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Of course, the history of ancient Greek art is inseparable from the city of Athens, where our modern principles of democracy emerged around 400 B.C.E. And which has become the penultimate symbol of Greek culture, especially related to the Parthenon atop the Acropolis which still stands today as the quintessential icon of ancient Greek architecture. It was here in Athens that some of the finest products of Greek civilization were created by Athenians, such as Phidias, one of the greatest sculptors of all time and responsible for the creation and overall design of the Parthenon.
Also, modern-day Western society and the nation of Greece owe much to the writers who created the great Greek tragic plays, such as Aeschylus and Sophocles whose plays were "presented to eager citizens with personal obligations to the gods" (de la Croix, 2003, p. 125). In addition, we must remember to include Homer, the author…
Ancient Greek Art." (2008). Internet. Retrieved May 30, 2008 at http://www.crystalinks.com/greekart.html .
De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey. (2003). Art Through the Ages. 10th ed.
New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc.
Martin, Thomas R. (2004). Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times.
aestheticism movement found, in Oscar ilde, its most eloquent and staunch supporter; consequently, his only novel, the Picture of Dorian Gray, is a monument to the notion that art is the pure manifestation of beauty and reveals ilde's particular reverence for classical western society's artistic achievements.
Oscar ilde fundamentally sought to dislodge art from morality within his novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, and in so doing, pay his respects to the beauty in Greek culture by viewing through this amoral lens. Its original publication in 1890 was met with severe criticism from many who perceived it to be utterly disgraceful and immoral; as a result, ilde attempted to answer his critics by revising the Picture of Dorian Gray and amending it with preface -- outlining his philosophical underpinnings -- in the following year. In short, ilde believed, "The sphere of art and the sphere of ethics are absolutely distinct…
1. Alder, Mortimer J. Six Great Ideas. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981.
2. Aristotle. The Nichomachean Ethics. New York: Oxford, 1998.
3. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness and The Secret Sharer. New York: Bantam Books, 1981.
4. Harmon, William and Hugh Holman. A Handbook to Literature: Ninth Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall Publishing, 2003.
Anatomy of an Aesthete
The Picture of Dorian Gray and the Rise of Aestheticism
Oscar ilde's the Picture of Dorian Gray is the manifesto of Late Victorian Aestheticism.
The Late Victorian Era was characterized by numerous artistic and literary movements that were reactions to the growing industrialization and homogenization of contemporary society. As trains, telephones, and factories rushed humankind headlong to an unknown future, many of the greatest lights of the Age looked back into the Past, and to a simpler, more clearly-defined time and place; a time and place with readily-recognized rules and standards. For centuries, the Classical orld of Ancient Greece and Rome had provided a model for modern Europeans. Artists, writers, philosophers, architects -- even musicians -- let themselves be guided by what they believed to be the Classical canons of behavior and taste. Until the dawn of the Industrial Age, Europe's intellectual class entertained no illusions…
Aldrich, Robert. The Seduction of the Mediterranean: Writing, Art, and Homosexual Fantasy. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Beckson, Karl, ed. Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997.
Boscagli, Maurizia. Eye on the Flesh: Fashions of Masculinity in the Early Twentieth Century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Harris, Jose. "1 Ruskin and Social Reform." Ruskin and the Dawn of the Modern. Ed. Birch, Dinah. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 7-33.
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…
it's also important to note that Greeks brought metallurgy innovations to the non-Greek world: iron, which dramatically increased strength of metal tools and weapons and cupro-nickel (used in coining). A number of Asian peoples also adapted Greek alphabet and papyrus.
But in many cases influence of Greeks was considerably obvious only in Asian kingdoms, as most of Mediterranean non-Greek cultures stood on the same level of development as Greeks. For such peoples as Jews and Assyrians Greek colonization mainly meant the threat of assimilation and loss of identity. Assyrians and Jews who in their majority were monotheists could not adopt Greek religion of polytheist as it was against their religious traditions. All the attempts of Greeks to convert Jews to polytheism failed. For example the attempt to convert Jewish Temple to Temple of Greek god Zeus under Antiochus IV Epiphanes only led tot he revolt of Jews led by Maccabees,…
Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001
Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997
Shuckburgh. Evelyn S. Histories. Polybius. London, New York. Macmillan. 1889. Reprint Bloomington 1962.
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…
Dillon, Sheila. Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, And Styles. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Dillon, Sheila. The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Giannakopoulou, Liana. The Power of Pygmalion: Ancient Greek Sculpture in Modern Greek Poetry, 1860-1960, Volume 3 of Byzantine and Neohellenic Studies. Peter Lang, 2007.
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
Greek Concept to Movie Troy
Ancient mythology as never ceased to amaze and fascinate its readers and followers. Especially Egyptian and Greek mythology, having followers everywhere; in the current times it has found a new fan, that is the movie making business, with a special interest in Greek mythology. Nothing is better than watching your favorite characters brought up to life and actually see them doing all the things we had previously only imagined them doing. One such captivating movie is 'troy' based on the Greek Trojan war starring Brad Pitt. Various Greek concepts were shed light in this movie, which will be discussed, in relation to the movie.
The first concept is Fate, since in Greek mythology fate does not just happen. The gods make things happen, in their own engineered ways, and interfere to make things happen on their own account. Then there is MOIA, which means that…
Walter Benjamin "The Task of the Translator" vol 1: 1913-1926. Marcus Bullock. Pg. 256-259
Roman Jacobson "The World of Movies, Media and Multimedia: language, history, theory" Pg. 26-266.
James Monaco "How to Read a Film" 3rd edition, Pg. 250-255.
In rare cases, mothers taught their daughters reading and writing. At 15, girls were expected to marry men their fathers chose for them. Interestingly, this was only the fate of wealthier girls. Peasant girls chose their own husbands when working in the fields (Fisher and Harlan).
According to Tomoko Shimoda, the traditional Japanese family is regarded as very important, also with specific roles for women, men and children. Although Western influence has standardized education and emancipated women, they are still generally regarded as mostly active and highly important in the household. Women maintain the family finances and care for the children, while the role of men is to be engaged in work, which mostly constituted the family business. Both girls and boys are educated, although boys are steered towards taking over the family business while girls are taught housekeeping and accounting skills. In the past, marriages were generally arranged,…
Crystal, Ellie. Ancient Greek Education. http://www.crystalinks.com/greekeducation.html
Fisher, Grant and Harlan, Cheri Beth. The Roles of Men, Women and Children in Ancient Greece. http://chalk.richmond.edu/education/projects/webunits/greecerome/Greeceroles1.html
Shimoda, Tomoko. Representations of Parenting and Gender Roles in the Shoshika Era: Comparisons of Japanese and English-Language Parenting Magazines. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies. 14 Jan 2008. http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/articles/2008/Shimoda.html
For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.
But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.
Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…
Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001
Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…
Agony -- The Famous Group of Laocoon. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/rome-19.shtml
Haaren, J. (2000). Famous Men of Greece. Lebanon, TN: Greenleaf Press.
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
The Farnesse Bull. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/naples-5.shtml
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…
Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a .
John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world
Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from:
Greek Myths and Human Nature
Ancient Greek myths represent the view of a previous culture that has influenced current beliefs. Greek culture was one based on the stories and moral lessons told and learned from older generations to more recent generations. The destruction of human kind and the honorable lessons learned from those myths define what human nature is all about; these destruction myths highlighted the positiveness of human nature. Although it may seem counterintuitive and difficult to think of destruction as a positive notion, the idea of cleanliness, rebirth, and immortality allow for this exact interpretation to be made. In Greek destruction myths, it is not about the destroying involved in the myth itself, but it is instead about the aftermath that this destruction may bring to its people, community, and society.
As is well documented in many Greek myths, there is one God that overpowers all others: Zeus.…
Lefkowitz, M. (2005). Greek gods, human lives: What we can learn from myths. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dewey, J. (2005). Experience and nature and human nature. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, LLC.
Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:
The different ways they believed their gods intervened.
During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.
Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.
In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…
As great as it is to have one thing that everyone shares, it's even better to have more than one to relate to. I think that makes people take their faith even more seriously.
I absolutely believe that misconceptions about people's beliefs are common. Protestants believe Catholics worship idols; Christians believe pagans worship demons and dance naked in the woods; believers think atheists are horrible, immoral people. From what I remember in history, part of the reason the Catholic Church was able to pull off the Crusades was by painting the non-Christians as evildoers who ate babies. hy does it happen? Because as human beings, we want to believe that we have a good deal on the afterlife. And I also think people often just want to think of themselves as "better" than others.
To fix this, I think people should be more willing to discuss their faith with others.…
A Dictionary of Orthodox Terminology - Part 2 -- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. (n.d.).
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith9152
No Author, Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches, National Council of Churches, 2000.
No Author. (1914). About Ascension Cathedral: Ascension Cathedral. Ascension Cathedral. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.groca.org/?page_id=334
All of the Greek gods and their interactions were very similar to how humans would naturally act. They are all inclined to be jealous and vengeful of one another, along with having affairs that rival any daytime soap opera. They would choose sides and create massive wars on earth in order to win their way and prove their point.
Although the ancient Greek religion had fundamental elements which were very similar to other ancient religions, there is one thing that set it apart. The quarrelsome Greek gods did not try to teach their human subjects any kind of religious doctrine. Unlike Judaism and Christianity, with its strict rules and commandments, the Greek religion had no specific doctrines which it's followers needed to generally follow. Instead, the ancient tradition relied on mysticism, such as what was seen in the case of the Oracle of Delphi. Many researchers and scholars say that…
" In other words, he philosopher advocates temperance, especially as far as emotion is concerned. This is combined with actions or "habits," as Aristotle terms them. A person who is temperate while also engaging in "good" activities or habits can then be said to be virtuous. It appears that this definition fits well with what could constitute "good" even in today's terms.
A person who would disagree with the above might argue that both my and Aristotle's definition of "good" and "virtue" is far too vague to have any valid application. Neither definition, for example, acknowledges cultural variation in terms of what might constitute "virtue." A person from the Far East, for example, might consider it virtuous to obey one's parents in everything, including one's choice of a bride. In Western culture, on the other hand, and by the above definition, it is decidedly "bad" to make one's children miserable…
He realizes that Magnus' rage is not simply conservative, but has a nationalist and liberal ethos behind it, however misguided the man's anger may occasionally seem to Owen.
But even at the beginning of Act III, as Owen is beginning to soften, his strategies of going back to the original names of places, before local shortening and slang, suggest to the viewer or reader that such a strategy may be no more effective than keeping things as they are -- the play suggests that there is no perfect translation, no way to perfectly preserve a pristine Irish past, as Magnus wishes to do, nor to create an Irish future in English, without some sacrifice of power to the linguistic tyranny of England. Owen begins his translation project seeing the initial resistance he experiences as part of the Irish people's almost instinctive fear of change, rather than an exhibition of true…
Deborah is believed to have played a key role in public arena.
Even in the male dominant society of Israel, Deborah's orders were followed and people looked up to her for advice. In the position of a prophetess, she could give orders which were readily followed: "She sent for Barak...and said to him, 'The Lord, the God of Israel, commands you: "Go, take with you ten thousand men..."" Barak was not willing to go alone and wanted Deborah to accompany him. Deborah is an important figure in ancient Hebrew culture and it is through her that we can see how this culture allowed women to have some freedom in their restricted sphere.
The daughter of Jephthah was another prominent figure. She was also a judge who ruled Israel as she was a woman of strong faith. After her father promised Lord that if he won, he would offer "whatever comes…
The Odyssey, the Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces, 6th ed. Vol 1, Ws. Norton & Co. Inc. New York
Book of Joshua" accessed online 16th april 2005:
Big Fat Greek Wedding directed by Joel Zwick [...] differences between Greek and American culture. "My Big Fat Greek Wedding" is a funny movie about the differences in culture that can lead to unhappiness and lack of self-esteem. The main character grows up in a Greek family that wants to protect her, but she manages to find love and happiness anyway. While the film uses stereotypical examples of Greek and American culture to make its points, it is still charming, funny, and entertaining.
This film really plays up the differences between Greek and American culture, and makes them charming all the same. Poor Toula Portokalos, the main character, is trapped in her father's Greek restaurant. Over 30, her family considers her an "old maid," and it is clear she is not happy under her father's thumb. She is dowdy and timid, and afraid to stand up to her very strong…
Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.
Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…
Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications.
Hingley, R. (2005). Globalizing Roman Culture: Unity, Diversity and Empire. London: Routledge
Hurwit, JM. (1987). The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. New York: Cornell University press.
Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…
Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html .
Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site: http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .
Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.
Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site: http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/.
Marriage in Greek Myth
efore we discuss the depictions of marriage in the Theogony, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and the Odyssey, perhaps we should first discuss the real- life ancient Greek marriage rituals and reveal their attitude towards marriage.
Indeed, many of the things we see in Greek myths happened in real life as well. For example, the Greek girls usually married quite young, around the age of 14, which was meant to ensure that the girl was a virgin and pure in mind and body. "Marriage to a family member was an acceptable alternative and occasionally encouraged in order to consolidate family wealth"- if we look at many of the marriages between gods (taking only this example), we will notice that many of them were affiliated. Remember, for example, that almost all of the Olympian Gods were in some way related, most of them being brothers and sisters,…
1. Roll, Rose. Gender Ideology in Myth: The Place of the Female Within Male Order. January 2003. On the Internet at http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/eumenides/essays/essay1.html
2. Ancient Greek Marriage. On the Internet at http://www.pogodesigns.com/JP/weddings/greekwed.html
Ancient Greek Marriage. On the Internet at
These walls and other constructions were made of very huge stones that gave the Mycenaean architecture the name of cyclopean architecture. Another feature of Mycenaean architecture is the megaron, a rectangular hall entered via 2 column porch and having a hearth at its centre. It is said that megaron was the inspiration for classical greek temple. Another unique contribution of Mycenaean architechture is the use of 'corbel vaulting' a technique which is mainly used in high raised domes and arched structures to reduce the weight over the lintel. This stlye is most eveident in the famous 'Lions gate'. The Mycenaean culture had a significant influence on the later Greeks. The central hearth, for example became a common feature in most Greek constructions. [Megan Kane]. oth the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures have left their mark on the later Greek culture.
Megan Kane, 'Mycenaean Architecture', Accessed Sept 16th 2006, available at…
Megan Kane, 'Mycenaean Architecture', Accessed Sept 16th 2006, available at http://traumwerk.stanford.edu:3455/Archaeopaedia/152
Wikipedia, Minoan Civilization, Accessed Sept 16th 2006, Available at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoan_civilization
Aphrodite was said to have been the most beautiful and sensual of all the goddesses. There are varying stories of her birth. One story holds that she was born from the loins of Uranus, when his sex was severed from him and thrown into the sea: Aphrodite emerged from the sea foam—a daughter of the sea, which is why one of the most famous images of her in artistic expression is of the goddess emerging from the sea (Graves). Homer in the Iliad indicated that Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Regardless of her origin story, Aphrodite served a central role in the back story of Greece, particularly when it came to her feud with Hera and Athena over who was the most beautiful of all.
Aphrodite was said to have married Hephaestus, the god of blacksmithing. She was also said to have had many paramours,…
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…
Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.
Accessed 1 April 2012.
"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
ith time, Tango dancing had been recognized officially world wide, and people have even turned it into an art. Tango dancing is presumed to be one of the easiest dances in the world, but it would take a professional to really Tango.
The Indians are known for their extreme spirituality and the Indian traditional dance is full of it. Indians have taken the art of dancing to a whole new level by having associated it with meditation with the intention of sending a message through the dance to the spectators. The early Indian dancers had a strong bond with the church. Later on, the dancers would be seen dancing in order to bring to life the stories told by singers.
According to David Courtney, "Today the acknowledged classical styles are:
Bharatnatyam of Tamil Nadu,
Kathakali of Kerala,
Kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh,
Manipuri of Northeast India,
Orissi from Orissa, and Kathak…
Courtney, David. "NRITYA - INDIAN CLASSICAL DANCE." Chandrakantha. 2008. 24 November, 2008. http://chandrakantha.com/articles/indian_music//nritya.html
Heikkila, Lori. "Tango History." Central Home. 24 November, 2008. http://www.centralhome.com/ballroomcountry/tango.htm
Leonidou, Anne. "Portrait of the Greek Dance." Nostos Hellenic Cyber Centre. 24 November, 2008. http://www.nostos.com/dance/
Stith, Kevin. "Hip Hop Dancing." Ezine Articles. 24 November, 2008. http://ezinearticles.com/?Hip-Hop-Dancing&id=407540
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml
Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
Like imhotep and Asclepius, though to a lesser degree, Hippocrates' life is so shrouded in myth that it is difficult to state many facts about the man. He certainly existed, hwoever, and was one of the first to apply true rules of logic and science to the practice of medicine. This was possible largely because of the changes made in philosophy both by the pre-Socratics, who determined that the gods were not responsible for the laws of nature, and the major Athenian philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who developed a system of rigorous logic that was attached to investigations of truth. Hippocrates focused on keeping the body healthy through preventative medicine, and that the body would often return to its natural state unaided -- thus the injunction to "do no harm."
Galen, a Greek physician arriving on the scene centuries later, learned all he could about the internal…
Historical Issues In Modern Education
There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.
Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also…
Reference and Research Book News, August 2005, Kids and Violence, the invisible school experience.
Gender bias in education means treating boys and girls differently at school. (Woodward, 1998)
Post: Global Conflict: Mass Population Migration and the EU
The Brexit crisis reflects ongoing tensions in the European Union related to a complex of problems including the decreased relevance of national sovereignty within the European Community and also the increased relevance of immigration policy in light of mass population migrations into Europe. Individual European nations have also contended with domestic crises linked to the same cluster of issues, which at the risk of oversimplification can be boiled down to economics. The Greek economic crisis shows that while national and cultural identity do matter, economics matters far more in the fomentation of international crises. Crises generally emerge over perceived or real resource scarcity: those resources can be tangible such as land, water, oil, money, or minerals. However, often those resources are intangible or symbolic as with power, clout, and status. The United Kingdom has for centuries wielded considerable power, retaining global…
Chua, A. (2014). A world on the edge. Wilson Quarterly, 38(1), 101-122. http://library.esc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx ? direct=true&db=a9h&AN=94318652&site=ehost-live
Fox, J. (2001). Two civilizations and ethnic conflict: Islam and the West. Journal of Peace Research, 38(4), 459- 472. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org.library.esc.edu/stable/424897?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Huntington, S. P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations. Foreign Affairs, 72(3). 22-49. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.esc.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=d984c31e-a98a-4d90-a8bc - 408bb26072f4%40sessionmgr4007&vid=1&hid=4105
Bettany Hughes, the Ancient Worlds 5 of 7 the Spartans
Points from the Film:
Unlike the Athenians, Spartans were not known for their philosophical insights or their artistic triumphs. They were known for being frugal and for being fighters. Their society was built on the idea that it could only stand so long as they were physically strong. Thus, Spartans had a strict code of discipline and self-sacrifice: everything was done to protect the State. The weak were viewed as a threat to the State's strength and weak children were killed. While this may seem like a barbaric exercise today, it was a matter of fact practice in ancient Sparta and everyone there accepted it.
Another curious point about Sparta was that male homosexuality was compulsory in Sparta. Women could also take lesbian lovers if they chose. This was because sex between a man and woman was primarily viewed as…
Culture and Counseling
In her book The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, author Anne Fadiman recounts the life and death of a little Hmong girl living in Merced, California. Lia Lee had what Western doctors call epilepsy, and which the Hmong have a far more lyrical explanation that lends itself to the title of Fadiman's book. The most common neurological disease, epilepsy can be frightening and potentially debilitating. However, in cultures around the world and throughout time, from the Hmong to the ancient Greeks, epilepsy opens pathways to creativity and an increased understanding of the universe. Thus, as Fadiman points out, many epileptics become shamans. When Lia Lee first started having epileptic seizures, her mom Foua, speaking not a word of English, rushed her to the Merced Community Medical Center. There, doctors tended to the eight-month-old child as best they could under the circumstances. Because all she was…
I find the idea that the world is becoming homogenized to American culture to be parochial, offensive and ill-formed, the product surely of American thinking. Nobody from any other culture would see the world in that light, because they are actually informed about the non-American world. Writers arguing in favor of the idea that the world is becoming homogenized to American culture are laughably ill-informed. They make heroic errors in judgment in their arguments. The reality that there is some evidence of globalization, but only in the most superficial ways has this actually made its influence. Consider a moment the supposition that food and entertainment are changing -- not only is this a great leap but food and entertainment are rather superficial when one considers the depth and breadth of individual cultures.
The first thing to point out is that culture runs rich and deep. America is an…
Ghemawat, P. (Artist) & TEDTalks (Producer) (2012) Pankaj Ghemawat: Actually, the world isn't flat. [Web] Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/pankaj_ghemawat_actually_the_world_isn_t_flat
Hall, S. (2000). The local and the global: Globalization and identity. Culture, Globalization and the World System. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis.
Hofstede, G. (2014). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html
Tapscott, D. (Artist), & TEDTalks, (Producer) (2012).Don Tapscott: Four principles for the open world [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/don_tapscott_four_principles_for_the_open_world_1
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a, b_27.16)." In Heilbrunn Timeline
of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.
November 15, 2010.
Minoan and Greek Pottery
The Vase as Theme
This essay is meant to address the different treatment of two works of art from different cultures which deal with the same theme. By comparing differing treatments of the same artistic theme, it is possible to get a glimpse into the mind of the artists whose differences are thus highlighted. For example, if one were to compare the famous Minoan Octopus Stirrup Jar (Heraklion Museum, Crete) with the Metropolitan Museum's Mycenean Terracotta stirrup jar with octopus (ca. 1200-1100), one would see dramatic differences in the level of anatomical accuracy vs. stylization, anamorphization vs. abstraction, and a preference for a utilitarian joie de vivre over an elite sense of design. In such a comparison, the subject of the art would be considered the theme. Yet what if one were not to consider the subject of the art as its theme, but rather consider…
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
All respondents also engage in code-switching on a linguistic level to clarify meaning when referring to both stories. The linguistic responses were not culturally monolithic -- rather, bilingual speakers showed a remarkable ability to fuse the two cultures and languages in which they were fluent. Although the different English and Greek scenarios elicited different responses, when speaking about their feelings the study subjects were able to delve into both vocabularies to find the right word to express their ideas. The study suggested that "1) one's emotional reaction shifts with language (and cultural context) and (2) all emotion terms (and reactions) are available to bilingual speakers, almost regardless of the context" (Panayiotou 2004: 132). Their use of different linguistic tropes also highlighted how language and culture were inexorably intertwined, given that the subjects' expressed emotional responses were substantially different, depending on whether the scenario was presented as about a Greek or…
Bishop, M.M., & Peterson, M. (2010). Impact of media context on consumers' responses to code-switched advertising. Journal of Advertising, 39(3), 55-67.
Panayiotou, N. (2004). Switching code, switching codes: Bilinguals' emotional responses in English and Greek. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25 (2&3),
Qing, X. (2012). A tentative analysis of code-switching in college bilingual education.
Greek & Roman
The mainstream lifestyle of the Ancient Greeks accepted that sexuality existed on a spectrum, and that sexuality was something that was fluid and not rigid or fixed. Therefore, the presence of heteroerotic and homoerotic in their poetry is no surprise. The Ancient Greeks accepted that sex with the opposite gender, the same gender, or with groups of people was normal, accepted, and at least, moderately expected. The paper will attempt to briefly note some, if any, differences among the Greek love poetry provided, specifically as those differences directly relate as to whether the poem is homoerotic or heteroerotic.
The homoerotic poetry is distinctive to this reader from the heteroerotic poetry. The homoerotic poetry repeatedly has imagery of horses. The poetry is typically written from the perspective of the older male in the affair. There are only a few homoerotic poems from the selection, yet they all include…
Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites
Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade is only recently being regulated and stopped. There are many problems with the methods used to stop the trade however and no one nation or regulatory body has been able to devise a solid means by which these treasures can be returned to the people who claim them as heritage. The heritage argument and the ability to return the artifacts becomes even more clouded when the items in question are found underwater. Although there has been a concerted…
AFP. "A Rich Greek Archeology Frontier Lying Underwater." Khaleej Times (2005, June 24).
Aiken, Jonathan. "Antiquities Diplomacy." The American Spectator 42.1 (2009): 58-60.
Akal, Tuncay. "Surveillance and Protection of Underwater Archaeological Sites: Sea Guard." (accessed November 2, 2012) http://www.acoustics.org/press/155th/akal.htm
Carver, Martin. "Editorial." Antiquity 82.315 (2008): 7-9.
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…
American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm
Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/
Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1
Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?
Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…
Bowra, C.M. (1957). The Greek Experience. New York: Praeger. In Steven Kreis, History Guide (2006).
Dunkle, R. (1986). The classical origins of western culture. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College, The City University of New York.
Mortgaged lands were marked by special debt-stones, named pillars and debtors had to pay 1/6 of their harvest or income to the creditor. The success of Athens can be explained by the fact that it was the first city to abolish practice of enslaving for debts. It raised city's prestige and authority in the region and in many respects stimulated economical and political stability. Since 6th century BC most of Athenian tyrants were making shifts towards democratic rule, balancing interests of elite and poor. The most important reforms in government were made by Solon, who was elected in 594 BC. Solon's reforms were directed on the consolidation of alienated Athenian society: he abolished pillar practices, proclaiming that all Greeks are free citizens. Solon liberalized political structure of Athens, expanding influence of ecclesia, giving it the right to participate in elections of archons. He reformed membership of Areopagus, which was no…
In asking him to stay with her and their family, she was practically betraying her country. Demeter cares for the earth in a way that no other gods did. She was actively involved with mortal affairs. However, she also cared for own, her daughter. She does what she feels what she must do in an act of revenge. These women demonstrate the complexity of the female in any era. Even in ancient texts, we see the female figure associated with the typical womanly things such as motherhood and fertility but she is also given characteristics that are strong, powerful, and dangerous. What these myths tell us about the role of the female is that it is constantly changing. The female is complex and while she will always associated with fertility, she should never be relegated to an inferior role. While we often see mythology as wild with fantastical elements, we…
Bullfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch's Mythology. New York: Random House Publishing. 1979.
Hesiod. Theogony. Perseus Digital Online Library. Information Retrieved August 7, 2009.
Helena Smith argues that money, not time, heals all wounds, at least when it comes to the conflict between Turkey and Greece. In her New Statesman article, Smith points out that tensions between the two Mediterranean nations is lessening mainly due to entrepreneurship and joint business ventures. In a remarkably symbolic gesture, the company that manufactures the Greek flag is now set to buy its fabric from Turkish factories. However, money isn't the only bond between these age-old rivals. Smith notes that humanitarian needs and causes has also helped mend the wounds between the two nations. They both agreed to cooperate in the Kosovo crisis and helped each other recover from recent earthquakes that affected both sides of the Aegean Sea.
Turkey is situated in a unique geographic locale: half Asia, half Europe. The Bosphorous demarcates the division between two continents and runs straight through Istanbul. Therefore, Turkey…
Smith, Helena. "An Affair Just Waiting to Happen." New Statesman. 6 Mar. 2000. Find Articles. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FQP/4476_129/60805685/p1/article.jhtml?term=turkey+greece+conflict
Gospels Greek text a basis. The Bible on Luke Chapter 7: 1-10 Sample Essay Outline ( a guideline, adjust argument) ! short introduction (end statement thesis [, a summary interpretation passage]) ! body (argument support thesis) " summary passage " observations contents passage " observations literary, thematic, historical contexts " summary message original audience " explanation application context ! short conclusion (begin -stating thesis).
Jesus' healing of the Centurion's servant
The biblical text of Jesus healing a Centurion's servant is recognized for the numerous ways in which it can be interpreted and for being a significant pillar of faith in the Christian world. The story is particularly intriguing because it involves a Centurion turning to Jesus in order to get help and because it is one of the only two biblical accounts involving Christ performing a miracle meant to help Gentiles and in the presence of these people. This text…
Adam, D. "Growing in Awareness." (Kevin Mayhew Publishers)
Dick, A.K. "THE GOD VIRUS: THE PONTIUS PILATE REPORT (complete and unabridged American version)." (Anna K. Dick)
Hawkins, J.B. "Staying One, Remaining Open: Educating Leaders for a 21st Century Church." (Church Publishing, Inc., 1 Feb 2010)
John, J. "The Meaning in the Miracles." (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004)
Camera angles that focus on wretched faces, of young boys in red coated uniforms begging for mercy, and of the arrogance of the British officer corps, not just towards Americans, but towards their own enlisted men, are shown with filming skill. As might be expected for this type of film, John Williams' score was masterful and very much in line with the generation of epics from the 1950s and 1960s -- painting a realistic picture of the film without dialog. Similarly, the audience is set up between the idyllic farm and hard work of a widower in the opening scene to the juxtaposition and hoped for return to normalcy in the final moments -- however, knowing that things will never be as they were (See: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title.jsp?stid=336714&contentTypeId=130&category=trailer). The scene, however, that most stays with the audience is not one of the grander battles, but a one-on-one battle between Benjamin and Tavington,…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Bittarello, M.B. (2008). "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship
Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10(2): 214.
TRAILERS and PREVIEWS
Brown, Todd. (2007). "Footage from Taras Bulba." Twitch. Cited in:
Nevertheless, the remnants of Anglo-Saxon gods can be still heard in the English days of the wee: Tiw, god of war, gave way to Tuesday, Woden, the god of storms, wisdom, and the dead, became Wednesday, and Frige, love-goddess, took berth of Friday. The language of the Saxons is known as Old English and was, before the Germans, based on the runic alphabet. Written literacy was introduced in full with the Christianity brought from the Mediterranean, and was fostered by the Norman ruling class, which oversaw the agricultural, sylvan lives of the early trading Saxons.
Prehistory should be first mentioned since it not only locates the starting point of the historical development of our continent in the Central European cradle or our people," agreed anthropologists in the early half the last century.
The early cultures that populated the nascent Western World were all unique; proximity, difficulty, and a mastery of…
Howie, Elizabeth. "Early Insular Illuminated Manuscripts: Merging of Oral and Literate Cultures." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. p. 34.
Mead, William R. "The Viking Achievement: A Survey fo the Society and Culutre of Early Medieval Scandinavia." Geographical Review. Vol. 61, No. 4. (Oct. 1971). P. 621.
New Rules for Historical Instruction in Germany." American Anthropologist. Vol. 36, No. 1. (Jan - Mar, 1934.) p. 139.
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
First, evil in Sleepy Hollow is more equating with a satirical view that, in this case, evil is a more benign humor, bumbling, caustic in disrupting the town, and, as it was in Ancient Greek and oman drama, simply more of an irritant than planned destruction. Focusing again on the time period, our first introduction to this theme is one of Dutch New York against Urban New England. The Dutch community is sylvan, nostalgically conceived, changeless, and an Eden for its inhabitants. Ichabod arrives as a Yankee whose spoiling of this Eden simply cannot be tolerated -- and even more, by marrying the daughter of a wealthy and high-ranking community member, becoming part of Eden himself. This simply could not happen to a community that is so "European in nature."
Sleepy Hollow, as a town is clearly Dutch, with Dutch values, culture, and mores, or for riving, "population, manners, and…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Albert, H. (2009). Life and Letters of Edgar Allen Poe, Volume 2. Biblio-Bazaar.
Burstein, A. (2007). The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving.
New York: Basic Books.
Irving. W. (1820). The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Forgotten Books. Cited in:
American Ethnic Culture
What is an American?
It is clear that Progressive era Americans from different backgrounds differentially defined precisely what being an American actually meant. Stephen Meyer wrote in the work entitled "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace 1914-1921 that Americanization
"…involved the social and cultural assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of American life…" but that the process was of the nature that was comprised of "a unique and distinctly American method for the resolution of a key industrial problem -- the problem of work-discipline and of the adjustment of new workers to the factory environment." (p.323)
The Americanization campaign is stated by Meyer to have been one that was "voluntary, benevolent and educational." (p.323) However, the programs emerged from within the factories and had negative connotations as well. It was not so much an issue of the diversity represented by the national or ethnic cultures but…
Gjerde, J. (1998) Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, 1998.
Takaki, R. (2008) A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, 2008
Meyer, Stephen (nd) "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace, 1914-1921"
Gerstle, Gary (2000) American Freedom, American Coercion: Immigrant Journeys in the Promised Land. Social Compass 47(1), 2000, 63-76. Online available at: http://www.pineforge.com/healeystudy5/articles/Ch2/Americanfreedom , Americancoercion.pdf
Marble Statue of a Kouros, Greek, Archaic Period, c. 590-580 BCE
Ancient Greece was a place of incredible artistry in terms of architecture, playwriting, and sculpture. So much of what is known about the Greeks has been learned through their artwork. Many of the pieces of Ancient Greek art are available to be seen in history and art museums around the world. In the present moment, by looking at the artworks which have been discovered that date back to the period of the Ancient Greeks, modern scholars can interpret what differences occurred in the various epochs of the era, such as the types of artwork created, the subjects which were given the most importance, and the mediums employed. The subject of the sculpture in particular can explain a great deal about the specific epoch in terms of clothing, armaments, and other aspects. At the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New…
ABC/123 Version X
Divine oles Across Cultures
Divine oles Across Cultures
Select one common divine role that recurs in world mythology. Possible options of divine roles include the following: father or mother divinities, divinities of war, home or hearth divinities, divinities of love, divinities of wisdom, divinities of medicine or health, divinities of the wind, divinities of agriculture, divinities of the sky, ruler of all the gods, and so on.
Identify the role in the title of your table.
Select two myths, each from a different culture, in which the divine role appears. Identify the divinity names and cultures in columns A and B.
Complete the table by answering each of the five questions for both selected divinities.
Divinity Name: Zeus
Culture of Origin: Greek
Divinity Name: a
Culture of Origin: Egyptian
How is this divinity portrayed? Describe the divinity's role within the…
Eisenhower, S. (2013). Divine Roles across Cultures. Retrieved October 4, 2016 from Academia.edu: https://www.academia.edu/15704328/Hum_105_Divine_Roles_Across_Cultures
Jewell, R. (2002). Mythology- Stories of Who We Are. Retrieved October 4, 2016 from the University of Minnesota: http://www.tc.umn.edu/~jewel001/humanities/book/4mythology.htm
Larkin, A. & Kingston, G. (2016). Zeus. Retrieved from the Department of Education, Early Learning and Culture: http://www.edu.pe.ca/gulfshore/Archives/heroes/html8imm/zeus/zeushist.htm
"Ra (Re)." Myths and Legends of the World. Retrieved October 04, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/ra-re
Appiah concluded by remarking that, 'it is a pallid version of cosmopolitanism that barely deserves the name, and if we can excuse ourselves because others are shirking their responsibilities, we are barely principled' (Anthony, 2006).
Assessment of Theories
The contemporary political theorists considered cosmopolitanism as 'citizenship of the world, which is a critique of ordinary theories of political obligation, with their tendency to focus on our duties to fellow citizens, not to people elsewhere' (Patrick, 2005). The consequence of the cosmopolitanism is expected to be 'single world government with corresponding global citizenship' (Patrick, 2005). Surprisingly such aspirations have not discussed by the serious circles. The modified and renewed version of the cosmopolitanism includes 'everyone in the world in a single global web of mutual obligations' (Ulrich, 2006). However the reservations and criticism mounted against cosmopolitanism is relevant to the negligence of the 'obligations of reciprocity'; there has been consensus on…
Noah Feldman. Cosmopolitanism Law. Cambridge University Press. 2006.
Ethan J. Leib. Rooted Cosmopolitans. Policy Review. Issue: 137. 2006. Hoover Institution Press.
Luis. Political Theory of Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Case for the World State. Routledge. 2004. pp. 32-46.
Patrick Hayden. Cosmopolitan Global Politics. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2005. pp. 176-189.
Jonas (1992) points to the first signs of life as the quickening of an unborn person in the womb. From prenatal quickening, a person soon learns self-expression in different ways. One is in the form of a meaningful series of bodily activities or motions called dance. It has evolved into both a tradition and an unconscious external display of purpose, emotion or message. Through history, it can be a form of wooing, entertainment, mourning, praying, healing, teaching or communication. These expressions evolved into a people's culture upon which their society was built (Jonas). Sklar (2001), on the other hand, lists five premises for a culturally sensitive approach to, and an appreciation of, dance. He lists them as a knowledge of movement as cultural in nature; as conceptual, emotional and kinesthetic; as embedded into other kinds of cultural knowledge; as requiring a discernment beyond physical movement; and always an immediate physical…
Jonas, Gerald. Dancing- the Pleasure, Power and Art of Movement, 1992. New York: Harry N.
Sklar, Deidre. Five Premises for a Culturally Sensitive Approach to Dance, 2001. North
Carolina: Wesleyan University Press
Diversity and Psychology
Derived from the Greek word, psyche "meaning 'breath, sprit, soul' and the Greek work logia meaning the study of something," the study of psychology is "the science of the mind and behavior" (Nordqvist, 2009). In the medical dictionary, psychology is "The profession (clinical psychology), scholarly discipline (academic psychology), and science (research psychology) concerned with the behavior of humans and animals and, related mental and physiological processes" (Nordqvist, 2009). In short, psychology is the science that answers the ever fascinating questions of how and why people and organisms think and behave in the manner in which they do. Psychology is imperative in the study of understanding and exploring one another and the people that surround us- society often looks to the study of psychology to explain the diverse population that inhabits the world. To that end, the concept of diversity is also another essential concept to comprehensively understand.…
Manesse, Jeanne, Saito, Gloria, & Rodolfa, Emil. (n.d.). Diversity-based psychology: what practioners need to know. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkley; University of California, Davis and University of California, San Diego, Califonia, USA. Retrieved from http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/licensee/diversity-based.pdf
McClintock Greenberg, Psy. D, Tamara. (2010, January 28). What is diversity in psychology?. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/21st-century-aging/201001/what-is-diversity-in-psychology
Nordqvist, Christian. (2009, June 22). What is psychology? what are the branches of psychology?. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154874.php
Perner, Lars. (2010). Consumer behavior: the psychology of marketing. Retrieved from http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/
British Empire in the 1950's
In the aftermath of the Second World War the British Empire was began to disintegrate with a number of colonies engaging in conflicts aimed at driving the British out and gaining their independence. In response to these uprisings, the British used a variety of strategies with a varying amount of success. The outcome of these "small wars" in colonies such as Kenya, Aden, Cyprus, and Borneo depended upon how the British operated in that particular area and their individual response to the uprisings. In short, each conflict was unique, contained unique circumstances, and therefore required a unique response on the part of the British.
The British operated their colony in Kenya as a place to resettle British citizens in the lush farmland formerly owned by the native Kenyans. As a result, when the native Kikuyu tribe revolted, the British used the revolt as a means…
Carver, Michael. 1981. War Since 1945. New York: Putnam.
Goktepe, Cihat. 2003. British Foreign Policy Towards Turkey, 1959-1965. London:
Frank Cass Publishers.
Walker, Jonathon. 2011. "Red Wolves and British Lions: The Conflict in Aden." In
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…
Armstrong, C.K. (2015). Korean history and political geography.
Eckert, C.J., Lee, K., et al. (1991). Korea Old and New. Korea Institute, Harvard University Press.
"Hidden Korea," (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/hiddenkorea/history.htm
Nelson, M.N. (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press.
Serbian Religious Heritage
Generally speaking, Serbian society has maintained a highly traditional structure, with religious beliefs at the core of the national identity. However, locates on the leading edge of three distinct empires, the small country has traded political philosophies many times, and with each new ruler came a new set creed, and a new wave of persecution. Ancient Indians, during the time of American expansionism made and broke new alliances with tribes which were formerly enemies in order to fight against the 'white man' settlers. During this time, the proverb "the friend of my enemy is my enemy, and the enemy of my enemy is my friend." In looking at he spectrum of Serbian history this same proverb an accurately described the shifting alliances, and civil wars which have marketed their social and political history.
Serbia sits at the north eastern end of the Roman Empire. Under the forced…
Mihailovich, Vasa. Landmarks in Serbian culture and history.
A culture's belief about the beginning of the world is called a creation myth, story or tale. An explanation of the origin of the universe is known as a cosmogony. It is difficult to find any people throughout the world who do not have some explanation for the source of life. One of the most interesting aspects of creation mythology is the similarities that exist among descriptions, whether they are from the Judeo/Christian Bible or from African, Native American, South American, Greek, Japanese or Australian cultures. Common themes are present in both the West and East. From the earliest humans, who painted on the walls of their cave, there has been a need to search for answers and explain the unknown. A number of researchers have concluded that the source of all creation myths stems back to a common point, probably actual historical events in history (Van Over…
Drane, John. Introducing the Old Testament. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Publications, 2001.
Farmer, Penelope. Beginnings. New York: Antheneum, 1979.
Japanese Creation Myth. Website retrieved 21 October, 2004.