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Greek Drama and Its Effects on Drama Today
It has been said that the Ancient Greeks "took their entertainment very seriously and used drama as a way of investigating the world they lived in, and what it meant to be human" (PS, 2002). This is perhaps the greatest contribution Greek Drama has made to the developing art of film and theatre in the modern world. Intertwining philosophy and entertainment, the Greeks developed their perspectives through three kinds of plays: comedy, tragedy and Satyr.
Of these three, tragedy had the important role of dealing with themes related to heavy human emotions of love, greed, jealousy and the relationships between men and the immortal Gods and Goddesses of the Greek belief system. Through these relationships, Greek playwrights created a backdrop for the average Ancient Greek to examine within themselves their own ideals and morals as the drama they were watching unfolded.
Like…… [Read More]
Clearly, there are more characters in these three plays individually and together than in Prometheus Bound, and the ethos of individual characters is maintained so that their character is consistent through the three plays. This differs from what might be seen in the three plays by Sophocles about Oedipus, but Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone were not linked and were indeed each part of different trilogies of plays on the same basic subject. In the Oresteia, characters carry from one play to the next and show the same sorts of consistent traits. The trilogy gains its name from the central role of Orestes, and there is unity of plot in that each of the plays centers on the travails of Orestes and the pursuit of him for killing his mother and because Agamemnon killed his daughter. The unities of time and place are maintained within each play, though…… [Read More]
The director's camera seems anchored rather than fluid, and does not make use of the full vocabulary of cinematography. There are a few exceptions to this sense of stasis, such as when Helen of Troy, the most beautiful woman in the world, bathes in water while the other Trojan women, captives of war, are dying of thirst outside in the heat. The contrast between Helen's moist, soft skin and the weather-beaten, tired face of Hecuba transcends words, and the juxtaposition of the aridness and the water gives added meaning to the text. But these moments are rare.
The theme of "The Trojan oman," although an ancient play, should present a compelling interest for the present day viewer -- that of the horrors of war and the horrible ways that women are treated during wartime. But few connections are made between the present day and ancient times. There are no contemporary…… [Read More]
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…… [Read More]
For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.
But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.
Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…… [Read More]
Except for Miletus, which was sacked as an initiator of the revolt, the other cities were treated rather reasonably, going as far as recommendations for the settled Persians to respect local religious traditions (Herodotus VI 42-45).
This does not necessarily need to be seen only as a reasonable conquering policy, but also as a diplomatic and political approach: once Darius asked for the submissions of mainland Greek cities, many of them accepted, based on the previous behavior of the conquerors in Ionic cities. Athens and Sparta obviously remained aside, but this was also because they were also assuming a regional power status and would not find it calculable to surrender without a fight.
Reasonably enough, though, the Persian invasion could also be seen as a direct consequence in the involvement of the Athenians in the revolt of the Ionic cities and in their attempt to preserve a democracy here and…… [Read More]
Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:
The different ways they believed their gods intervened.
During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.
Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.
In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…… [Read More]
The vengeance of the gods is further underscored by the Chorus who warns that "But if any man comes striding, high and mighty, in all he says and does, no fear of justice, no reverence for the temples of the gods-let a rough doom tear him down, repay his pride, breakneck, ruinous pride!" Oedipus portrays tyranny and the people's greatest blessing becomes their worst curse.
In the last stage, Oedipus is a man who has become humbled with the pain and dejection of knowing the truth of reality as he is forced to admit his tragic destiny by the overwhelming evidence. The writer shows the sudden change in the protagonist's persona when Oedipus condemns himself by saying, "I stand revealed at last -- cursed in my birth, cursed in marriage, cursed in the lives I cut down with these hands!" (1309-1311) Oedipus's complete transformation is demonstrated when he gouged out…… [Read More]
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…… [Read More]
omen in Ancient Tragedy and Comedy
Both the drama of Euripides' "Medea" and the comedy of Aristophanes' "Lysistrata" seem unique upon a level of even surface characterization, to even the most casual students of Classical Greek drama and culture. Both in are female-dominated plays that were produced by male-dominated societies and written by men. Both the drama and the comedy features strong women as their central protagonists, whom are depicted under extreme circumstances, in relatively positive lights. And both plays, despite their very different tones, also have an additional, unique feature in that they show 'the enemy' -- or the non-Greek or non-Athenian, in a fairly positive and humane fashion.
The sympathies of the viewer for female's plights are immediately arisen by Aristophanes from the first scene of "Lysistrata," as Cleonice, the friend of Lysistrata, and a common Athenian housewife states, regarding the lateness of the other women that frustrates…… [Read More]
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…… [Read More]
Origin and Appeal of Drama
A generally accepted theory is that drama's origins lie in prehistoric human beings and their rituals which contained music, dance, masks, costumes, a specific performance area, and a division between audience and performance. Later, in Egypt about 4,000 C texts were written on tomb walls with plot, characters, and stage directions for enacting the body's resurrection. etween 3,000 and 2,000 C other plays developed which were performed at the coronation of the pharaoh (coronation plays), celebrated pharaoh's 30th year on the throne (jubilee plays), and which were part of religious festivals (passion plays).
Western drama as we know it today started about 600 C in the ancient city-state of Athens when a Greek poet named Thespis got the idea for an innovation to music. At that time a Greek chorus, with a leader, sang songs about legendary heroes. Thespis, who was probably the leader of…… [Read More]
How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?
Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…… [Read More]
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…… [Read More]
structure of ancient and modern dramas to highlight their differences and similarities. The paper also shows how drama evolved over the centuries with references to Greek, Elizabethan and Modern plays.
MODEN AND ANCIENT DAMA: A COMPAISON
Drama has an inherent ability to adapt itself to the thinking and wishes of the society in which it takes birth. Therefore modern drama with all its intensity, relevance and eloquence is certainly more popular among modern audiences than its ancient counterpart. Still we cannot deny the importance of ancient dramatic concepts, models and devices in the development and evolution of modern drama. While ancient plays are mostly remembered for their grandeur and myths, close analysis reveals that there is more to them than meets the eye. All ancient Greek tragedies contain some similar elements, which set them apart from tragedies of later eras. While they basically concentrated on highlighting the significance of myths,…… [Read More]
Gradually the Greek hero recognizes (peripeteia) that his visitors are the hated Greeks who once abandoned him, in disguise. Philoctetes denounces the foul plot and demands back his bow, realizing once again he is alone in the world. (anagnorisis)
In Euripides, "Hippolytus," pity and fear (pathos) is evoked by Phaedra's unbridled passion for her stepson Hippolytus. The recognition element of the drama (peripeteia) comes when both Phaedra and Hippolytus see that their mutually incompatible desires both for others (in the case of Phaedra) and also to be removed from others (as expressed in the character of the young, title son of Theseus) are inescapable. This recognition is shortly followed by the terrible peripeteia of Theseus that his wife has lied to him and he has cast off his son as nothing, for nothing. The final tragic anagnorisis comes with Athena's visit. Athena exposes Theseus' folly of his love for his…… [Read More]
In asking him to stay with her and their family, she was practically betraying her country. Demeter cares for the earth in a way that no other gods did. She was actively involved with mortal affairs. However, she also cared for own, her daughter. She does what she feels what she must do in an act of revenge. These women demonstrate the complexity of the female in any era. Even in ancient texts, we see the female figure associated with the typical womanly things such as motherhood and fertility but she is also given characteristics that are strong, powerful, and dangerous. What these myths tell us about the role of the female is that it is constantly changing. The female is complex and while she will always associated with fertility, she should never be relegated to an inferior role. While we often see mythology as wild with fantastical elements, we…… [Read More]
Will the Real Greek Homer Please Stand Up?
Homer is the name by which the legendary Greek poet of great fame is known. He is credited with the Greek epics The Iliad and They Odyssey, as well as with the authorship of the mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the corpus of the Homeric Hymns, and also the Margites. (Docu) Nothing about Homer's actual biographical information is known, (though he is commonly assumed to have been blind) and there are many theories that speculate Homer himself may have been completely mythological, or that he may have been more than one person. It is assumed, however, that Homer's works originated from the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor in the 9th century BC (Helenism), and several Ionian cities claim to be the birthplace of Homer. (Docu) Although Homer's works great works The Iliad and The Odyssey have shaped a great deal…… [Read More]
Love Got to Do With it: A Critical Analysis of Hippolytus and Lysistrata.
If one reads Hippolytus and Lysistrata, one may immediately conclude that love has 'nothing' to do with anything. Many Greek plays discuss the subject of love in obtuse ways. Love is often the driving force of Greek tragedies, thought to inspire, incite and even enrage in many cases. While love is an important concept and theme, it is not always presented in a positive light in many plays. This is certainly the case in Hippolytus and Lysistrata, which at best suggest that love is unnecessary or tragic.
Hippolytus written by Euripides does so remarkably well, suggesting that love is something that can not only be manipulated by the Gods, but also something that is less tangible in some cases than passion and lust.
Lysistrata, written by Aristophanes, puts sex and power on a pedestal above love suggesting…… [Read More]
Heroic Ideal Greece, ome
An Analysis of the Heroic Ideal from Ancient Greece to oman Empire
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece begins with Homer's Iliad, which balances the heroic figures of Achilles and Hector, two opposing warriors and men of honor, amidst a war on which not even the gods are in agreement. Hector and Achilles mirror one another in nobility and strength and both represent an ideal heroic archetype of citizenry -- men who do battle to honor both their countries and their names. To illustrate, however, the way the ideal of heroic citizenship changes from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism, it is necessary to leap ahead several centuries and survey the several different bodies of work.
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece somewhat continually dwells on the same themes with regard to heroic citizenship, whether in Homer or in the Golden Age…… [Read More]
Mr. Kapasi and the Dases are all Indian, but in the interpreter's eyes, Mr. And Mrs. Das are foreigners because they dress and speak like Americans. Mina Das sees Kapasi not as a romantic partner, as he desires her to see him as, but as a kind of romantic confessor, who will wash her clean of her sins, much as the citizens of Thebes see their king.
Eventually, when Oedipus' unintentional sin of marrying the queen of Thebes and killing the former king is revealed to the city, the citizens realize that Oedipus is not the great man they hoped he would become, and their illusions are shattered. Oedipus' own illusions about himself as a wise and saving figure of the city are shattered, as he must obey the banishment he laid down for the person who brought the plague upon the city. Mrs. Das must also come to terms…… [Read More]
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…… [Read More]
Beethoven uses choral voices in his 9th Symphony to produce a sound that no man-made instrument could produce. Beethoven is attempting to achieve the highest and most joyful sound in the final movement of the symphony and so therefore uses human voices to compel the listener to the rapturous heights that he wants them to witness.
or what might look at the importance of tone and key. n the 20th century, composers like Schoenberg wrote atonal music that made music sound fractured and splintered and, in a word, off. This effect allowed Schoenberg to artistically represent a world around him that seemed to be going off its head -- with war, loss of conviction, and devaluation. There seemed to be no real key to happiness, and so the earlier keys that were used by Bach are rejected here by Schoenberg.
6) Using the illustrations found throughout chapter five, name the…… [Read More]
Tourism takes a substantial place in the economy of Cyprus. Tourism has such an impact on Cyprus culture and daily life that the industry contributed 10.7% or US $5,445.0 mn of the GDP in 2006, allowing for job creation approximated at 113,000 jobs. (Micula and Micula) Thanks to consistent tourism, Cyprus has become the 40th most popular place to visit, inspiring almost 3 million tourists to come each year. Since 1975, Cyprus has been orld Tourism Organization full member and offers scenic views, high quality food, and ancient archaeological sites for any would-be traveler. (Micula and Micula) However, one thing makes Cyprus different from other destinations. That is the divide between Northern Cyprus and Southern Cyprus. This essay will detail how the difference in the north and south side contribute to tourism on the island and how it influences the busy tourism season and which activities promote more tourist engagement.…… [Read More]
hile Shakespeare attracted his fair share of criticism during his day, it is also clear that many of his contemporaries as well as the general public viewed Shakespeare's work in a positive light. For example, Callaghan (2004) points out that, "hile we do not know how much Shakespeare was paid for the plays he furnished his company, it is clear that the greatest part of the handsome fortune Shakespeare had started to amass as early as the 1590s came from his share in the profits of his company rather than from his plays" (405). This relative affluence apparently helped to provide a sort of comfort zone for Shakespeare that allowed him to write when and what he wanted and for whatever audience he desired in ways that contributed to his ultimate success as a playwright as well as the enduring qualities of his works. For instance, Callaghan adds that, "For…… [Read More]
Thus, Oedipus' reference to his cursed birth at what is very nearly the end of the play refers back to the very opening lines of the Argument by repeating the image of the prophesied birth, but this time the characters are seeing that image with the same clarity as the audience.
The cursed nature of Oedipus' marriage is highlighted by Jocasta's death, because after learning the truth about her and Oedipus' relationship, she goes "straight to her marriage-bed" and hangs herself there after lamenting "o'er the marriage-bed / here, fate-abhorred, a double brood she bare" (Sophocles 103). The repeated references to the marriage-bed included in the account of Jocasta's death fits within the plays larger focus on the conflation of familial roles, because the bed itself marks a physical location of this conflation; this bed is likely where Oedipus was conceived in the first place, and it marks the spot…… [Read More]
Paul's Early Life (birth, Upbringing, And Early Education)
Paul's early life can be dated back from 1-33 A.D. His upbringing comprised of being born in Tarsus of Cilicia, where he was raised under another name, Saul. He was raised in a Jewish, strict household. Because Paul was Jewish, he received abbinic training in Jerusalem from abbi Gamaliel. As he received his training, he also learned the traditions of the Pharisees. Later on in this period, Paul worked with the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem as well as adopting the Sanhedrin policies. The Sanhedrin were in opposition of the church and so was Paul. Including Jewish culture, Paul received immersion into Hellenistic culture of the era, which meant he went to the gymnasium, attended Greek dramas at the Amphitheatre, and was knowledge on the various schools of Greek Philosophy. Gamaliel taught Paul the Scriptures including the traditional lessons of the Pharisees. This meant…… [Read More]
Camera angles that focus on wretched faces, of young boys in red coated uniforms begging for mercy, and of the arrogance of the British officer corps, not just towards Americans, but towards their own enlisted men, are shown with filming skill. As might be expected for this type of film, John Williams' score was masterful and very much in line with the generation of epics from the 1950s and 1960s -- painting a realistic picture of the film without dialog. Similarly, the audience is set up between the idyllic farm and hard work of a widower in the opening scene to the juxtaposition and hoped for return to normalcy in the final moments -- however, knowing that things will never be as they were (See: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title.jsp?stid=336714&contentTypeId=130&category=trailer). The scene, however, that most stays with the audience is not one of the grander battles, but a one-on-one battle between Benjamin and Tavington,…… [Read More]
It is this selfsame Holy Spirit that will serve to convict within the unbeliever and to work within that individual until that person comes to the point of opening the inner door for the Christ and then urging the same individual forth into fulfilling the 'Great Commission' of spreading Christ to the world. In the fulfillment of this commitment inclusive of "baptizing them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit" the three faces of God's person are revealed and authenticated. Just as when Jesus entered the waters to be baptized and entered into communion with God the Father and God the Son was baptized of the God the Holy Spirit in the Gospel of John is clearly characterized in the evidence provided by John of the words Jesus spoke.
This one book of the ible explains clearly to believers and followers of Christ that the…… [Read More]
Through the characters of Bonnie and Clyde, the filmmakers present and critique the social values of 1930s merica. Issues related to anti-trust legislation and monopolies were important at this time, especially as they related to the stock market crash and the Great Depression. It is against this bleak economic and social backdrop that Bonnie and Clyde commit their crimes. The anti-establishment worldview of the title characters also corresponds with 1930s ideologies. Communism and socialism were becoming viable alternatives to capitalism. lthough robbing banks is not the hallmark of communism, Bonnie and Clyde do share the ethical viewpoint that would cause them to view banks as faceless, impersonal institutions. Finally, the film Bonnie and Clyde pays homage to the burgeoning business of organized crime that flourished during the early 20th century in…… [Read More]
killing of a child in real life has no symbolic meaning, no power other than that of an expression of evil and is, therefore, one of the worst acts a human, let alone a parent, can commit. In literature, however, the killing of children is symbolic of a diseased mind or of a diseased culture. Euripides' Medea kills her children, but she is a symbol of Mother Earth, of the Gods, and of nature all of which can exert, with no warning and no necessity of explanation, a death upon any or all of us. That which we are given can be taken away. The killing of a child in literature is, in some contexts, a symbolic reminder of the seeming arbitrariness of nature. While some critics interpret Medea as being a proactive population reducer, she can be rightly understood as a sick woman who, like the animals that eat…… [Read More]
Close is Too Close: What is Wrong with Incest?
This paper outlines incest as a social taboo with reference to the Jewish, Native American, and Malagasy cultures and identifies what is wrong with the practice of incest. It has 7 sources.
Definition of Incest
Incest or the sexual relations between persons to whom marriage is prohibited by custom or law because of close kingship [Kottak 2002] is a social phenomenon that differ from culture to culture and by definition too they differentiate from one group to the next. The reason being that customs, traditions and cultures all vary due to the accepted norms as well as religion found in these groups and hence the prohibition or the allowance for people to marry siblings differs greatly. Inter-marriage to close relatives in the American culture for instance is considered taboo while in the Jewish it is considered compulsory. What triggers such social…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta
Athens and Sparta existed during the same time in history, and did share some core social and cultural values, but for the most part, they were quite different. Perhaps the biggest difference between the two cultures was Sparta's almost exclusive reliance on a military culture. Afraid of slave uprisings (because one had already occurred), they began military training for their young boys at the tender age of seven, and instilled the belief that the ultimate act of bravery for a warrior was to fight and die in defense of their city.
Sparta dominated the land by warfare and with agriculture, while Athens was a better-blended society. They had a large sea force, and were a commercial and trade center for the area. They had more interests and influence in the ancient world, and because their society was more advanced, they began to develop a more…… [Read More]
drama is tragic not only because of Willy Loman's suicide, but because he has left his family with nothing, and his sons with no hopes and abilities of their own.
Brief overview of the play
Argument for tragedy
Pro argument for tragedy
Con argument against tragedy
What the critics say
Death of a Salesman as Tragedy
This paper analyzes the play Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. Specifically, it discusses the definition of tragedy by Aristotle, and research if it is correct to label the play as a tragedy.
Death of a Salesman is indeed a tragedy of epic proportions. The drama is tragic not only because of Willy Loman's suicide, but because he has left his family with nothing, and his sons with no hopes and abilities of their own.
Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman in 1948,…… [Read More]
Homer was a legendary Greek poet who is traditionally credited as the author of the major Greek epics the "Iliad and the Odyssey," as well as the comic mini-epic "Batracholmyomachia" (The Frog-Mouse ar), the corpus of Homeric Hymns, and various other lost or fragmentary workd such as "Margites" (Homer pp). Some ancient authors credited him with the entire Epic Cycle, which included other poems about the Trojan ar as well as the Theban poems concerning Oedipus and his sons (Homer pp). According to legend, Homer was blind, and aside from several Ionian cities claiming to be his birthplace, there is nothing else known about him (Homer pp). Aristotle and Pindar believed that Homer was born in Smyrna, on the coast of modern-day Turkey, and enjoyed years of fame on the Aegean island of Chios (Tolson pp). Although the great scholar-librarians of Alexandria scrutinized the epics for historical and geographic errors,…… [Read More]
He is described as being of gigantic size and of tremendous emotion. Always Achilles is described with the most exaggerated terms, shining like the sun or falling in the most absolute wretchedness. In a moment of sublimity oddly precognizant of gothic writers like E.A. Poe, Achilles refuses to bury his beloved Patrocles' body because "since I'm journeying under the earth after you, I'll postpone your burial...Till that time, you'll lie like this with me..." (book 18, 330-338) Achilles is perfect and heroic in the extremity of his nature. A more archetypal approach would say that he was heroic because, more than any other character, he represented the purity of war. Archtypically, he represents a purity of action and emotion than can drive men to battle, the pure warrior who is at once filled with the strength of emotion and will and yet resigned to perfect destiny, faithful towards the gods,…… [Read More]
Kazantzakis Freedom or Death
Captain Michalis, the hero of Freedom or Death, was based on Kazantzakis' father Michalis, a traditional Cretan community leader and warrior in the independence struggles who fought in the 1888-89 rebellion. He also introduces the Captain's best friend Nuri Bey and his wife Emine, who he also loves, but in the end he rejects them both in the cause of Cretan independence. The Pasha and the Metropolitan also symbolize the ancient clash of religions, cultures and civilizations that is fought out in this novel -- Greek vs. Turk, Christian vs. Muslim -- which also resonates with the contemporary word and the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan. These ethnic, tribal and nationalistic hatreds are so great and so enduring that they crowd out all romance, friendship or personal feelings, as all the characters join in the bloodbath. Only Nuri Bey commits suicide rather than go to war…… [Read More]
Greeks in Western Civilization. There are five references used for this paper.
It is felt that 'Captive Greece made ome captive'. It is important to examine what is meant by this belief in terms of literature, art and philosophy.
Two Captive Countries
When ome conquered the Levant at the end of the Hellenistic era, and "ruled the civilized world, conquered Greece took captive her rude conqueror (Gutzman, 2004)." The poet Horace noted that "the omans conquered Greece only themselves to be enslaved by the superior culture of their captives (Morris, 2002)."
During the era of the "poets Homer and Hesiod, the ancient Greeks associated their polytheistic, anthropomorphic deities with their cities, states, and regions (Matthews, 2000)." The Greeks often symbolized cities on coins with a god or goddess on one side, and their representation on the other. An example of this was the representation of Athens with Athena and her…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.
Athens and Sparta: History
The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…… [Read More]
It has been stated that there are only seven real story lines, upon which all literature is based. Whether or not this is true, modern literature often echoes myths or legends of long ago. Sometimes, the recycling of a tale is blatant, and other times it is subtle. William Shakespeare regularly made use of Greek myths, and folklore. In the play, "A Midsummer Night's Dream," Shakespeare's premise is that Theseus, the Duke of Athens, and Hippolyta, a warrior he has captured, are to be married. Shakespeare has successfully created a plotline based, if only loosely, on the greek myths of Theseus and Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons.
The myth of Theseus is one of the most popular of the Greek myths. There are many different stories that involve Theseus, but perhaps the most famous is the story of how Theseus killed the Minotaur. The greeks understood the myth in…… [Read More]
Achilles, in effort to match his personal loss on a national level, strives to kill Hector, again fueling the economy of revenge, but this time in a far more 'high stakes' manner. Now, the loss of a man will result in the loss of Troy's greatest warrior. But even though Achilles emerges victorious from this struggle, his is an empty victory. He knows that his own death will follow shortly after the death of Hector. He does not care; revenge means everything to him in the heat of the moment, just like sacrificing the Greek advantage was worth upholding his honor at the beginning of the poem.
Although Achilles' sudden loyalty to his friend may seem honorable to some degree, perhaps more honorable than Menelaus' obsession with Helen, it also shows how the dynamic of loss leading to more and greater losses has spiraled out of control. The one real…… [Read More]
Overall, Philip's main goal was to create a united Macedonia and thus instill in his people the desire to bring about the collapse of the Persian Empire which in his eyes would bring about much-needed economic changes in Macedonian society, all for the good of its citizens and its king.
One of Philip's most important triumphs as king of Macedonia prior to the rise of Alexander the Great was the creation of the League of Corinth which came about after the battle of Chaeronea in oeotia in 338 .C.E. Although the defeated Greek states were allowed to keep their internal freedoms, they were compelled by Philip to join his alliance with himself as its undisputed leader. The creation of this league was a decisive turning point in the history of ancient Greece, for never again would Greek states be allowed to make their own foreign policies without considering the wishes…… [Read More]
Hamilton notes the biographies of Alexander often reflected the backgrounds of authors who wrote about him. For example, Sir William Tarn, a Scottish gentleman of the ritish imperial era, characterized Alexander as a chivalrous Greek gentleman with a missionary zeal to spread Greek civilization. In contrast, Fritz Schachermeyr, a German historian who had experienced the rise and fall of the Nazi Germany, described Alexander as a ruthless and cruel ruler, indulged "in deceit and treachery to gain his ends, as a 'Titanic' figure aiming at the conquest of the world."
oth Tarn and Schachermeyr are among the great modern historians of Alexander but even they could not escape personal biases.
The irony of Hamilton's book is that, although he is at pains in his discussion of the difficulty of writing about Alexander and is critical of biased historians, the book starts with a straightforward admission of a bias. Rejecting the…… [Read More]
Instead, while under false arrest and retreating from the Macedonians, Darius was killed by one of his subjects.
ecause the battle at Gaugamela marked the turning point in the battle between the Macedonians and the Achaemenids, it is clear that if Darius was to have been able to defeat Alexander and his troops, he would have needed to do so before the battle at Gaugamela. Therefore, it is important to look at the opportunities that Darius had to attack Alexander and his troops prior to that battle. Looking at those opportunities, it becomes clear that Darius' best chance to defeat Alexander's army would have been to attack Alexander before he had the chance to gain the support of the Greek city-states. To do that in the most successful manner, Darius would have needed to attack the armies of Parmenion and Attalus. This would have permitted Darius to defeat Alexander before…… [Read More]
War is a fact of life, a terrible fact of life, but when it is willed by the gods it cannot be ignored.
Achilles does have some positive moral characteristics: although he spends much of the Iliad retreating from the fighting, he is clearly not a coward, in contrast to the Trojan Paris. He wants to fight, but his honor is too bruised. Furthermore, Achilles harbors a deep and abiding affection for his friend Patroclus, and the Greeks idealized this type of male friendship often more than husband-wife relationships. When Hector kills Patroclus in battle, because he believes him to be Achilles, Achilles is thrown into a frenzy of grief. He puts aside the slight done to him by Agamemnon, and vows to kill Hector.
Still, unlike Hector, who is repeatedly shown rallying the Trojans to fight in more glorious ways through his wise leadership, Achilles' bravery is often emotional,…… [Read More]
El Cid was a courageous and brave knight, who was born in Burgos in circa 1040, and was, during his lifetime, a great and popular hero. He was given the title of 'seid' or 'cid', which meant 'Lord' or 'Chief', by the Moors, and also that of 'Campeador' or 'Champion' by his own admiring countrymen. Unfortunately, tradition and legend have competed with one another through time, to such an extent that today, the real problem is that one must indeed regard him as a sort of a 'dual personality', wherein doubts have been cast over whether he really existed, or whether he was just a figment of the imagination. However, there is no doubt at all that this person actually existed in real life, and that he was a true hero of his times. One must distinguish this person from the historical Cid and the legendary Cid. (New Advent, El…… [Read More]
Histories of Herodotus
In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.
Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…… [Read More]
Philips II the Macedonian King focuses on how Philip II expanded the Macedonian empire. This paper also gives a brief background of Philip II before he inherited the thrown. This paper highlights how the Macedonian leader entered Athens and conquered it through his tactics and strategy. The paper also gives a brief account of all the battles fought by Philip II's army and how he played a great role in the evolution of his battalion.
Philips II, The Macedonian King
Philip II, the most significant compatriot and general of his era formed the establishment of the most powerful military, which conquered most of the regions of the Mediterranean, Southern Europe and the Middle East. His great tactics, strenuous strategies, rearrangement of his army and utilization of the heavy phalanx formation transformed him into the master of Greece.
One of the greatest empires of the world ever formed, The Macedonian Empire…… [Read More]
Polybius: Historian and Politician
The histories written by Polybius are considered to be essential from historiographic perspective as it gives detailed and comprehensive picture and understanding of the Hellenistic world. His work on the rise and fall of the Roman Empire are considered to be one of the most important and significant works in the field of classical history.[footnoteRef:1] The aim of this research is to investigate and study the historical settings in which Polybius had penned down his most famous work, the Histories in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. The analysis would be beneficial in understanding the political and social constraints responsible for influencing his work and furthermore, the opinion of his contemporaries and the reception got from critics when Polybius work was completed. [1: ulloch, A.W., Gruen, E.S., Long, A.A. And Stewart, A. (eds.) (1993) Images and Ideologies: Self-Definition in the Hellenistic World,…… [Read More]
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…… [Read More]
Peace Possible in the Modern World?
Is peace possible in the world as we know it today? One side of the human brain, if idealistic, might reply: "Certainly peace is possible, even perpetual peace, but it is possible only if visionary, bold and intelligent leadership emerges in key international places." The other side of the brain could well answer like this: "Are you kidding? There are too many terrorists, and too many greedy, power-crazed nationalist leaders pushing and shoving and developing weapons to ever expect a peaceful world." And meanwhile, what did some of the great thinkers and philosophers have to say about the prospects of peace?
THUCYDIDES: Thucydides, in writing about the Peloponnesian War, makes it clear that human nature tends to dictate how history plays itself out, and he does not blame the Gods or other forces for this war. Thucydides, who is a young man, and an…… [Read More]
Hebraism and Hellenism
The old debate between the values of so-called 'Hebraism' and 'Hellenism' is manifest in our culture today. Hebraism, according to the Victorian scholar Matthew Arnold is defined as putting 'right doing' over 'right knowing.' Hellenism, in the spirit of the ancient Greeks, emphasizes the need to understand the world: "to see things as they really are" (Drake 2001). This can be seen in our modern debate over teaching evolution in schools. People who take a literal view of the Bible are less concerned about scientific truth and are more worried about the implications of teaching a theory of the origin of life that denies God's moral influence upon human existence. The Hellenistic mindset stresses the need to teach a scientifically-accepted theory to educate the young and advance human progress and insight.
A different view of the Hebraism vs. Hellenistic mindset can be seen as early as the…… [Read More]
This was true for example in the northern countries of Europe where Protestantism had firmly embedded itself an thrown off Church teaching. ars were the result as the Holy Roman Empire attempted to put down the Protestant Rebellions -- but the Peace of estphalia in 1648 finally and politically gave the Protestant countries in the north of Europe the right to exercise their new religions. Humanism, indeed, was spreading as a result of the Renaissance and many societies were willing to adopt it.
Bennett, Judith. Queens, hores and Maidens: omen in Chaucer's England.
University of London. 5 March 2002. Royal Halloway, Hayes Robinson Lecture Series No. 6. eb. 23 March 2011.
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Jusserand, J.J. English ayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: &J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950.…… [Read More]
perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.
Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…… [Read More]
owns" past? Who define past means today? This assignment
The controversy regarding the Parthenon Marbles began when Elgin, an English ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, removed a number of marble details of figures that originally decorated the famed Greek Parthenon in the final centuries of the last millennium. Elgin did so at his own personal expense; beforehand he had asked the British government if it desired for him to appropriate or even render facsimiles of art found at the monument and it declined. Originally Elgin was supposed to merely produce facsimiles of these works. However, he then found out that portions of the Parthenon were actually being destroyed and converted into material for building, at which point he decided to simply remove the marbles that he had originally intended on replicating. Since the Parthenon was on the grounds of the Ottoman Empire, Elgin required permission from the empire to both…… [Read More]
Compare and contrast two other Olympic deities with the story of Zeus. Discuss and elaborate in your answer how these gods interact with Zeus and why the stories about their origins are important to our understanding of Greek mythology
Zeus overtook and destroyed his father, the Titan Cronos -- but was nearly destroyed by the birth of his own daughter, Athena. Zeus, fearing that her mother Metis would become wiser than himself, ate his lover while she was pregnant, and Athena was born from Zeus' skull, fully formed. Zeus proved his ability to 'give birth,' thus showing his greatness as a god, and Athena gained her unique status, having been entirely mentally generated by a male, although female in appearance. Unlike the other deities of Olympus, she seldom had conflicts with Zeus, as Zeus seemed to respect her wisdom.
Zeus also had another special relationship with Hermes, another of his…… [Read More]
Moreover, the empire was politically as well as geographically fragmented. Macedonian rule was tolerated only as long as Alexander remained alive.
3. The reasons civilizations developed with particular robustness in the Near East can be narrowed down to geography and the migratory patterns of early humans. Known as the Fertile Crescent, the Eastern Mediterranean offered arable land complete with a plethora of indigenous flora and fauna for domestication and cultivation. Moreover, animal domestication flourished in the Near East. Agriculture and animal husbandry necessitated the rise of early cities, whereas in less fertile regions hunting and gathering remained more productive means to procure food. Early humans, traveling from the African subcontinent, naturally found the Fertile Crescent a suitable place for developing permanent settlements. As disparate groups settled throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, geography also permitted the ready trade of goods, people, and ideas. The sea and a location close to East Asia…… [Read More]
The Cycladic Female Figurine- Most of the Cycladic sculptures are similar in tone to many of the Stone Age pieces found in the Aegean, Near East and Western Europe. They represent nude women with their arms folded across their abdomens. They have been found in many sizes ranging from a few inches to almost life-size, in graves, settlements, and even in places suggesting idolatry or religious activities. However, some modern scholars think that the term figurines or idols is not really correct. Idols imply a religious function that has not been confirmed and figurines do not fit with some of the larger figures. However, because of the distribution of these pieces of art, we can tell they were popular among the people of Crete and Mainland Greece as well; and their distribution suggests they were produced not just for the wealthy, but had a broader appeal (Doumas, 1969).
The…… [Read More]
The origin of the Carthaginian Empire can be traced back to 814 C, North Africa where Carthage was situated towards the east of Lake Tunis where we can locate Tunisia today. Carthage was basically founded by Phoenician settlers which came from Tyre city which is now known as Sur in Lebanon. Queen Dido was credited with being the founder of this city and since the establishment of this empire; there are numerous myths that can be traced back to the association with Romans and Greeks, essentially their literature (owman).
Success of the Carthage Empire
The Carthage city was famous for trade and that proved to be the means of their survival and helped the Carthaginians gain massive amounts of power and spreading the trade routes and networking all along the Mediterranean. In the early 6th century C, Hanno, a famous Carthaginian explorer went on his trip sailing till…… [Read More]