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Many observers have critiques the U.S. Federal eserve for its monetary policy leading up to the Great ecession. There were many causal factors to the Great ecession. These range from deregulation of the banking industry with the passage of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, to financial institutions engaging in desperate yield-seeking in the years after the 9/11 terrorist attacks slowed the economy, to predatory lending, all resulting a surge of debt, much of it of lower quality than many realized, or at least were willing to admit (The Economist, 2013). One causal factor that has also been attributed was the flood of cheap credit on the global financial markets, courtesy of American monetary policy
"Monetary Policy in Ordinary Times"
The Federal eserve Bank conducts monetary policy in the U.S., as the central bank. It has argued that in the years leading up to the financial crisis, it conducted…… [Read More]
Great ecession that started in the U.S. In 2008 and continued by affecting the global economy is often compared to the Great Depression of the 1930s. The complexity of the crisis has determined specialists in the field to identify several causes that led to this crisis. These specialists agree upon the fact that the crisis was caused by the significant increase in the housing rates combined with declining prices in the real estate business. Homeowners lack of sufficient savings did not allow them to support these loans, and they also did not want to sell their houses for lower amounts in comparison with their mortgage level. As a consequence, they were forced to foreclose. This situation determined a series of problems for the banks that had bought mortgage backed securities and that were losing important amounts of capital because of the high rate of foreclosures.
In order for them not…… [Read More]
This second package is expected to be more effective as it will focus on increased sales and spending, rather than tax deductions alone. Critics however argue that the benefits of this stimulus package will also be temporary and that the contracting economy might need a third stimulus, but it is yet unsure whether the Congress would be able to grant it (Moseley, 2009).
In spite of the efforts implemented by the American Congress, fact remains that the economic crisis was extremely severe and its threats could not have been removed. Paul Mason (2010) for instance agues that the crisis could not have been avoided as it was constructed on three decades of neoliberal policies, which eventually took their tool on individual companies such as Ford, the Wall Street giants, and finally the entire economy and the population.
One particular impact of the economic recession is the lack of liquidities which,…… [Read More]
The institution of policies to develop more industries and hire more people faced a difficulty of restructuring the market. The change that is necessary in terms of training and changing industry was not immediate. In the U.S. economy, those with mortgages suffered a loss of financing measures following the restructuring. The U.S. government shift bail out individuals and firms on the verge of bankruptcy was pushing the economy to a gradual halt.
The sudden increases in supply require demand that will remunerate the factors of production. Seeking foreign markets for the products resulted in failure attributable to market price inadequacies. Production activities easily came to a halt since producer confidence was eliminated. For investors to allocate productive factors of production, the need for returns acts as a confidence builder. The failing demand and insufficiency of demand from foreign market result in erosion of investor confidence thus subjecting possible economic growth…… [Read More]
Federal Reserve Money Supply Policy Options at the Beginning of the Great Recession
money supply in October of 2008 was $1.4573 trillion, but by December of the same year it had reached $1.6038 trillion. By comparison, the prime interest rate declined from 4.56 to 3.61% during the same period. he slope and y-intercept of the line is -6.2914 and 13.7284, respectively, which allows a calculation of expected interest rates for any value of money supply. In the figure to the right, MS1 is $1.52 trillion dollars and the expected interest rate would be 4.166%, but if money supply increased to $1.57 trillion (MS2) the prime interest rate would be expected to decline to 3.851%, assuming inflation remains constant.
For the same period, gross domestic investment decreased from $3.0816 to $2.8917 trillion as the bank prime interest rate declined from 4.56 to 3.61%. he slope and y-intercept for this…… [Read More]
Demand-Side Policies and the Great ecession
A recession can be delineated as a substantial deterioration in activity across the economy that persists for a period exceeding a few months. This significant decline can be perceived in business production, employment, real income, and retail trade (Investopedia, n.d). Fiscal policy refers to the use of government expenditure and taxation to regulate the aggregate level of economic activity. On the other hand, monetary policy can be delineated as one of the public interventionist measure purposed at impelling the level and pattern of economic activity to attain particular desired objectives. Monetary policy can be said to encompass all actions undertaken by the central bank and the government, which influence the quantity, cost and availability of money and credit in the economy (Colander and Gambler, 2006). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the fiscal and the monetary policies adopted and implemented by the…… [Read More]
Demand-Side Policies and the Great ecession of 2008
A recession can be defined as an overall downward spiral in a nation's economy. In particular, the outcome of recession is high inflation, high level of unemployment slowing down its gross domestic product (GDP) (Study, 2016). In this period there is an economic weakening and is usually accompanied and further complicated by decrease in the stock market, an upturn in unemployment and also a deterioration in the housing market. Some of the factors that cause recessions include high interest rates, increased inflation, decreased consumer confidence, and decreased real wages (Mankiw, 2014).
In delineation, fiscal policies refer to the use of government expenditure and taxation to regulate the aggregate level of economic activity. It can be argued that by increasing investment or government expenditure, for instance, an initial stimulus to expenditure, through the multiplier-accelerator interaction results in an even greater increase…… [Read More]
The United States after the Great ar
orld ar I, also known as the Great ar, officially came to an end in 1918 and reshaped the country in a variety of ways. One of the most immediate changes was the way the world perceived the United States. Before the war, most of the country and its leaders preferred an isolationist stance to any international conflict. In 1914 the U.S. had only a small army and a pitiful navy, yet as the war progressed many Americans began to disapprove of the German's use of submarines to sink neutral ships such as the infamous sinking of the Lusitania (Hickman). However, it is interesting to note that the German's were actually correct in their assertion that the Lusitania was being used to carry military ammunition, as divers have recently uncovered from the wreckage, which did actually make the ship a legitimate…… [Read More]
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…… [Read More]
Economically, recession is described as a significant drop in economic activity over a short period of time usually a few months (bbc news, 2008). Gross Domestic Product (GDP), household income and other macro-economic indicators drop while others such as unemployment and bankruptcy rises. ecession can be caused by many factors e.g an external trade shock or the burst of an economic bubble such as the United States housing bubble. Most governments deal with recession by applying expansionary macroeconomic policies like reducing interest rates and increasing government spending. By lowering interest rates, governments hope to entice business into expanding.
Fiscal policy refers to the use of the government taxation (revenue collection) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy of a country. The changes in the two key pillars, revenue collection and expenditure influence macro-economic variables such as aggregate demand, resource allocation pattern within the government and the distribution of…… [Read More]
Improving Human esource Management at Great Northern America
Because all organizations are comprised of people, there will always be human resource issues involved and the manner in which these issues are resolved can spell the difference between organizational success and failure. This was the situation facing Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern America as he sought to formulate timely and responsive solutions to his company's human resource problems in order to save his company and achieve a competitive advantage in the future. To gain some fresh insights concerning how the president of this company could approach these problems, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to explain why employees need to understand the importance of how people form perceptions and make attributions, an evaluation of the applicability of social learning theory to the circumstances, followed by an examination of ways that the president could use social learning theory…… [Read More]
trace the historical causation of the current recession - the causal factors. Currently, America and most of the world is experiencing a severe recession. The causes of that recession are many, and the fallout is severe. There are many similarities with the current recession to the Great Depression of 1929, and there are differences that set each recession apart. When compared close up, the Great Depression was much worse than the current recession, and that may be at least in part because of governmental measures used since the Great Depression.
The Great Depression
The Great Depression, which began in 1929, was one of the worst worldwide depressions in history. Most people believe the Great Depression occurred after the fall of the stock market in 1929, but it actually began before that. A reporter notes, "The Great Depression of the 1930s began with falling demand for durable and investment goods in…… [Read More]
Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression
In recent years, a debate has arisen regarding the extent of Herbert Hoover's progressive and Keynesian leanings, with conservative historians suggesting that Hoover may have been less of an advocate for laissez -faire capitalism than was commonly believed during his lifetime. Ideologues such as Amity Shlaes and Murray Rothbard have suggested that Hoover was a closet statist and New Dealer, and that ranklin Roosevelt simply continued many of these policies in a natural progression. On the other hand, liberal and mainstream historians have generally accepted the idea that Hoover was perhaps a more activist president than his earlier reputation may have indicated, but disagree with conservative historians as to the extent of Hoover's progressive inclinations. They argue that Hoover's retreat from laissez-faire policies was too little, too late, and ultimately inadequate to deal with the severity of the economic crisis, a position in direct…… [Read More]
Those earlier recessions introduced the country to the concept of mass white-collar layoffs. The brunt of the layoffs in this recession is falling on construction workers, hotel workers, retail workers and others without a four-year degree" (Leonhardt 2009). Consumer spending has been contracting more quickly than employment has been growing -- something that Rob has witnessed first hand.
Because construction has been so hard-hit, another social shift is that of households where women, rather than men, are the primary breadwinners. Construction worker Dave Christie still gets the odd job here and there -- just far fewer than he did only a year or two ago. On the other hand, his wife Molly, who works as a waitress, has had steadier work, although she acknowledges that customers are eating out less, drinking and eating less expensive menu items, and also leaving smaller tips. It has been observed that "The Great Recession…… [Read More]
"Construction -- which was a substantial component of investment -- fell because the housing stock exceeded the demand after 1925. " (Temin 9) Termin goes on to say that
Consumption fell because wages, other income, and capital gains all fell, with the fall in wages having the largest effect. Business investment fell because profits fell and -- to a lesser extent -- because the yield on equities rose. Residential construction fell because the stock of housing four years previously was high. Inventories fell because sales fell. But wages, profits, and sales all fell because consumption and investment fell." (Temin 49)
All of these cascading events could and to some degree are occurring today and the cascading effect will likely result in economic fears and realities, "…under freely-competitive capitalism, periods of boom and overproduction were followed by downturns which 'corrected' prior imbalances via falling prices" (Burkett 60) All of the economic…… [Read More]
John Kenneth Galbraith's The Great Crash: 1929
John Kenneth Galbraith's book The Great Crash: 1929 claims that the depression of 1929 was a direct result of the miscalculations of the financial analysts and the other brokers which caused the crash of the stocks. He states that these actors of the economic field had a direct involvement in the stock market and had become too greedy to actually see what was happening to the market around them-too greedy to actually fear the recuperation's of what was easily predictable as the downfall.
The Great Crash of 1929 was one which shook the very foundations of the economic theories that were prevalent in the past and forced the society to realize that there was something fundamentally wrong when our basic concepts were proven so drastically wrong. John Kenneth Galbraith like many other economists remains fascinated with the Crash of 1929. As an economist…… [Read More]
There is no reassurance in anything. Nothing is set in stone. It is this fear that drives people to stop spending because there is nothing at all occurring that is of some sort of security for them. How can someone spend on things that are not really essential when someone could literally lose their job the next day without warning and then not even have a reliant security network on which to go to. The government even started to lower the amount of time allotted for unemployment check disbursements for individuals who are unemployed, leading to an even greater economic problem within families (Wolf 2010).
I agree with the editor who states over and over again that these people who have literally lost everything have nothing else to rely on. They got swept up in the idea that in America anything and everything is possible, but unfortunately that dream was…… [Read More]
Third, economic depressions spread from one nation to others whereas economic recessions remain substantially isolated where they first occur and they are eased partially by the strength of national economies elsewhere. Finally, contemporary analyses of economic downturns suggest that distortions to industrial labor markets that keep wages above market-clearing levels are more significant than even bank failures (Ohanian, 2010).
Recommendations and Conclusion
It is recommended that public statements on the matter highlight the failure of the opposition to recognize or understand the fundamental nature of economic depressions and the dangers associated with ignoring the important similarities between the 2008 economic crisis and the Great Depression. The current economic crisis shares all of the conceptual hallmarks of an economic depression, including the potential to persist over a longer term and spread globally more than it has already. In that regard, the key to overcoming the current economic crisis is in supporting…… [Read More]
Recessions come and recessions go, but luxury never goes completely out of style, even if sales were subdued in the early 2000's. Some individuals with deep pockets and high ambitions are always willing to spend prodigiously on common items like handbags and watches, provided they get what they want in return: quality, fashion and the envy of their friends. While the past couple of years have been difficult for the luxury category as a whole, LVMH has managed to distinguish itself from its competitors. It posted a 30% jump in profits in 2003 while the company's stock has risen 50% in the past 12 months. This tremendous rate of growth can be explained through brand protection and limiting underperforming stores.
LVMH is all about the power of brand, and its stable is jammed with famous names: Upscale leather goods retailer Louis Vuitton, its largest unit; wine and spirit…… [Read More]
The Great Depression
The Great Depression started in 1929 and lasted until the end of the Second World War, it was the most severe depression seen in the western world. The depression had far reaching economic, social, and political consequences. To understand the depression it is necessary to look at the event itself, underlying causes, the impacts and the way in which recovery took place.
The Great Depression may be argued as starting in August of 1929, when the countries GDP started to decline; but it is the cash of October 1929 that marks the official beginning of the crisis (obbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). The stock market crash of 1929 was a surprise for many; the previous decade had been one of growth and prosperity. On Black Tuesday 29th of October the bottom dropped out of the stock market, which resulted in panic selling loosing 40% of the paper…… [Read More]
But amid the celebration, crucial opportunities have been lost: In September 2009, the "inspector general for the Troubled Asset Relief Program, a k a, the bank bailout fund, released his report on the 2008 rescue of the American International Group, the insurer. The gist of the report is that government officials made no serious attempt to extract concessions from bankers, even though these bankers received huge benefits from the rescue. And more than money was lost. By making what was in effect a multibillion-dollar gift to all Street, policy makers undermined their own credibility -- and put the broader economy at risk" (Krugman 2009). Many banks have given back their TARP funds, in exchange for the ability to once again engage in risky activities, to pay traders the bonuses they desire, and to pay executives what seems to be overinflated compensation. In June ten of the largest recipients of aid,…… [Read More]
Galbraith's Great Crash
The Great Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression is an event that many comparisons are drawn against. Certainly in a time of global economic recession, bank bailouts, and political meanderings about the future of social safety nets like Social Security and Medicare, the topics in Galbraith's book represent interesting anecdotes and lessons we can learn from the event. Galbraith uses both his sharp wit and his background in finance and economics to pinpoint the causes of the crash and make some assertions as to the true roots of the Great Depression. Interestingly enough, Galbraith does not attribute the crash to an abundance of credit, as was the case in 2000's, and which caused some of the panic and financial markets damage in 2008. This is a point of contention with some economists, and I believe that Galbraith's assessment of the situation in 1929 is correct…… [Read More]
Lessons from the Great Depression, William Watson is comparing the current recession with the time frame between 1939 and 1940. This is when ritain and France had declared war on Germany after its invasion of Poland. However, no real hostilities took place between the two until Germany invaded France in May 1940. The time when there was little conflict that was occurring, fooled many people into thinking that the war and the subsequent events would not be as bad as feared. Once this occurred, it caused the public to have a sense of complacency about these events and the impact that they would have on the lives of ordinary people. (Watson, 2009, pp. 41 -- 44)
According to Watson, a similar situation is occurring with the recent financial crisis that has taken place. This was sparked initially by doomsday predictions that many in news media were making about: the bailouts…… [Read More]
Similarly, FD initiated the Securities and Exchange Commission. FD served four terms and would be the last president to serve more than two terms in office.
The New Deal was built upon oosevelt's belief in the power of the federal government to alleviate the financial woes of the nation. Although unpopular to some, many of the New Deal programs proved to be promising in both the short- and the long-term. Opponents of the New Deal generally disagree with the theory of big government; the New Deal epitomizes big government but in the wake of the Depression only such broad programs could have taken root and alleviated the suffering of so many Americans. The New Deal definitely contributed to the American economy's revival but the Second World War would help, too.
One of the reasons for the Great Depression, according to oosevelt and his supporters, was the proliferation of big business,…… [Read More]
Johnson administration's "Great Society" initiatives? Defend your response.
As for intentions, the Johnson administration's "Great Society" initiatives should be given an A. hen he took office, Johnson saw that the country's success following orld ar II was declining and there was a potential for the country to enter a period of serious decline, a situation which ultimately did come to pass in the 1970s and again in the present period. Programs such as Medicare and Medicaid which were created during this period have continued to benefit Americans fifty years after their initial creation. However, given that much of Johnson's attention was being given to the escalation of the Vietnam ar and Johnson's encouragement of American involvement on that front, the actual effectiveness of the "Great Society" initiatives deserves a final grade of B- or C+. He was successful in getting the Civil Rights Act passed and tried to help Americans…… [Read More]
Mercosur is the fourth largest integrated market and is the second largest in the Americas (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). NAFTA is first. In May of 2008 Argentina was also elected to the Human Rights Council.
There have also been UN peacekeeping operations in places like Cyprus, Haiti, Kosovo, and the Middle East that have used Argentine troops (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). In 1990, diplomatic relations with Argentina were restored and many countries invest in Argentina (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). The U.S. is one of them, and is the sixth largest investor (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). In the pharmaceuticals sector, the UK is one of the biggest investors (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). It is easy to see that Argentina has been through a lot but it has emerged stronger and is capable of doing a great deal for other countries as well.
Caldwell, J. & O'Driscoll, T.G. (2007). What caused…… [Read More]
Causes of ecessions: Comparison and Contrasting of Theories that Explain the Causes of ecessions
The Causes of ecessions
A recession can be defined as two or more consecutive quarters of declines in economic activity, normally indicated by changes in household income, industrial production, real gross domestic product (GDP), employment, and wholesale retrial sales. According to Knoop (2010), a recession is usually characterized by a drop in the stock market, a decline in housing prices, increased rates of unemployment, business contractions, and consecutive declines in the GDP.
Some triggers of full blown recessions may include inflation, supply and demand shocks, financial crises and exchange rate fluctuations that affect international trade. However, Knoop (2010) states that economists often rely on business cycle data to study macroeconomic relationships that may point to a recession. Business cycles, which are the expansions and contractions in the levels of economic activities, often have peaks and troughs…… [Read More]
" The popular rule of thumb for a recession is two consecutive quarters of falling GDP.
America's Great Depression, the author says, involved a decline in real GDP that exceeded 10%, or one that lasts more than three years. The problem with that definition is that we've only had one, while the country has experienced enough "recessions" to achieve a relatively firm idea of what one is. and, the article goes on to say that other experts believe that the difference between a recession and a depression is more than simply one of size or duration. Who knows?
America's economy may or may not have a distinct whiff of bananas. It just depends on who is doing the defining of what whiff a depression has.
Economist.com. (2008, December 30). Diagnosing depression. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from Economist.com: http://www.economist.com/finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12852043… [Read More]
One side says that potential solutions to the Eurozone crisis require cuts in spending, some drastic. Doing this would likely deepen the recession, contribute to even higher unemployment figures (already over 20% in Spain), but might push wages to more competitive levels. Lower wages, though, will make debt reduction more difficult, meaning more people will cute their spending or even stop repaying debt. There might be more strikes and protests as this happens, which would only deepen the crisis. The other side says the opposite -- do not cut spending. However, since borrowing has increased since 2008 because of economic stagnation, there might be a financial collapse as the markets lose confidence (Eurozone Crisis; Carr, 2012).
Others see that the crisis can be solved if Europe allows its own fiscal planners, the EFA (European Fiscal Authority) to establish a debt-reduction fund; holding significant portions of Italian, Spanish and Greek debt…… [Read More]
isk management is the greatest benefit offered by a strategic, forward-thinking approach to management. In an uncertain economic environment, companies must constantly 'hedge their bets' as to what is the superior choice between mutually exclusive alternatives. Strategic management promotes the efficient use of resources by forcing companies to constantly anticipate the future, plan ahead, and make the best economic choices possible, given the company's current framework of knowledge. No company can predict everything that may happen but the consistent data-gathering that is required in a strategic management approach and trend-monitoring allows the company to be more flexible and responsive.
As well as avoiding bad decisions, effective strategic management also means knowing when to take advantage of possible opportunities and invest in good decisions. isk management entails knowing when to take calculated risks, even if this means a major allocation of organizational resources, such as for a new form of technology…… [Read More]
Managing a Start Firm
Despite the recession and weak growth in the housing market, the U.S. is still one of the strongest regions for trade. The reason why is because, some of the largest developed and developing economies are conducting business with the U.S. In some form. A good example of this can be seen by looking at the below table (which is illustrating the largest import and export partners of the United States).
Largest Trading Partners of the Unites States
("United States," 2012)
The figures are showing how the U.S. is one of the largest countries for conducting any kind of commerce. In the case of the startup firm that we are managing, this is an opportunity to be able to expand market share. To achieve this objective requires creating a business plan that will examine the products to be imported /…… [Read More]
eading 4.6 b.(collecting information, using resources from media centers online, print and other media resources)
Using the media center, the children will find information on the Great
Depression -- what caused it, how it affected the people of the United States and in other places of the world.
Grade level: 4th
a) allow students to learn skills to help them find information about topics that they need to research. This will help them immensely as they go through school.
So much information is found online these days, giving students the tools to answer their own questions is a very important aspect of learning.
Character Principles: Discipline -- "And that you study to be quiet, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, as commanded you" (I Thessalonians 4:11). Work ethic -- "But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he…… [Read More]
Forefathers founded this great nation, they did so with the intention of creating a nation full of liberty where the pursuit of happiness was available to all, not just a selected few. Since the formation of our government and country; entrepreneurs and business people have amassed large fortunes and have accrued immense riches by using the hard manual labor of the lower classes who work hard, sometimes for the bare minimum. I am not opposed to the spirit of entrepreneurship or of someone being wealthy. hat I am opposed to is the behavior and actions of certain wealthy individuals and interest groups that influence politics in a manner that allows their business to flourish while at the same time suppressing the lower classes.
It is not common for tax increases to come at the expensive of the higher classes. In fact, before the proposed Obama Administration tax increase on the…… [Read More]
Again, Mc Donald's has managed to deal with competitive threats posed by both these market players due to the fact that the prices that Burger King, Starbucks and Costa Coffee charge are much higher than that charged by Mc Donald's. The primary reason behind higher prices of Costa Coffee and Starbucks is the fact that their target market is much stronger and niche as compared to that of Mc Donald's. The recent economic crunch however, has benefitted Mc Donald's as many people who prefer sophisticated ambience, due to their lower purchasing power and increased inflationary pressures now prefer Mc Donald's over the likes of Starbucks and Costa Coffee. As a result, Mc Donald's is the strongest market player in the Global region today.
Mc Donald's target market includes all the people who travel for leisure and/or business purposes and prefer to have a luxurious accommodation. The cafe provides best possible…… [Read More]
Irish Social Policy
The global recession came along with many negative effects to may countries in the world. Coupled with the terror attacks, the global fear increased even more and the situation became worse and worse for asylum seekers in the Western countries. Ireland consequently found itself in a situation that made it awkward for the refugees and other asylum seekers who run there for shelter. The asylum seekers and the refugees found themselves deprived of many basic human provisions and rights that every individual should be allowed to enjoy.
Inequalities of Irish policy
The policies in Ireland are very detrimental to the refugees. For instance with introduction of the Direct Provision policy the adult asylum seekers were entitled to an allowance of €19.10 per week, children €9.60 which are way below what the average Irish earns and is barely enough for any tangible provision for an individual leave alone…… [Read More]
Globalization Union Decline
Trade unions are the most important constituent of the system of current industrial relations in any country. Every trade union has a particular set of objectives or milestones to reach. It is a fact that modifications in the field of politics and education as well as societal structures may rechristen the unions as a forum for the protection and furtherance of the interests of the workers. The unions play a pivotal role in improving the workers' quality of life by helping them to make their customary roles of creating conditions of service bigger. A trade union can, thus, be simply described as "a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their working lives" (as qtd. In Sinha, Sinha & Shekhar, 2006).
Trade unions serve as a fundamental and influential feature in the modern-day system of making and supply of commodities…… [Read More]
To increase effective demand, Keynesians believe the government must balance the economy with deficit and increase expenditure. However, the constant alternation between booms and recession is causing the booms to get shorter while the recessions become longer. This phenomenon is the result of empirical evidence that indicates that in the end, the interest rates decrease.
However, this situation creates a problem of capitalism as the rich increase their wealth while financial deficit worsens. Minsky adopted the perspective of Keynesians, hypothesized financial instability, as the finance and money that connects the present with the future, but the future is uncertain. Minsky finds the problem of financial stability is in financing. However, financial instability increases under contemporary capitalism, which increases economic crisis. This leads to the conclusion that to solve economic crisis, there is a need to reduce financing and take up investments in real economy.
This is in contrast to the…… [Read More]
Today, China owns the majority of U.S. debt, thereby inflating the Yuan and further downgrading the security of the dollar across the globe. These trends mean that American taxpayer money will increasingly be used to benefit foreign governments, leaving even fewer resources available for American citizens. A smaller, more efficient government is clearly needed, but in order to reduce government growth, a grassroots effort needs to be created to encourage term limits and eliminate wasteful and redundant government bureaucracies. In order to be successful, though, this effort must be embraced across all political party lines but the payoff will be worth it. By curbing government growth and control in business and Americans' private lives today, the country will be able to regain its financial security and maintain America's fundamental constitutional liberties.
Beland, D. & Chantal, V.F. (2004). Fighting 'Big Government': Frames, federalism, and social policy reform in the United…… [Read More]
Effect of the recession on upon financial market, the real economy and over everyday lives
ecession is defined as the economic slowdown or decline characterized by slowing down of trade, a magnitude decline in the GDP, and a decrease in employment usually lasting between 6 months to a year. This was the situation in the U.S.A. The hardest times being from 2008 through 2009 and the early months of 2010. America is still recovering from the effects of the recession that the country experienced from 2007 to 2009.
The slow down in economy triggered a massive job loss and unemployment rates that shot through the roof, the prices went up and a great deal of uncertainty rippled through the country. This situation has now seen a reverse trend albeit at a slower rate than was expected by many. The unemployment rate in November 2011 fell by 0.4% to 8.6%…… [Read More]
The article concedes, however, that declining business confidence is an absolute danger that must be dealt with and the government not being an active partner with businesses and in favor of the recovery will just make things worse (Pollin, 2010).
A similar point is made in a different article that states that the role of fiscal policy in pushing an economy towards recovery cannot be over-estimated or over-analyzed because of the vital role fiscal policy plays in said recovery. The article notes that the impact (or lack thereof) of programs like Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Medicare, tax credits, Social Security, direct subsidies, unemployment insurance and such are often included in any analysis of fiscal policy but it also noted that many parties that look at this topic glaringly omit are transfer payments and other assistance paid directly to financial institutions (Tcherneva, 2012).
This perhaps became a much less…… [Read More]
The three major categories for the federal government's revenues include: individual incomes taxes, corporate income taxes and social insurance taxes. Individual income taxes accounts for the largest amounts of spending for the federal government. As, these figure increased from: $1.1 trillion in 2010 to $1.3 trillion in 2011. While social insurance taxes are the second largest source of revenues with them providing at total of: $938 billion for 2010 and $978 billion for 2011. Then, there are corporate income taxes that are accounting for revenues of: $252 billion for 2010 and $292 for 2011. ("The udget and Economic Outlook," 2011)
What are the three major categories of expenditures for the federal government? Please comment on each and indicate their relative importance to each other. Relative importance can be indicated by dollar amounts, percent of total revenue or expenditure or, though less informative, by ranking.
Three categories for the…… [Read More]
This amount of leverage is rare in more standardized industries where management can break pickets with contract labor.
We see them affecting public opinion through their press releases and media control, which portrays management as derisive. This attempts to pinch off donations, which is a battle of attrition that will hurt the musicians in the end, but they are willing to sacrifice this in order to win the race to the bottom they portray management has gamed them into. We see the musicians trying to build goodwill by donating ten performances a year, which is a direct pay issue analogous to taking work home in other industries, but which makes them appear reasonable and eager to work. Promising to reschedule missed concerts follows this type of P strategy.
5. Without actually attending meetings at the table or on the shop floor, we have to speculate about many of the obstacles…… [Read More]
Behavioral Finance and Analysis of American Financial Crisis
Financial theories are the cornerstone of the modern corporate world. They lay the foundation for most tools used in areas like asset pricing and investment banking. Most theoretical concepts like general equilibrium analysis and information economics are planted in the field of microeconomics. There are several different financial theories based on both consumer behavior, as well as how they impact decisions made by financial managers.
One financial theory that many business managers use is The Modern Portfolio Theory,
or MPT. It suggests how investors use diversification to enhance their portfolios, as well as how to price an asset based on the risk, in relation to the market as a whole. Modern portfolio theory displays the return of an asset as a variable, and the portfolio as a combination of all of the assets. The return of a portfolio is also a random…… [Read More]
Marketing in Banking
The topic being researched for this doctoral work is marketing in the banking industry. Before delving into the research too much for this topic, the researcher will first enumerate the goals that are to be attained. These goals, as also suggested by the parameters of the assignment, include meeting proper validity and reliability standards, avoiding bias, not posing hypotheses or ideas that are self-fulfilling prophecies or that have desired answers on the part of the researcher. There is also the consideration of using critical reasoning and strong logic skills so as to avoid making conclusions that are not supported by the evidence and/or that are completely contradicted by that same evidence (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010).
eliability & Validity
eliability and validity are two hallmarks of any good research and they must both be satisfied for the research outcomes to have any staying power or good ongoing reputation…… [Read More]
The "Great ecession" that has crippled local economies throughout America has exposed the traditional budgeting procedures used by legislators and municipal leaders as a fallacious exercise in stopgap financing that fails to address the systemic problems of mismanagement, inefficiency, and wasteful spending. As an increasing number of city and state governments struggle to balance their budgets in the wake of curtailed income and overextended expenditures, economists have worked to develop innovate forms of budgeting which are better suited to meet the demands of modern financial planning. The concept of reality-based budgeting has emerged in recent years as a viable alternative to the traditional method of balancing governmental budgets, which is largely predicated on a combination of across the board spending cuts and untargeted increases in tax rates. As Bob Williams wrote in a recent article published by the non-profit organization State Budget Solutions, "reality-based budgeting assumes the rules…… [Read More]
California's costal ocean region is characterized with both positive and negative attributes. The California Coastal egion is along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. This area is a beautiful, desirable area to live in, causing real estate to be among the highest in the United States. In fact, this area was one of the fastest to recover after the great recession of 2008, due primarily to its natural beauty. In addition, the per capita income for families in the area is also usually higher than the general population in the country. This fact is intuitive as higher income families are those best able to afford the beauty and natural elements in which the California costal region offers. There are many rivers and streams that lead out to the ocean. The popular edwood Forest is also within the vicinity of the costal region. There are beautiful mountains and sand…… [Read More]
A lot of debates exists out there in the economic ether regarding the best economic structure for an economy. Even so, there is a broad amount of consensus that exists regarding what should be done during expansionary economic shifts and what is less than wise. With that in mind, the author of this report shall address a number of questions related to that overall topic including what should be done with taxes, government spending and the general tools of the Federal Reserve Bank including the changing of the reserve ratio requirements, the discount rate and the selling of government securities. There is also the question on what happens with things like aggregate demand, gross domestic product and employment. While predicting the outcome of economic efforts and policy can sometimes be hard to pin down, there are best practices that are generally held to be better than others when…… [Read More]
As banks faltered and default rates rose, rates of consumption and demand plummeted. Unemployment began to increase, and in a predictable Keynesian fashion, as individuals grew more insecure about their job prospects they began to spend less money. The United States has a particularly consumer-driven economy -- Americans are known for having historically low rates of savings and to engage in high rates of spending -- so this was particularly disruptive to the usual rhythms of the economy.
Young people graduating from college suffered some of the worst effects of the recession. "Unemployment rates for individuals younger than 25 are currently 21% in the euro area and 19% in the U.S." (Branchflower 2010). They were competing with older, more experienced workers who had recently lost their jobs. The fear is that today's low starting salaries create a class of permanently low-earning graduates, many of whom have high levels of college…… [Read More]
S. It too had run into a deep recession and too sought ways out of it by considering tax options. In a similar way, both candidates running for the South Korean presidency in the 2012 presidential elections vowed to "to prioritise "national reconciliation," better "economic democracy" and social welfare" (BBC News (17 December 2012) South Korea's presidential candidates) and to do this via easing South Korea's income gap between rich and poor by adjusting tax burden appropriately. No wonder, that U.S. President Barack Obama congratulated her and stated that he "is looking forward to working closely with her administration on issues of mutual concern" (ibid). The two nations currently have a lot in common and Ms. Park seems to be treading the path that Obama has in mind.
Our recent recession goes by various names. It is called, in turn, the Great ecession, the Lesser Depression, the Long ecession,…… [Read More]
Fiscal and Monetary Policy
How is a recession defined? Is the U.S. currently in a recession? Explain.
The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is widely recognized as the arbiter of starting and ending dates of U.S. recessions (Burtless, G. April 19, 2010). As such, NBER indicates, recessions start at the peak of a business cycle and end at the trough; and are a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales (National Bureau of Economic Research. 2011). The last U.S. recession, coined the Great Recession, ended in June 2009, 18 months after the economy began sliding into a downturn in December 2007 (Murray, S. September 21, 2010) according to NBER.
While more than eight in 10 Americans think the economy is in another recession, according to a new CNN/ORC…… [Read More]
Currency fluctuations tend to create instability and disrupt the planning activities of tourists. In times of an economic recession, there is normally a lot of fluctuation in the currencies. In the previous year, many currencies appreciated in value while some depreciated. The appreciation of Great ritain Pound and U.S. Dollar against currencies of other countries, such as third world countries, while the depreciation of the Pakistani Rupee, Indian Rupee and the Sri Lankan Rupee against the U.S. Dollar (REPORTER, Staff, 2012) made it less likely for the travelers located in such places to plan to visit countries, as expenditure on goods and services will be incurred in the appreciated currency of the destination country and will have to be supported by the depreciated home currency. This increased expenditure, especially in the times of an economic recession, is considered to be a luxury that needs to be overlooked, at least until…… [Read More]
Union Bargaining Power during a Recession
The PBS News Hour reported that the "great recession" that hit the U.S. And much of the world beginning in 2008 there were companies that cut salaries in order to stay solvent during those financial hard times. "The current recession has severely undercut the bargaining power of labor unions," the PBS program explained (Solman, 2010). As an example of what businesses have done to stay afloat during the recession, the Mott's juice and apple sauce factory in New York State simply cut wages in a union shop so the 300 workers went out on strike.
No problem, said Mott's (owned by Dr. Pepper / Snapple), we'll just hire non-unionized workers ("scabs"), and they did, cutting back their costs to one-half of what they were paying union workers. Because so many people have been put out of work during the recession, there are…… [Read More]
Macroeconomic Trends in the United States
The corner appears to have been turned after the subprime mortgage meltdown and the Great ecession of 2008 that followed. Despite this economic downturn, though, the U.S. economy is well on its way to recovering to pre-recession levels, inflation is at manageable levels and the nation's unemployment level continues to improve. The economic policies and stimulus monies that were used by the current executive administration to help the economy recover have done their job and the Great ecession was not as long or as severe as it would have been otherwise. To determine if these assertions are accurate and timely, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning current macroeconomic trends in the United States, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
It may be too soon for a celebration, but it is may be safe…… [Read More]
Macroeconomic Situation in the U.S.: Corrective Fiscal and Monetary Policy
December 2007 marked the onset of the Great recession, which ended in mid-2009 but left the U.S. economy struggling through the damage wrought by its severity. Federal policy has gone a long way in the prevention of an occurrence of another recession, but growth remains too sluggish and inadequate for the full-health restoration of the economy. Vigorous and sustained fiscal and monetary support is needed if the economy is to recover and achieve the pre-depression employment level.
Save for the temporary hiring of census officials, the overall economy recorded a drastic fall in employment levels during the last half of 2009. In December 2012, the unemployment rate was reported at 8.1% - approximately 3.5 percentage points above the average rate in 2007, at the end of which the Great ecession struck (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). This rate further exceeds…… [Read More]
the president also promised to work with other relevant sectors to assist homeowners in refinancing their mortgages at low interest rates.
On the other hand, Republicans are worried about proposals that would repeat the 2009 stimulus plan despite of President Obama's call for bipartisan support to the bill. They argue that the failed 2009 stimulus plan and its successive policies have shown that huge government deficit spending is not the solution to the stalling economy. hile Republican leaders are trying to offer a more moderate stand, they have given a staunch opposition to government's measures of new spending.
After the end of the 2009 economic recession, the Federal Reserve has been involved in various attempts to stimulate economic growth. Some of these efforts include lowering short-term interest rates to nearly zero. The Fed's recent efforts are the push to lower long-term interest rates by buying $400 billion in long-term Treasury…… [Read More]
Regulation in Accounting
Regulator Battle (The Economist, 2009)
The importance of regulation is often overlook or even mocked in society. Regulations and the regulators that administer them are often portrayed as something that slows progress and makes it difficult to navigate the complexities that adherence to the regulatory requirements require. It is easy for people to view regulations from this perspective because when regulations are effective and properly designed they may seem unduly burdensome. However, when regulations break down or are ineffective it is far easier to see the value of regulation. People commonly do not actually appreciate the value of regulation until they have an example in mind that stands in recent memory. This is summarized in a statement by Tim Geithner after the global recession emerged in 2009 which said, "You want to move at the point where people still have the memory of the trauma" (The…… [Read More]
all Street Bailout -- Part II
all Street Bailout
The government-orchestrated bailout of the banks has been hailed and yet also condemned due to its perceived efficacy or lack thereof. Jeffrey Fuhrer suggested a path that was a lot cheaper and perhaps a lot less encouraging and propagating of the bad habits of banks and government entities that led to the crisis. This alternative, of course, was the individual homeowner bailout. Indeed, bailing out homeowners directly would have cost a mere fraction of what it did indeed cost to bail out Citibank, ells Fargo and the other banks. However, neither solution alone has a clear advantage over the other when looking at all relevant circumstances. hile doing a homeowner bailout would have had its merits, doing just the bank or homeowner bailouts individually probably would not have been as effective as doing them both in concert.
This report will…… [Read More]
Defense of the Fed's New Interest-ate Policy, which was published by The Wall Street Journal on January 6th, 2013, financial reporters Frederic S. Mishkin and Michael Woodford carefully craft a justification of the Federal eserve's latest revision to its federal-funds rate target. The purpose of the article is to inform readers about the Fed's recent Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which resulted in the decision to keep the federal-funds rate near zero with a contingency based on the national unemployment and inflation rates. By linking the federal-funds rate target to a baseline of 6.5% unemployment, and a predicted rate of 2.5% inflation, while also providing public notice regarding its previously private policy criteria, the Fed is renewing its efforts to stabilize an economy battered by a prolonged recession. As Mishkin and Woodford state in the article, this "commitment not to raise rates in the future as soon as might have…… [Read More]
Delivering a speech to the merican Bankers ssociation in tlanta on June 7, 2011, Federal reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke posited a pessimistic view of current macroeconomic conditions. "The U.S. economy is recovering from both the worst financial crisis and the most severe housing bust since the Great Depression, and it faces additional headwinds ranging from the effect of the Japanese disaster to global pressures in commodity prices" (Hilsenrath, J. June 7, 2011). In this context it is useful to analyze the current economic recovery to see which if any additional monetary or fiscal policy measures could speed the pace of recovery and continue its upward trajectory.
What is the Current Macroeconomic Situation in the U.S.
ccording to economists the "Great Recession" ended in the second quarter of 2009 (Isidore, C. September 20, 2010); from that point the economy has slowly climbed out of negative growth returning to a…… [Read More]
Sex in the City: Reflecting Common Assumptions About Women, But Not Women's Real Lives
The popular HBO comedy series Sex in the City portrayed the fortunes of four upscale Manhattan women looking for love. The feminist or liberated nature of the show was much-debated, throughout its duration. On one hand, the close relationship of the protagonists -- Carrie, Samantha, Miranda, and Charlotte -- was the one constant amongst the sea of changes in all of the characters' lives. These changes encompassed marriages, births, cancer, and other life-altering events. However, on the other hand, the characters' relationships with men formed the primary focus of the series. Their sexual and romantic troubles drove the series' plots and were more important dramatically than the characters' work lives or even their hobbies. The cultural myth that women, no matter how successful, are obsessed with finding the right man, and are only fully 'female' when…… [Read More]