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According to a report in the New York Times, the level of piracy in Somalia's treacherous waters has fallen sharply in the year 2012. This is according to statistics that were released by the U.S. Navy. This fall is credited by the U.S. Navy to the aggressive patrolling by various international forces as well as increased vigilance by the commercial maritime operators (Shanker).
In my opinion, I do believe that ransom money gained by the pirates were being used to fund terror and other illegal activities. This belief is fueled by the previous observation by the Kenyan Central Bank that the amount of unexplained forex into the country dropped by a whooping 96%. There is also a possibility that this unexplained forex was drug or weapons money which was being laundered through the Kenyan financial system.
In conclusion, the fight on terror is far from over.This is due to…
A Policy Memo on the Problems, Strategies, and Recommendations of errorism Funding
errorism is a threat of the modern age. he increase in influence of the non-state actor in the 21st century is most evidently shown by the vast network of non-geographically-based terror cells, they are able to maintain their connections through several means of money transfer and secure banking between intermediaries. o make matters worse, there is a constant supply of fresh financial donors to the cause of terrorism. Shadowy figures who inhabit every dark crack of the world, seeking to expand the capabilities of the network through recruitment of young men to fight. When in pursuit of terrorists, it is often very important to track money flows into terror havens. Money transactions form a web between terrorist cells, easily traced due to several measures put in place by the United States after the events…
The United States should renew the PATRIOT Act and all other international tactics in order to address the problem of finances moving internationally between terror cells. A renewal of the PATRIOT Act is unpopular with such organizations as the ACLU who advocate for personal liberties, however it is the most effective tool for strangling terrorists inside of the United States. Our other initiatives with such organizations as Interpol should also remain, as cooperation between states encourages a worldwide crackdown on terrorism.
Combs, C. (2006). Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (4th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Vardi, N. (2010). Forbes. Is Al-Qaeda Bankrupt?. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2010/0301/terrorism-funds-finance-osama-al-qaeda-bankrupt.html .
Terrorism is a systematic use of terror or violence as means of achieving purpose. Within the international community, the act of terrorism has no legal binding. Common definition of terrorism refers to a violent act intended to create act of terrors to achieve political, ideological and religious goals, typically, terrorists disregard the safety of non-combatant civilians. The concept terrorism is an emotional charged and politically loaded and has been practiced by a broad array of political organizations. However, the indiscriminate use of violence against civilians has been the major characteristics of terrorism. (Spindlove, & Simonsen, 2010). The act of terrorism has become a global phenomenon where there are linkages of terrorist organizations in one country with terrorist organizations in other countries. The rapid development of telecommunications has assisted in the development of global terrorisms.
Purpose of this research is to explore a global terrorism as the main aim…
Alex, S. (2004). Terrorism Definition Problem. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law36.2/3: 375-3419.
Blocher, D. (2011). Terrorism as an international crime: the definitional problem.(Report). Eyes on the International Criminal Court, Reading Level (Lexile):1790.
EBSCO, (2014). About EBSCO. EBSCO Industries, Inc.USA.
Jack, N.K. Bailey, D. & Matt, S. (2012).Global Terrorism: Past Present & Future,
A Policy Memo on Whether to Employ Waterboarding against High Value Terror Suspects
The attacks of September 11, 2001, left our country enraged and ready to strike those who attacked us. We searched for terrorist suspects and the masterminds who brought our nation so much pain. We then devised, nay borrowed, a method that would enable our top specialists to extract as much information as they could from those that we found and believed to be guilty. This interrogation method is called waterboarding, and this memo will examine the method and will describe why it is, in fact, torture and why it should never again be used against any suspect of the United States.
Waterboarding is a harsh yet effective interrogation method, whose origins lie in the Spanish Inquisition. This method simulates drowning and near death, and is described as follows: the subject is strapped to…
Global Terrorism became the most important national security issue in the United States since hottest parts of the Cold War. Although the U.S. had been fighting terrorism for decades, September 11th, 2001 marked a day when the world watched while lower Manhattan recoiled from the largest terrorist attack on American soil. The question of whether democracy can end global terrorism is one, which is hotly contested by political thinkers in America. ormer President George Bush Believes that yes democracy will curb terrorism in a speech of his on the matter, while . Gregory Gause, an intellectual at odds with the President's beliefs, believes that democracy is not the easy solution to such a problem as terrorism in the 21st century.
President George W. Bush offers a firm defense of Democracy, and suggests that the Middle East would be much better off if democracy flourished in the region, as it would…
F. Gregory Gause does not believe that 'democracy' is what is needed to end global terrorism. Gause believes that democracy is simply a political structure which does not directly solve the underlying catalysts for terrorism. For instance, the Oklahoma City Bombing in 1995 was within the United States in a fully functioning democracy, by Americans who were upset with the government. Gause looks at India, another democratic nation, and sees that 75% of terrorist attacks have occurred within that country. This is due to national, ethnic, social, and class problems within an ancient society, something outside of the realm of Western democracy.
Although I agree with President Bush that terrorists must be hunted down and captured or killed, I do not believe that democracy as a form of government is the key to ending all forms of terrorism, and I do not believe that democracy can by itself make that part of the world wealthier, it takes hard work and innovation for money to be made. Democracy will however help the Middle East solve many other problems, particularly in countries ruled by oppressive dictators for decades, which have not been servants of the people for a day of their administration. I believe President Bush had to say what he did, but I do not know if he truly believes that democracy is the simple answer to such a complex problem as global terrorism.
In conclusion, it is important to recognize context in the times in which each side was writing his opinions on global terrorism. The war in Iraq was at its peak, and Osama bin Laden was still plotting attacks against the United States. There was a heavy cloud over the country still after the events of September 11th, and relations with the Middle East were at an all-time tense point. After looking back at the past decade, it is amazing to see how shaped American politics were by the War on Terror, and how much of America's thinking on the subject evolved over time as conflicts became worse and better to today's Arab Spring democratic revolutions.
ight and left wing extremism, which are both forms of domestic or home-grown terrorism, have a rather long history in the U.S. Generally motivated by Marxist and communist ideologies, left wing extremism emerged as early as the late 19th century (White, 2016). Nonetheless, left wing extremism in the U.S. became more prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, with Weather Underground, Black Panthers, and Students for Democratic Society being the most dominant factions. Other groups such as the May 19th Communist Organisation (M19CO) emerged in the 1990s. The groups collapsed in the early 1990s following the culmination of the Cold War, which marked the end of communism. With the decline of left wing extremism, rightwing extremism started emerging, largely motivated by ideologies such as anti-communism, neo-Nazism, neo-Fascism, and racism (White, 2016). Gaining popularity in the 1990s, right wing extremism has increasingly become one of the major terrorist threats facing…
White, J. (2016). Terrorism and homeland security. 9th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.
hat: Arrests are made in connection with planned terrorist attacks.
hen: September 5, 2007
How: Police say that there are ten more "terror plotters" still being sought in connection with the alleged plot.
Brief Analysis: Three men - terrorists - were arrested on suspicion of plotting to kill hundreds of people in German bars, airports, and restaurants where Americans are known to frequent. "They were motivated by hatred of America," according to Jorg Ziercke, president of the Federal Criminal Investigation Agency, quoted through an article in the Times (Boyes, 2007). The police believe that these terrorists were planning on using 750 kilos of hydrogen peroxide to blow up restaurants, bars, and facilities in the airport in Berlin. The real story behind the arrests (besides the fact that an estimate ten more terrorists who were part of this "cell" are being hunted) is that this was a "home-grown" operation…
Boyes, Roger. (2007, September 6). Ten Terror Plotters Still on the Run in Germany.
The Times Online, Retrieved September 6, 2007, at http://www.timesonline.co.uk .
Mazzetti, Mark. (2007, August 7). A Spy Chief's Political Education. The New York Times,
Retrieved September 6, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com .
Brief Analysis: The three suspects are all Islamic, two were German converts to the belief, and one was a Turkish Muslim. They all supported Al Qaeda, and had a "deep hatred" for Americans. The Germans found them largely because they were discovered spying on an American military base on New Year's Eve of 2006. Authorities have been tracking their movements closely ever since. Their bombs had the potential to be more deadly than those used in the Madrid and London terrorist bombings, and they had detonators and other equipment necessary to conduct mayhem on many locations.
While the three suspects were caught, many officials believe there are up to ten more supporters still at large in Germany and in other countries. Most officials fear terrorist attacks on September 11, 2007, to "commemorate" the terrorist attacks in the Eastern United States in 2001. It seems the Al Qaeda network is determined…
Eddy, M. (2007). Germany searching for 10 terror suspects. Retrieved from the ABC News.com Website: http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=35650186 Sept. 2007.
Editors. (2007). Germany searching for 10 men behind plot. Retrieved from the Reuters.com Web site: http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKL06403567200709066 Sept. 2007.
McHugh, D. (2007). 3 terror suspects arrested in Germany. Retrieved from the Forbes.com Web site: http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2007/09/05/ap4082577.html6 Sept. 2007.
The resolution of this policy counsel meeting is the endorsement of a refinement of Australia's terror policy with respect both to the preservation of constitutional rights and in terms of approach its relationship to the United States with balance and diplomacy. Recognizing the severity the security threat but simultaneously recognizing the need to refine policies so as to diminish the tendency toward inflaming the political and ideological anger of the developing world, Australia must spend the coming decades finding ways to quell such hostility. This will mean a closer consideration of the economic, political and trade policies that often have run aground of the interests of the developing world. Likewise, it means that Australia must function as a continued partner to the U.S. But also as a voice of conscience with respect to the discretionary use of military force or diplomatic finesse.
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim…
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim Responses to the Discourse on Terrorism in the Australian Popular Media. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1).
Australian Federal Police (AFP). (2009). Fighting Terrorism in Australia. www.afp.gov.au
BBC News. (2006). Australian Loses Terrorism Appeal. BBC News.
Brown, M. (2009). Al-Shabaab terrorists 'living in Australia.' ABC News. Online at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/09/23/2693927.htm?section=justin
But this seems to be an assumption athe than an established fact. Jugensmeye late points out that Abouhalima denies his involvement in the Wold Tade Cente bombing. If so, how can one know that Abouhalima was "disappointed" to see little damage? One can also see assumptions in the wods Jugensmeye uses. Fo example, Jugensmeye wites that Abouhalima "felt fee to talk about the subject of teoism in geneal and teoist incidents of which he was not accused, including the Oklahoma City fedeal building bombing."
Instead of witing, he "was not involved," Jugensmeye says he "he was not accused," as if Abouhalima could be accused of the Oklahoma City bombing.
Instead of making assumptions about Abouhalima, Jugensmeye could have focused on the contadictions in the actions and views of the Islamist militant and his appaent lack of knowledge in Islamic law. Jugensmeye povides evidence fo that by telling the stoy…
references to religious doctrines are almost always abstract and vague. As Jurgensmeyer's discussion of Abouhalima's ideological views demonstrates, Islamists like Abouhalima are not well-versed in Qur'anic studies or other Islamic core texts. It is important to critically examine the views of Abouhalima and other Islamist terrorists and expose their lack of Islamic knowledge and contradictions inherent in their views as this may help in discrediting them in the eyes of most Muslims.
Mark Jurgensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001), p. 60.
Ibid, p. 61.
Ibid, p. 62.
Ibid, p. 61.
What must however be noted is that globalization has sadly enough also had some negative impacts. Probably the most relevant example in this sense has been the emergence of a war on terrorism in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. Such actions are indeed linked to international law, which did stir up controversy but did not prevent the emergence of the war. "Terror can be regarded as a direct attack on global civil society, a way of creating fear and insecurity that are the opposite of civil society" (Kaldor, 2003). The final impact is that of major disruption in the consolidation of a strong global civil society.
Kaldor, M., 2003, the Idea of Global Civil Society, International Affairs, Vol.…
Kaldor, M., 2003, the Idea of Global Civil Society, International Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 3, pp. 583-593
Global Sporting Events Market
There is little doubt that international sporting events are the acme of sports. Although it is possible that sports in the United States -- such as basketball, baseball, and football -- might draw in more overall revenue, this fact is attributed to the reality that not only do these sporting events take place year after year, but they also are able to gain media exposure and advertising money over the course of an entire season. Truly international sporting events, such as the Olympics, the orld Cup, and to a lesser extent, the European Cup, are able to generate comparable hype and money in a shorter period of time. The Olympics lasts less than a month and the orld Cup lasts approximately a month. hen attempting to calculate approximately how much bigger such international sporting events might grow in the years to come, there are several considerations…
Baker, Peter, Cooper, Helene, Mazzetti, Mark. Bin Ladin is Dead, Obama Says. The New York Times. 2011. Web. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2011/05/02/world/asia/osama-bin-laden-is-killed.html?hp&_r=0
Perrucci, Robert and Wysong, Earl. The New Class Society: Goodbye American Dream? New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2008. Print.
Global Efforts to educe Terrorism and Political Violence Been Effective in the Past Decade?
Conceptualizing Political Violence and Terrorism
Terrorism does not have an assigned definition. As a matter of fact, "few terms or concepts in contemporary political discourse have proved as hard to define as terrorism" (Weinberg, Pedahzur, and Hirsch-Hoefler, 2004). The authors further point out that from as early as the 1960s and 1970s, when terrorism as a subject first appeared (or made a reappearance), various professional commentators have fund it quite challenging to come up with an articulate definition of the term that could gain acceptance across the board. Essentially, terrorism is a contemporary form of political violence. Indeed, terrorism as Gurr (as cited in Ortlung and Makarychev, 2006) points out, it is a subset of political violence. For purposes of this discussion, the definition (and interpretation) AND assigns to terrorism will be adopted. This definition will…
Apaza, C.R., 2011. Integrity and Accountability in Government: Homeland Security and the Inspector General. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.
Gartenstein-Ross, D., 2012. Bin Laden's Legacy Why We're Still Losing the War on Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons
Hoffman, B., (2010). A Counterterrorism Strategy for the Obama Administration. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(4), pp. 359-377
Inbar, E. ed., 2013. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security: Domestic and International Ramifications. New York, NY: Routledge.
Financial and law enforcers, military and reporting of intelligence are carried out by respective agencies drawn on limited coordination efforts (Whitmore, 2002). While agencies can pull and push intelligence data, these structures lack a centralized system for collecting intelligence. This limits the ability to conduct a meta-analysis of data across inter-agencies systems. Lack of proper coordination efforts reduces the usefulness of financial intelligence thus making it difficult to link the financial intelligence with other useful information. Critics claim that financial evidence is useful in supporting a case; it does not lead to prevention of terrorism attacks (Linden, 2007).
However, a centralized system of coordination may be an effective way of exploring financial data through linking it with other useful information. This can be made useful if the agencies improve their overall understanding of the financial networks of terrorists. The new homeland security departments are signals that there are efforts for…
Amos, M. & Petraeus, D. (2009). The U.S. Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field
Manual. New York: Signalman Publishing
Center for Excellence Defense against Terrorism (2008). Responses to Cyber Terrorism.
California: IOS Press
How have worries over WMD terror attacks distorted a balanced approach to policy on terrorism?
Intelligence failures led to the presumption that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (Jervis).[footnoteef:1] The presumption was rooted in a widespread policy playing upon mortal fears, rather than on reason. "Although administration officials exaggerated the danger that Saddam posed, they also revealed their true fears when they talked about the possibility that he could use WMD against the United States or its allies," (Jervis, p. 57).[footnoteef:2] It also "made little difference" that Saddam was shown to have no WMDs (Jervis, p. 57).[footnoteef:3] Therefore, the approach to policy on terrorism has been overtly shaped by fear mongering rather than on intelligence. [1: Jervis, obert, 2005.] [2: Jervis, obert, 2005, p. 57] [3: Jervis, obert, 2005, p. 57]
At the same time, policy on terrorism is always going to entail some type of trade-off between preparing…
"Global Salafi Terrorist Networks." Unrestricted Warfare Symposium. March 1-415, 2006.
Jervis, Robert, 2005. American Foreign Policy in a New Era. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
Pillar, Paul. R, 2001. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Sageman, M., 2008. Leaderless Jihad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
This did not occur, and that in fact flawed the structure and strength of the strategic plan that was in place. This further affirms that stated in the answer to the memo; restructuring was needed. Combined forces were needed, better training and efforts in support of the military were needed. Most of all there was and is still a need for reunification of forces. The memo discusses the importance of forces coming together and supporting and sustaining the views of the UN and its principles, not only would this give everyone involved a more global perspective it will also allow all parties an opportunity to focus their initiatives in unison. There is a need for unification, support, boosting of military morale, and various other initiatives. A fresh perspective is always a great first step.
Smith, D. (2003, October 16). Your October 16, 2003 Memo e: Global War on…
Smith, D. (2003, October 16). Your October 16, 2003 Memo Re: Global War on Terrorism. Memo, pp.1-9.
There has been considerable negative propaganda about the U.N. In recent times that has portrayed the organization as a bureaucratic "white elephant" and suggestions have even been made to do away with it altogether. John Bolton, who until recently was the U.S. Permanent epresentative at the UN, once famously remarked: "The [U.N.] Secretariat building in New York has 38 stories. If you lost ten stories today, it wouldn't make a bit of difference;" and many people in the U.S. tend to agree with him. No doubt, improvement in the performance of the United Nations may well be called for, since no orgainization is perfect. However, to my mind, it would be an extremely unwise and short-sighted step to curtail the activities of the United Nations. In fact, we need to expand the United Nations so that it can carry out the enormous tasks of maintaining global peace, reducing poverty, supporting…
About the ITU." (2007). International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/aboutitu/index.html
Global Issues on the UN Agenda." (2007). The United Nations Official Website. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/issues/
International cooperation for an enabling environment for sustainable development." (2001).
Report of the Secretary-General: Commission on Sustainable Development. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/cn17/2001/ecn172001-5.pdf
It is difficult to state that the national security apparatus is underperforming when you have clear statistical results: no attacks in the last five years. This means that something must be functioning at full parameters there and that the informational community is also operating with those in other countries to obtain these results (the attacks planned for London and stopped are a good example in this sense).
On the other hand, a counter argument to this statement is that the war is not against national terrorism: it is a global war on global terrorism, the U.S. have pledged to wipe out terrorism on a global scale and this, as shown in the article, is not yet giving full results. Indeed, the attacks in London and Madrid are a good example in this sense, if we consider only some of the most important cases of extremist Arab terrorism.
As to the…
1. Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at http://web0.foreignpolicy.com/issue_julyaug_2006/TI-index/index.html
Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at
Terrorism is a global problem that most Americans only vaguely recognized prior to September 11th. We had been aware of the occasional international flight hijacking or a bombing at an embassy far removed from our everyday lives. It also fell low on the Bush administration priority list during the president's first year in office, as Attorney General John Ashcroft favored an agenda far more active in the war on drugs and domestic criminal prosecution than threats of fundamentalist violence. However, when the World Trade Center came tumbling down, the fact that America has enemies became inescapable. Moreover, these enemies were not the bumbling camel jockeys we had been persuaded to dismiss. Rather, they were units of a network both diabolical and sophisticated enough to orchestrate an attack that simultaneously froze the world in shock, shattered the American economy, devastated a cocky culture and did so all in the space of…
4. Goodenough, Patrick.
Philippine Group Believed to Be Funding Al- Qaeda" CNSNews.com. Apr. 2, 2002.
5. Oscapella, Eugene. "The Links Between Drug Prohibition and Terrorism" Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy. Oct. 29, 2001.
Individuals Become Terrorists?
As the costly global battle against terrorism continues, the question is constantly begged, "Why do some individuals become terrorists while others do not?" Certainly, there are some generic attributes that distinguish many individuals who are considered terrorists in the eyes of the international community, including being young and male, but the generalities tend to stop there because women and even children have also been involved in terrorist attacks in the past. To gain some fresh insights about these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the various motivational factors that have been shown to turn ordinary individuals into terrorists. Following a discussion of these issues, a summary of the research and important findings concerning why some individuals become terrorists are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
What is terrorism, anyway? Although a single, universally acceptable definition of terrorism is…
Abrahms, M 2008, 'What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter-terrorism strategy,' International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4, 78-105.
Acharya, A 2009, Targeting Terrorist Financing: International Cooperation and New Regimes,
New York: Routledge.
Atran, S 2008, 'Who becomes a terrorist today?,' Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol.2, No. 5, 1-5.
Crime Delinquency Teenagers
Virtually no one can deny that there is a definite, tangible link between adolescence and crime. Anyone not familiar with this subject would be hard pressed to dispute the eminent statistical data that alludes to that dangerous link. In 1990, teenagers were more than 3.5 times likely to commit an indexed crime than were adults in the United States. Index crimes are both violent criminal activity such as "murder & non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault" as well as serious property crime such as "burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson" (No author 1990). This point is underscored by the fact that in 2005, approximately 10,000 prisoners in the United States were serving life sentences for actions that were committed before they turned 18 (Liptak 2005). This proclivity of teenage criminal offenders is evinced overseas in other countries as well, such as in…
Krueger, J.G. (2006). "Brain science offers insight to teen crime." ABQTrib. Retrieved from http://www.abqtrib.com/news/2006/dec/08/brain-science-offers-insight-teen-crime/
Liptak, A. (2005). "Jailed for Life After Crimes as Teenagers." New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2005/10/03/national/03lifers.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
No author. (1990). "Teenagers have the highest crime rates." Race Matters. Retrieved from http://www.racematters.org/hicrimer.htm
Reynolds, J. (2007). "Crime and the teenage brain." The Monterey County Herald. Retrieved from http://www.montereyherald.com/ci_7109878
Digital Divide and the Global Village
Digital divide does pose a serious problem for developing countries because it is, as Aleph Molinari states, "a new illiteracy" (Molinari). Just as the Industrial Revolution put the estern nations ahead of the rest of the world, the digital divide is putting a gap between those same industrialized worlds and the developing world, which is falling behind -- behind in terms of having access to information that the developed world has, behind in terms of being able to take advantage of tools and technology that can allow persons to connect to one another across the planet for free, and behind in terms of possessing the tools to be able to meet the requirements and demands of the business world in the 21st century. The further the gap widens, the farther behind the developing world is being left.
Thus, it is important that developing countries…
Campbell, Patricia; MacKinnon, Aran; Stevens, Christy. An Introduction to Global
Studies. UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Print.
Molinari, Aleph. "Let's bridge the digital divide!" TED.com. Web. 1 Apr 2016.
Irish Social Policy
The global recession came along with many negative effects to may countries in the world. Coupled with the terror attacks, the global fear increased even more and the situation became worse and worse for asylum seekers in the Western countries. Ireland consequently found itself in a situation that made it awkward for the refugees and other asylum seekers who run there for shelter. The asylum seekers and the refugees found themselves deprived of many basic human provisions and rights that every individual should be allowed to enjoy.
Inequalities of Irish policy
The policies in Ireland are very detrimental to the refugees. For instance with introduction of the Direct Provision policy the adult asylum seekers were entitled to an allowance of €19.10 per week, children €9.60 which are way below what the average Irish earns and is barely enough for any tangible provision for an individual leave alone…
Integrating Ireland, (2009). Direct Provision. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.integratingireland.ie/direct_provision
Justin Frewel, (2010). The Plight of Asylum Seekers in Ireland. Irish Left Review. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.irishleftreview.org/2010/02/24/plight-asylum-seekers-ireland/
Mikko Lahteenmaki, (2004). Refugee and Migration Policy in the European Union. International Seminar for Experts in the Series Great Debates organized by the Cicero Foundation, Paris. May 10, 2011 from http://www.cicerofoundation.org/pdf/report_refugee_migration.pdf
The Referendum Commission (2011). Background Information on the Citizenship Referendum.
Spices Tea impacted global trade. eference Book: A History World Societies, Eighth Edition, Volume 1 by: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks
By the time of the death of Chinggis, the Mongol Empire stretched from the Pacific Ocean in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west. How can we account for this astounding expansion?
"Perhaps no empire in history has risen so spectacularly as that of the Mongols. In less than 80 years, a band of warriors originally comprised of several men grew to an empire that encompassed all from the Pacific Ocean to the Danube iver" (The Mongol Empire, 2001, All Empires). The reasons for the domination of the Mongols are rooted partially in their superior military and tactical skills. In contrast to the heavy armor of medieval knights, Mongols dressed lightly and rode small, speedy horses. Their austere lifestyle made them well-suited to battle.…
Genghis Khan and the great Mongol Empire. (2012). Macro History. Retrieved:
McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks. A History of World Societies:
Vol 1. 8th Ed.
U.S. counter-terrorism policies negatively affected individual rights and liberties of law-Abiding U.S. citizens
US counterterrorism efforts have adversely affected human rights in ways that alarmists had warned. There is a significant degree of government interference for the purposes of security. The most criticized effects relating to civil rights are the operations of Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) across the U.S. Some of the tactics employed have entrapped human rights as they provide detonators, explosives and other equipment. In such sting operations, individuals are always charged for attempting to acquire illegal firearms and explosives or smuggling. This enables the government to exercise tight control over its citizens by denying them the right to own any firearm. The practice exists on a thin line between protecting the rights of the innocent and protecting civilians (Howell & Lind, 2010).
After the September 11 attack, the federal embraced a range of actions to curtail…
Howell, J., & Lind, J. (2010). Civil society under strain: Counter-terrorism policy, civil society, and aid post-9/11. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.
Tsang, S.Y.-S. (2008). Intelligence and human rights in the era of global terrorism. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Security Studies, an imprint of Stanford University Press.
Salinas, F.A., Samuel, K., & White, N.D. (2012). Counter-terrorism: International law and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ryan, M.W.S. (2013). Decoding Al-Qaeda's Strategy: The Deep Battle against America. New York: Columbia University Press.
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
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Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Terrorism elated Disaster Preparation Exercises
Terrorism-elated Disaster Preparation Exercises
In the recent years, terrorism has changed with the global sophistication, to complex and unmanageable standards. A country may consider itself a haven for its people, only to be surprised by a terrible terrorism attack. From these terror trends observed in different countries, governments must equip themselves with the necessary disaster management skills and equipment. Various disaster preparation activities can be undertaken to fight terrorism attacks. These disaster preparation exercises are meant to avoid or reduce terrorism casualties.
The foremost exercise should involve civic education on terrorism attacks. The public should be aware of what to do on receiving information on a planned terrorist activity, when in the midst of a terrorist attack or when in the aftermath of a terrorist activity (Bloomberg, Scoppetta, & Cassano, 2007). For instance, the public should be aware of the need to avoid an area…
Bloomberg, M.R., Scoppetta, N., & Cassano, S.J. (2007). Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness Strategy. Fire Department City of New York, 21-39.
Vasterman, P., Yzermans, C.J., & Dirkzwager, A.J. (2004). The Role of the Media and Media Hypes in the Aftermath of Disasters. Oxford Journals, 3-7.
Forum on Terrorism
International relations refer to interactions among countries and other global entities. These interactions almost always center on international issues or problems like crime, which affect all of them. Through international relations, nations can influence one another reach decisions most beneficial to all. One most disturbing issue, which affects all nations and impact international relations, is narco-terrorism.
Billions of dollars have been infused into the war on drugs yet too little has been achieved (Cillufo 2000). More than 50 federal government bodies have pooled their resources into this war but chronic loopholes remain. No defined authority lines, overseeing agency, a drug czar or a mandate account for it. Experts believe that a unifying strategy is called for with sustained international cooperation. Diplomatic initiatives must support it unrelentingly. The United States cannot stage this fight aloe. All affected countries need to strengthen their respective legal institutions and social organizations.…
Cilluffo, F. (2000). The Threat Posed from the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drug
Trafficking, and Terrorism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 10-17.
Sanderson, T. (2004). Transnational Terror and Organized Crime. SAIS Review, 49-59.
Schmid, A. (2004). Links between Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: A Case of "Narco-terrorism"? Global Security, 1-33.
globalization been a force for development or for underdevelopment?
Globalization and Development: An Uneven Exchange
Globalization is the network of international flows of goods, services, money, information, ideas and people. It is the force that helped nations developed into economic powers, becoming players on the international stage. Globalization while an instrument of positive change in many regions of the world it has also contributed to escalating levels of income disparity, environmental degradation, the eroding of state power on the international stage and the increase in activity and sophistication of trans-national criminal organizations. This paper demonstrates how globalization and the promotion of specific economic policies is a boon to specific countries such as South Korea while other nations are increasingly marginalized. Weak nation-states are subject to the influence of non-state international actors such as trans-national corporations and criminal organizations. These external factors destabilize a nation's central government and its authority therefore…
Bank for International Settlements. Foreign direct investment in the financial sector - experiences in Asia, central and eastern Europe and Latin America, 2004. Retrieved 12 December at http://www.bis.org/publ/cgfs25.pdf , 1-25.
Bergsen, Albert J., and Omar Lizardo. 2004. "International Terrorism and the World System." Sociological Theory 22: 38-52.
Cumings, Bruce. 2005. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Evans, Peter. "The Eclipse of the State? Reflection on Stateness in an Era of Globalization," World Politics, 50 (October 1997): 62-82.
(Mahnken and Maiolo, 2008, p. 339); (Friedman, 2003); (Military Doctrine, Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency, 2003)
"Disaggregation" could provide a new strategy for the counterinsurgency model for its war against terrorism. Disaggregation would involve prohibiting links between theaters, preventing global or regional insurgents to associate with or exploit potential local terrorists, disrupting the flow of information, propaganda and materials within and between jihad hotspots, abolishing sanctuary areas, identifying and isolating radical elements from the local populace and interrupting inputs from Islamist sources emanating from the greater Middle East. This new approach must address the problem at three levels -- local, regional and global levels. (Mahnken and Maiolo, 2008, p. 339); (Friedman, 2003); (Military Doctrine, Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency, 2003)
Lessons Learnt by the U.S. Marines and the U.S. Army
The lessons learnt by the U.S. Army and the Marine Corps in Vietnam were profound but were soon forgotten, but the recent…
Amstutz, Mark R. 2005. International ethics: concepts, theories, and cases in global politics. Rowman & Littlefield.
Boot, Max. 2009. A New Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/a-new-counterinsurgency-in-afghanistan-15116 [accessed 28 April 2008]
Cassidy, Robert M. 2006. Counterinsurgency and the global war on terror: military culture and irregular war. Greenwood Publishing Group.
A terrorist network does not seek legitimacy either, but acts without regard for human liberty, human rights, or international law. Terrorist networks speak only for themselves. While nation-states may support them through funding or providing safe havens, terrorist groups are not polities. They do not deserve the juridical considerations due to even the most rogue of nations. The rules for preemptive action must therefore be more flexible with regards to terrorism.
ogue nations are also of particular concern for the United States today. Together with terrorism, rogue states pose "deadly challenges" to the United States," ("National Security Strategy," p. 13). ogue states resemble terrorist networks in some ways: most notably by their pursuit of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and their blatant disregard for international law. Moreover, rogue states often work in tandem with terrorist networks. They may share intelligence, access to weapons, and sources of funding. Together, rogue states…
Ideas to Go: Preemptive Action." Retrieved April 21, 2007 at http://www.intellectualtakeout.com/ideastogo/documents/Preemption-to-Go.pdf
Kacerauskis, Vytautas. "Can a Member of the United Nations Unilaterally Decide to Use Preemptive Force Against Another State Without Violating the UN Charter?" International Journal of Baltic Law. 2(1), 2005.
National Security Strategy of the United States of America." White House. Retrieved April 21, 2007 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.
Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…
Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675920 .
Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128 .
Some rates had even decreased. Maritime shipping rates grew by 5 to 10% on average in the two weeks after the attack, but that rise was soon reversed. Airfreight rates, however, were about 10% higher in late 2001 than before the attacks. Due to the abrupt slowing of cumulative demand starting in 2000 and the decline in fuel costs after the terrorism, there should have been a steeper falling off in freight costs. The stability of freight rates, despite power fuel prices and underused shipping capacity would suggest that transportation costs may have increased as a result of the 9/11 attacks (Looney).
In 2005, Songster looked at the impact that terrorist acts have around the world on the hospitality industry, which has become a prime target in a number of threatening situations. Hotels, restaurants and bars around the globe have increasingly become scenes of terrorist atrocities not enjoyment and relaxation.…
Bruck, T.and Wickstrom, B. (2004) the economic consequences of terror:
guest editor's introduction, the European Journal of Political Economy 20,
Coleman, K. (July 7, 2004) Terrorism Risk Management for Finance and Insurance
Organizations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 17, 2007. http://www.directionsmag.com/printer.php?article_id=593
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…
Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.
Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.
Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.
Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
However, it is tempting to overstate the importance of Bin Laden's death. While he was a high-ranked person in his terrorist organization, Al Qaeda operates in cells. There are an untold number of men with the same amount of power as Bin Laden currently plotting against the United States. Killing Bin Laden most certainly did not eliminate the terrorist threat faced by the United States. In fact, it may have provided additional motivation to young terrorists throughout the Arab world. Killing Bin Laden did nothing to increase domestic security from terrorism. Therefore, his death had very little significance for national security. To understand how Bin Laden's death could be important politically and figuratively while having very little literal value, it is important to understand these two distinctions.
Legitimacy of the U.S. Led War on Terror
The War on Terror is, like its predecessor, the War on Drugs, an unwinnable war.…
Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).
However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…
1. Axelrod R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
2. Baert Wiener J. (1999). Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal 108.4
3. Behreandt D. (18 Sept. 2006). "Global Warming Too Hot or Not? The Theory of Global Warming Proposes That Man's Activities Are Causing the Earth to Heat Up, but There Is Compelling Scientific Evidence That Does Not Support This Conclusion," the New American.
4. Clemons E.K. Schimmelbusch H. "The Environmental Prisoners' Dilemma or We're All in This Together: Can I Trust You to Figure it Out?" Retrieved May 6, 2010, from the Warton School of the University in Pennsylvania Web site: http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu/~clemons/blogs/prisonersblog.pdf
Political Issue and Tourism
Over the years, there has been concern over the fats shifting weather pattern occasioned by the global warming. Extreme and erratic weather conditions have been experienced in almost every part of the world. This essay will review the literature that is available on the definition of Global warming, the causes of global warming, effects of global warming on the community and nations, what the government is doing to stop global warming, as well as what Non-Governmental Organizations or Non-State Organizations are doing to stop global warming and finally what should be done to stop global warming.
The essay will also review the impact of global warming and community of Nations on tourism and how the changing weather patterns have impacted on the tourism trends from the human perspective as well as from the flora and fauna perspective. This will show how global warming has affected the…
Admin, (2011). Definition of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.definitionofglobalwarming.com/
African Safari Vacation, (2010). Effects of Global Warming on Tourism in Africa. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.kenyaonetours.com/african-safari/events/global-warming-on-africa.htm
Anita Pleumaron, (2007). Tourism Feels the heat of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11,
2011 from http://www.google.co.ke/#sclient=psyab&hl=sw&source=hp&q=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&oq=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=94883l112644l1l113205l35l34l4l0l0l14l3892l25307l5-184.108.40.206.4l22l0&bav=cf.osb&fp=a55a91a0191aef52&biw=12
Thus, paramount American interests were to be presented as being really the interests of the Europeans themselves. It would be a situation wherein America was simply helping along people who were, at present, unable to adequately help themselves. The concept had much in common with the goals of many charity or self-help organizations - people grow and are transformed by learning to help themselves. They are given assistance so as to be enabled to learn the skills and life ways necessary to improve their own conditions. Naturally, everything that was in the "real" interests of Europeans would also be in the interests of the United States. The more similar the peoples of the two continents could become, the more readily Europeans could identify their own aspirations with those of the American people, the closer would be the bond between the two sides. In effect, the new post-ar Europe would be…
Adelman, Carol. "Foreign Aid: Effectively Advancing Security Interests." Harvard International Review 29.3 (2007): 62+.
Agnew, John, and J. Nicholas Entrikin, eds. The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. London: Routledge, 2004.
Globlal Organized Crime, ISIS and Criminal Justice
The impact of globalization has not just been felt around the planet in economic, political and social terms: it has also been felt in the sector of criminology. The current crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system on a global basis are, in other words, not as isolated or unconnected as they were a century ago. Today's world is connected in complex ways, especially thanks to the ease of communication that the digital era has provided. In places where the digital divide exists, crimes and criminal issues are more unique and remote (examples include genocide, such as that conducted by Boko Haram for instance in Africa). But in countries where there is no digital divide, the crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system range from counterfeiting to human trafficking to various forms of cyber crime and terrorist-related…
BBC. (2015). Facebook, Google, and Twitter agree German hate speech deal.
BBCNews. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35105003
Baksi, C. (2015). China tackles problem of counterfeit goods head-on. Raconteur.
Retrieved from http://raconteur.net/business/china-tackles-problem-of-counterfeit-goods-head-on
.....motif of surveillance features prominently in Captain America: Civil War. More importantly, the film features the ability of a powerful state entity to control the behavior of its citizens. The types of surveillance and brainwashing depicted in Captain America: Civil War are completely different from those used by the American government. However, the methods of surveillance used by the American government to spy on its own people may be no less sinister. The methods of surveillance used by the government cannot directly control peoples' minds and behavior of individuals, but can control other dimensions of the daily lives of citizens. Captain America: Civil War can be viewed as a metaphor and warning to Americans about the extent, purpose, and meaning of government surveillance in daily life. The film can also be instructional, showing that Americans can empower themselves against encroaching infringements on their rights.
Because Captain America: Civil War is…
Terrorist Group's Use Of Cloud Technology
After the 1980s there have been changes on a global scale that included post cold war developments. The changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union coupled with the technological change on the nations of the East caused structural and perceptional changes that were needed to make them competitive in high technology; which included everything from military to the service sector. There was advance of science and technology in the context of world affairs, however lopsided development led to religious fundamentalism and also the terrorist ethos.
The world was for a long time in dread of nuclear weapons, but these too have taken a different dimension. Nations, even rogue nations with nuclear power are not the threat but a fanatic group that succeeds in hijacking a nuclear missile, for example, is. Though science and technology have been blamed for environmental disasters, the proliferation of…
Baker, John C, et al. Mapping the Risks: Assessing Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information. Rand: Santa Monica, CA, 2004.
Costigan, Sean S; Gold, David. Terrornomics.
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Furht, Borko; Escalante, Armando. Handbook of Cloud Computing.
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
S. resident George W. Bush. Thus, when the blast in Bali, at the
southern point of Indonesia, directed the fury of 9/11 at a popular
attraction to Australian holiday-makers, Australia became a nation
motivated in foreign policy by the apparent threat of global terrorism.
This would be demonstrated by its unwavering willingness to follow the
United States even into its poorly-informed and ill-advised invasion of
Iraq, providing combat troops and civilian military aid. During the lead-
up to this war, in fact, John Howard would perhaps have been noted as only
second to Britain's rime Minister Tony Blair in the ranking of Iraq War
cheerleaders, appearing frequently in the media in order to endorse the
alleged provocations made by the U.S. and later proved false. Howard
echoed well the terms which Bush used to prompt war, remarking in a
February 2002 appearance that the Australian government was firm in
Proportionate Response to the Terrorist Threat? Studies in Conflict &
Terrorism, 28(4), 321 - 339.
Wesley, Michael & Allan Gyngell. (2007). Making Australian Foreign
Policy. Cambridge University Press.
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, anum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…
Allan, S. & Zelizer, B. (2004). Reporting war: Journalism in wartime. New York: Routledge.
Beale, S.S. (2006). The news media's influence on criminal justice policy: How market-driven news promotes punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48(2), 397-399.
Billeaudeaux, A., Domke, D., Hutcheson, J.S. & Garland, P. (2003). Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 166-167.
Crockatt, R. (2003). America embattled: September 11, anti-Americanism, and the global order.
Terrorism has emerged as one of the major security threats across the globe in the past several years. The severity of this global threat has been evident through the various terrorist attacks that have occurred in the past few decades, especially the 9/11 attacks. Actually, the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks was characterized with increased fears that terrorist groups like al-Qaeda will attempt to carry out other large attacks against the United States. One of the major reasons for the increase in terrorism is the use of various tactics by these individuals or groups. As the world continues to experience tremendous changes, terrorists and terror groups continue to develop new, sophisticated means and tactics of carry out their activities. While some of these activities may be carried out for similar reasons, they tactics employed in achieving these goals vary from time to time.
ecent Terrorists Tactics:
Carafano, J.J., Bucci, S. & Zuckerman, J. (2012, April 25). Fifty Terror Plots Foiled Since 9/11:
The Homegrown Threat and the Long War on Terrorism. Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation -- Leadership for America.
Moran, N. (2007, September 24). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.rightsidenews.com/2007092429591/world/terrorism/the-evolution-of-improvised-explosive-devices.html
Singer, P.W. (2012, February). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). Retrieved
Culture of Global Political Events
Global political events are certainly affected by culture. The very conception of politics itself is widely predicated on cultural concerns, especially when considering international politics. Perhaps the ultimate manifestation of international politics is the instance of war, which occurs when differing countries are engaged in belligerent encounters with one another. Intercultural communications plays a large part in the various images and messages disseminated through the media regarding the cultural phenomenons that affect how these images and messages are portrayed. A better understanding of the various cultures and their phenomenon could definitely improve the different intercultural communications and perceptions of martial events; a dearth of such understanding can lead to polarization and obfuscation of what these events truly mean to others. There are a number of examples that are indicative of the veracity of such a thesis, including the launch of the War on Terror, the…
Abbas, M., Riaz, S. (2014). Peculiar nature of the global war on terror and the dilemma of unlawful enemy combatants. Hamdard Islamicus. 37(4), 69-103.
Kapoor, P., Testerman, A., Brehm, A. (2016). Entrapment as a threat to community peace in the global war on terror: an analysis of discourse in local press. Journal of International and Global Studies. 7(2), 40-65.
Penslar, D. (2011). The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim. German History. 29(3), 423-444.
Noam Chomsky underlines the above point in a discussion entitled the New War on Terror. Chomsky alerts us to the fact that are many more forms of terror than bombing or direct violence that are often extremely devastating and morally indefensible. This in fact constitutes a form of terrorism in the moral sense of the terms. He notes for example that,
..there are 7 to 8 million people in Afghanistan on the verge of starvation. That was true actually before September 11th. They were surviving on international aid. On September 16th, the Times reported, I'm quoting it, that the United States demanded from Pakistan the elimination of truck convoys that provide much of the food and other supplies to Afghanistan's civilian population.
Chomsky refers to this as a form of "silent genocide." The existence of state-sponsored economic and other forms of terror is referred to by a number of…
Bergesen a.J. And Lizardo O. 2004, Terrorism and the World-System, Sociological Theory, Vol. 22, No. 1, Theories of Terrorism: A Symposium.
Bonanete L. 1979, Some Unanticipated Consequences of Terrorism, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 197-211
Burnham J. 1974, Antiterror Problems, National Review, vol 26.
Chomsky new War on Terror, viewed August 9, 2008, http://www.counterpunch.org/chomskyterror.html
Powers and ights of the Constitution
INSTITUTIONAL POWE: The Constitution gives the federal government the right to form a military service, including what is now the National Guard (Army National Guard, 2011), though it does so in cooperation with the states and localities to serve their interests as well. This section is important for a number of reasons, including the fact that it reinforces the differences between the state and the federal government without weakening the role of the states to protect and defend themselves. It also helps ensure that the troops and resources are readily available in each locality when urgent issues of various kinds result. They can be used for natural disasters, various forms of social control, helping in other times or need, as well as to address more complicated issues like war and terrorism. This latter issue has become most important recently as localities look to be…
Army National Guard (2011). Legal basis of the national guard. Viewable at http://www.arng.army.mil/aboutus/history/Pages/ConstitutionalCharteroftheGuard.aspx
Bancuk, L. (n.d.), Right to assemble. Learning to Give. http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper57.html
Crosses of Lafayette (2007). Private website. Viewable at http://lafayettecrosses.blogspot.com/ .
Cuban Missile Crisis (2011). Viewable at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis .
Combatting Future Terrorism
Fighting future terrorism
Over the years, the U.S.A. government and the entire world has been battling with the issue of terrorism. This is because the act of terrorism has diverse faces, from the rebel terrorists, the insurgents, bioterrorism to the religious sect terrorism. The U.S.A. has in particular been busy figuring out the various ways to not only stop the terrorism act before it happens, but more significantly to hinder the development of the terror groups from developing into fully fledged organizations. The U.S. is not alone in this and many nations have invested heavily in the same and some of the internationally known counterterrorism forces are S.A.S. (Special Air Service), the GSG-9, The Navy SEAL Team 6, SFOD-D (Delta Force), and CIA Special Activities Division (SAD). The SAS belongs to the British Military and the GSG-9 Germany. The Navy SEAL, Delta Force, and SAD are United…
Adam Szpiro et.al., (2007). Health Surveillance and Diagnosis for Mitigatinga Bio-terror Attack.
Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Vol.17 No.1. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol17_no1/17_1_5Szpiro.pdf
Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html
Daniel J. Dire, (2011). Biological Warfare. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…
references to the political, economic and ideological interests/purpose of the U.S., ignoring the reasons stated by the Bush administration and the Blair government. Mu-nchen, GRIN Verlag
GmbH. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-20100916742 .
Radu, M., & Arnold, A. (1990). The New insurgencies: Anticommunist guerrillas in the Third
World. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Roberts, J.E., & Army War College (U.S.). (2007). Winning the battle of ideas in the War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.
In fact, when it comes to terrorism, strangers are, generally, the ambit of their activities.
There have been some activities, however, that have targeted innocent civilians and the motives and actions, in these cases, have ominously paralleled terrorist stratagems and motivations. A case in kind occurred in December, 2004, when an intercity bus in Honduras, Central America was intercepted and sprayed with machine gunfire and 28 passengers, mainly women and children, were killed first by the gunfire then by the assailants climbing abroad the bus and methodically executing the passengers17. The objective was a protest against the Honduran government who had recently reinstated the death penalty.
Another similarity is in their pattern of operation where, like al-Quida, they operate in a form of loose, unstructured cells that form a global dispersed network. Similarly, too, their individual ceils are devoted to similar activities and some are quite sophisticated. These include activities…
Bunker, R. J. 'Epochal Change: War over Social and Political Organization', Parameters, vol. 27, no. 2, Summe, 1997
Derbeken, Jaxon Van."Widow pleads for death penalty." San Francisco Chronicle. June 27, 2008.
Del Barco, M. "The International Reach of the Mara Salvatrucha." NPR.org (May 2, 2011). http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4539688
Elkus, a. Foreign Policy in Focus "Gangs, terrorists, and trade" (April 12, 2007)
In other words, up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no cases of note or significance that indicated that the executive branch of the UNITED STATES government had the authority to render suspects or criminals to foreign locations outside of the explicit authority granted through a signed treaty with a foreign government.
It was during the Civil War that the first major break with this established legal tradition was made. The incident involved the capture of a foreign citizen in New York City during wartime and performed by presidential authority alone. The man captured was Jose Augustin Arguelles, a Spanish subject, who captured illegal slave traders, claimed a reward, then sold the slaves to plantation owners. Under Spanish law he was a criminal, but the United States had no extradition treaty with Spain. Despite having no legal authority to do so, Lincoln authorized the capture of the…
Elsea, J.K. And Kim, J. (2007, January 23). Undisclosed UNITED STATES detention sites overseas: background and legal issues. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 29, 2007, at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33643.pdf
Grey, S. (2005, December 19). Torture's tipping point. New Statesman, pp. 24-25.
Grey, S. (2006, November 20). Missing presumed tortured. New Statesman, pp. 12-15.
Gutierrez, D. (2006, January-February). The extraordinary cruelty of "extraordinary rendition." The Humanist, pp. 11-15.
British Judge Lord Bringham warned states powers intrude liberty privacy individuals justification fight a "war terror." Using specific cases examples countries studying (United States, Canada Great Britain) discuss extent intrusion rights privacy freedom occurred justified a democracy? This essay 2000 words (7-9 pages) Also sources needed paper.
The issue of national security has been a subject that has kept the headlines of the newspapers especially since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The events in the United States demonstrated that the world, as it was in 2001, was not prepared for a security breach that was unconventional in nature and modus operandi. Since then, the national security strategies have changed dramatically throughout the world. One of the most significant change if not the most significant, took place in the United States that considered itself a true victim of the terrorist phenomenon and decided to prevent further events to ever take place on…
Cockfield, A. (2011) "Surveillance as law" Grifith Law Review, Vol 20, no 4, 795- 816.
Evolving Threats To National Security" Stanford Law and Policy Review, Vol 22:1, 11-39.
Sheldon, B. (2011). "Camera surveillance within the UK: Enhancing public safety or a social threat?" International Review of Law, Computers & Technology Vol. 25, No. 3, November 2011, 193 -- 203.
Special Project National Security (2005). Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 58:5:1623- 1627
R.T. Naylor has a unique, and some might say even rogue, interpretation of bin Laden and al Qaeda. While Naylor spends the entire Wages of Crime focusing on the flows of black market and blood money, he does so within a morally relativist framework. Chapter Seven of Wages of Crime is an addendum, new to the most recent edition of the book that was originally published prior to September 11. Responding to the pressing push to apply the economist’s approach to terrorist financing, Naylor understandably adds this chapter as part of his ongoing narrative on the wages of crime. Given the tenor and themes contained in the rest of the book, it comes as little surprise that Naylor reaches the conclusion that cutting off sources of terrorist financing is an unfeasible, ineffective, and perhaps even morally inappropriate method of addressing the problem of non-state actors. In an interview with Standard…
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
Wars that have seen far more than the 3,500 deaths that the U.S. saw, and a self-fulfilling prophecy; creating more anger and resentment against the U.S., more potential terrorists, and the complete opposite of what the neo-cons wanted; global downturn and U.S. decline instead consolidating their power and position in the world.
Over 6,000 U.S. soldiers killed in wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, with possibly 100 times that number of civilians in those countries (in Iraq, at an early point, there was an estimated range of 400,000 to 900,000 civilian deaths, which of course Bush had to reject, claiming it used flawed techniques, even though it used estimation techniques his own government agencies taught others to use).
By framing this as a war on terror, an excuse is now afforded to all governments to put in place tough security measured on any potentially flimsy basis. Subsequently, the predicted war on…
FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM
A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.
With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. ecently the citizens…
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(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [ http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(4) Council on Foreign Relations [ http://cfrterrorism.org/home/ ] Accessed on 27/08/2005