2011).
NOVA Science in the News. Australian Academy of Science. 2005. http://www.science.org.au/nova/091/091key.htm (accessed April 5, 2011).
The company offers training sessions for their staff members and presents them with several incentives, such as discounts on the organization's services or employee empowerment. This virtually means that the individual staff members are valued as vital organizational assets, and their input is considered throughout the decision making process.
The second component of the transportation and logistics infrastructure is given by the fleet. This is composed from the following:
654 aircraft fleet, out of which 71 are Airbus A300; 56 are Airbus A310; 13 are AT 72s; 26 are ATT 42s; 79 are Boeing 727; 1 is Boeing DC10 (10s); 6 are Boeing DC10 (30s); 57 are Boeing MD 10 (10s); 12 are Boeing MD 10 (30s); 57 are Boeing MD (11s); 10 are Cessna 208As; 242 are Cessna 208Bs and finally, 24 are Boeing 757-200s
43,000 vehicle fleet over 100,000 power ships over 2 million ships and ship managers…
Marc h 16, 1995, FedEx Extends Tracking and Information Capabilities to America Online Users; Federal Express Customers already Using Services on FedEx Internet Worldwide Web Home Page, Business Wire
2000, FedEx Corporation SEC Filling, http://apps.shareholder.com/sec/viewerContent.aspx?companyid=FDX&docid=784953 last accessed on January 18, 2010
2010, FedEx Corporation, Hoovers, http://hoovers.com/company/FedEx_Corporation/rfhhti-1-1njdap.html last accessed on January 18, 2010
2010, The 9 Faces of Leadership, Fast Company, http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/13/9faces.html last accessed on January 18, 2010
In this order of ideas then, he strives to come up with a theory that explains the construction of global networks, as well as the systems they use to grow and prosper. In order to make his case, Kendall looks at global structures constructed in various domains, including society and technology. He comes to the realization that global peace and order can only be achieved with the full cooperation and collaboration of all structures in the international system. Additionally, there must exist a will and a way in order for the mentioned goals to be achieved. While he recognizes that his arguments address a certain kind of economists and politicians who promoted the idea of a uniform and powerful globalization, he hopes that his points will the least make for an interesting reading.
inally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon…
Finally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon starts at the premise that there exists a direct connection between the three components of population, government and security. This conclusion was found throughout a previous study, which came to raise new questions that are answered in the current analysis. In a perfect world, peace would be achieved through fruitful partnerships between private and public players and would ensure the safety of all populations and all classes. Yet, this is not the case and Dillon argues that while governmentality is the collection of cooperations and collaborations, it represents more of a "technological ontology that proceeds through reflexive epistemologies."
In other words, there is a direct connection between technology and ontology as they validate each other and support each other in reaching the pre-established goals. "Here the dialogical interplay of the ontological and the technological is in evidence. If it takes a metaphysic to imagine a technic, it takes a technic to realize a metaphysic. But even that rendition fails to do justice to the co-evolutionary dynamic that exists in the power relations between technology and ontology. This is a mutually disclosive relationship in which each seems propelled by independent dynamics as well: the technologist continuously to interrogate and refine systems, the ontologist to secure the meaning of being.
Larner, W., Walters, W., 2004, Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces, Routledge
The demand for alternative energy forms is most likely going to form a very profitable niche on the market in the near future.
This is obviously the same thing as when the informational revolution began or when the industrial revolution came about. The companies who will became providers of solutions to energy alternatives and to enable the companies to abide by the governmental restrictions in the field will also be interested stakeholders in getting the governmental restrictions implemented and operational in the industry.
1. Increased governmental spending and involvement into creating alternative forms of energy.
PROS: An important pro-in this case is that the significant governmental involvement, especially in terms of promoting and financing research for new forms of alternative energy, can actually have a tremendous impact and produce immediate results.
CONS: Increased governmental spending in any area will mean potentially higher taxes and a greater burden for the…
1. Samuelson, Robert. 2006. Global Warming's Real Inconvenient Truth. The Washington Post.
2. Clark, J.R.; Lee, Dwight. 2004. Global Warming and Its Dangers. The Independent Review, v. VIII, n. 4, Spring 2004. pp 591-597
3. Shellenberger, M.; Nordhaus, T. 2005. The Death of Environmentalism. On the Internet at http://www.grist.org/news/maindish/2005/01/13/doe-reprint/.Last retrieved on October 5, 2008
S.$1 = 80.38 JPY (Japanese Yen). However, the current economic crisis in the United States and in major world economies including the European Union, combined with the post-tsunami economic consequences within Japan has made the exchange rates highly volatile and fluctuating. In order to avoid exchange rate risks, the company will make all transactions in one standard currency that is U.S. dollars. Moreover, in order to avoid exchange rate risks AKJT Inc. will use hedging approach, while netting approach will also be used where necessary. Hedging approach will be more pragmatic for the company as the company will be taking financial loans from international financial institutions (IXGW, 2011).
Generation of Financial esources
Given the highly capital intensive nature of the business, generation of financial resources remains a major concern for AJKT Inc. Since the retained profits of the company are expected to remain relatively lower in the initial years, the…
IXGW (2011). How do foreign trade avoid exchange rate risk. Retrieved from http://www.ixgw.com/2011/02/how-do-foreign-trade-to-avoid-exchange-rate-risk/
Gowthrope, C. (2005). Business Account and Finance for non-specialists. UK: Thomson.
Sofat, R. & Hiro, P. (2008) Basic Accounting. India: Prentice Hall.
Global warming has been an issue of debate for decades, however, today there seems to be more evidence pointing to its reality. Type in "global warming" on Google search engine and access to more than fifteen million web sites will appear. One such web site is "Natural Resource Defense Council" at http://www.nrdc.org/globalarming/default.asp, which contains a wealth of information concerning global warming (Global pp). Those who believe in global warming assert that higher temperatures will produce dangerous consequences such as drought, disease, floods, and lost ecosystems (Global pp). According to the theory, carbon dioxide and other air pollution from sources such as coal-burning power plants and automobiles, collects in the atmosphere and creates a "thickening blanket" that traps the sun's heat and causes the planet's temperature to increase (Global pp). Over the past fifty years the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history and scientists predict…
Life on Mars.
Science and Nature: Space.
Global Warming: Is it Really a Threat?
Global warming has become a modern issue of considerable significance. It has been the subject of many debates, articles and conferences. Despite the amount of debate around the issue, there is still no clear conclusion. Yet the possible consequences that are attributed to the threat are highly concerning. As one report describes:
The most recent projections of state-of-the-art computer models of the Earth's climate (GCMs) have projected a globally averaged warming ranging from almost 3 to 10.7 degrees F. over the next 100 years, if greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere at the current rate. Climate scientists believe that such a warming could shift temperature zones, rainfall patterns, and agricultural belts and, under certain scenarios, and cause sea level to rise. They further predict that global warming could have far-reaching effects -- some positive, some negative depending how it may be…
CGER: Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources. 2000. Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change. National Academy Press: Washington DC.
Justus, J.R., & Fletcher, S.R. 2002. IB89005: Global Climate Change. Congressional Research Service: Washington DC.
Kaufman, Y. 2002. On The Shoulders of Giants: Milutin Malinkovitch (1879-1958). NASA. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov:81/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/index.html
Magnuson, J.J., Robertson, D.M., Benson, B.J., Wynne, R.H., Livingstone, D.M., Arai, T., Assel, R.A., Barry, R.G., Card, V., Kuusisto, E., Granin, N.G, Prowse, T.D., Stewart, K.M., & Vuglinski, V.S. 2000. Historical Trends in Lake and River Ice Cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 289: 1743-1746.
Global Human Resource Management
McDonald's Company, responding to the growing need to train its employees and managers to provide excellent customer service to its 18, 380 branches worldwide, has established the Hamburger University. The Hamburger University was established in 1961 to serve as a worldwide Management Training Center, with its main headquarters located in Oak rook, Illinois. It currently educates and trains 65, 000 managers from around the world, and has training centers in England, Japan, Germany, and Australia. The Hamburger University in Illinois trains McDonald's employees to achieve global training in fast food restaurant management, which mainly centers on customer satisfaction and service. One of the most important features of the McDonald's global training is its ability to fuse both local and international standards of customer service. Since McDonald's caters fast food to numerous countries with different cultures, i.e., different food preferences and habits, the difficult task of providing…
Solomon, C. (1996). Big Mac's McGlobal HR Secrets. Personnel Journal, Vol 75, Issue 4.