Green Architecture in Japan: a Reflection of Societal Values
Defining Green Architecture
Man has been building structures since shortly after they began to emerge from caves and to explore areas outside his immediate vicinity. Many animals build structures, such as birds and beaver. Many of these structures are functional and serve only to offer protection from predators and the elements, and so it was with the first structures built by man. They were made from the limited building materials locally available and the emphasis was on functionality, little, if any thought was given to artistic form.
As society developed, so did his technology. Advances in technology allowed him more time to do other things than those related to survival. As this happened, man began to express his emotions through art. Architectural design encompasses more than simply piecing together a few I-beams and concrete. It involves building for humankind. No where…… [Read More]
The occupants and owners of a building are losing money on every green feature they discard. Architects are in a position to save their clients a great deal of money in the operational costs of a building. After all, a great deal more will be spent on the operations, maintenance, and employees in a building than ever was spent upon initial construction costs.
Green architecture not only provides a healthier and more comfortable environment, it also improves the long-term economic performance of a building or structure. It can incorporate energy and water-efficient technologies, and reduce construction and demolition waste. A green building may bring a higher resale value, and include renewable energy technologies. Air quality and occupant satisfaction are improved by a green structure, and it is easier to maintain and lasts longer (Rabin).
Once you build out of "sticks" (wood), the structure has to be insulated, sheathed, wrapped and…… [Read More]
Use energy sound furniture; find ways to share resources when possible.
The copy-machine is a deadly waster -- try to publish as much as possible electronically (memos, presentations, etc.).
Chapter 7 -- Greening Your Products and Services- This is the face, and the crux, of the green company. Changes in philosophy and policy will help the environment internally, but to really "go green," the company must product a green or eco-friendly product. Within this, it is important to examine the product life-cycle at every step and green accordingly. Similarly, the supply chain needs to be green -- it does not work to have green practices but purchase materials made with toxins or in countries that use non-sustainable products or labor. It is, therefore, possible that some companies may face a very tough decision in discontinuing some of its products, and developing new ones, depending on the eco-audit process. In some…… [Read More]
ole of Architecture in the Progress of Society
Architecture can be defined as "the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses seen in light" (Conway and oenisch 9). In other words, it is an experience that is emotional and artistic. Some people agree that architecture is the amalgamation of building and art. However, many do not agree with this opinion (Conway and oenisch 9). According to Britannica Encyclopedia, architecture is "the art and technique of designing and building" ("architecture") whose practice "is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends" ("architecture"). Therefore, every society has a spatial connection to the natural world. The sort of architecture and the produced structures reflects history, culture, environment, traditions, ceremonies, customs and artistic sensibility of a society ("architecture").
Buildings keep people warm and dry and are directly involved in the reasonableness and feasibility of living.…… [Read More]
The construction of a green house should be performed under a strict operational plan. The construction costs must be estimated in advance, taking into consideration any price fluctuations. The Green Communities Initiative helps communities with such operational plans (NDC, 2006). The operational plan must take into consideration the risks discussed above. It should answer to questions referring to the elimination of those risks.
The operational plan must address a suitable location where such risks could be diminished. Furthermore, the construction must be planned and supervised by architects. In cases where this is not possible, the owners might purchase construction kits that help them with every step of the construction process.
1. Greenhouse Construction (2009). West Virginia University. etrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/greenhou/grencons.htm.
2. Green Business: Green Building (2006). Natural esources Defense Council. etrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.nrdc.org/cities/building/fhousing.asp.… [Read More]
In a field like housing construction, whether it is tradition or green, human resources have the highest importance. Their quality and experience is reflected in the quality of the houses they build. Smaller construction companies cannot afford the highest skilled personnel, which creates a major disadvantage.
It is difficult to say whether these companies are financially sound or not on medium term and long-term. The financial investments required by constructions and the financial sustainability of these companies on long-term suggest that there are no financial difficulties affecting large construction companies.
But these companies are also subjected to the economic and financial crisis and also to the fluctuations of the market. Financial possibilities of customers have a direct influence on the financial performance of construction companies. Given the global market conditions, it is expected that the incomes of construction companies will decrease.
The success strategy of large construction companies is a…… [Read More]
The use of renewable materials is excellent when possible as it ensures that the environmental costs of building the house will be paid off in months instead of decades (BEST 2009). The use of reclaimed materials is even better, however, as there is absolutely no additional environmental involved in using, for instance, a century-old dance floor as the hardwood covering in a new living room. eclaimed resources can be difficult to locate, but are often worth the price in addition to the environmental savings (BEST 2009).
Technological innovations also allow for much greater efficiency. Inert-gas windows and better insulation materials and techniques can improve the envelope of a house, drastically reducing the amount of energy needed to heat or cool a home or building (ADPS 2009). Heating and cooling units themselves have also greatly improved in efficiency in recent years, with additional improvements still ongoing (BEST 2009).
The best ways…… [Read More]
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).
Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…… [Read More]
com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…… [Read More]
origins of skyscrapers, their design, and some major architects.
ORIGINS OF SKYSCRAPERS
Skyscrapers flourished in Chicago for a variety of reasons. "The main technological advancement that made skyscrapers possible was the development of mass iron and steel production. New manufacturing processes made it possible to produce long beams of solid iron. Essentially, this gave architects a whole new set of building blocks to work with" (Harris). The development of elevators also played in the development of skyscrapers, because people could move more quickly and efficiently between floors, which is why skyscrapers are sometimes called "elevator buildings."
Chicago was located near large producers of steel, and it was an industrial and commercial hub for the whole Midwest. Land was at a premium, and so building designers had to find new ways to put more buildings on less land. One solution was for the building to go up, instead of out. hen…… [Read More]
Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.
Other significant achievements took place in less…… [Read More]
Mies van der ohe was one of the most well-known architects of 20th century. His birth took place in Germany and it was in 1938 that he came to United States. Mies van der ohe is commonly known as "Mies" or "Ludwig Mies van der ohe." He had an approach of constructing and designing buildings as a part of international style movement, and this had a grand impact on country's architecture. Farnsworth house is an example of contemporary architecture world. "Less is more" is a statement of Mies, which was adopted as a motto for all the modern artists all over the world (The Chicago Architecture Foundation, 2007).
It was in 1945 when a doctor of Chicago hired Mies to design a home for her in the country side, which should be around 60 miles away from southwest of Chicago, i.e. near Plano, Illinois. The doctor's name…… [Read More]
The architecture of IT has to be created through the development of models, guidelines, and specifications (Allen & Morton, 1994). The kinds of processes that are generally used have been created in recent decades in order to meet the needs of those who are focused on the quality of IT. With that in mind, IT architecture is the structure that is designed to actually operate and use IT properly. Without it, the IT department of any company would not be nearly as successful, and that could cause the entire company to struggle. Any good IT system has to be built around the specifications that are needed in order to allow it to work the way it is intended and provide what is needed for the company (Allen & Morton, 1994). An IT department has to be ready for nearly everything, because companies rely so much on technology that…… [Read More]
It isn't one size fits all anymore, either, thanks to modern computer-design methods that let architects vary the prefab houses the way Lego blocks can be moved around. More than that, though, architects think the new avant-garde looks can win over upscale buyers craving a touch of high design for their abodes" (Jeffrey & Keats 2004). Modular homes are both unique and inexpensive -- a perfect option for new home buyers wishing to keep costs down in an uncertain market yet to amp up the beauty of their structures. They are also good options for seniors, with downsized 'empty nest' dreams who want less home to support, but do not wish to go into a senior community.
Profit pools exist at every juncture of the home industry, from green and customized construction, to improvements and modifications, even to demolitions -- the debris from gutted structures can be recycled to create…… [Read More]
architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.
Yet the end of the 20th…… [Read More]
Why does Greenough object to American architects borrowing styles from Europe? Which of his reasons do you consider valid, and which are unconvincing?
The main objection Greenough has to American architects borrowing styles from Europe is that these styles are unsuited for the American background which is vast, open and different from Europe in terms of climate. Furthermore, unlike the religiously homogenous states in Europe, America is very diverse and therefore much of ecclesiastical architecture has no application. Furthermore the author sees the misappropriation of designs for purposes other than their original purpose as the surest sign of decline. I am not convinced that the issue of appropriateness of a certain kind of architecture to its purpose is a legitimate objection. Consider for example the rotunda of the Capitol Hill and compare it to the Vatican City's architecture.
Why does Fathy consider the plant is a good analogy for…… [Read More]
The impact architecture has on a society's spirit cannot be underestimated.
Architecture it returning to nature oriented design. Many examples exist of which "The Water Garden" office complex of Santa Monica, CA is an excellent representative. Its focal point is a man-made lake with islands connected by curving walkways. The lake offers a relaxing workday intermission for thousands of office employees. This design by McLarand, Vasquez & Partners was the named the 2005 International Office uilding of the Year (TOY) (available (http://www.wg-la.com/default.htm).Eight office towers provide 1.25 million square feet of office space yet the emphasis is on the human element. The towers are characterized by gently curving edges that evoke images of waves and watercourses.
Various hotels in Las Vegas now emphasize water as part of its entertainment theme. For example the famous ellagio "dancing water fountains" are attractive and relaxing. Water as a source of relaxation explains…… [Read More]
A variety of new and existing buildings have received LEED certification over the recent years. The following are ten examples of these awards:
1) Office Depot: Gold Award, New Construction. In 2007, Office Depot recognized its 39 million square feet of commercial real estate in North America was responsible for significant carbon emissions and a solid-waste footprint. As a prototype for future construction retail locations, the Austin, Texas, construction followed the LEED certification process. Included is a roof that reflects sunlight and cools the store, requiring less energy for air conditioning; high-efficiency heating, ventilation and air conditioning units; water-efficient fixtures in restrooms; locally sourced and recycled materials; and skylights that adjust with the sun and provide natural day lighting. The business offers green line merchandise, which sold $1.6 billion in the U.S. And Europe in 2007. They created a detailed LEED-EB Credit Report documenting sustainable purchasing of office supplies, technology,…… [Read More]
ather than rejecting the natural variability experience everywhere but in most man-made structures, Kiasma embraces this variability.
eturning to the name Kiasma further demonstrates the design's emphasis on the human experience of perception, and the meaning imbued through this synthesis of sensory information and personal experience, because the architectural details of the building are structured in such a way as to provide the ideal space for the meeting of perception and conception, a meeting that arguably transforms visual stimuli into art. In particular, "the scaling in Kiasma is based on the dimensions of the human body," with special attention to a limit of "165 centimeters, the viewing height" (Kiasma Info: Architecture 2011). While the average visitor would likely not notice this feature, it serves to make the building the ideal space for reflection, because precisely by not noticing such elements as the height of certain artworks, the visitor is able…… [Read More]
Rem Koolhaas: A survey of his work and aesthetic philosophy
The radical Dutch architect and architectural theorist Rem Koolhaas is often called one of the world's best -- and one of the world's most controversial -- architects. Koolhaas is as much known for his aesthetic philosophy as he is for his work. "Koolhaas' most provocative -- and in many ways least understood -- contribution to the cultural landscape is as an urban thinker…he has written half a dozen books on the evolution of the contemporary metropolis and designed master plans for, among other places, suburban Paris, the Libyan desert and Hong Kong" (Ouroussoff 1). Koolhaas does not merely wish to create buildings but also change the way in which the world conceptualizes buildings and aesthetic space.
One of Koolhaas' most famous buildings is the French convention hall the Congrexpo, located in Euralille, a shopping and entertainment complex in Lille, France.…… [Read More]
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]
Imagining architecture as the structure upon which meaning grows and contributes to the phenomenon of a place is particularly helpful when investigating Holl's Linked Hybrid, because the design expresses a desire to meld the objective, concrete of the building itself to the experience of the residents living and moving within.
Construction on Linked Hybrid began in 2003 and completed in 2009, when Holl's design won the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's award for Best Tall Building (CTBUH 2009). Part of a slew of new developments born out of Beijing's revitalization as a result of its hosting of the 2008 Olympic games, Linked Hybrid is a mixed-use development consisting of "a ring of eight 21-story towers, linked at the 20th floor by gentling sloping public sky bridges, lined with galleries, cafes, restaurants, bars and shops" (Busari 2008). Each tower is rectangular, with some towers being additionally linked at the…… [Read More]
They want to maintain that livelihood. And for 90% of the world, being sustainable is a matter of life and death (Agnew n.d.)." To that end in 2007 they Architecture for Humanity launched the Open Architecture Network "an online, open source community dedicated to improving living conditions through innovative and sustainable design" where designers, engineers, and anyone else, professional or otherwise can share their ideas, designs and plans, collaborate, manage design projects from concept to implementation and build a more sustainable future (Open Architecture Network n.d.)
In addition to Sinclair and McDonough there are a wide range of architects and designers who are beginning to understand that their role is not simply to satisfy their own egos or curiosities but rather to help facilitate the sustainability of communities and human society at large. The New York-ased consulting firm Terrapin right Green, for example, was started by four architects who recognized…… [Read More]
Cantilever construction is known by projecting a form that is attached at one end to the building, while the other end juts out.
Second I will discuss the symbolism of the two buildings. The symbolism of both shows that the key images of both buildings depends on the perspective from which the building is viewed. The author talks of a 'colossal artichoke...a blooming flower' when referring to the Gehry museum while Wright's Guggenheim is in the shape of a seashell. These are all key images as related to the two architects.
The third discussion will focus on the iconography of the buildings which can be described as the viewer's participation in identifying and explaining what is going on in the building.
As mentioned above neither building has a form that follows function and the Gehry creation especially is difficult to tell what is going on in the building. Each perspective…… [Read More]
A construction manager must be prepared for anything and everything, and a degree can give a manager a broad-based sphere of knowledge and additional flexibility when serving the needs of a client. Technical knowledge of materials and even computers may be demanded at times: "Construction managers determine the best way to get materials to the building site and the most cost-effective plan and schedule for completing the project. They divide all required construction site activities into logical steps, estimating and budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines. Doing this may require sophisticated scheduling and cost-estimating techniques using computers with specialized software" (Construction managers, 2011, BLS).
In the case of the manager I interviewed, the project that he was currently managing had many of its features changed mid-course, as the project began to go over budget and met unexpected snags. Changing plans often results in delays, particularly when dealing with…… [Read More]
Some conventional building design, construction and maintenance practices create conditions that are capable of causing illness in healthy individuals or exacerbating illness in already sensitized individuals (Small, 2009). There are several factors that contribute to the overall health of a building. These include: cleanliness, thermal comfort, ventilation and air quality, lighting, noise, outside awareness and furniture (Hubbard, ice and Beamish, 2008).
The Bond received many acknowledgements in regards to its design. It received 34 awards along with massive media coverage making the return on its investment far greater than any expectations that had existed. A key change that resulted from The Bond project was the positioning of Lend Lease to take on the role of industry leader to promote development of green buildings across Australia. The sector for office buildings in Australia has its own set of unique criteria. Most office buildings are not owned by its occupants. The majority…… [Read More]
Sustainable design is the smart and subtle way of utilizing modern building methods and materials to achieve a more intelligent building, while using fewer resources and recycling more waste. It is not simply a trend, nor is it only a marketing tool for 21st century developments, but rather sustainable design is a conscientious decision by an architect to take measures to protect the environment, lessen utility costs, and ensure a longer lasting product in the end. The future of arth can only be looked after by those who inhabit it, and therefore sustainability has become the most important idea today in the field of science and design. Like with many building standards, each country has its own method of measurement and evaluation to the level of sustainability achieved, and because of globalization, there have been several different international standards competing for international recognition and control over the green design process.…… [Read More]
Antonio Gaudi was born 25th June 1852 and went on to be a known Spanish Catalan architect. Antonio Gaudi was a remarkable architect whose true value only came forward a while after he created the buildings. He has also been known as the Spanish Catalan and the symbol for Catalian Modernism. Just as the people of the city were attempting to make their own mark in science and art, Gaudi's exceptional and unique style came. His work and the buildings he made were criticized by most of the people at first, yet their unique production and architecture added the true beauty of Barcelona. It has also been stated that the works of Gaudi are actually inseparable from Barcelona city. (Sola-Morales 5). The buildings that Gaudi made like Casa Mila, Parque Giell, and Sagrada Familia changed the way architecture was done in Barcelona. The buildings added to the beauty…… [Read More]
Florence aptistery North Doors
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) was a many-sided Renaissance figure: bronze-caster, sculptor, goldsmith, draughtsman, architect, writer and historian. Among his most celebrated surviving work are the bronze doors which he created for the aptistery of the Cathedral in Florence. This paper will discuss the circumstances in which Ghiberti secured and completed the commission to design the north doors of the aptistery (1400-24) and analyse their composition and character. Ghiberti's work in Florence will then be compared to that of Gianlorenzo ernini at the baroque church of Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (1658-70).
In late 1400 the officials of the Cloth-Dealers and Refiners' Guild of Florence (the Arte di Calimara) announced a competition to design a set of doors for the aptistery of the Cathedral. The aptistery is a very old structure, the primary elements of which probably date to the seventh and eight centuries AD. The exterior covering…… [Read More]
Florence train station and its qualities. The Florence train station might be expected to be designed in the classic or even art deco style, but instead, it is a classic and well-known example of Italian modernism.
The Firenze Santa Maria Novella or the Stazione di Santa Maria Novella is the main train station in Florence. A group of Italian architects called the Gruppo Toscano (Tuscan Group) completed it in 1934. Architects Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini were two of the members of this group. Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini approved of the final design of the station after a controversial competition, and many architects believe the Tuscan Group modeled their design after Viennese modern architecture and America's Frank Lloyd Wright, known for his modern and novel architecture. The Tuscan Group only designed the front of the building, the platforms, waiting areas, and such were designed by an Italian Ministry of Communications…… [Read More]
The interior architecture of the Querini Stampalia Foundation also provides a connection to the more historical details of Venetian and Italian architecture while at the same time not tying itself to the restrictions of an historic reproduction. Something as simple as a staircase has become, under Scarpa's careful design and guidance, something of strange geometric beauty that almost crosses the line into sculpture. The odd split in the stones that make up the stairs, and the spaces left in the faces of the stairs, look almost Moorish in their design. They could also be seen to draw from far more ancient sources, like the Romans who occupied Italy long before the Moors were ever heard of in Spain. The regular geometry of the stairs makes them appear both very strong and also simple and easy to build, which would definitely have been favored qualities of older civilizations working with other…… [Read More]
Colin owe and Fred Koetter argued in Collage City that the designer should intervene in the existing city by adding to and adjusting what is already there, a process more like collage than any other art form. (Barnett, 1996, p. 185)
The city as "collage" is possibly the finest metaphor for the urban world. Nowhere else do so many different people and purposes come together as in the city. No other place cries out so much for art, and is itself, an inspiration to create art. The realization that cities are living entities has initiated a renewed interest in the preservation and development of their respective parts. So much of Modernist Theory favored the abandonment of the past. It was as if we were all residents of some totally new age that bore virtually no relation to any past era. Were we born long ago and teleported to our present…… [Read More]
Live Concet Analysis
How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time
Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change
The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's
Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…… [Read More]
Central Park (New York) and Mohawk Park (Tulsa, Oklahoma)
Municipal parks have a long history, and the importance of these invaluable green and open spaces to the people who live around them cannot be overstated. Perhaps the best-known pubic park in the United States is New York City's Central Park that provides the city's citizenry with an enormous green space in the middle of a concrete jungle. Although lesser known, Tulsa, Oklahoma's Mohawk Park is the third-largest municipal park in the country and provides a wide range of resources for the citizens of Tulsa and its surrounding communities. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify the designs of these two municipal parks and their use of space for their patrons. A summary of the research and important findings concerning New York's Central Park and Tulsa's Mohawk Park are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
New…… [Read More]
A second major facto in the growing trend for a new greener industry is that these measures also represent a more efficient operation from a financial perspective as well. For instance, recycling aluminum cans on the job is an example of a sustainable practice that contributes in a positive way to the bottom line (Shepherd, 2009). ecycling aluminum cans on the jobsite help to feed the local economy as well. These new cost-cutting measures are necessary, as green construction typically drives up the price of a new home by 10% (Shepherd, 2009). Companies must take measures to reduce costs in as many areas as possible.
How Can These New Innovations Affect a Career in the Construction Industry?
Changes within the construction industry will have an impact on those involved in the industry of the future. These new innovations represent changes in attitude toward the job site, project flow and project…… [Read More]
Seagram uilding by Mies Van Der Rohe
Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe was born in the year 1886 in Aachen, Germany. His father was a stonemason, and the young Mies underwent training under him, after which, at the age of nineteen, he moved on to erlin. erlin being a land of numerous opportunities at the time, Mies was able to train under the 'art nouveau' architect and Interior Designer, runo Paul. At the age of twenty, Mies van der Rohe was good enough to receive his own first independent commission to build a house for the famous philosopher, Alois Riehl. y the year 1908, Mies started to work for the architect, Peter ehrens, and although he was technically working for this architect, Mies was also studying the architectural styles and ways of the two famous architects of the time, the Prussian Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and Frank Lloyd Wright, and by…… [Read More]
Large retail stores around the globe aim for "similar look" in architecture so their stores can stand out and be an identifying factor for their brand. Even the fast food chains would aim for the same kind of architecture everywhere. However Prada goes against this philosophy of similar look and design and hence aims for architecture as different from its last store as possible. This is Prada's way of attracting attention and hence should be seen in a different context than what Muccia Prada apparently meant.
Let us thus explain this further. Ever brand has a unique identity and the bigger the brand, the most conscious the company becomes of its identity and identifying factors/features. For example for McDonalds around the world, the main identifying features are the yellow arches that are immediately recognizable all over the world. The same goes for the Polo horse logo or the…… [Read More]
FP esponse Greater Jamaica Development Corporation
Description of FP
The Greater Jamaica Development Corporation (GJDC) is requesting proposals for development of a 58,050 square foot property located on the western edge of Jamaica, Queens. The property is composed of 11 contiguous lots containing various structures. The site is located in such a way as to become a transit-oriented site due to its proximity to JFK Airport. Jamaica is the first stop on the way to all other Boroughs of New York City. The site is zoned for high density, mixed use development and will be the target of many infrastructure investments to be completed by the year 2016.
The FP response must include a detailed narrative description of the project including the type and size of development, the location, and a detailed descriptions of each of the facilities that will be housed within the development complex. It must…… [Read More]
urthermore, the use of structural steel for the facade reduced the total cost and amount of steel used in its construction by about 2000 tons -- an estimated 20% reduction vs. typical steel framing. Because of this and other environmental/sustainable design features, the Hearst Tower was awarded Gold by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the United States Green Building Council. It was the first building in New York to earn this designation.
Other features of the Hearst Building that earned it Gold is the atrium floor, which is designed so that hot or cold water passes through polyethylene tubes for efficient heating and cooling. Other atrium features allow for natural and efficient heating and cooling. urthermore, the waterfall in the atrium uses rainwater. It is the Tower's use of rainwater that distinguishes it from other office high rises in Manhattan. A tank in the basement can…… [Read More]
1260s Transepts were changed to the gothic style.
1250-1345 the remaining elements were finished (Tonazzi, 2007).
It's easy to see that the building took a long time to complete, but it is very beautiful. A lot of different architects worked on it, too, so there are different styles on some of the towers, depending on the height that you look at.
The Notre Dame Cathedral is supposed to be one of the best examples of gothic architecture. The most famous feature is the flying buttresses, but there are others (Tonazzi, 2007). One thing that makes the Cathedral so famous from the standpoint of architecture is the fact that there are different architectural styles from different architects. Sometimes people see this when something has taken a very long time to build, especially for buildings that were built a long time ago when building methods were a lot different.
There is a…… [Read More]
Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon House in Grand Parade righton
The focus of this study is the energy profile of a house identical to the house constructed in Grand Parade righton which is an energy efficient house constructed from waste materials. The climate will be considered as well as the standards and best practices in the construction industry.
righton is reported to have an Oceanic climate much as does the majority of southern ritain with the summer months affected by sea breezes lowering the temperature by five degrees as compared to inland. Snow is common in the winter in righton. The following table shows the monthly average high temperature in righton throughout the year.
Monthly Average High Temperature in righton
]Climate data for righton
Average high "C ("F)
12…… [Read More]
Companies that do not choose to consider these options in their building design are losing out on some significant payouts from the government. They can also gain considerable tax incentives as well. However, there are still many companies in existence that refuse to jump on the wagon and realize the benefits of green design. This type of thinking demonstrates an antiquated philosophy regarding design work.
In recognition that the world must change its attitude and act in a way that will help to conserve our vital resources, the General Service Administration (GSA) has mandated that sustainable building techniques be used. According to these standards, the sustainable building will seek to Sustainable design principles include the ability to: optimize site potential, minimize non-renewable energy consumption, use environmentally preferable products, protect and conserve water, enhance indoor environmental quality, and optimize operational and maintenance practices. These government standards are a response to…… [Read More]
The urban village is being constructed on brownfield land that was formerly being used by an oil refinery that was called the Llandarcy Oil efinery that was owned by BP. This oil refinery was constructed between the years 1918 and 1922 and it has been labeled as the first crude oil refinery in the country. Since there were some economic changes, the site was closed in the year 1997 (Brownfield renewal in Wales and South West egion, 2007).
Planned Outputs of the Urban Village
According to the plan that has been prepared for Coed Darcy, the community will comprise of 4,000 homes along with employment space, community facilities as well as open space that covered an area of 1,300 acres. The estimate of the development of this community is about 1.2 billion pounds. Moreover, four new schools have also been planned for this community. These schools include 2…… [Read More]
Outside unrendered. Set in woodland
Strawbale residential complex,
1. Strawbale multi-purpose conference / workshop/rehearsal space -- approximately 1,320 square feet; and,
2. Strawbale fully equipped communal kitchen/meeting place
Strawbale barn, Deanburn Cottage
Devon TQ11 0JQ
Post and beam/strawbale infill on limestone block foundation, approximately 30 square meters. Built in 1999 by Kevin and Helen Ireland. No cement or concrete used in building. Built with permission of Dartmoor National Park Authority; also serves as location for strawbale building seminars
Monkton Wyld Court
Dorset DT6 6DQ
Load-bearing strawbale walls on a raised wooden deck on telegraph pole "stilts," approximately 400 square meters, lime-plastered exterior, mud plastered interior, tin roof, underfloor straw insulation, stained glass window, built in 1999 during a workshop
Cork acecourse, Mallow
Co. Cork, Ireland
Load-bearing strawbale walls, lime-plastered exterior, thatched roof, built during a workshop as part of the…… [Read More]
hy precast and pre-stressed concrete is so important to the concrete industry
Precast and pre-stressed concrete have many unique advantages. These materials are highly durable. They reduce the necessity of generating more materials and reduce environmental waste. These materials reduce risks to a building's users by minimizing occupant exposure to exterior environmental hazards like noise and wind and interior hazards like dust. Their structural elements lend themselves to 'green' construction. These materials are more resistant to fire and the elements, and minimize the costs to a building's owners in terms of maintaining the structure in terms and daily energy usage ("Four core initiatives," PCI, 2007)
Active steel repassivator for corroded steel in chloride contaminated reinforced concrete." (25 May 2004). Patent Storm. Retrieved 21 Dec 2007 at http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6740150-description.html
Four core initiatives." (2007). PCI Foundation. Retrieved 21 Dec 2007 at http://www.pci.org/foundation/coreInitiatives.cfm
Paving the way with better batch plants." (Dec 2003).…… [Read More]
The codes also serve as a model, in themselves, of an integrated, comprehensive regulatory framework for public safety in buildings.
City of Dallas uilding Code (2006)
City of Dallas Fire Code (2006)
http://www.dallascityhall.com//pdf/uilding/Chapter52ooklet.pdf - p. 10 Enforcement
Annual check not required, Questions arise about what city could have done to ensure safety
MICHAEL GRAELL and RENDAN M. Dallas Morning News, July 27, 2007.
Dallas to add more safety inspectors, MARK WROLSTAD and SELWYN CRAWFORD.
Dallas Morning News. February 22, 2003.
Code violations shut down homeless shelter. CYNTHIA VEGA. WFAA-TV. Thursday, December 11, 2008
Team didn't have roof work inspected, Cowboys were contractor for '08 project; inquiry may take months
RANDON FORMY. Dallas Morning News. May 5, 2009.… [Read More]
Developing BIM Implementation Strategy for Libyan Construction Sector
Construction, on any project, is a piecemeal affair that often provides so much confusion of parts that it is difficult to ensure that there is not some important element either lost or forgotten. Charles Thomsen, a leading builder, looks inside a construction trailer and sees "a plan rack with separate drawings for architectural, mechanical, plumbing, electrical and civil…special sets of drawings for landscaping, lighting, security networks, way-finding graphics…shop drawings are in racks, buckets or drawers. Book shelves hold loose-leaf notebooks full of FIs" (2010). A need existed for this to all be organized into one package that allowed construction to run more seamlessly than it had in the past. With the amount of material needed for the construction of even a simple structure, organization of the planning material is essential.
Technology provided the means for securing this organization through a…… [Read More]
Summary and Conclusion
There is no way to protect construction workers from every accident that could possibly befall them. The nature of the work is such that complete safety is not guaranteed or even realistically possible. However, that does not mean that the number of fall accidents that occur cannot be reduced. Quite often, it is not a true accident but actual carelessness that is the cause of injuries and deaths on construction sites. Many construction workers forego safety harnesses, for example, because they can be cumbersome and inconvenient. They can make the work take longer, and make it more difficult for the worker to move around. That is especially true in cases where required work means the construction worker will have to unhook and re-hook his harness frequently. This aggravation is a small price to pay for saving lives, but the value of a harness is only seen if…… [Read More]
Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages
Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages
Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.
Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British
Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]
One of those buildings was the International Foreign Trade Center -- Shenzhen's first skyscraper and the tallest building in China (36).
Hong Kong is commonly referred to as a place where "East meets West" because of its hybrid nature. That is, there is a culture mix occurring that is part traditional Chinese as well part ritish due to its colonization by the ritish. Hong Kong is quite a modern place, yet there is an infusion of traditional Chinese practices that makes the place unlike any other in the world. One example of how East may meet West in Hong Kong is how the art of feng shui may be utilized in constructing a modern piece of architecture. The old Chinese traditions are used to support newer ways of thinking and living. The architecture in Hong Kong is contemporary and reflects a more Western style as opposed to a Chinese traditional…… [Read More]
Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…… [Read More]
German Influences on Texas Culture
If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.
Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…… [Read More]
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]
Communication Upgrade Plan
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Abco Company wishes to upgrade its telecommunications technology to a system that is more efficient than the outdated Centrex system now in place. As part of the upgrade plan, the CEO has asked for an explanation of the various systems and technologies available for the upgrade. This research explores various technologies and recommends the proper solution for the business problem at hand.
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Centrex phone system has been the standard in business telecommunications since the 1960s. The system has been the only system of this type for many years. usinesses, such as Abco have had their Centrex System for many years. However, aside from being outdated technology, the Centrex System is no longer the most cost effective solution for businesses. The Abco Corporation has had its Centrex system for as long as anyone can remember. Until recently, no one had…… [Read More]
landscape studies pioneer, John rinckerhoff Jackson, studied the contemporary landscape - common, everyday places where we live, work and play - for the clues it provides to American culture.
In 1964, the American Congress passed the Wilderness Act, thereby protecting over 100 million acres of public land from development. Wilderness was "recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." Wilderness must remain "in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape." Finally, Wilderness is "an untamed natural realm,"..."that's ideally"..."unpeopled.."
People should stay back, as if in front of a picture, admire and enjoy it but they are not allowed to trespass it. The landscape has to remain untouched. As I was reading the above mentioned fragments from the Wilderness Act, a question popped up: "Why?"
Isn't it…… [Read More]
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]
It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.
Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."
In a number of instances, the finds are linked…… [Read More]
Fauvism in 20th-century Paintings
The medium I have selected for the time line I will be working on for the museum website is 20th-century Western painting, sharing the common theme of Fauvism.
th-century Western painting began with the weighty influence of painters like Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Georges Seurat, Henri de Toulouse Lautrec and the like - all of whom played critical roles in shaping the modern art. At the start of the 20th-century Henri Matisse, along with a number of other young artists including Andre Derain, aoul Dufy, and Maurice de Vlaminck collectively influenced the existing Paris art scene by introducing "bold," vividly vibrant paintings of landscapes and figure. The style adopted by these young artists that have been referred to as Fauvism by critics. Fauvism is predominantly talked about as the style characteristic of the works of a seemingly loose group of Modern artists in…… [Read More]
A fourth foundational element is the strength of the Starbucks brand itself and is ubiquity globally. As a result of rapid and well-defined strategies for opening up retail stores, Starbucks is now considered one of the most preeminent and strongest brands globally.
Starbucks has generated the strength of their brand through combining high-quality coffee and tea beverages with the third-place concept to generate customer loyalty and world-of-mouth among customers and their friends. It is common to hear students mention they will have a team meeting at the local Starbucks, for studying or completing projects.
In summary the Starbucks model is strengthened by the company's coffee expertise, impressive new product development record, and the development of Starbucks locations as "third places" where friends can meet and enjoy coffee and pastries. Underscoring all these points is the strength of the Starbucks brand.
What were the key issues and the decision by Starbucks…… [Read More]
Herbert eed saw these bronze sculptures as "apparitions," or "primordial images projected from the deepest level of the unconscious, and they illustrate the truth that the artist is essentially the instrument of unconscious forces" (Mitchinson 1998, p. 246). Others see the uprights as Moore's reflection of World War I, or bombs cut in half lengthways to show their internal workings, giving a long, smooth and rounded shape at the back and a complex series of mechanical forms at the front. In this case, he is anthropomorphizing the bombs by adding facial parts. egardless, these sculptures are highly abstract and ambivalent, impacting people in different ways (Mitchinson 1998)
It is most likely more the case that Moore's uprights are not dark and pessimistic recreations of bombs. When he first saw the prehistoric stone monoliths at Stonehenge in the 1930s, he was elated and began to try different types of sculptures: "I…… [Read More]