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Leader Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member
Words: 1848 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 49534198
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In contrast, a high-stress job, such as in a police department or hospital may create a sense of solidarity between friendly colleagues that is extremely strong to the point that it can influence job performance ratings. Bias can influence superior's perceptions of how much a friend deserves a promotion or a raise, and there is a strong sense of being part of an 'in-group' that is intrinsic to the profession in an 'us vs. them' mentality. A lack of financial resources may further raise the stakes in terms of the need to promote friends. However, such high-stakes jobs demand a high degree or professionalism, and promotion of in-group members may not always yield higher-quality performance, as measured in an objective fashion.

If the in-group is too tight, and too reliant upon standard operating procedures, solutions to using scarce resources can result in a lack of creativity and a failure to…

Works Cited

Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX). (2009). Changing Minds. Retrieved March 12, 2009 at: 

Manzoni, Jean-Francois & Jean-Louis Barsoux. (2000). Appendix 1: What Leader-Member

Exchange Theory tells managers. From Set-Up-to-Fail Syndrome: How good managers cause great people to fail. Cambridge HBS Press. Excerpt retrieved March 12, 2009


Leader Admire Your Selected Leader a Real-Life
Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15137024
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leader admire. Your selected leader a real-Life individual a fictional character television,

The style of leadership that best describes me is known as the dominance style. I focus really intently on goals that I seek to accomplish, and I largely work at them until they are accomplished in as little time as possible. As such, I actually prefer to be the one who is in charge of making decisions and actuating others to accomplish objectives. Once I have an objective, my principle concern is the proverbial bottom-line or achieving that objective with efficiency. I have realized that power is one of the ways in which dominance leaders are able to assert themselves over others to help fulfill the needs of an organization.

Much of my style of leadership involves the assertion of such power over subordinates to get them to best perform tasks that can help me and overarching organizations…


Antoine, P. (no date). Fielder's contingency theory of leadership. Retrieved from 

Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). "Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military." Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 31 (3): 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.

Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Good and Bad Leader
Words: 1348 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63641069
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Bad Leader

Compare and contrast the trait and behavioral approach to leadership, discuss which approach is more effective and explain your reasoning. Lastly, identify and describe a leader who uses the approach you chose as more effective and evaluate why he/she is an effective leader

The trait approach to leadership encompasses the conception that there are particular virtues a leader must have. This leadership theory accentuates that there is a particular set of basic personality indicators that set leaders apart from followers. On the other hand, the behavioral approach to leadership takes into account a set of actions that any leader ought to undertake in relation to an organizational circumstance. In comparing these two leadership approaches, the fundamental similarity is that both approaches lay emphasis that there are distinguishable actions that any leader ought to be capable to undertake in any given circumstance. Behaviorism is similar to the trait approach…


Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational dynamics, 18(3), 19-31.

Johnson, W. (2016). Describe the Major Similarities & Differences Between the Trait & Behavior Leadership Theories. Chron. Retrieved from: 

Kelchner, L. (2017). The Importance of Ethics in Organizations. Chron. Retrieved from: 

Muray, A. (2016). What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership? The Wall Street Journal.

Good and Bad Experiences with Leadership Essay
Words: 2588 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array
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Essay Prompt

Throughout your life, you have been under the leadership of both effective and ineffective leaders.
You have also been part of both effective and ineffective organizations. Those memories (both
pleasant and painful) are deeply ingrained in your mind, but you may have never stopped to consider
why you loved or hated a particular persons style or a particular organizations policies.
Well, here is your chance! In this class, we have been examining human nature and leadership from
several perspectives. Your task is to apply that academic knowledge to your own history.

Source Material:

You may include any leaders that you served under in any formal organization. Some examples
might include: former teachers, college professors, coaches, bosses, pastors, and church elders. If
you served in the military, superior officers would be good choices as well. Try to think of specific
leaders that you either loved or hated, and…

Leader's Self-Insight 1 1 Your Learning Style Using
Words: 3023 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73993967
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Leader's Self-Insight 1.1: Your Learning Style: Using Multiple Intelligences

I scored evenly on all of the types of intelligence measured by this self-assessment: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and musical. This indicates that I am a well-rounded person with the ability to work in multiple environments on different tasks.

Leader's Self-Insight 1.2: Your Leadership Potential

I scored slightly more (7) on the even-numbered indicators than on the odd ones (6), indicating I have leadership capabilities such as "vision and change." However, the scores were about even.

Leader's Self-Insight 1.3: Are You on a Fast Track to Nowhere?

On people skills, I scored 3 out of the 4 qualities. I believe I have solid interpersonal skills. On working with authority, I scored 2. I believe I need to work more on my assertiveness and courage when dealing with persons in positions of authority because I remain afraid to speak up and express…


Daft, R.L. The Leadership Experience.

Leader Comparing Leadership Theories the
Words: 2035 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 77494899
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It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X is an outdated leadership style that does not promote success. According to Kopelman et al. (2008): "At the heart of McGregor's argument is the notion that managers' assumptions/attitudes represent, potentially, self-fulfilling prophecies. The manager who believes that people are inherently lazy and untrustworthy will treat employees in a manner that reflects these attitudes. Employees, sensing that there is little in the job to spur their involvement, will exhibit little interest and motivation. Consequently, and ironically, the manager with low expectations will lament that 'you can't get good help nowadays,' oblivious as to the actual nature of cause and effect. Closing the serf-reinforcing cycle, the manager feels vindicated; that is, his low expectations were warranted. Conversely, the manager who believes that…


Benson, Gary L. (1983). "How Employee Assumptions Influence Managerial Behavior." Supervisory Management March: 2(7).

Bittel, Lester. (1989). McGraw-Hill Management Course. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Braden, Pamela. (2007). West Virginia University, Division of Business and Economics. Retrieved from the Internet at .

Daft, R.L. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management." Academy of Management Executive 18, no. 4: 117-122.

Carlos Ghosn Is a Good
Words: 2015 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52872096
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Although Carlos Ghosn's leadership abilities cannot be contested, there are certain aspects that must be taken into consideration when analyzing his leadership style. He is considered a successful leader, given the results reported by Nissan and enault and the recognition pachieved from his peers. However, the democratic and laissez-faire style imposed by Ghosn can lead to negative effects on medium term and on long-term. This is because this relaxed attitude he encourages within his companies might determine some of the workers to not take their jobs as seriously as they should. Their motivational levels might be reduced as a result. Therefore, Ghosn should try to impose a firmer leadership style.


Carlos Ghosn is one of the most successful leaders on global level. His interesting approach to leadership and the results he obtained through his companies have determined specialists in the field to analyze his behavior. Their findings are very…

Reference list:

1. Leadership Styles (2010). Leadership Expert. Retrieved February 26, 2011 from

2. Avolio, B. & Gibbons, T. (1988). Charismatic Leadership. Jossey-Bass Publishers. Retrieved February 27, 2011.

3. McDonough, M. (2010). Democratic Leadership in Large Companies. Retrieved February 27, 2011 from .

4. Laissez Faire Leadership Style and Management Styles Theory (2010). ELS. Retrieved February 27, 2011 from

Outline for What Makes a Leader
Words: 337 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39422270
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"What Makes a Good Leader," by Daniel Goleman

Evaluating Emotional Intelligence.

Goleman studied 188 companies to determine what makes a person successful in business.

Personal capabilities necessary for success:

Technical skill.

Cognitive ability (intelligence).

Emotional intelligence.

Technical skill and intelligence are important but emotional intelligence most important factor for success.

Components of Emotional Intelligence.


Means being aware of one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and drives.

ecognition of how one's feelings affect them.

Understanding of one's value and goals in life.

ealistic view of oneself.


Like an inner conversation that frees us from our feelings.

Allows a person to control their actions.

Helps create an environment of trust and fairness.

Emotional control helps a person to react to new and unexpected situations.

Enhances integrity.

6. Signs of self-regulation: thoughtfulness, reflection, comfortable with ambiguity and change, able to control impulses.

C. Motivation.

1. Leaders are motivated by need to…


Goleman, Daniel. (1998). "What Makes A Leader?" Best of HBR. Retrieved from

Leadership a Leader Is an
Words: 2154 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61389741
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JIM Kouzes, lecturer and author of nine books of leadership, including the best seller, "The leadership Challenge," qualities that make an effective leader have different perspectives.

There are four things that everyone look for in a good leader. Firstly, people want a leader who is honest to them, trustworthy, and has integrity. Secondly, people want someone who looks forward that is forward looking, who has a vision of the future, and thinks about the long-term, also people want someone who can forecast things in case of crisis. Thirdly, people want someone who is consistent, competitive, expertise and knows what they are doing. Fourth, people want a person who is inspiring, energetic, optimistic and positive about the future.

Research on how leaders execute or put all those attributes into action, or execute those qualities has produced five practices that successful leaders indulge those practices on the job and contribute to the…


Brady, Chris. (2007): Launching a Leadership Revolution: Mastering the Five Levels of Influence. New York: Business Plus.

Citrin, James M. (2007): The Dynamic Path: Access the Secrets of Champions to Achieve Greatness Through Mental Toughness, Inspired Leadership and Personal Transformation. New York: Rodale Press, Inc.

Covey, Stephen M.R. The Speed of Trust the One Thing that Changes Everything. New York: Free Press, 2006.

Kouzes, James. (2003): Leadership Challenge. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Indispensable Leader in the World
Words: 3199 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78340252
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The military strengths enable the leader at hand to have a fair share of the leadership duties and capabilities in the society (Wagner, 2008).


Who do you think is the most indispensable leader in the world today, what category (from the list below) does this person belong?

I think that Barrack Obama is the most indispensable leader in the world today. Mr. Barrack Obama is one of the leaders that have come to the forefront in the general success of leadership in the present world. In most instances, Barrack Obama has come out as a leader with the capabilities of capturing the entire world with his personal skills and attributes. The strengths of this president are bestowed within the running and management of the affair of the United States of America. The entire world knows that there are fruitful avenues of managing the available avenues of growth and development…


Buzan, T., Dottino, T., & Israel, R. (2007). Grass roots leaders: The BrainSmart revolution in business. Aldershot: Gower.

Dixon, B. (2012). Social media for school leaders: A comprehensive guide to getting the most out of Facebook, Twitter, and other essential web tools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Feinstein, S. (2008). Barack Obama. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers.

Johansen, R. (2012). Leaders make the future: Ten new leadership skills for an uncertain world. San Francisco, Calif: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Theories on Why Leaders Fail to Act
Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10264786
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Failure to Lead

Leaders who lead with ambition but fail by making a faulty choice are often the more condemned leaders but there is another group that is even less competent or at least unlucky, that being leaders who react tepidly or refuse to make a firm choice or take blame for the same. Such leaders are too tentative and are not assertive enough and this lead to a leader not being taken seriously as an executive or even a figurehead because there is cogent and strong voice dictating what is to be done and why. It is clear that trying one's best as a lead and with fervor will always stand as a better way to try and fail than to not make a decision and/or not make it quickly enough thus almost certainly leading to failure or less success.


The traits of good leaders are tossed around…


Better leadership is crucial to Detroit's future. (2013). Crain's Detroit Business, 29(28).


Fibuch, E.E. (2011). Failure of Senior Leadership -- Is This a Problem in Your Hospital?.

Physician Executive, 37(2), 46-50.

Traits of a Political Leader
Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27714568
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Political Leader:

Politicians and politics are terms that usually elicit fascination in nearly every conversation and discussion. Actually, it seems like people have some fascination with evaluation of political leaders resulting in the fact that biographies of current political figures become best sellers. In addition, the tragedies and triumphs of political leaders attract huge public attention as they become newspaper headlines. One of the major reasons for the increased fascination is because of curiosity about the personal characteristics, individual preferences, decision making processes, and the beliefs and work of these leaders. However, most of the analysis and learning about the personalities and leadership styles of these leaders is always carried out in a cursory manner. People have been forced to rely on analysis of what political leaders say as a means of learning their individual characteristics and leadership styles (Hermann, 2002). Nonetheless, it's still important to examine and understand the…


Hermann, M.G. (2002, November 13). Assessing Leadership Style: A Trait Analysis. Retrieved November 28, 2013, from 

Mascuilli, J., Molchanov, M.A. & Knight, W.A. (n.d.). Political Leadership in Context.

Retrieved November 28, 2013, from

McKeown, L. (2012, October 23). 3 Lousy Leadership Traits from the Campaign Trail.

Technology Is Good Agree That Technological Process
Words: 1817 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75005823
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Technology Is Good agree that technological process is always good. Learning is an important facet of life and without it, we cannot grow. Growth is an important aspect of life. It is human nature to be curious and it is the human spirit to explore. Intelligence increases with each new discovery and with all of the exciting possibilities that technology has to offer, we should look forward with enthusiasm.

This is not to say that, as a society, we will not encounter problems that might arise from the advancement of technology. Just recently, we have seen some of the repercussions of technology with the first so-called cloned human baby. Many people are opposed to technology because of problems just like this. In fact, many people refer to Dr. Frankenstein and his monster whenever technology seems to interfere with moral issues. If we can learn to approach each situation responsibly and…

What Are Different Types of Leaders
Words: 1801 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21795446
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There are four types of leaders, each with a slightly different style, each with slightly different strengths. The four leadership styles are telling, selling, developing and delegating (eck and Yeager, 2001).

The first leader exercises his power by directing or telling employees what to do, when to do it and how to do it. This is the most dominant form of leadership and it can be destructive to a team.

The second leader gets together with the employees and listens to their ideas before coming to a decision. This style of leadership can be criticizes as over-involving the employees rather than making a decision and delegating authority.

The third leader develops his ideas with his staff. The leader supports the employees and solves any problems that come up. In its negative form, this type of leadership is over-accommodating, as some leaders allow the employees to simply flounder around without…


Anderson, Robert. (1977). Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's. New York: St. Martin's Books.

Beck, John D.W., & Yeager, Neil M. (2001). The Leaders' Window: Mastering the Four Styles of leadership to Build high-Performing Teams, Second Edition. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.

Don, Kettl. (2003). Team Bush: Leadership Lessons From the Bush White House. New York: McGraw Hill.

Gates, Bill (2000). We're All Swimming in the Same Pool. Inside Out. Retrieved from the Internet at

Ethical Leaders Known in My
Words: 1793 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 30458946
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Going on vacation or taking a day off resulted in coming back to a flood of emails about "mistakes" she had uncovered while you were away, so time off was not even seen as an incentive any more.

As shown, there was really very little in comparison between my classroom and this department. One was a toxic environment due to poor leadership, while the other was a positive and nurturing environment due to leadership. Another writer states, "Successful leadership -- and the trust of those led -- demands a true partnership between leader and followers to create a team that advances our society toward the common good" (Erickson, 2006). In my experience, there was no team with the unethical leader, the staff was divided into "us" against "them," and the leader had no clue that her actions were causing such dissension in the staff.

In conclusion, comparing these two leaders…


Ciulla, J.B. (Ed.). (2004). Ethics, the heart of leadership (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Erickson, a.L. (2006). Ethical leadership and the public trust: The winner of the 2006 ASPA Wallace O. Keene Conference Scholarship shares her thoughts on four important characteristics of leaders. The Public Manager, 35(1), 62+.

Reilly, E.C. (2006). The future entering: reflections on and challenges to ethical leadership. 163+..

Business the Role of Leaders
Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91428480
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Then all of this information needs to be communicated to everyone who will either be involved with the change or affected by it. Having open line of communication will help to reduce the normal resistance to change that has come to be expected. People don't like to change and if they have no idea why they are being asked to change they are even less likely to buy into it.

Once the change plan has been defined and communicated then it is time for a leader to gain the trust of those who they will be leading through the change. People are more likely to follow someone who the can trust to be telling them the truth and be telling them exactly what is going on. This is where it is often helpful for a good leader to lead by example. They must show those affected that the change will…


Kotter J.P. 1996. Successful Change and the Forces that Drive it. The Canadian Manager.

21(3) p.20.

Moss Kanter, R. 2000. Enduring Skills of Change Leaders - Leader To Leader, No.13, Summer


Leadership Qualifications in the Workplace Quintessential Leader
Words: 3233 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70657123
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Leadership Qualifications in the orkplace

Quintessential Leader

Proposed Leadership Model

For eras there have been people and leaders have discussed what the qualifications that make a great leader are. Leadership travels all the way back to the period of the ancient Greeks. In the 1500's, there was an Italian statesman named Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince, and in this book he talked about the different methods for leaders to use in obtaining power (Leadership 2003). This all led to the current events dating to the early 1900's and what has been used and developed in today's society. There are a lot of theories of what a leader in the workplace should have and the idea that leaders during history have been people who were seen or looked up to as leaders and deeply appreciated. As people say "There are those that lead and those that follow." An individual with…

Works Cited

Akinboye, J., 2005. Executive behaviour battery. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers.

Borman, W., 2004. The concept of organizational citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), p. 238 -- 241.

Cameron, J.D.E.K.R. & R.R., 2001. Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic: Reconsidered once again.. Review of Educational Research, pp. 30-54.

Charlton, G., 2000. Human Habits of Highly Effective Organisations.. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

Qualities of a Good Educational
Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12814960
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They appaently need to see someone as actively involved in the leadeship pocess in ode to conside him o he a leade.

One of the chaacteistics that the students did mention was fainess. Each of them descibed scenaios in which they felt as if thei educational leades had not been fai. They peceived that some students wee given pefeential teatment. The easons that they cited fo this pefeential teatment vaied, though paental involvement at school and student involvement in athletics seems to be two common easons that they believed pincipals might teat some students bette than othes. They felt like this diffeential teatment was not beneficial, not only to the students who did not eceive the pefeential teatment, but also to the students who did. Anothe chaacteistic that the students found impotant was that the leades be nice to them; they found it difficult to elate to leades who wee…

references first, and discourage the teachers from challenging them and assigning a lot of homework. However, two of the parents believed that a student-first attitude meant that the educational leaders should be focused on ensuring that the children received the best education possible, with the goal of surpassing any state standards for minimum education requirements.

They also seemed to feel like educational leaders should be available. They seemed to find it very off-putting when educational leaders, particularly those on the administrative level, did not make themselves available to the parents. They wanted to be able to enter into a dialogue with them and feel as if the leaders were paying attention to their issues and concerns, rather than act as if parental concerns were somehow unimportant in the educational context.


There was very little overlap in the qualities that the three groups identified as being critical in an educational leader. Instead, each group of them seemed to focus on the qualities that would permit the educational leader to interact better with them. What this suggests is that an educational leader's effectiveness should not be assessed by a single group of individuals, but by a combination of people from all different areas. Moreover, it suggests that educational leaders need flexibility, so that they can be effective leaders for students, teachers and parents, despite the varying demands of each group.

Leadership Charisma Myth Leaders Need
Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 11490639
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Though there has been a strong correlation shown between the possession of certain key traits and effective leadership, no trait (or combination of traits) guarantees good leadership. More importantly, effective leadership does not really depend upon specific character traits so much as specific choices. The personality traits that can lead to good leadership tend to be those that allow for decisive and informed decisions based on the needs of the group or organization being led; charisma is certainly not among these, and the traits themselves are secondary to the decisions they lead to, regardless (Kirkpatrick & Locke 1991). Charisma no more makes a leader than attractiveness or another physical attribute.

Going back to charisma specifically, some have questioned whether the use of charisma as an enhancement to leadership -- or at least a tool of persuasion used by one in authority -- is even an ethical way to lead. In…


Elliott, M. (2009). "No charisma? Don't worry, you can still be a leader." Time. Accessed 29 January 2010.,9171,1909616-3,00.html 

Howell, J. & Avolio, B. (1992). "The ethics of charismatic leadership." Academy of management executive 6(2), pp. 43-54.

Kirkpatrick, S. & Locke, E. (1991). "Leadership: Do Traits Matter?" The Executive 5(2), pp. 48-60

Nye, J. (2008). "Charisma and leadership." Accessed 29 January 2010,

Leadership Few Leaders'so Overtly and Ostentatiously
Words: 1195 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61324556
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Few leaders so overtly and ostentatiously embody the concept of transformational leadership as Sir Richard Branson. Branson heads the mega company Virgin Group. The leader's unconventional personality has been described as vocal and flamboyant, (Management and Leadership of Richard Branson at Virgin Group Ltd., 2010). Although Branson is known for his personal charisma, he does not limit himself to a charismatic leadership style. Charismatic leaders operate on the assumption that Charm and grace are all that is needed to create followers, (Leadership Styles, Changing Minds).

From his charismatic character flows a natural leadership style that encourages personal freedom of choice at the managerial level. Thus, Richard Branson can be best appreciated as a transformational leader, and one who has extraordinary vision. Transformational leadership is characterized by the empowerment of workers to make decisions that promote organizational goals, visions, and values. Transformational leaders aim to achieve an articulated vision of…

"Management and Leadership of Richard Branson at Virgin Group Ltd." (2010). UPX Success. Retrieved online:

"Most Recognized Organizational Leadership Models." Retrieved online: 

Murray, A. (n.d.). Leadership styles. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved online:

Leadership Assessment Definition of Leader
Words: 1585 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28602647
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un Tzu informs that we cannot punish people until they feel loyalty to us: namely, until they consider themselves members of our group.

10. Keep them guessing

This quality may be pertinent only to leaders of a business / corporation. Her un Tzu advises keeping one's strategies and plans concealed from one's competitor so that one retains competitive advantage.

III. Conclusion

The Art of War, maintains un Tzu, is "a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected." (pt. 2)

The same goes for the Art of Leadership. It is also "a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected" and its qualities need to be known and inculcated in order to have maximum success in the field.

'Leader' as term may be inchoate, but as many entrepreneurs have…


Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World, Eighth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Kotter JP. 1996. Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. School

Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Sun Tzu, (2001). The Art of War Wylie, TX: Pickard & Son, Publishers.

Tommy Franks Leadership Selection of the Leader
Words: 2654 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 8219072
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Tommy Franks


Selection of the Leader

Definition of Leadership by General Tommy Franks

Leadership Philosophy of General Tommy Franks

Learning to Lead

Analyzing Strengths and Weaknesses Using Leadership Challenge Model



Leadership Adventures of General Tommy Franks Using Kouzes and Posner Leadership Framework

Model the Way

Inspire a Shared Vision

Challenge the Process

Enable others to act

Encourage the Heart

Enhancing the Effectiveness in Leadership

Learning From the Experience of General Tommy Franks

Take the Challenge

Accept the Opportunity

Learn to lead with General Tommy Franks

This paper discusses the leadership style and traits of a retired U.S. Army General namely General Tommy Franks. He was regarded as the commander in chief of Central Command of United States from the period of July 200 till July 2003. At that time he was given charge of the Middle East region that comprised of twenty- five countries. His most influential…


Franks, T.R. (2005). American Soldier. HarperCollins.

Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2003). The five practices of exemplary leadership. Pfeiffer.

Teacher Leader's Is an Individual Teacher or
Words: 838 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 83863058
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Teacher leader(s) is an individual teacher or a group of teachers who can influence their fellow teachers, the principal and other members of the communities of the school so as to improve learning and teaching practices. The aim of teacher leaders is the increase of student learning as well their achievement. Teacher leaders are therefore facilitators within the school and are important elements when it comes to the spread and strengthening of reforms and improvements in schools. The definition of teacher leadership gives it value as well as making it realistic and an accelerated process of progress towards development of leaders in the community (WETA Washington DC, 2013).

Individual capabilities

There are various individual capabilities that enable a person to be a good leader in an organization. Team leadership ability is one of the capabilities I possess as a teacher. This means that I can drive students and my colleagues…


Harrison, C. & Killion, J. (2007). Ten Roles for Teacher leaders. Retrieved March 21, 2013 from 

Sorrells, S., & Patterson, S. (2008). Types of Change. The Linked Business Models. Retrieved March 21, 2013, from 

WETA, Washington DC.(2013).What Does Research tell us About Teacher Leadership? Retrieved March 21, 2013 from

Comparing Managers and Leaders
Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34122576
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The second difference Nayar indicates that managers have circles of power while leaders have circles of influence (2013). Leaders work through inspiration and that is wonderful, but it is also true that not all people will respond to all leaders. A manager must be able to exert control over people that goes outside of the leadership arena. Without the possibility of consequences, some people would not function. Even if a manager's only control is the ability to determine whether or not a person is an appropriate fit for a team, that level of control can be outcome-determinative. A leader could divert more resources to leading a recalcitrant team member than would be a prudent use of team resources.

The final difference that Nayar indicates is that leaders lead people while managers manage work (2013). One of the things that is imperative to keep in mind is that, in most workplace…


Murray, a. (2014). What is the difference between management and leadership? Retrieved

April 16, 2014 from Wall Street Journal website: 

Nayar, V. (2013, August 2). Three differences between managers and leaders. Retrieved April

16, 2014 from Harvard Business Review website:

Opportunities Faced by Leaders Society and Organizations
Words: 1107 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55163981
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Opportunities Faced by Leaders, Society and Organizations

Problems and opportunities facing leaders, communities and organization are always a cause of debate in the society. They can arise in many different ways and exist in many forms and society finds it's our way of meeting these challenges and responding to such opportunities. The articles chosen for this paper focus primarily on the issue of rising tuition costs and it's impact on college enrollment and this topic is chosen because it affects leaders, communities and organizations alike.

The first article in this connection is written by Donald Heller. The article explains how rising costs impact enrollment in colleges and universities. The author found that all things being equal, rising tuition costs will lead to lower enrollment. A decline in enrollment is however a subjective issue dependent on some other factors including type of institution. For example it has been found the community…


Heller, Donald. The effects of tuition prices and financial

Aid on enrollment in higher education Accessed online

Dickson L, Pender. In-State Tuition Benefits Affect the Enrollment of Non-Citizens?

Evidence from Universities in Texas. Accessed online

Twenty-One Qualities a Leader Should
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They always see the things that might go wrong in any situation, and even if it is subtle, this attitude transfers to the staff. They become less enthusiastic, more skeptical, and far less productive. A positive attitude can overcome many other deficiencies, and it can incite a positive, productive attitude in those around a leader, as well.

Competence might seem like a given in a good leader, but that is not always the case. Some organizations promote from within, and may promote someone who has a good record of accomplishment, but no managerial skills. In this case, the leader may fail because they lack competence in this area. A good leader is competent in the overall operation of the organization, but is also competent in management skills, which will make them an even more effective leader.

Initiative is also imperative for a good leader. Without a drive to succeed, projects…

Sports Sales Professional Based on on Becoming a Leader by Warren G Bennis
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Leader' by Warren Bennis

The classic book 'On Becoming a Leader' by Warren Bennis scrutinizes the dissimilarities between leaders and their followers. It details the processes that lead to the emergence of leaders and how they sustain themselves. In the chapter under the topic 'Knowing the World', Bennis studies the significance of studying to leaders, and differentiates between the three main types of learning: innovative, shock, and maintenance. He goes ahead to reveal the benefit of (1) looking back into one's childhood and adolescent years, and utilizing past experiences to influence present happenings; (2) deliberately searching for the types of experiences that can enlarge and improve an individual; (3) knowing the importance of risk-taking coupled with the knowledge that failure is both important and unavoidable; and,(4) bearing in mind that the future gives one the chance to do the things that ought to be done, rather than being a test…


Bennis, W.G. (2009). On Becoming a Leader. New York: Basic Books.

Born vs Taught Leaders Leadership
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Leadership: Born vs. Taught Leaders

Born vs. Taught Leaders: Leadership

Experts have given conflicting views in the question of whether leaders are born or made. One faction believes that leaders are born with special qualities that predispose them to occupy positions of authority from an early age. The other, however, believes that leadership capabilities are developed over time through education and training. This text evaluates both arguments and gives a tentative position on the issue.

Are Leaders Born or Taught?

ose Haggerty and Don Berwick give conflicting views on the question of whether people who are not born leaders can actually become good leaders. Berwick is of the opinion that whereas some people are born to be leaders, anyone can lead, as long as they receive the right training and education. In other words, leadership can be taught. Haggerty, on the other hand, believes that leaders are born; as such,…


Berger, W. (2015). Why Curious People are Destined for the C-Suite. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from 

Connelly, M. S., Gilbert, J. A., Zaccaro, S. J., Threlfall, K. V., Marks, M. A., & Mumford, M. D. (2000). Exploring the Relationship of Leadership Skills and Knowledge to Leader Performance. Leadership Quarterly, 11(1), 65-86.

Porter-O'Grady, T. (2001). Profound Change: 21st Century Nursing. Nursing Outlook, 49(4), 182-186.

PWC. (2015). Refining Business Success in a Changing World. PWC. Retrieved from

Leadership Motives Personalized Charismatic Leader
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This person is unselfish and works to help others meet their goals and objectives. Because of this, their motives are far different from those of the personalized charismatic leader. The servant leader will always work for the betterment of the group, because it is more fulfilling to him or her. The servant leader always wants to use power ethically, and use it to better the people and the company, rather than themselves. Because of this, they are a positive force in the company, and their motives are good and decent. Thus, they make better leaders, not only because they are more empathetic and create a team environment, but because their motive are not selfish or questionable. They are good leaders and good people, and they should be able to hold on to a team much more effectively than a personalized charismatic leader.

Great Leaders in history
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Great leadership, this is a trait most people do not have. Among the many leaders of the world present and past, only a few could be deemed great. That is why the literary world becomes a place to cultivate what an ideal leader is. From Robert the blind man in “Cathedral” by Raymond Carver, to “The Things They Carried” character, Lieutenant Jimmy Cross, these leaders harken back to real leaders of the past like Lincoln and Kennedy. It is with these shining examples in mind that an idea of what a great leader is, takes shape and even provides inspiration for new leaders that break the mold of what is typically expected like Daenerys Targaryen from Game of Thrones. These new leaders will perhaps inspire the greats of tomorrow.
Many consider John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln amazing leaders because of their ability to stand up for what is right…

Difficulties a Leader May Encounter When Trying
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Difficulties a Leader May Encounter When Trying to Sell an Inspirational and Aspirational Vision for the Future

usiness leaders and managers sometimes face formidable problems when attempting to promote a new vision for the future. The central problem that faces the leader is that the ideas, concepts and "vision" must be accepted by the staff or staff of the organization. This acceptance cannot be tacit but must be wholehearted if the projected vision is to succeed in the organization. The problems that can be experienced centre on the cardinal areas of trust, acceptance, transparency, communication and work diversity. All of these aspects are interlinked and this paper will attempt to elucidate the main aspects that tend to be problematic.


The first and most important problem that the manager might face is the possible lack of trust. This is particularly the case when the business leader is attempting to sell…


Diversity management. [Internet] Available from: hl=en& start=5[Accessed 3 February 2005].

Nelson B. (2005) Allowing Employees To Take Charge: Inspiring Initiative In Your Organization. [Internet] Available from [Accessed 3 February 2005].

Maccoby. M. (2000) Understanding the Difference between Management and Leadership. Research Technology Management; Volume 43. No. 1. January-February, 2000. pp 57-59. [Internet] Available from [Accessed 3 February 2005].

Entrepreneurial Leaders Charismatic Richard Branson and Visionary
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entrepreneurial leaders, charismatic Richard Branson and visionary Muhammad Yunus, and discusses their leadership styles and major business principles.

Richard Branson

ho would have guessed that this high school dropout would become a billionaire and world-renowned entrepreneur? Born Richard Charles Nicholas Branson on July 18, 1950 in Surrey, England, Branson launched his first successful business at age 16. Branson struggled with dyslexia until he dropped out of boarding school to launch a youth culture magazine called Student. The publication was run by students, for students and sold $8,000 worth of advertising in its first edition. The first run of 50,000 copies was disseminated for free, after Branson covered the costs with advertising (Bio, 2011).

Branson went on to become the founder of the Virgin Group, an international conglomerate of some 350 companies, all of them combining for more than $8 billion in annual sales. He became Sir Richard Branson when he…

Works Cited

Bio. (2011). Muhammad Yunus biography. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from: 

Bio. (2011). Richard Branson biography. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from: 

Gangemi, J. (2005). Nobel winner Yunus: Microcredit missionary. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from: 

Muhammad Yunus - Biography. (2006). Retrieved October 21, 2011 from:

Senior Leader Philosophy
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theory (the "great man' theory) that asserts that leadership is innate, and that leaders and warriors such as Abraham Lincoln, Julius Caesar, Mahatma andhi, and Alexander the reat were great since they were born with the ability to guide and help others.

That doesn't give me much chance for me to work on becoming a leader. If fate hasn't made me so, regardless of the amount of work inserted I may never become one. But then again, contemporary thought has more positive attitudes. Most contemporary leadership approaches claim that given certain strategies and willpower, leadership is a technique and skill that almost anyone can learn. I prefer the encouragement of these ideas.

'Leadership' is a concept that needs to be pinned down. Leaders that come to mind appear to me in two categories: remote and distant. I think of enerals, such as Patton who retained their power and prestige by…

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.

Marks, D.E., & Sun, I.Y. (2007). The impact of 9/11 on organizational development among state and local law enforcement agencies. Journal of Contemporary

Criminal Justice, 23, 159-173.

Interview of a Health Care Leader
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The term health care refers to the inter-related system of care provided to persons during illness. In most of the cases, healthcare begins with the family doctor who refers patient to specialists if needed or directly order further diagnostic testing. Community health clinics perform the same procedure as a family doctor, but alongside with that, clinics also provide insight into patterns of health or illness seen within the community. Hospital just form one part of the healthcare community, as are mostly visited when a patient's condition is more acute and requires intervention by the hospitals high-end staff, since more can be done for him in a hospital rather than in a clinic where he is just an out-patient.

Clinics of various types provide very specific services, such as "pain management clinics" these clinics are targeted for towards people suffering from pain conditions. ehabilitation services also form a needed part…


DDI (2006) Health Care Global Comparison: Leadership Forecast 2005|2006. DDI, Pennsylvania.

DDI (2007) Leading the Past: Preparing the Future. DDI, Pennsylvania.

Fischer (2007) Culture and cultural analysis as experimental systems. Cultural Anthropology. 21(1) 1-65.

Greenfield D (2007) The enactment of dynamic leadership. Leadership in Health Sciences. 20(3) 159-168.

Skills Required of a Leader and Manager
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The skills needed to be an effective manager include the ability to plan, communicate, delegate, manage time effectively, team build, demonstrate honesty, and utilize emotional and social intelligence. As I look back on my training over the past year, I can see how each of these skills is important to a manager’s success. In this reflection paper, I will discuss these skills, how they link to my job in particularly in sales finance, and how applying theory to practice is crucial to being both a good leader and a good manager.
Planning is a skill in which one arranges the goals, objectives, strategies, resources and budget of a department or team in order to achieve the desired outcome. Communicating is the skill by which one expresses in clear and precise terms the necessary information that is needed or that must be received by another. In some cases, managers must be…

The Role of a Leader in Law Enforcement Organizations
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Leadership in Law Enforcement

ole of the leader within those criminal justice organizations

By reviewing contemporary literature on criminal justice the study gives informed analysis of the expected standards and ethical practices that good leaders ought to have. It takes note that just as is the case with criminal behavior, theoretical knowledge like developmental, learning and biological theories seek to understand ethical and moral behavior. The study found out that leaders acting ethically is essential if a criminal justice system and organization is to grow in a healthy and ethical manner. The study also points out that the society's confidence in criminal justice may be eroded if the organizations act unethically. It is therefore important, says the study, that the organizations adopt the kind of leadership that motivates players in the industry to pursue ethical ideals in their work (Karimu, 2012).

What you believe is critical for the criminal justice…


Imundo, L. (1991). The effective supervisor's handbook. New York: AMACOM.

Jurkanin, T. J. (2012). The Police Chief as Coach: Analogies between Sports and Effective Police Leadership. Police Chief, 24-26.

Karimu, O. (2012). Understanding Leadership Standards and Ethical Practices in Criminal Justice. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities.

McCallum, D. W. (2005). Leadership within the Florida Department of Corrections . Florida: SLP Research.

Essential Qualities of a Nurse Leader
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Hospital Management and Leadership

This study summarizes an interview conducted on a nurse who happens to be the head nurse in that hospital. This interview talks about the experiences that the said nurse has been going through as a leader and how she has been able to maneuver through the leadership ranks with ease. The paper also shares some insights about good leadership and how to foster it as learned from the interview. Although it is not written on a personal account as reported by the interviewee, the paper brings forth the lessons as directly as learned from the nurse leader.

The interview

In the interview, the nurse is questioned on a number of leadership issues that she responds to appropriately. The background of the nurse is well founded in the medical field. She has a degree in nursing from a leading university. She has also amassed much experience in…


Giuliani, R., & Kurson, K. (2012). Leadership. New York: Hyperion.

Robinson, G. (2011). Hospital Administration (second Ed.). London: Butterworth.

Vance, C. (2013). The Mentor Connection in Nursing. New York: Springer Pub.

Differences and Similarities Between a Healthcare Leader and Manager
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Management & Leadership in Health Care

Characteristics Which Distinguish "Leadership" From "Management

The main difference that exists between leaders and managers is that leaders have individuals who follow them, whereas managers have individuals who work for them. Getting individuals to understand and believe in your ideas in addition to working with you in order to achieve your goals is leadership, while managing is more of heading and ensuring daily activities run as usual (go2 Tourism H Society, 2015).

Management and leadership are both vital for good health care delivery services. While the two are alike in some aspects, they incorporate different behaviors, skills and outlook. Good managers should do their best to be better leaders, and good leaders require management techniques to be efficient. So as to realize a vision, leaders will have a vision of what is attainable and then communicate it with others and develop strategies to achieve…


Al-Sawai, A. (2013). Leadership of Healthcare Professionals: Where Do We Stand? Oman Med J., 285-287.

Burke, R., & Barron, S. (2014). Project Management Leadership: Building Creative Teams. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.

Buttell, P., Hendler, R., & Daley, J. (2008). Quality in Healthcare: Concepts and Practice. In K. H. Cohn, & D. E. Hough, The Business of Healthcare (pp. 61-91). Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care. Department of Health and Human Services.

Leader and an Effective Manager
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64). Additionally, the managers, in their course of work, they communicate with those whom they work. They talk in a formal manner, whereas, the leader presents a persuasion to the people. The leader persuades the people to make them see his perception point, and hence earn their trust. Additionally, in working with others, the manager focuses on directing the groups. The manager gives directives to the people. On the contrary, the leader creates a team, thus treats all as part of the action. In this way, the leader incorporates the views and feelings of all that work with him. Lastly, the manager has an aspect of trying to be the hero in the work place, whereas the leader makes heroes of the people around them.


There are a few similarities between an effective manager and an effective leader in their line of work. In the course of their duties,…


EIlers, H.-C. (2010). "Leaders lead and managers manage" Differences and Similarities. Mu-nchen, GRIN Verlag GmbH. .

Beerel, a.C. (2009). Leadership and change management. Los Angeles, SAGE.

Bertocci, D.I. (2009). Leadership in organizations there is a difference between leaders and managers. Lanham, Md, University Press of America. .

Storey, J. (2003). Leadership in Organizations Current Issues and Key Trends. London, Routledge. .

Leaders Direction for Organization during Change
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Reinvigorating a big company is one of the hardest jobs an executive can ever take on. Often times, a boss thinks they possess all solutions to all problems. They therefore stop listening to their colleagues and this has resulted organizational decline (BBC, 2016). It can be a tough exercise leading organizational change. Not all business leaders are cut for such an exercise. It can be debated that the organizations that win in the long run are those that have mastered both planning and leading change. There are several things that can spur change including growth being predominantly in a market which is unfamiliar, pricing factors to remain competitive, change in regulations, changing customer expectations, shortfall in talent and constraints in the organization's capacity. The factors which spur change are numerous and the examples given are not a complete representation of the wide scope of demands that force organizations to change…

Good and Bad
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goal of early Americans was to expand out est. Early settlers believed the est housed new opportunities, gold, land, and most of all freedom. However with the expansion came controversy. Native Americans, the people that lived in America before European settlement, were pushed and forced out of their homelands. Little by little Native Americans endured not only racism and ridicule, but also involuntary migrations to new and less fertile areas. Because of the difference in political and social arrangement of Native Americans to American ones, the white settlers went under the assumption that Native Americans were not capable of possessing land. However they were seen as spiritual and in harmony with nature. That is why in literature, Native Americans often became romantic heroes in one light and negative stereotypes in the other. In the 19th century, the literature of the time represented Native Americans based off of perceived racial stereotypes,…

Works Cited

Daniel, Clay. "Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans." The Explicator 56.3 (1998): 126-129. Print.

Kuiper, Kathleen. Native American culture. New York, N.Y.: Britannica Educational Pub./Rosen Educational Services, 2011. Print.

McWilliams, John P. The last of the Mohicans: civil savagery and savage civility. New York: Twayne Publishers; 1995. Print.

Merchant, Peter. "The Last of the Mohicans reconsidered." Children's Literature in Education 24.2 (1993): 85-100. Print.

Leader Since I Have Some
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In order to be more comfortable as a leader, exercising wisdom when making decisions, hoping for the best, and preparing for the worst is more important.

Being Visionary:

Effective leaders are known to be visionary people who can bigger issues and how they can be achieved through the elimination of obstacles. Apart from being visionary, it's important to share the positive vision with my followers and motivate them as they help in making the difference. As a leader, I will visualize and articulate goals that motivate followers and unite them to pursue the established objectives collectively.

Being Proactive:

Since people tend to do what they see their leaders doing more than what they say, I'll be proactive in the accomplishment of the vision. it's not only enough to share the vision and the conceived ideas regarding deeper issues. The achievement of the vision and objectives is dependent on the effort…

Good to Great
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Jim Collins, this can be done with some restructuring and changing priorities. The breakthrough to becoming a great company does not happen over night in one big event, but instead after a company has built up enough forward momentum to make the leap. The following are some of the parameters that set "great" companies apart, according to Collins.

Good-to-Great leaders are unpretentious about their achievements and ascribe their successes to external rather than personal factors. However, they accept blame for failure. They are determined to accomplish whatever is needed despite the difficulty or degree of challenge. They set high standards for others, motivating them by demanding excellence and acting as a role model. Collins calls this level 5 leadership.

Good-to-Great leaders first and foremost hire the right leadership team, then develop the plan as a collaborative effort among these hand-picked individuals.

Good-to-Great companies do not cover up bad news, but…

Leader Member Exchange Annotated Bibliography
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Hayyat Malik, S. (2012). A Study of Relationship between Leader Behaviors and Subordinate Job Expectancies: A Path-Goal Approach. Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, 6(2), 357-371.

This study explores the relationship between leadership behavior and acceptance of a leader by subordinates. The underlying concept is path-goal theory, which is based on the idea that a leader's style can dictate organizational effectiveness, and that the style should be tailored to specific situations. There were n=200 managers in the study. They were not randomly selected, but rather were pulled from four telecom companies in Pakistan. The author found that leadership behavior does influence subordinate behavior. Another finding was that certain behaviors can be predictors of subordinate acceptance of a leader.

The study ties into leadership studies that seek to identify if there are traits or behaviors that can be used as predictors of effective leadership. The leaders in these organizations were…

Kramer, W. S., & Shuffler, M. L. (2014). Culture's consequences for leadership: The role of context in affecting leadership perceptions and performance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 7(2), 199-203. doi:10.1111/iops.12132.

Saxena, S. (2014). Are transformational leaders creative and creative leaders transformational? An attempted synthesis through the Big Five Factor Model of Personality Lens. Aweshkar Research Journal, 18(2), 30-51.

Van Dierendonck, D., Stam, D., Boersma, P., De Windt, N., & Alkema, J. (2014). Same difference? Exploring the differential mechanisms linking servant leadership and transformational leadership to follower outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(3), 544-562. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.014.

Good Management and Leadership Skills
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Reflecting on Management
The new managerial skills that I learned about were related to the importance and value of managing an environment (not just workers) so as to cultivate a workplace culture that promotes the vision and goals of the organization (Daft, 2015). To this end, I learned about how crucial it is to have a sense of duty and ethics and have the ability to communicate this sense to workers. As Schyns and Schilling (2013) show, when leaders and managers fail to lead by example, they create a divide between employees and management that can quickly lead to a sour culture and a collapse in productivity and morale. An ethical perspective and skill set helps to provide the organization with the right type of values that all workers can embrace. When a manager lacks an ethical framework for approaching the job of management, it opens the door to…

Good and Bad About Religious Diversity
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Diversity and Pluralism

Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?

Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?

Diana Eck (1997) takes great pains to distinguish between diversity and pluralism, as it relates to the religions practiced in the United States. The word 'diversity' simply means that Americans practice more than one religion, but a religious pluralism implies an ongoing effort by each faith to engage with each other to negate the negative outcomes often associated with diversity. For example, Eck (1997) list three philosophies individuals may turn to when faced with religious diversity: exclusion, assimilation, and pluralism. An exclusionary philosophy demands that members of other religions, should they desire a life in America, strip themselves of their religious affiliation if it differs from the dominant religious faith in America, i.e., Christianity. A person supporting an assimilation philosophy would welcome diversity, but only if immigrants promised to…


Dick, P.K. (1968). Do androids dream of electric sheep? New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Eck, D.L. (1997). From diversity to pluralism. In: On Common Ground. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from .

McFaul, T.R. (2006). Religion in the future global civilization. The Futurist, 40(5), 30-6.

Globe Study Leader Effectiveness and Culture
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Leader Effectiveness and Culture: The GLOBE Study

The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness esearch Program (GLOBE) is a multi-phase, cross-cultural project that was carried out by investigators around the world to investigate inter-relationships between organizational culture, societal culture and organizational leadership (House et al. 2002). obert, J. House saw the need for cross cultural leadership theory as well as research and conceived the action point of a global research undertaking in 1991. The program formally began in 1993 with a team of 160 scholars who studied societal and organizational structure, and the attributes of effective leadership in 62 countries (Ahlstrom and Bruton, 2010). The researchers measured culture at different levels of industry organization and society and presented results in the form of qualitative and quantitative data sourced from responses of 17,000 managers from a number of entities (951 organizations to be specific), from the 62 societies. This text compares…


Ahlstrom, D. & Bruton, G.D. (2010). International Management: Strategy and Culture in the Emerging World. South-Western: Cengage learning

Alon, I. (Ed). (2003). Chinese Culture, Organizational Behavior, and International Business Management. Westport: Praeger Publishers

House R.J. And Hanges P.J., Javidan M., Dorfman P.W., Gupta V. (2004). Culture, Leadership, and Organizations. The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

House R.J. And Hanges P.J., Javidan M., Dorfman P.W., Gupta V. (2002). Understanding Cultures and Implicit Leadership Theories Across the Globe: An Introduction to Project Globe. The Journal of World Business (37) Retrieved 13 January 2015 from