Green Architecture Essays (Examples)

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Green Business - Townsend Townsend

Words: 2025 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37576027



Use energy sound furniture; find ways to share resources when possible.

The copy-machine is a deadly waster -- try to publish as much as possible electronically (memos, presentations, etc.).

Chapter 7 -- Greening Your Products and Services- This is the face, and the crux, of the green company. Changes in philosophy and policy will help the environment internally, but to really "go green," the company must product a green or eco-friendly product. Within this, it is important to examine the product life-cycle at every step and green accordingly. Similarly, the supply chain needs to be green -- it does not work to have green practices but purchase materials made with toxins or in countries that use non-sustainable products or labor. It is, therefore, possible that some companies may face a very tough decision in discontinuing some of its products, and developing new ones, depending on the eco-audit process. In some…… [Read More]

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Architecture Manifesto

Words: 1675 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19909660

ole of Architecture in the Progress of Society

Architecture can be defined as "the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses seen in light" (Conway and oenisch 9). In other words, it is an experience that is emotional and artistic. Some people agree that architecture is the amalgamation of building and art. However, many do not agree with this opinion (Conway and oenisch 9). According to Britannica Encyclopedia, architecture is "the art and technique of designing and building" ("architecture") whose practice "is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends" ("architecture"). Therefore, every society has a spatial connection to the natural world. The sort of architecture and the produced structures reflects history, culture, environment, traditions, ceremonies, customs and artistic sensibility of a society ("architecture").

Buildings keep people warm and dry and are directly involved in the reasonableness and feasibility of living.…… [Read More]

References

"architecture." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .

"architecture." Questia. Columbia University Press, 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .

Ballantyne, A. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Web. 1 August 2012. .

Conway, H., & Roenisch, R. Understanding Architecture: An Introduction to Architecture and Architectural History. New York: Routledge, 1994. Web. 1 August 2012. .
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Green Housing Is Probably the

Words: 317 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40650295



The construction of a green house should be performed under a strict operational plan. The construction costs must be estimated in advance, taking into consideration any price fluctuations. The Green Communities Initiative helps communities with such operational plans (NDC, 2006). The operational plan must take into consideration the risks discussed above. It should answer to questions referring to the elimination of those risks.

The operational plan must address a suitable location where such risks could be diminished. Furthermore, the construction must be planned and supervised by architects. In cases where this is not possible, the owners might purchase construction kits that help them with every step of the construction process.

eference list:

1. Greenhouse Construction (2009). West Virginia University. etrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/greenhou/grencons.htm.

2. Green Business: Green Building (2006). Natural esources Defense Council. etrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.nrdc.org/cities/building/fhousing.asp.… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Greenhouse Construction (2009). West Virginia University. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/greenhou/grencons.htm.

2. Green Business: Green Building (2006). Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.nrdc.org/cities/building/fhousing.asp.
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Green Housing Marketplace the Economic

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50864897



In a field like housing construction, whether it is tradition or green, human resources have the highest importance. Their quality and experience is reflected in the quality of the houses they build. Smaller construction companies cannot afford the highest skilled personnel, which creates a major disadvantage.

It is difficult to say whether these companies are financially sound or not on medium term and long-term. The financial investments required by constructions and the financial sustainability of these companies on long-term suggest that there are no financial difficulties affecting large construction companies.

But these companies are also subjected to the economic and financial crisis and also to the fluctuations of the market. Financial possibilities of customers have a direct influence on the financial performance of construction companies. Given the global market conditions, it is expected that the incomes of construction companies will decrease.

The success strategy of large construction companies is a…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Carlton, J. (2007). While Housing Withers, Green Materials Bloom. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0221-wsj.html.

2. McLaughlin, B. (2007). Green Housing Market Boom Expected. Associated Content. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/423583/green_housing_market_boom_expected.html?cat=3.
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Green Construction the Current Trend

Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62410703

The use of renewable materials is excellent when possible as it ensures that the environmental costs of building the house will be paid off in months instead of decades (BEST 2009). The use of reclaimed materials is even better, however, as there is absolutely no additional environmental involved in using, for instance, a century-old dance floor as the hardwood covering in a new living room. eclaimed resources can be difficult to locate, but are often worth the price in addition to the environmental savings (BEST 2009).

Technological innovations also allow for much greater efficiency. Inert-gas windows and better insulation materials and techniques can improve the envelope of a house, drastically reducing the amount of energy needed to heat or cool a home or building (ADPS 2009). Heating and cooling units themselves have also greatly improved in efficiency in recent years, with additional improvements still ongoing (BEST 2009).

The best ways…… [Read More]

References

ADPSR. (2009). Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility. Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://www.adpsr.org/ 

BEST. (2009). Building Environmental Science & Technology. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.energybuilder.com/
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Architecture Construction Thermal Isolation Materials

Words: 4132 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46741322



Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).

Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin, Stephen Andrew. (2010). "List of Materials to Build a Vocal Booth," viewed 20

October 2010, < http://www.ehow.com/list_6299897_list-materials-build-vocal-booth.html>

"CSR Building Materials Rockwool Insulation," 2008, viewed 20 October 2010,

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Architecture of Boston Is a

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61756872

com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Old State House Museum." Boston History Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.bostonhistory.org

Old State House." Story of Boston Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.storyofboston.com

Boston History and Architecture. Retrieved May 15, 2008.  http://www.iboston.org 

Historic Places." Catholic Historical Review. Gale Resource Database. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
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Architecture in NYC an Overview

Words: 1159 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85749261

origins of skyscrapers, their design, and some major architects.

ORIGINS OF SKYSCRAPERS

Skyscrapers flourished in Chicago for a variety of reasons. "The main technological advancement that made skyscrapers possible was the development of mass iron and steel production. New manufacturing processes made it possible to produce long beams of solid iron. Essentially, this gave architects a whole new set of building blocks to work with" (Harris). The development of elevators also played in the development of skyscrapers, because people could move more quickly and efficiently between floors, which is why skyscrapers are sometimes called "elevator buildings."

Chicago was located near large producers of steel, and it was an industrial and commercial hub for the whole Midwest. Land was at a premium, and so building designers had to find new ways to put more buildings on less land. One solution was for the building to go up, instead of out. hen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Damore, Chris. "History of the Singer Building." Chrysler Building.org. 2002.

< http://www.chryslerbuilding.org/singer/index2.html

Harris, Tom. "How Skyscrapers Work." How Stuff Works. 2002.

< http://www.howstuffworks.com/skyscraper.htm
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Green The Science - Literature

Words: 6746 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50357583

Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.

Other significant achievements took place in less…… [Read More]

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2 Works of Architecture

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69933030

Architecture

Farnsworth House

Mies van der ohe was one of the most well-known architects of 20th century. His birth took place in Germany and it was in 1938 that he came to United States. Mies van der ohe is commonly known as "Mies" or "Ludwig Mies van der ohe." He had an approach of constructing and designing buildings as a part of international style movement, and this had a grand impact on country's architecture. Farnsworth house is an example of contemporary architecture world. "Less is more" is a statement of Mies, which was adopted as a motto for all the modern artists all over the world (The Chicago Architecture Foundation, 2007).

It was in 1945 when a doctor of Chicago hired Mies to design a home for her in the country side, which should be around 60 miles away from southwest of Chicago, i.e. near Plano, Illinois. The doctor's name…… [Read More]

References

Farnsworth House. (1995). Probing Architecture's Anatomy. Progressive Architecture, pp 58, 59.

Feldman, G.C. (2002). Fallingwater is no longer Falling. The Structure Group Companies.

MetLife. (2012). Rogerson Communities' Farnsworth House in Boston is Recognized by MetLife Foundation and Enterprise Community Partners for Exemplary Work in Senior Housing and Successfully Incorporating Green Components in its Housing: Wins 2012 MetLife Foundation Award for Excellence in Affordable Housing, $50,000. Press Release.

The Chicago Architecture Foundation. (2007). Farnsworth House: Meet The Buildings. The Architecture Handbook: A Student Guide to Understanding Buildings.
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Information Technology IT and Architecture

Words: 1616 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31347033

IT architecture?

The architecture of IT has to be created through the development of models, guidelines, and specifications (Allen & Morton, 1994). The kinds of processes that are generally used have been created in recent decades in order to meet the needs of those who are focused on the quality of IT. With that in mind, IT architecture is the structure that is designed to actually operate and use IT properly. Without it, the IT department of any company would not be nearly as successful, and that could cause the entire company to struggle. Any good IT system has to be built around the specifications that are needed in order to allow it to work the way it is intended and provide what is needed for the company (Allen & Morton, 1994). An IT department has to be ready for nearly everything, because companies rely so much on technology that…… [Read More]

Green computing is the study and creation of any type of computing that is environmentally sustainable (Kurp, 2008). This can include designing and building computers, but also using and disposing of them properly, in a way that has minimal impact on the environment (Kurp, 2008). Naturally, this is an important issue to consider. The environment is fragile, and there are a number of activities that are working against it. Greenhouses gases, climate change, vanishing ecosystems, and other problems are all issues the environment has to face. Many people who work with computers want to reduce their footprint and take better care of the environment, which they can do in a couple of ways. One of those ways is to buy, build, and use computers with longevity (Kurp, 2008). In other words, the longer a computer is made to last the longer it will be before it ends up in a landfill and a new one has to be purchased. When a person does get rid of old electronics, there are recycling places that will take them specifically and dispose of their components safely, further protecting the environment (Kurp, 2008).

The second way a person can practice green computing is in the parts and components that he or she purchases, because some of them are much more environmentally friendly than others (Kurp, 2008). When parts that are easy on the environment are used to build computers, those computers are a better choice for ensuring that the environment is not damaged by people wanting and needing computers for both business and personal use (Kurp, 2008). It is not always possible to protect the environment one hundred percent of the time, but there are many ways green computing can be practiced and used in everyday life (Kurp, 2008). Conscientious people who want to preserve their planet know the value of green computing, and will continue to abide by it as much as possible.

Kurp, P. (2008).Green computing. Communications of the ACM, 51(10): 11-23.
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Profit Pools in the Green

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54028863

It isn't one size fits all anymore, either, thanks to modern computer-design methods that let architects vary the prefab houses the way Lego blocks can be moved around. More than that, though, architects think the new avant-garde looks can win over upscale buyers craving a touch of high design for their abodes" (Jeffrey & Keats 2004). Modular homes are both unique and inexpensive -- a perfect option for new home buyers wishing to keep costs down in an uncertain market yet to amp up the beauty of their structures. They are also good options for seniors, with downsized 'empty nest' dreams who want less home to support, but do not wish to go into a senior community.

Profit pools exist at every juncture of the home industry, from green and customized construction, to improvements and modifications, even to demolitions -- the debris from gutted structures can be recycled to create…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gadiesh, Orit & James L. Gilbert. (1998, May 1). Profit pools: A Fresh look at strategy.

Harvard Business Review.

Jeffrey, Nancy Ann & Nancy Keates. (2004). Upwardly mobile homes: Is this architecture? Wall

Street Journal Online. Retrieved March 27, 2009 at http://www.realestatejournal.com/homegarden/20040121-jeffrey.html
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Collaborative Consumption and Architecture

Words: 8536 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88518479

architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.

Yet the end of the 20th…… [Read More]

References

About SsD. (2016). SsDArchitecture. Retrieved from http://www.ssdarchitecture.com/about/

Botsman, R. (2010). What's Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption.

NY: HarperCollins.

Bovill, C. (2014). Sustainability in Architecture and Urban Design. NY: Routledge.
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Laugier What Is Laugier's Justification

Words: 1064 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16492122



Why does Greenough object to American architects borrowing styles from Europe? Which of his reasons do you consider valid, and which are unconvincing?

The main objection Greenough has to American architects borrowing styles from Europe is that these styles are unsuited for the American background which is vast, open and different from Europe in terms of climate. Furthermore, unlike the religiously homogenous states in Europe, America is very diverse and therefore much of ecclesiastical architecture has no application. Furthermore the author sees the misappropriation of designs for purposes other than their original purpose as the surest sign of decline. I am not convinced that the issue of appropriateness of a certain kind of architecture to its purpose is a legitimate objection. Consider for example the rotunda of the Capitol Hill and compare it to the Vatican City's architecture.

Fathy:

Why does Fathy consider the plant is a good analogy for…… [Read More]

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Architectural Manifesto for the 21st

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17811522

The impact architecture has on a society's spirit cannot be underestimated.

The Future:

Architecture it returning to nature oriented design. Many examples exist of which "The Water Garden" office complex of Santa Monica, CA is an excellent representative. Its focal point is a man-made lake with islands connected by curving walkways. The lake offers a relaxing workday intermission for thousands of office employees. This design by McLarand, Vasquez & Partners was the named the 2005 International Office uilding of the Year (TOY) (available (http://www.wg-la.com/default.htm).Eight office towers provide 1.25 million square feet of office space yet the emphasis is on the human element. The towers are characterized by gently curving edges that evoke images of waves and watercourses.

Various hotels in Las Vegas now emphasize water as part of its entertainment theme. For example the famous ellagio "dancing water fountains" are attractive and relaxing. Water as a source of relaxation explains…… [Read More]

Bibliography

University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture. (2006). "Green Architecture." Architectural Science Review 49(4), 425.

Hess, a. (1999). The Architecture of John Lautner. New York: Rizzoli, 16.

Sundaram, T.R. (1998, May). "Numerical Patterns in Nature" World and I, 13(5), 176.

Pei, Ieoh Ming. "Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate 1983" Web page: http://www.pritzkerprize.com/pei.htm.
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Leed Increasingly the Drive to

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53889009



A variety of new and existing buildings have received LEED certification over the recent years. The following are ten examples of these awards:

1) Office Depot: Gold Award, New Construction. In 2007, Office Depot recognized its 39 million square feet of commercial real estate in North America was responsible for significant carbon emissions and a solid-waste footprint. As a prototype for future construction retail locations, the Austin, Texas, construction followed the LEED certification process. Included is a roof that reflects sunlight and cools the store, requiring less energy for air conditioning; high-efficiency heating, ventilation and air conditioning units; water-efficient fixtures in restrooms; locally sourced and recycled materials; and skylights that adjust with the sun and provide natural day lighting. The business offers green line merchandise, which sold $1.6 billion in the U.S. And Europe in 2007. They created a detailed LEED-EB Credit Report documenting sustainable purchasing of office supplies, technology,…… [Read More]

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Steven Holl's Kiasma Kiasma the

Words: 2535 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43025398

ather than rejecting the natural variability experience everywhere but in most man-made structures, Kiasma embraces this variability.

eturning to the name Kiasma further demonstrates the design's emphasis on the human experience of perception, and the meaning imbued through this synthesis of sensory information and personal experience, because the architectural details of the building are structured in such a way as to provide the ideal space for the meeting of perception and conception, a meeting that arguably transforms visual stimuli into art. In particular, "the scaling in Kiasma is based on the dimensions of the human body," with special attention to a limit of "165 centimeters, the viewing height" (Kiasma Info: Architecture 2011). While the average visitor would likely not notice this feature, it serves to make the building the ideal space for reflection, because precisely by not noticing such elements as the height of certain artworks, the visitor is able…… [Read More]

References

Asso, Nazlie Michel. 2009. Significations et perceptions en architecture dans l'oeuvre de christian norberg-schulz. Ph.D. diss., Universite de Montreal (Canada),

Finnish National Gallery, "Kiasma Info: Architecture." Last modified 2011. Accessed October

27, 2011. http://www.kiasma.fi/kiasmainfo/architecture.

Kiasma museum of contemporary art in helsinki. 1998. Building Design (00073423) (May 01):
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REM Koolhaas Modern Architect

Words: 1962 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9595040

Rem Koolhaas: A survey of his work and aesthetic philosophy

The radical Dutch architect and architectural theorist Rem Koolhaas is often called one of the world's best -- and one of the world's most controversial -- architects. Koolhaas is as much known for his aesthetic philosophy as he is for his work. "Koolhaas' most provocative -- and in many ways least understood -- contribution to the cultural landscape is as an urban thinker…he has written half a dozen books on the evolution of the contemporary metropolis and designed master plans for, among other places, suburban Paris, the Libyan desert and Hong Kong" (Ouroussoff 1). Koolhaas does not merely wish to create buildings but also change the way in which the world conceptualizes buildings and aesthetic space.

One of Koolhaas' most famous buildings is the French convention hall the Congrexpo, located in Euralille, a shopping and entertainment complex in Lille, France.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Craven, Jackie. "Metabolism." About.com.7 Apr 2014.

http://architecture.about.com/od/M-Architecture-Terms/g/Metabolism.htm

"Interview with Dutch Architect Rem Koolhaas: 'The World Needs Europe'." Spiegel Online.

30 October 2008. Retrieved on 6 Apr 2014.  http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/interview-with-dutch-architect-rem-koolhaas-the-world-needs-europe-a-587436.html
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History and Development of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of Western Civilization

Words: 6891 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11303212

Architecture through the Ages

Mesopotamia

Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;

228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .

Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
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Steven Holl Discussing the Practical

Words: 3302 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35150365

Imagining architecture as the structure upon which meaning grows and contributes to the phenomenon of a place is particularly helpful when investigating Holl's Linked Hybrid, because the design expresses a desire to meld the objective, concrete of the building itself to the experience of the residents living and moving within.

Construction on Linked Hybrid began in 2003 and completed in 2009, when Holl's design won the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's award for Best Tall Building (CTBUH 2009). Part of a slew of new developments born out of Beijing's revitalization as a result of its hosting of the 2008 Olympic games, Linked Hybrid is a mixed-use development consisting of "a ring of eight 21-story towers, linked at the 20th floor by gentling sloping public sky bridges, lined with galleries, cafes, restaurants, bars and shops" (Busari 2008). Each tower is rectangular, with some towers being additionally linked at the…… [Read More]

References

Busari, Stephanie. CNN, "Beijing embraces Brave New World of buildings." Last modified June

24, 2008. Accessed November 6, 2011.

 http://edition.cnn.com/2008/TECH/06/18/beijing.hybrid/index.html .

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, "2009 Awards." Last modified October 2009.
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Sustainability Is Development That Meets

Words: 2938 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1045326

They want to maintain that livelihood. And for 90% of the world, being sustainable is a matter of life and death (Agnew n.d.)." To that end in 2007 they Architecture for Humanity launched the Open Architecture Network "an online, open source community dedicated to improving living conditions through innovative and sustainable design" where designers, engineers, and anyone else, professional or otherwise can share their ideas, designs and plans, collaborate, manage design projects from concept to implementation and build a more sustainable future (Open Architecture Network n.d.)

In addition to Sinclair and McDonough there are a wide range of architects and designers who are beginning to understand that their role is not simply to satisfy their own egos or curiosities but rather to help facilitate the sustainability of communities and human society at large. The New York-ased consulting firm Terrapin right Green, for example, was started by four architects who recognized…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agnew, Singeli. "India: Design Like You Give a Damn Interview." Front Line.  http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/india705/history/extended.html  (accessed April 15, 2010).

Alter, Bonnie. "Sustainable Futures Exhibition Asks Can Design Make a Difference?" Treehuger.com. April 14, 2010. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/04/sustainable-futures-design-difference.php (accessed April 15, 2010).

-- . "Yves Behar and Puma Roll Out The Clever Little Bag." Treehugger. April 14, 2010. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/04/yves-behar-and-puma.php (accessed April 15, 2010).

Braungart, Michael, and William McDonough. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. North Point Press, 2002.
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Guggenheim When Comparing the Two

Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34901782

Cantilever construction is known by projecting a form that is attached at one end to the building, while the other end juts out.

Second I will discuss the symbolism of the two buildings. The symbolism of both shows that the key images of both buildings depends on the perspective from which the building is viewed. The author talks of a 'colossal artichoke...a blooming flower' when referring to the Gehry museum while Wright's Guggenheim is in the shape of a seashell. These are all key images as related to the two architects.

The third discussion will focus on the iconography of the buildings which can be described as the viewer's participation in identifying and explaining what is going on in the building.

As mentioned above neither building has a form that follows function and the Gehry creation especially is difficult to tell what is going on in the building. Each perspective…… [Read More]

References

The Building. Guggenheim Museum. http://www.guggenheim.org/the_building.html, Accessed March 12, 2008

Martin, David F., and Lee a. Jacobus. The Humanities Through the Arts. 7th ed.

New York: 2008.
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College Degree in Construction Management

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42945153

A construction manager must be prepared for anything and everything, and a degree can give a manager a broad-based sphere of knowledge and additional flexibility when serving the needs of a client. Technical knowledge of materials and even computers may be demanded at times: "Construction managers determine the best way to get materials to the building site and the most cost-effective plan and schedule for completing the project. They divide all required construction site activities into logical steps, estimating and budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines. Doing this may require sophisticated scheduling and cost-estimating techniques using computers with specialized software" (Construction managers, 2011, BLS).

In the case of the manager I interviewed, the project that he was currently managing had many of its features changed mid-course, as the project began to go over budget and met unexpected snags. Changing plans often results in delays, particularly when dealing with…… [Read More]

References

Construction managers. (2007). Bureau of Labor and Statistics (BLS). Retrieved May 22, 2011

at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos005.htm#training

Rimetz, Brendan. (2011). Demand for green building materials to grow 13% annually through

2015. Builder Online. Retrieved May 22, 2011 at http://www.builderonline.com/green-products/demand-for-green-building-materials-to-grow-13-annually-through-2015.aspx?rssLink=Demand+for+Green+Building+Materials+to+Grow+13%25+Annually+Through+2015
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Business Lend Lease Australia The

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49670510

Some conventional building design, construction and maintenance practices create conditions that are capable of causing illness in healthy individuals or exacerbating illness in already sensitized individuals (Small, 2009). There are several factors that contribute to the overall health of a building. These include: cleanliness, thermal comfort, ventilation and air quality, lighting, noise, outside awareness and furniture (Hubbard, ice and Beamish, 2008).

The Bond received many acknowledgements in regards to its design. It received 34 awards along with massive media coverage making the return on its investment far greater than any expectations that had existed. A key change that resulted from The Bond project was the positioning of Lend Lease to take on the role of industry leader to promote development of green buildings across Australia. The sector for office buildings in Australia has its own set of unique criteria. Most office buildings are not owned by its occupants. The majority…… [Read More]

References

Document Helps Implement Green Building Codes. (2009). Professional Safety. 54(11), p18.

Garde, Ajay. (2009). Sustainable by Design?: Insights From U.S. LEED-ND Pilot Projects.

Journal of the American Planning Association. 75(4), p424-440.

Hubbard, G. Rice, J. And Beamish, P. (2008). Strategic Management: Thinking, Analysis and Action (3rd ed), Australia: Pearson Education.
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Platforms and Pyramids Have Served

Words: 2297 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86024868

" The Evening Standard (London, England), October 7, 2005, 37 http://wwwquestiacom/PMqst?a=o&d=5011236624

"WELCOME TO BLING TOWN! Stupendous Skyscrapers, Mountains of Money and a Surreal Sense of Style - Veteran Reporter MICHAEL BUERK Is Dazzled by Dubai Arabia's City of Excess" The Daily Mail (London, England), February 10, 2007, 62 http://wwwquestiacom/PMqst?a=o&d=5019361201

http://wwwquestiaschoolcom/PMqst?a=o&d=10506319?Charles Green, Sutton Hoo: The Excavation of a Royal Ship-Burial (London: Merlin Press, 1963), 127, http://wwwquestiacom/PMqst?a=o&d=10506319

http://wwwquestiaschoolcom/PMqst?a=o&d=54339630?William H Stiebing, Ancient Astronauts, Cosmic Collisions, and Other Popular Theories about Man's Past (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1984), 131, http://wwwquestiacom/PMqst?a=o&d=54339630

http://wwwquestiaschoolcom/PMqst?a=o&d=10506293?Charles Green, Sutton Hoo: The Excavation of a Royal Ship-Burial (London: Merlin Press, 1963), 101, http://wwwquestiacom/PMqst?a=o&d=10506293

http://wwwquestiaschoolcom/PMqst?a=o&d=103063549?A R David, The Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of Pharaoh's Workforce (New York: Routledge, 1996), 104, http://wwwquestiacom/PMqst?a=o&d=103063549

http://wwwquestiaschoolcom/PMqst?a=o&d=5011236624?"Touching the Void; Skyscrapers Are Brash Symbols of Money and Masculinity; No Wonder Developers, Architects and Mayors Are Eager to Erect Them But with the Minerva Building…… [Read More]

. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110182873?Abdalla Abdelaziz Attia, "Cities Spanning the Millennia: Cairo/Alexandria," in Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat: Cities in the Third Millennium (New York: Spon Press, 2001), 284, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110182873.

. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5027182576?Cecilia Tortajada, "Challenges and Realities of Water Management of Megacities: The Case of Mexico City Metropolitan Area," Journal of International Affairs 61, no. 2 (2008), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5027182576.

. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021336786?Michael E. Long, "Presidential Temples: How Memorials and Libraries Shape Public Memory," Presidential Studies Quarterly 37, no. 1 (2007), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021336786.
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Sustainable Design

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43254680

Sustainable design is the smart and subtle way of utilizing modern building methods and materials to achieve a more intelligent building, while using fewer resources and recycling more waste. It is not simply a trend, nor is it only a marketing tool for 21st century developments, but rather sustainable design is a conscientious decision by an architect to take measures to protect the environment, lessen utility costs, and ensure a longer lasting product in the end. The future of arth can only be looked after by those who inhabit it, and therefore sustainability has become the most important idea today in the field of science and design. Like with many building standards, each country has its own method of measurement and evaluation to the level of sustainability achieved, and because of globalization, there have been several different international standards competing for international recognition and control over the green design process.…… [Read More]

ESTIDAMA, the word meaning 'sustainability' in Arabic, is the green design standard for the city of Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, ESTIDAMA, and particularly the Pearl Rating System used to rate sustainability in ESTIDAMA, was created in advance of Abu Dhabi's 2030 vision for the creation of a modern global capitol city. Although a similar system to the other two, there are a few major differences. ESTIDAMA places far more emphasis of its credit distribution on water usage, and less on energy usage, as this is a critical part of Abu Dhabi's development and need for clean water to be recycled as efficiently as possible. Energy is plentiful in the Middle East, and much of the development built in this region is a result of its fortunate energy supply.[footnoteRef:2] This problem of water usage, however, is not applicable to the rest of the world, and therefore shows why ESTIDAMA was created in the first place, because LEED and BREEAM simply could not readily adapt themselves to the particular conditions of Abu Dhabi. [2: "Comparing Estidama's Pearls Rating Method to LEED and BREEAM." Carboun. Web. 19 May 2011. .]

As far as accreditation is concerned, ESTIDAMA takes a hybrid approach between BREEAM and LEED, urging the use of a dedicated professional onsite to evaluate as progress moves, as BREEAM does, but also requiring the oversight of a "Pearl Qualified Professional" to complete the final inspection. This process is extremely thorough in its approach, and to have two checks is a valuable tool against cheating and corruption, which may seep into the competitive world of construction in the other two standards. This method of double checks however could be prohibitively bureaucratic in a democracy setting, which ESTIDAMA does not operate in currently. ESTIDAMA is certainly just as important to the field of sustainable design as the larger rating systems are, as it brings much of the same professionalism to the task, ESTIDAMA is however tinkered to appeal to its local market in the Middle East, and this is apparent in the breakdown of the evaluation process.

In conclusion, it is foreseeable that buildings will reach a near-zero release of carbon during their complete phase, and a lot less energy will be used during the buildings construction. In this way, all three sustainable standards will play their part, and will have brought good policy to a controllable environment of office space and residential construction. I, however, believe that the LEED standard is the best standard to follow, as it is best understand around the world and by architects, does not require specialization within countries, which would only dilute the strength of LEED's simplicity, and does not allow any individual to make evaluations, only the Green Building Council itself. This disallows cheating and presents a balanced and expert opinion of what LEED's standards ought to be. ESTIDAMA uses both practices in its methods, but is not as appealing as LEED because of how it looks at water resources far more than innovative design or efficient energy use. Energy is not a big problem in the Middle East, ESTIDAMA's market, however water is. This is antithesis to the majority of the rest of the world, which has been able to secure its own water supply but still requires energy to be brought in from abroad. ESTIDAMA is simply too much of a niche to be able to compete with the global design of the LEED design.
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Influences of Gaudi's Works

Words: 3787 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73446654

Gaudi's Works

Antonio Gaudi was born 25th June 1852 and went on to be a known Spanish Catalan architect. Antonio Gaudi was a remarkable architect whose true value only came forward a while after he created the buildings. He has also been known as the Spanish Catalan and the symbol for Catalian Modernism. Just as the people of the city were attempting to make their own mark in science and art, Gaudi's exceptional and unique style came. His work and the buildings he made were criticized by most of the people at first, yet their unique production and architecture added the true beauty of Barcelona. It has also been stated that the works of Gaudi are actually inseparable from Barcelona city. (Sola-Morales 5). The buildings that Gaudi made like Casa Mila, Parque Giell, and Sagrada Familia changed the way architecture was done in Barcelona. The buildings added to the beauty…… [Read More]

References

Chandler, W. (2002). Antonio Gaudi: Telling a Story with Brick and Mortar. School Arts, Iss. 5.

Cline, E. (2011). The Lasting Relationship between Antonio Gaudi and Barcelona, Spain. Senior Honors Theses, 24 Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/honors/24 [Accessed: 2 December 2012].

Descharnes, R., Pre-vost, C., & Pujols, F. (1982). Gaudi?, the visionary. New York: Viking Press.

Duffy, J.H. (2003). Signs and designs: Art and architecture in the work of Michel Butor. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
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Florence Babtisitry North Doors

Words: 2130 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85689823

Florence aptistery North Doors

Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) was a many-sided Renaissance figure: bronze-caster, sculptor, goldsmith, draughtsman, architect, writer and historian. Among his most celebrated surviving work are the bronze doors which he created for the aptistery of the Cathedral in Florence. This paper will discuss the circumstances in which Ghiberti secured and completed the commission to design the north doors of the aptistery (1400-24) and analyse their composition and character. Ghiberti's work in Florence will then be compared to that of Gianlorenzo ernini at the baroque church of Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (1658-70).

In late 1400 the officials of the Cloth-Dealers and Refiners' Guild of Florence (the Arte di Calimara) announced a competition to design a set of doors for the aptistery of the Cathedral. The aptistery is a very old structure, the primary elements of which probably date to the seventh and eight centuries AD. The exterior covering…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blaser, Werner, and Stucky, Monica. Drawings of Great Buildings. Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 1983.

Curl, James Stevens, Classical Architecture. New York W.W. Norton, 2002.

Fletcher, Sir Banister, Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture. 20th edn., London: RIBA/University of London, 1996.

Kostof, Spiro. A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
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Florence Train Station in Italy

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38825307

Florence train station and its qualities. The Florence train station might be expected to be designed in the classic or even art deco style, but instead, it is a classic and well-known example of Italian modernism.

The Firenze Santa Maria Novella or the Stazione di Santa Maria Novella is the main train station in Florence. A group of Italian architects called the Gruppo Toscano (Tuscan Group) completed it in 1934. Architects Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini were two of the members of this group. Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini approved of the final design of the station after a controversial competition, and many architects believe the Tuscan Group modeled their design after Viennese modern architecture and America's Frank Lloyd Wright, known for his modern and novel architecture. The Tuscan Group only designed the front of the building, the platforms, waiting areas, and such were designed by an Italian Ministry of Communications…… [Read More]

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Querini Stampalia Foundation at First

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65326879



The interior architecture of the Querini Stampalia Foundation also provides a connection to the more historical details of Venetian and Italian architecture while at the same time not tying itself to the restrictions of an historic reproduction. Something as simple as a staircase has become, under Scarpa's careful design and guidance, something of strange geometric beauty that almost crosses the line into sculpture. The odd split in the stones that make up the stairs, and the spaces left in the faces of the stairs, look almost Moorish in their design. They could also be seen to draw from far more ancient sources, like the Romans who occupied Italy long before the Moors were ever heard of in Spain. The regular geometry of the stairs makes them appear both very strong and also simple and easy to build, which would definitely have been favored qualities of older civilizations working with other…… [Read More]

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Art Living the Good Life

Words: 2141 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72579741



Colin owe and Fred Koetter argued in Collage City that the designer should intervene in the existing city by adding to and adjusting what is already there, a process more like collage than any other art form. (Barnett, 1996, p. 185)

The city as "collage" is possibly the finest metaphor for the urban world. Nowhere else do so many different people and purposes come together as in the city. No other place cries out so much for art, and is itself, an inspiration to create art. The realization that cities are living entities has initiated a renewed interest in the preservation and development of their respective parts. So much of Modernist Theory favored the abandonment of the past. It was as if we were all residents of some totally new age that bore virtually no relation to any past era. Were we born long ago and teleported to our present…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98904517

Barnett, J. (1996). The Fractured Metropolis: Improving the New City, Restoring the Old City, Reshaping the Region. New York: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102715365

Evans, G. (2001). Cultural Planning, an Urban Renaissance?. London: Routledge. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000579396

Guillen, M.F. (1997). Scientific Management's Lost Aesthetic: Architecture, Organization, and the Taylorized Beauty of the Mechanical. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(4), 682+. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100248456
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Live Concert Analysis How Doing Good Makes

Words: 6286 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68417534

Live Concet Analysis

How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time

Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change

The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's

Manifesto

Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…… [Read More]

references and charitable habits of Generation Y, Generation X, Baby Boomers and Matures. Convio and Edge Research. (2010).

Boehnert, J. "In the Front Line," Creative Review, October 2008.

Borasi, G., & Zardini, M. (Eds.). Actions: What you can do with the city. Canadian Centre for Architecture. (2008).

Brown, T., Sklar, A., Speicher, S., Solomon D. And Wyatt, J. "Design For Social Impact," (New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2009), 80-81.

Cowan, G. "Street Protest Architecture," Bad Subjects, January 2004.
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Central Park New York and Mohawk Park

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60504146

Central Park (New York) and Mohawk Park (Tulsa, Oklahoma)

Municipal parks have a long history, and the importance of these invaluable green and open spaces to the people who live around them cannot be overstated. Perhaps the best-known pubic park in the United States is New York City's Central Park that provides the city's citizenry with an enormous green space in the middle of a concrete jungle. Although lesser known, Tulsa, Oklahoma's Mohawk Park is the third-largest municipal park in the country and provides a wide range of resources for the citizens of Tulsa and its surrounding communities. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify the designs of these two municipal parks and their use of space for their patrons. A summary of the research and important findings concerning New York's Central Park and Tulsa's Mohawk Park are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

New…… [Read More]

References

Carr, E. (1999), Wilderness by Design: Landscape Architecture and the National Park Service.

Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Kirlee, D. (2011, February 23), "Oklahoma Polo Enthusiasts Working to Revive Sport of Kings,"

The Journal Record, p. 17.
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New Construction Methods Materials and

Words: 2355 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1015748



A second major facto in the growing trend for a new greener industry is that these measures also represent a more efficient operation from a financial perspective as well. For instance, recycling aluminum cans on the job is an example of a sustainable practice that contributes in a positive way to the bottom line (Shepherd, 2009). ecycling aluminum cans on the jobsite help to feed the local economy as well. These new cost-cutting measures are necessary, as green construction typically drives up the price of a new home by 10% (Shepherd, 2009). Companies must take measures to reduce costs in as many areas as possible.

How Can These New Innovations Affect a Career in the Construction Industry?

Changes within the construction industry will have an impact on those involved in the industry of the future. These new innovations represent changes in attitude toward the job site, project flow and project…… [Read More]

References

AGC (2009). National Construction Group calls for New Federal Incentives to Encourage

Recycling of construction Materials, Purchase of More Efficient Construction

Equipment.Concrete Producer Online. March 23, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://www.theconcreteproducer.com/industry-news.asp?sectionID=1419&articleID=916304

Baccinelli, M. (2008). New Features and Technologies Boost Refrigerator Efficiency. Building Products. March/April 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://www.ecohomemagazine.com/green-products/new-features-and-technologies-boost-refrigerator-efficiency.aspx
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Seagram Building by Mies Van Der Rohe

Words: 2747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25149120

Seagram uilding by Mies Van Der Rohe

Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe was born in the year 1886 in Aachen, Germany. His father was a stonemason, and the young Mies underwent training under him, after which, at the age of nineteen, he moved on to erlin. erlin being a land of numerous opportunities at the time, Mies was able to train under the 'art nouveau' architect and Interior Designer, runo Paul. At the age of twenty, Mies van der Rohe was good enough to receive his own first independent commission to build a house for the famous philosopher, Alois Riehl. y the year 1908, Mies started to work for the architect, Peter ehrens, and although he was technically working for this architect, Mies was also studying the architectural styles and ways of the two famous architects of the time, the Prussian Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and Frank Lloyd Wright, and by…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barcelona, Spain, the Barcelona Pavilion. Available From

 http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/spain/barcelona/mies/pavilion.html ; Internet;

Accessed 18 July, 2005

Bauhaus School. Available From
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Retail Management Large Retail Stores Around the

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43608508

etail Management

Large retail stores around the globe aim for "similar look" in architecture so their stores can stand out and be an identifying factor for their brand. Even the fast food chains would aim for the same kind of architecture everywhere. However Prada goes against this philosophy of similar look and design and hence aims for architecture as different from its last store as possible. This is Prada's way of attracting attention and hence should be seen in a different context than what Muccia Prada apparently meant.

Let us thus explain this further. Ever brand has a unique identity and the bigger the brand, the most conscious the company becomes of its identity and identifying factors/features. For example for McDonalds around the world, the main identifying features are the yellow arches that are immediately recognizable all over the world. The same goes for the Polo horse logo or the…… [Read More]

References

Paul Goldberger. Building up and tearing down: reflections on the age of architecture. Random House Digital, Inc., 2009

"New York Architecture" Accessed May 1, 2011  http://www.nyc-architecture.com/SOH/SOH062.htm
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RFP Response Greater Jamaica Development Corporation Description

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47572580

FP esponse Greater Jamaica Development Corporation

Description of FP

The Greater Jamaica Development Corporation (GJDC) is requesting proposals for development of a 58,050 square foot property located on the western edge of Jamaica, Queens. The property is composed of 11 contiguous lots containing various structures. The site is located in such a way as to become a transit-oriented site due to its proximity to JFK Airport. Jamaica is the first stop on the way to all other Boroughs of New York City. The site is zoned for high density, mixed use development and will be the target of many infrastructure investments to be completed by the year 2016.

equired Components

The FP response must include a detailed narrative description of the project including the type and size of development, the location, and a detailed descriptions of each of the facilities that will be housed within the development complex. It must…… [Read More]

References

Greater Jamaica Development Corporation. (2012). Request For Proposals: Jamaica Station Site.

New York, New York.
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Hearst Tower on 57th and

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9493955



urthermore, the use of structural steel for the facade reduced the total cost and amount of steel used in its construction by about 2000 tons -- an estimated 20% reduction vs. typical steel framing. Because of this and other environmental/sustainable design features, the Hearst Tower was awarded Gold by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the United States Green Building Council. It was the first building in New York to earn this designation.

Other features of the Hearst Building that earned it Gold is the atrium floor, which is designed so that hot or cold water passes through polyethylene tubes for efficient heating and cooling. Other atrium features allow for natural and efficient heating and cooling. urthermore, the waterfall in the atrium uses rainwater. It is the Tower's use of rainwater that distinguishes it from other office high rises in Manhattan. A tank in the basement can…… [Read More]

Furthermore, the use of structural steel for the facade reduced the total cost and amount of steel used in its construction by about 2000 tons -- an estimated 20% reduction vs. typical steel framing. Because of this and other environmental/sustainable design features, the Hearst Tower was awarded Gold by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the United States Green Building Council. It was the first building in New York to earn this designation.

Other features of the Hearst Building that earned it Gold is the atrium floor, which is designed so that hot or cold water passes through polyethylene tubes for efficient heating and cooling. Other atrium features allow for natural and efficient heating and cooling. Furthermore, the waterfall in the atrium uses rainwater. It is the Tower's use of rainwater that distinguishes it from other office high rises in Manhattan. A tank in the basement can store up to 14,000 gallons, which is used for air conditioning, heating, and watering the internal landscaping. An estimated half of the water used by the tower is rainwater. A large proportion of the materials used in the construction of the tower were recycled, much of which was derived from the original building on the site.

In 2012, LEED upgraded the status of the Hearst Tower to Platinum, which is the highest possible rating. One of the reasons why the Tower has been designated the Platinum rating is that it is highly energy efficient and has proven to be committed to energy efficiency by having reduced energy consumption since initial construction. The tower is currently in the top ten percent of all buildings in the United States. Another reason why the Hearst Tower has a Platinum rating is that it composts a full 100% of its wet organic waste, uses all 100% of reclaimed and non-potable gray rainwater for landscaping, and has reduced its water consumption by 30%.
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Notre Dame Cathedral Paris the

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5822190



1260s Transepts were changed to the gothic style.

1250-1345 the remaining elements were finished (Tonazzi, 2007).

It's easy to see that the building took a long time to complete, but it is very beautiful. A lot of different architects worked on it, too, so there are different styles on some of the towers, depending on the height that you look at.

The Notre Dame Cathedral is supposed to be one of the best examples of gothic architecture. The most famous feature is the flying buttresses, but there are others (Tonazzi, 2007). One thing that makes the Cathedral so famous from the standpoint of architecture is the fact that there are different architectural styles from different architects. Sometimes people see this when something has taken a very long time to build, especially for buildings that were built a long time ago when building methods were a lot different.

There is a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Myers, Bernard S. Art and Civilization. New York, New York: McGraw Hill, 1957.

Michelin Travel Publications. The Green Guide Paris. Hertfordshire, UK: Michelin Travel Publications, 2003.

Tonazzi, Pascal. Florilege de Notre-Dame de Paris (anthologie), Editions Arlea, Paris, 2007
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Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon House in Grand Parade Brighton

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55051853

Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon House in Grand Parade righton

The focus of this study is the energy profile of a house identical to the house constructed in Grand Parade righton which is an energy efficient house constructed from waste materials. The climate will be considered as well as the standards and best practices in the construction industry.

Climate

righton is reported to have an Oceanic climate much as does the majority of southern ritain with the summer months affected by sea breezes lowering the temperature by five degrees as compared to inland. Snow is common in the winter in righton. The following table shows the monthly average high temperature in righton throughout the year.

Monthly Average High Temperature in righton

]Climate data for righton

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Average high "C ("F)

8

(46)

8

(46)

9

(49)

12…… [Read More]

Bibliography

An Introductory Guide to Best Practice in Construction (2012) Construction Excellence in the Southeast. Retrieved from: http://www.secbe.org.uk/documents/introductory_best_practice_guide.pdf

What is BREEAM? (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.breeam.org/about.jsp?id=66

Code for a Sustainable Environment (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.breeam.org/page.jsp?id=347

Sustainability and BREEAM (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.bre.co.uk/page.jsp?id=1766
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Sustainable Building Design According to

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6756269

Companies that do not choose to consider these options in their building design are losing out on some significant payouts from the government. They can also gain considerable tax incentives as well. However, there are still many companies in existence that refuse to jump on the wagon and realize the benefits of green design. This type of thinking demonstrates an antiquated philosophy regarding design work.

Conclusions

In recognition that the world must change its attitude and act in a way that will help to conserve our vital resources, the General Service Administration (GSA) has mandated that sustainable building techniques be used. According to these standards, the sustainable building will seek to Sustainable design principles include the ability to: optimize site potential, minimize non-renewable energy consumption, use environmentally preferable products, protect and conserve water, enhance indoor environmental quality, and optimize operational and maintenance practices. These government standards are a response to…… [Read More]

References

Cumberland Design and Building Company. Home Page. Accessed September 13, 2007. Available at http://www.cumberlanddesign.com/.

General Services Adminstration. Sustainable Design Program. Accessed September 13, 2007. Available at http://www.gsa.gov/Portal/gsa/ep/contentView.do?contentType=GSA_OVERVIEW&contentId=8154.

Helmuth & Bicknese. Design Approach. Accessed September 13, 2007. Available at  http://www.hellmuth-bicknese.com/html/design_approach.htm .

National Parks Service. Guiding Principles of Sustainable Design. Accessed September 13, 2007. Available at http://www.nps.gov/dsc/dsgncnstr/gpsd/ch1.html.
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Energy Consumption for Coed Darcy Site

Words: 2964 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89020991

Coed Darcy

The urban village is being constructed on brownfield land that was formerly being used by an oil refinery that was called the Llandarcy Oil efinery that was owned by BP. This oil refinery was constructed between the years 1918 and 1922 and it has been labeled as the first crude oil refinery in the country. Since there were some economic changes, the site was closed in the year 1997 (Brownfield renewal in Wales and South West egion, 2007).

Planned Outputs of the Urban Village

According to the plan that has been prepared for Coed Darcy, the community will comprise of 4,000 homes along with employment space, community facilities as well as open space that covered an area of 1,300 acres. The estimate of the development of this community is about 1.2 billion pounds. Moreover, four new schools have also been planned for this community. These schools include 2…… [Read More]

References:

"Brownfield renewal in the South West and Wales region" (2008). Investor Site Visit - 1st October 2007. St. Modwen Properties PLC.

"Coed Darcy gets outline planning permission" (2007). WalesOnline.

"Coed Darcy Name Revealed at Llandarcy Development Exhibition" (2008). Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council.

"Coed Darcy Urban Village" (2008). The Prince's Foundation.
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Strawbale Construction Methods in the

Words: 1856 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84400015

Outside unrendered. Set in woodland

Strawbale residential complex,

Powys, Wales

1. Strawbale multi-purpose conference / workshop/rehearsal space -- approximately 1,320 square feet; and,

2. Strawbale fully equipped communal kitchen/meeting place

Strawbale barn, Deanburn Cottage

Hayford, Buckfastleigh

Devon TQ11 0JQ

Post and beam/strawbale infill on limestone block foundation, approximately 30 square meters. Built in 1999 by Kevin and Helen Ireland. No cement or concrete used in building. Built with permission of Dartmoor National Park Authority; also serves as location for strawbale building seminars

Strawbale building,

Monkton Wyld Court

Charmouth, Bridport

Dorset DT6 6DQ

Load-bearing strawbale walls on a raised wooden deck on telegraph pole "stilts," approximately 400 square meters, lime-plastered exterior, mud plastered interior, tin roof, underfloor straw insulation, stained glass window, built in 1999 during a workshop

Strawbale house

Cork acecourse, Mallow

Co. Cork, Ireland

Load-bearing strawbale walls, lime-plastered exterior, thatched roof, built during a workshop as part of the…… [Read More]

References

Leedy, Phillip D. 1997. Practical Research: Planning and Design (6th ed). Upper Saddle

River,

NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Pritchard, Mark Bigland & Adrian Pitts. 2006. "Evaluation of Strawbale Building: Benefits and Risks." Architectural Science Review 49(4): 372-373.
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Concrete Why These 3 Pieces

Words: 380 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34700333



hy precast and pre-stressed concrete is so important to the concrete industry

Precast and pre-stressed concrete have many unique advantages. These materials are highly durable. They reduce the necessity of generating more materials and reduce environmental waste. These materials reduce risks to a building's users by minimizing occupant exposure to exterior environmental hazards like noise and wind and interior hazards like dust. Their structural elements lend themselves to 'green' construction. These materials are more resistant to fire and the elements, and minimize the costs to a building's owners in terms of maintaining the structure in terms and daily energy usage ("Four core initiatives," PCI, 2007)

orks Cited

Active steel repassivator for corroded steel in chloride contaminated reinforced concrete." (25 May 2004). Patent Storm. Retrieved 21 Dec 2007 at http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6740150-description.html

Four core initiatives." (2007). PCI Foundation. Retrieved 21 Dec 2007 at http://www.pci.org/foundation/coreInitiatives.cfm

Paving the way with better batch plants." (Dec 2003).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Active steel repassivator for corroded steel in chloride contaminated reinforced concrete." (25 May 2004). Patent Storm. Retrieved 21 Dec 2007 at http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6740150-description.html

Four core initiatives." (2007). PCI Foundation. Retrieved 21 Dec 2007 at http://www.pci.org/foundation/coreInitiatives.cfm

Paving the way with better batch plants." (Dec 2003).

Concrete Construction. Retrieved 21 Dec 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NSX/is_12_48/ai_112168042
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Fire Prevention Code for the

Words: 1703 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77561933

The codes also serve as a model, in themselves, of an integrated, comprehensive regulatory framework for public safety in buildings.

ibliography

http://www.dallascityhall.com/building_inspection/construction_codes.html

http://www.dallascityhall.com/building_inspection/pdf/OnlineApplications_manual.pdf

http://www.dallascityhall.com/building_inspection/required_inspections.html

City of Dallas uilding Code (2006)

City of Dallas Fire Code (2006)

http://www.dallascityhall.com//pdf/uilding/Chapter52ooklet.pdf - p. 10 Enforcement

Annual check not required, Questions arise about what city could have done to ensure safety

MICHAEL GRAELL and RENDAN M. Dallas Morning News, July 27, 2007.

Dallas to add more safety inspectors, MARK WROLSTAD and SELWYN CRAWFORD.

Dallas Morning News. February 22, 2003.

Code violations shut down homeless shelter. CYNTHIA VEGA. WFAA-TV. Thursday, December 11, 2008

Team didn't have roof work inspected, Cowboys were contractor for '08 project; inquiry may take months

RANDON FORMY. Dallas Morning News. May 5, 2009.… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.dallascityhall.com/building_inspection/construction_codes.html

http://www.dallascityhall.com/building_inspection/pdf/OnlineApplications_manual.pdf

http://www.dallascityhall.com/building_inspection/required_inspections.html

City of Dallas Building Code (2006)
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Building Information Modeling BIM

Words: 2082 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44927040

BIM Strategy

Developing BIM Implementation Strategy for Libyan Construction Sector

Construction, on any project, is a piecemeal affair that often provides so much confusion of parts that it is difficult to ensure that there is not some important element either lost or forgotten. Charles Thomsen, a leading builder, looks inside a construction trailer and sees "a plan rack with separate drawings for architectural, mechanical, plumbing, electrical and civil…special sets of drawings for landscaping, lighting, security networks, way-finding graphics…shop drawings are in racks, buckets or drawers. Book shelves hold loose-leaf notebooks full of FIs" (2010). A need existed for this to all be organized into one package that allowed construction to run more seamlessly than it had in the past. With the amount of material needed for the construction of even a simple structure, organization of the planning material is essential.

Technology provided the means for securing this organization through a…… [Read More]

References

Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry (FWCI). (2009). Building information modeling: Understanding and operating in a new paradigm. Retrieved from  http://www.awci.org/pdf/bim.pdf 

Howell, I., & Batcheler, B. (2005). Building information modeling two years later -- huge potential some success and several limitations. Retrieved from  http://www.laiserin.com/features/bim/newforma_bim.pdf 

Lavy, S., & Fernandez-Solis, J. (2010). Complex healthcare facility management and lean construction. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 3(2), 3-9.

Lu, J., & Price, A.D.F. (2011). Dealing with complexity through more robust approaches to the evidence-based design of healthcare facilities. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 4(4), 3-8.
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Accidents and Death in Construction Trades

Words: 1874 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73299716



Summary and Conclusion

There is no way to protect construction workers from every accident that could possibly befall them. The nature of the work is such that complete safety is not guaranteed or even realistically possible. However, that does not mean that the number of fall accidents that occur cannot be reduced. Quite often, it is not a true accident but actual carelessness that is the cause of injuries and deaths on construction sites. Many construction workers forego safety harnesses, for example, because they can be cumbersome and inconvenient. They can make the work take longer, and make it more difficult for the worker to move around. That is especially true in cases where required work means the construction worker will have to unhook and re-hook his harness frequently. This aggravation is a small price to pay for saving lives, but the value of a harness is only seen if…… [Read More]

References

Burke, K. & Tracy, T. (2014). Queens construction worker is dead in horrifying accident. New York Daily News. Retrieved from  http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/fatal-accident-queens-article-1.1247254
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Town Village Development in UK in the Medieval Ages

Words: 3089 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21897883

Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages

Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages

Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.

Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British

Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Artsin Leicester/shire. (n.d.). Historic buildings and monuments, from Roman times to 1800. Retrieved from Artsin Leicestershire Web site: http://www.artsinleicestershire.co.uk/architecture/historic_buildings.htm

Chaucer, G. (2007). Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from Electronic Lierature Foundation Web site:  http://www.canterburytales.org/ 

Geolocation. (n.d.). The Free Grammar School in Leicester, England. Retrieved from Geolocation.ws Web site: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Leicester_Free_Grammar_School_west_side.jpg

Google, Inc. (2006, July 2). Leicester, UK. Google Earth (Version 5.1.3533.1731) [Software]. Mountain View, CA, USA: Google, Inc. Retrieved from Google Earth Web site.
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East Culture History Beijing Previously

Words: 1777 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66878653

One of those buildings was the International Foreign Trade Center -- Shenzhen's first skyscraper and the tallest building in China (36).

Hong Kong is commonly referred to as a place where "East meets West" because of its hybrid nature. That is, there is a culture mix occurring that is part traditional Chinese as well part ritish due to its colonization by the ritish. Hong Kong is quite a modern place, yet there is an infusion of traditional Chinese practices that makes the place unlike any other in the world. One example of how East may meet West in Hong Kong is how the art of feng shui may be utilized in constructing a modern piece of architecture. The old Chinese traditions are used to support newer ways of thinking and living. The architecture in Hong Kong is contemporary and reflects a more Western style as opposed to a Chinese traditional…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campanella, Thomas. The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution. Princeton Architectural Press; 1st edition. 2008. Print.

Chen, Ming-Jer. Inside Chinese Business: A Guide for Managers Worldwide. Harvard Business Review Press. 2003. Print.

China Tour Online. "Shenzhen History." Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from http://www.chinatouronline.com/china-travel/shenzhen/shenzhen-facts/shenzhen-history.html. Web.

Ching, Julia. Chinese Religions. Orbis Books. 1993. Print.
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BP Crisis

Words: 2866 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55103452

Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

'Boards of Directors Need to Oversee Corporate Sustainability more Effectively', 2010, PR Newswire, Available from Proquest. [19 June 2010] http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=2054701491&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1276983049&clientId=45065

'BP Engineer Called Deepwater Horizon Nightmare Well Days Before Blast', 2010, Huffington Post, Available from: [21 June 2010].

'BP Establishes a $20 Billion Claims Fund', 2010, BP, Available from: . [21 June 2010].

'Estimating Cleanup Costs for Oil Spills', 1999, Cutter Information Corporation, Available from: . [19 June 2010].
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Texas History

Words: 3692 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43630442

German Influences on Texas Culture

If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.

Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…… [Read More]

References:

Alvarez, A. (2002). "Oktoberfest in Fredericksburg." Texana Food and Events. 19, November 2004:  http://texana.texascooking.com/news/oktoberfest_fred2002.htm 

Butt, H.E. (2004). "Oktoberfest in Texas." 20, November, 2004: http://www.heb.com/mealtime/celeb-oktoberFestTx.jsp

Galan. (2001). [Online]. "Accordion Dreams: cultures of music and dance." Available

from:  http://www.pbs.org/accordiondreams/cultures/index.html
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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Communication Upgrade Plan Communications Upgrade Plan the

Words: 4058 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78456599

Communication Upgrade Plan

Communications Upgrade Plan

The Abco Company wishes to upgrade its telecommunications technology to a system that is more efficient than the outdated Centrex system now in place. As part of the upgrade plan, the CEO has asked for an explanation of the various systems and technologies available for the upgrade. This research explores various technologies and recommends the proper solution for the business problem at hand.

Communications Upgrade Plan

The Centrex phone system has been the standard in business telecommunications since the 1960s. The system has been the only system of this type for many years. usinesses, such as Abco have had their Centrex System for many years. However, aside from being outdated technology, the Centrex System is no longer the most cost effective solution for businesses. The Abco Corporation has had its Centrex system for as long as anyone can remember. Until recently, no one had…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Callahan, R. (2008). Businesses Move to Voice-over-IP. 12 September 2008. Forbes.com.

Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2008/12/09/skype-vonage-ringcentral_leadership_clayton_in_rc_1209claytonchristensen_inl.html

This article explores the advantages and move towards VoIP in many businesses.

CISCO. (2011). Quality of Service for Voice over IP. Cisco Systems. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./docs/ios/solutions_docs/qos_solutions/QoSVoIP/QoSVoIP.html
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Nature and Human

Words: 2016 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93958258

landscape studies pioneer, John rinckerhoff Jackson, studied the contemporary landscape - common, everyday places where we live, work and play - for the clues it provides to American culture.

In 1964, the American Congress passed the Wilderness Act, thereby protecting over 100 million acres of public land from development. Wilderness was "recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." Wilderness must remain "in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape." Finally, Wilderness is "an untamed natural realm,"..."that's ideally"..."unpeopled.."

People should stay back, as if in front of a picture, admire and enjoy it but they are not allowed to trespass it. The landscape has to remain untouched. As I was reading the above mentioned fragments from the Wilderness Act, a question popped up: "Why?"

Isn't it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. John Brinckerhoff Jackson Obituary, available on the www.brinckerhoff.org/JBJsite/

2. Thoreau, Henry David, Walden Contents - next Section of Chapter One available on the www.eserver.org/thoreau/walden1a.html

3. McDonough, William, Design, Ecology, Ethics and the Making of Things, available on the www.mcdonough.com/Sermon.pdf

4. Luke, W. Timothy, Generating Green Governmentality: A Cultural Critique of Environmental Studies as a Power/Knowledge Formation, available on the www.cddc.vt.edu/tim/tims/Tim514a.PDF
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Risk and Hazard Factors of

Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60811016

Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)

The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7

Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.

Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report

Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
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Moche Paleoindians the First Human

Words: 4658 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20490999

It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.

Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."

In a number of instances, the finds are linked…… [Read More]

References

Bawden, Garth. 1996 the Moche. Blackwell, Oxford.

Berezkin, Juri 1983. Moche Nauka, Leningrad.

Chapdelaine, Claude nd the Moche Occupation of the Lower Santa Valley and the nature of the Southern Moche State Anthropology Department. University of Montreal.

____The Growing Power of the Moche Urban Class. In Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru. pp. 69-85 National Gallery of Art: Washington, D.C.
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Museum Paintings Fauvism in 20Th-Century Paintings the

Words: 1716 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71726730

Museum Paintings

Fauvism in 20th-century Paintings

The medium I have selected for the time line I will be working on for the museum website is 20th-century Western painting, sharing the common theme of Fauvism.

th-century Western painting began with the weighty influence of painters like Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Georges Seurat, Henri de Toulouse Lautrec and the like - all of whom played critical roles in shaping the modern art. At the start of the 20th-century Henri Matisse, along with a number of other young artists including Andre Derain, aoul Dufy, and Maurice de Vlaminck collectively influenced the existing Paris art scene by introducing "bold," vividly vibrant paintings of landscapes and figure. The style adopted by these young artists that have been referred to as Fauvism by critics. Fauvism is predominantly talked about as the style characteristic of the works of a seemingly loose group of Modern artists in…… [Read More]

References:

Derain, A. (Painter). (1903). Self-portrait in the Studio [Painting], Retrieved September 10, 2011, from:

http://en.wikipedia.org

Derain, A. (Painter). (1906). Charing Cross Bridge [Painting], Retrieved Sep 10, 2011, from:

http://en.wikipedia.org
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Starbuck's Case Study Briefly Describe

Words: 3967 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86532491



A fourth foundational element is the strength of the Starbucks brand itself and is ubiquity globally. As a result of rapid and well-defined strategies for opening up retail stores, Starbucks is now considered one of the most preeminent and strongest brands globally.

Starbucks has generated the strength of their brand through combining high-quality coffee and tea beverages with the third-place concept to generate customer loyalty and world-of-mouth among customers and their friends. It is common to hear students mention they will have a team meeting at the local Starbucks, for studying or completing projects.

In summary the Starbucks model is strengthened by the company's coffee expertise, impressive new product development record, and the development of Starbucks locations as "third places" where friends can meet and enjoy coffee and pastries. Underscoring all these points is the strength of the Starbucks brand.

What were the key issues and the decision by Starbucks…… [Read More]

References

Patrick Burnson (2002, December). Amsterdam's key role in Starbucks' global strategy. World Trade, 15(12), 40-41. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 241805271).

Deutsche Bank (2006) - Starbucks Overview. Deutsche Bank Securities Research. New York, NY. 10 July 2006.

Geoffrey a. Fowler (2003, July 14). Starbucks' Road to China; Prime Locations Are the Key, but So Is Using Snob Appeal to Lure Nation of Tea Drinkers. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 369860271).

Jeffrey S. Harrison, Eun-Young Chang, Carina Gauthier, Todd Joerchel, et al. (2005). Exporting a North American Concept to Asia: Starbucks in China. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(2), 275-283. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 832085141).