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Greenhouse Effect and Global arming
The modern world, while no doubt has provided us with immense luxuries and facilities, it has also come at a cost that our future generation will have to pay. The modernization of our world has meant that our towns and cities expand more and more, and increasingly greater pressure is being put on our planet; this is true, not only in terms of the demands for resources, but also how we are damaging the planet. Industrialization, Deforestation, Urbanization and our inconsiderate lifestyle has already meant a major uprooting of wildlife from their original habitats; all of this is a resultant of human neglect.
This human neglect today can be seen clearly in the form of Climate Change and its various implications. Climate Change is a problem that has taken the entire world in its fold and therefore requires taking a closer look at what and…
BBC Weather Center. Climate Change: Greenhouse Gases. July 2009. 22nd September 2011 .
Effects of Global Warming: Signs are everywhere. n.d. 23rd September 2011 .
Greenhouse Effect. n.d. 22nd September 2011 .
The Greenhouse Effect. n.d. 22nd September 2011 .
He further protested that exempting many developing countries from the five percent reduction clause would place many American industries at a disadvantage in the world market.
For the past decade, the United States government has tried to lower air pollution levels through legislation. Because car emissions are probably the greatest contributor to air pollution, states like California have initiated strict "zero emission vehicle" policies in 1990. Under this mandate, all vehicles in California are required to follow strict emissions guidelines. The Environmental Protection Agency is set to phase in similar antismog standards in the rest of the country beginning in 2004 (Ball).
The need for zero emissions vehicles has spurred auto manufacturers to develop new vehicle technologies that cut down on these emissions.
For example, many auto companies are now marketing cars powered by batteries and fuel cells (Ball). By using alternative sources of energy, these vehicles do not produce…
Ball, Jeffrey. "Fuel for Debate: California Clean-Air Czar's Shift Is New Boost for Diesel Engines." Wall Street Journal. October 24, 2002. Proquest Database.
Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. Chicago: Reed Publishing, 2003.
Robbins, Gary. "UCI's research influential Series: warming." Orange County Register. January 6, 2003: A3. Proquest Database.
United States Environmental Protection Agency.. "Emissions." Global Warming. 23 April 2006. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 23 April 2006 http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/webprintview/Emissions.html .
There are several models using the scientific method used to measure and support the concept of global warming. Scientists are measuring items that have remained on Earth for millions of years, such as the ice core samples, but they are also measuring tree rings and other living indicators of the Earth's temperature. Scientist Johansen continues, "By 1998, the Earth had sustained 20 consecutive years above the 1961 to 1990 average temperature, with the upward curve steepening toward the end of the period" (Johansen 34). This has continued into the 21st century at an even steeper rate, and the scientific evidence points to even greater warming in the next decades.
The bottom line on global warming is that people need to take it more seriously. It seems that many people still do not understand the reality of global warming, and that if the planet continues to warm the way it has…
Editors. "Wrapping Greenland." Discovery.com. Oct. 2008. 19 Dec. 2008. http://dsc.discovery.com/tv/project-earth/lab-books/greenland/greenland-guide1.html
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Pidwirny, M. "The Greenhouse Effect." Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition. 2008. 19 Dec. 2008. http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7h.html
Wheldon, Julie. "Greenhouse Effect Is a Myth, Say Scientists." The Daily Mail 5 Mar. 2007: 28.
Global warming and the greenhouse effect are realities of contemporary living. These phenomena are the result of humankind's lack of stewardship of the environment which put a tremendous strain on nature and every living species thereto. The greenhouse effect is one of the culprits causing global warming and although it is a "natural occurrence that helps regulate the temperature of our planet (EPA 2010)," there are negative effects occurring of late. When the sun hits the earth's surface, "some of this heat escapes back to space. The rest of the heat, also known as infrared radiation, is trapped in the atmosphere by clouds and greenhouse gases (EPA 2010);" this is why it is called the greenhouse effect. ut when the few trace greenhouse gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane, hydrogen, nitrous oxide and ozone (Global Greenhouse Warming 2009) increase in concentration in the atmosphere, less heat energy…
Global Greenhouse Warming. What is Global Warming? 2009. 28 Apr. 2011. .
Kluger, Jeffrey. Global Warming Heats Up. Time/CNN. 26 May 2006. 28 Apr. 2011. .
Ozone Hole. Global Warming. 2010. 28 Apr. 2011. .
Time for Change. Cause and Effect for Global Warming. 2008. 28 Apr. 2011. .
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
John K. Horowitz. "The income-temperature relationship in a cross-section of countries and its implications for predicting the effects of global warming." Environmental and Resource Economics 44(4) December, 2009
Ian Moffatt. "2 Global arming," in the Economics of Climate Change. Edited by Owen, Anothony D. And Nick Hanley, 6-34. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Louis Putterman. "Agriculture, Diffusion and Development: Ripple Effects of the Neolithic Revolution." Economica, 75(300):729 -- 748, November 2008.
Jeffrey D. Sachs, John . Mcarthur, Guido Schmidt-Traub, Margaret Kruk, Chandrika Bahadur, Michael Faye, and Gordon Mccord. "Ending Africa's Poverty Trap." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, no. 1 (2004): 117-129.
Eugene R. ahl and Caspar M. Ammann. "Robustness of the mann, bradley, hughes reconstruction of northern hemisphere surface temperatures: Examination of criticisms based on the nature and processing of proxy climate evidence." Climatic Change, 85 (1-2):33 -- 69, November 2007.
John C. Bluedorn,,Akos Valentinyi, and Michael Vlassopoulos. The Long-Lived Effects…
John C. Bluedorn, Akos Valentinyi, and Michael Vlassopoulos. The Long-Lived Effects of Historic Climate on the Wealth of Nations University of Southampton, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (the central bank of Hungary) 17 November 2009.
Melissa Dell, Benjamin F. Jones, and Benjamin a. Olken. "Climate Change and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Half Century." NBER Working Paper, (14312), June 2008.
Olivier Desch'enes and Enrico Moretti. "Extreme Weather Events, Mortality, and Migration." NBER Working Paper, (13227), July 2007. 2
John Luke Gallup, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and Andrew D. Mellinger. "Geography and Economic Development." International Regional Science Review, 22(2):179 -- 232, 1999.
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…
Earth's Climate System is a complex system that is influenced by many different factors. The manner in which the climate is maintained, and makes life on Earth possible, is a culmination of the atmospheric conditions and the Earth's energy balance that is determined primarily by energy introduced into the system as well as its ability to trap energy in the greenhouse layer. The Earth resides in the "Goldilocks Zone", or the habitable zone, which is believed to be the region around a star in which the right conditions for life can be sustained; recently scientist have been able to discover other planets that could also reside in such zones. (Zin, 2017).
The Earth's climate system provides an ideal habitat for life based on its relationship to the closest star, the sun, and its orbital patterns. The rotation of the earth, as well as the rotation of the moon, give the…
NASA. (N.d.). Climate Change: How do we know? Retrieved from NASA: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
Zin, S. (2017, February 17). SEVEN EARTH-SIZED PLANETS ORBIT A NEARBY STAR, AND THREE ARE IN ITS 'HABITABLE ZONE'. Retrieved from Newsweek: http://www.newsweek.com/seven-earth-sized-planets-orbit-nearby-star-and-three-are-its-habitable-zone-559728
ockstein and Sussman (1979) defined senescence as the period of life where the human body weakens and declines in function rather than grows, a period which is of course associated with physical aging. There is much individual and cultural variation in this process, this is a gradual process, and it occurs across all cultures and in all individuals. Cultural perceptions of aging were also noted by ockstein and Sussman to affect functional abilities as individuals grow older. An acceleration of senescence that occurs due to external factors such as disease, tobacco use, alcohol and drug abuse, poor diet, or physical trauma is known as secondary aging, and for the sake of brevity these factors will not be considered here. As people age there are numerous physical changes that take place that affect functional abilities, some obvious and some not so obvious. There are also cognitive changes that occur as a…
Al-Abdulwahab, S.S. (1999). The Effects of Aging on Muscle Strength and Functional Ability of Healthy Saudi Arabian Males. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 19 (3), 211-215.
Birren, J.E., Butler, R.N., Greenhouse, S.W., Sokoloff, L. & Yarrow, M.R. (Eds.) (1963). Human Aging: A Biological and Behavioral Study. (HSM Publication Number 71-9051). Washington DC: U.S. Publishing Office.
Paterson, DH, Jones, D.R., & Rice, C.L. (2007). Ageing and physical activity: evidence to develop exercise recommendations for older adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98 (Supplement 2), S69 -- S108.
Rockstein, M. & Sussman, M. (1979). Biology of aging. CA: Wadsworth.
Global Warming and Its Effects
For many years, people have been talking about how the weather has changed over the past ten years. In fact, you may have witnessed these changes first hand. The earth's climate has been continuously changing for millions of years. Currently, studies indicate that the Earth is undergoing global warming. The first time I ever heard about global warming was a television commercial. I remember that the commercial featured two children and an adult. In the commercial, the adult started to explain global warming, however his explanation was beyond the scope of the children's understanding. The little girl in the commercial was too confused by the explanation that then prompted the adult to flash-forward into the future to show the children the effects of the climatological concept he was talking about. While the trio are seen in a luscious park at the beginning of the commercial,…
Gore, Al. An Inconvenient Truth. United States: Paramount Classics, 2007. DVD.
Carbon dioxide 07 Dec.2007
Discover the scientific facts on global warming effects 07 Dec.2007
Greenhouse Gas Emissions 07 Dec.2007
(Economic Impacts of Tourism: United Nations Environment Program)
The development of the tourism industry could cost the local government as well as local taxpayers a huge amount of money. The government resources being utilized on developing the airport, roads as well as other infrastructure or providing tax breaks for developing the tourism industry could enable the government to minimize their investment in other important sectors like education as also health thereby affecting local development. Further the seasonal nature of the tourism industry leads to economic issues for areas which are seriously dependent on it. The increased demand from tourists for basic services as well as goods could mostly lead to price hikes which could negatively impact the local residents whose income does not enhance in a proportionate manner. The development of the tourism industry and the increase in the demand for real estate which are being linked could bring about…
Negative Effects of Climate Change
The weather patterns are changing all over the world and it has become one of the most debated issues across the globe with environmentalists having their concerns pertaining to global warming and its adverse effects on the environment in general. It is important for us to note here that scientists at NASA are doing extensive research on this issue and it has been proposed that the climate change is predicted to have harmful effects in some regions of the world; meanwhile the changes in the weather patterns will also have some beneficial effects in some other parts of the world. However, the main focus of this paper will be on the harmful effects of climatic changes (Cox et al.).
Current and Future Consequences
The effects of global climate change on the environment of the world have already been observed by the scientists and environmentalists. Ice…
Cox, Peter M. et al. 'Acceleration Of Global Warming Due To Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks In A Coupled Climate Model'. Nature 408.6809 (2000): 184 -- 187. Print.
Randal Jackson, Amber Jenkins. 'Effects'. Global Climate Change. N. p., 2014. Web. 9 Aug. 2014.
Vitousek, Peter M. 'Beyond Global Warming: Ecology And Global Change'. Ecology 75.7 (1994): 1861 -- 1876. Print.
Writing doesnt have to be a chore.
To prove it, heres a cause and effect essay example that gets down and dirty with a semi-controversial issue that polarizes a lot of people (no pun intended): yes, were talking about climate change.
This topic has been in the news for a good long while.
There have been movies made about it, conferences held about it, and many works of scholarly and not-so-scholarly literature written about it.
So lets take a look at how to turn this subject into the main topic of a cause and effect essay.
Well start off with a title, give you the hook, underline the thesis, and highlight some important parts for you to consider.
Best of all, well show you how to have fun with your essay. Lets go!
b. Did climate change cause Harvey et al.?
Does world trade make the world smaller by bringing people closer together? Or does it divide the globe by creating winners and losers through greater inequality?
Globalization is a complex phenomenon that is often misunderstood. Part of this trend deals with a movement toward more integrated economic and political systems. Yet, today's societies face both an internal and external political environment and socio-economic factors that are marked by unprecedented levels of bipolarization and inequality that have arguably reached new heights relative to any time in human history. Is important to note that globalization is not exactly a new phenomenon, but new developments in technology, more specifically relative to information technology (IT), have allowed citizens of the world to communicate in real time and engage with virtually anyone else in the world.
International organizations have leveraged these new developments and much of globalization is driven by companies that operate internationally…
Bekoe, D., & Parajon, C. (2007, July 1). Developing and Managing Congo's Natural Resources. Retrieved from United States Institute of Peace: http://www.usip.org/publications/developing-and-managing-congo-s-natural-resources
Crump, T. (2006, March 1). The Dutch East Indies Company - The First 100 Years. Retrieved from Gresham College: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/the-dutch-east-indies-company-the-first-100-years
Gronewold, N. (2009, November 24). One-Quarter of World's Population Lacks Electricity. Retrieved from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=electricity-gap-developing-countries-energy-wood-charcoal
Obasi, E. (1997). Structural Adjustment and Gender Access to Education in Nigeria. Gender and Education, 9(2), 161-178.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…
Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/mappingbook.pdf
Choi, CQ (2012) Jupiter's Moon's Ocean May Be Too Acidic for Life. Space. Retrieved from: http://www.space.com/14757-europa-moon-ocean-acidic.html
Jovian Planets vs. Terrestrial Planets (2012) Buzzle. Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jovian-planets-vs.-terrestrial-planets.html
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…
Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html
Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html
JunkScience (2007). "The real "inconvenient truth." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/
NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Warmer temperatures mean more energy in the climate system
1. Warmer oceans and air current mean more violent and frequent hurricanes
2. More frequent and harsher rainstorms may cause flooding
B. Overall changes to weather patterns could be devastating
1. Ocean and air temperatures and current create weather
2. Disrupting these temperatures/currents would lead to major weather changes in many regions of the world, destroying ecosystems
VII. Effects of Global Warming: Melting Ice and ising Oceans
A. In addition to warming, ocean levels will rise
1. Melting ice sheets will cause higher oceans and flooding on continents
2. ising oceans destroy many coastal lands
B. ising oceans and water levels will have severe regional effects on weather
VIII. Effects of global Warming: Animals
A. Many animals are already changing the regions they inhabit
1. As temperatures change, so do ecosystems, and shifting animal populations reflect this
2. Global warming trends…
Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html
Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html
JunkScience (2007). "The real 'inconvenient truth'." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/
NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.
Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).
Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.
London: Icon Books Ltd.
Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer
They eat on ice and they give birth on ice. So if ice will disappear for a significant part of the year, these animals will be lost. The number of polar bears has already started to decrease and that is due to global warming. Scientists believe that although polar bears are great swimmers and they can swim for long distances, they drown because the number of ice sheets is becoming lower and lower.
Another arctic animal that is affected by the global warming is the walrus. Scientists discovered in summer of 2004, in the Canada Basin, a number of lonely walrus caves. They were swimming alone, far away from shore. Until then, scientists did not see walrus calves swim so far away from the shore in the summer. But because of the ice melting and the warmer temperature they need to look for food far away and let their pups…
1. Adam, David, Ocean warming threatens Antarctic wildlife, October 19, 2005, Retrieved December 5th, 2012, from the Guardian website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2005/oct/19/frontpagenews.climatechange
2. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Impacts of a Warming Arctic -- Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, December 13, 2004
3. Baker, Stuart, in the Artic, Marshall Cavendish, September 1, 2009
4. Effects on Wildlife and Habitat, Retrieved December 5th, 2012, from the National Wildlife Federation website: http://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Threats-to-Wildlife/Global-Warming/Effects-on-Wildlife-and-Habitat.aspx
These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.
Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.
Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK
Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…
Baue, B., 2013. Threading the Needle: How BT Integrates Climate Stabilization with Economic Prosperity (Economics). [Online]
Available at: http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/new-metrics/bt-climate-stabilization-economic-prosperity [Accessed 30 March 2014].
BT, 2014. BT Trace. Supply chains that flow. [Online]
Available at: http://www.globalservices.bt.com/uk/en/products/bttrace [Accessed 30 March 2014].
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
However, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions will demand some procedural decisions to be made that will surely entice unpredictable results.
From the viewpoint of an outside management consultant who has been called in to advise top management on what to do, the first task will be the thorough investigation of the international framework seeking to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gasses. Moreover, all steps to be taken in an effort to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic climate change solely on the basis of multilateral arrangements without infringing upon the rights of the self-governed must be itemized and better distinguished. This will lead us to a resolution on ways to diminish, lessen, and ultimately relieve the production of greenhouse gasses emitted by human activity.
I would like to suggest that this is not possible without significant buy-in at the local levels; that citizens of developed countries must recognize the effort as non-zero-sum…
The measures could be introduced through the education of the population and the breaking of these regulations should be severely fined.
2. A better recycling process - This would be supported by the selective garbage collection and would be compulsory to all organizations. Breaking the regulations would be severely fined
3. Stopping deforestation - This must be done across the entire globe and national authorities must be the only ones to grant tree cutting rights and only after intense analyses. Also, new trees must be planted. Illegal deforestation should be punished with imprisonment
4. Modernizing the technologies used by the most polluting industries - these programs should be supported with government subsidies and the states refusing should be internationally trialed
5. educing the usage of resources - this could be achieved by better control and pollution systems and would also reduce the general levels of consumerism, also in the best…
Connor, S., 2005, the Final Proof: Global Warming is a Man-Made Disaster, Independent UK, Edition of February 19, 2005
Kiehl, J.T., Trenberth, K.E., 1997, Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 78, Number 2
Thomas, E.C., 2003, Partnership for Environmental Protection, Press Information Bureau, http://pib.nic.in/feature/feyr2003/fjun2003/f030620031.html, last accessed on March 12, 2008
2005, Expert: China Overtakes U.S. As Top Consumer, China Daily, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-02/17/content_417043.html. Ast accessed on March 12, 2008
The results of rising sea levels on human and animal populations could be catastrophic.
The gases that are primarily causing global warming include simple water vapor and carbon dioxide. To sustain life, some degree of a greenhouse effect is necessary or else most of the sun's warmth would be dissipated into space. The rapid increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to industrialization has, however, created an enhanced warming effect. Therefore, global warming is at least enhanced by human causes. Emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are exacerbating the earth's natural warming process.
Solving the problems associated with climate change requires wholesale changes to the ways human beings produce goods on a large scale. Simply shutting off lights at night might help but the key remains in developing new technologies that reduce emissions at their greatest sources: factories and vehicles including automobiles and airplanes.
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…
Alvarez RA, Pacala SW, Winebrake JJ, Chameides WL, Hamburg SP. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure. (2012), ProcNatlAcadSci USA.
Hansen, James, et al. "Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People Future Generations and Nature." PLOS One (2013). Review.
Heinberg R, Fridley D. The end of cheap coal. Nature, 468(7322): 2010, 367 -- 369. DOI: 10.1038/468367a.
International Energy Agency. 2010 Key world energy statistics, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.iea.org / textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key stats 2010.pdf
Global Warming: Why it is not the greatest fear of the industrializing world, why it is such a great fear for the industrialized world
There is a threat that currently looms upon the horizon, in danger of choking the fragile health of the developing economies of the so-called Third World. This threat is not the so-called global warming phenomena. The long ranging environmental results of the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere still remains unknown, and the data is far from conclusive. What is known by international economists is that the threat of global warming, as deployed as a kind of buzz word and media scare tactic of the environmentalist movement could impede the growth of industrialized nations and reduce the chance of Third World countries improving their living standards.
Despite the words 'Trade not Aid,' as bandied about by corporations such as the Body Shop, there is…
Much oil is also used for heating, especially during winter. Therefore, new commitments toward researching, developing, and making available, on a large scale, alternative sources of heating must be made, and this time kept, as well.
To try seriously, however, to identify and describe one core "solution" to oil dependency; that is both untested and would nevertheless work, in this author's opinion, is (and especially given even the current extent of research and understanding into the gnarly depth of the problem and its myriad continuing causes) not only a fruitless exercise, but extremely naive. Instead, the answer lies in not one solution but combinations of many: starting with will; and continuing (perhaps indefinitely) with persistence, patience, personal and public sacrifice; and a loss of national hedonism; self-centeredness; arrogance, and a sense of personal and national entitlement. All of this, in combination, albeit gradually, could still, if the will were…
Bush, George W. State of the Union Speech, January 31, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:
eBXy3XnVdAMJ: www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/+bush%27s+oil+ dependency+speech&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1.html>
Gulf War." Wikipedia. December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: .
Hybrid Vehicle." November 28, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle.html
Besides the fact that flooding destroys agricultural lands leading to a disruption of food supplies to millions of people, one also has to consider the social impact on areas where there are large population groups. This can lead to forced migration and often to refugee situations, with all the related negative social implications. .
Another important aspect is the increase in serious diseases as a result of global warming. Scientists warn that an increase in temperature also means that infectious diseases could become more widespread. Infectious diseases carried by insects and rodents may also appear in new areas and regions where the population may be unprepared to deal with them. This has already been seen in cases of serious insect -- borne disease, such as Dengue fever, Malaria, West Nile virus, and Yellow Fever.
One also has or bear in mind that in order to understand the devastating effects of…
Climate change responsible for 300,000 deaths a year. Retrieved from http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=3574
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…
Barber, A. (1997. March). Rough language plagues schools, educators say. USA Today, pp 06D.
Committee for increasing high school students' engagement and motivation to learn. National Academies. Internet. http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+_by+_PIN/BCYF-I-01-01-A?OpenDocument.Available on August 25, 2003.
Doyle, M. Failing to connect: Schools face increased pressure when students flunk classes. The Columbian, March 16, 2003, pp Front Page.
Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994. January). Internet. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/.Available on August 25, 2003.
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
Americans will face important decisions as consumers, voters, and global citizens.
We need to understand that global warming has to be treated as a problem for all in order to properly solve it. If we continue to see it as a political issue as we sometimes do, it will never be fully resolved. Earth has to be made livable for everyone. It is not a place for first world or third world countries. It is a place for every human being and all life present here. Thus the issue must be seen clearly and humanitarianly instead of turning into another senseless political debate.
K. Taylor, "apid Climate Change," American Scientist 87 (1999): 320-327.
Scientists' Statement on Global Climatic Disruption, 1997" (Washington, DC: Ozone Action, 1997). Online at www.ozone.org/stateii.html.
K. McDonald, "Debate Over How to Gauge Global Warming Heats up Meeting of Climatologists," the Chronicle of Higher Education (February 5, 1999);…
Richard J. Pierce Jr. Energy Independence and Global Warming Environmental Law. Volume: 37. Issue: 3. 2007. 595+.
J. Lubchenko, "Entering the Century of the Environment: A New Social Contract for Science," Science 279 (1998): 491-497.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: IPCC Second Assesment Report (Geneva, Switzerland: World Meterological Organization, 1995); P. Martens, "How will Climate Change Affect Human Health?" American Scientist 87 (1999): 534-541.
This shows that media outlets have an extremely strong influence on individuals in their belief of global warming. The lack of knowledge in the real application of global warming is startling considering the real earnestness in which each of these individuals expressed their beliefs on global warming.
For the second group of individuals who do not believe in global warming, the results are just as mixed as previously. Although they all seem to very intelligent individuals, none of the three could provide a definition of exactly what global warming was. Although two of them pointed out that greenhouse gases plays a factor. They explained that their understanding or knowledge of global warming has come from multiple sources, and all professed a strong distrust of traditional media outlets as viable and truthful information. One of them interestingly cited the novel "State of Fear" as a strong impetus for why he does…
Barnett, T.P., Adam, J.C., and Lettenmaier, D.P. (2005). "Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions." Nature 438: 303-309
Gerald a. Meehl, et.al., Science Magazine, www.sciencemag.orgHow Much More Global Warming and Sea Level Rise?, 18 March 2005. Retrieved February 11, 2007.
Abarbanel, Albert, and Thomas McCluskey (1950). "Is the World Getting Warmer?" Saturday Evening Post, 1 July, pp. 22-23, 57-63.
Agrawala, Shardul (1999). "Early Science-Policy Interactions in Global Climate Change: Lessons from the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases." Global Environmental Change 9(2): 157-69.
Since its first mention at the UN General Assembly, global warming has come to be regarded the greatest human development challenge for the 21st century (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). This has prompted multiple studies, conventions and policy development meetings aimed at arresting the situation. One such study was the Fourth Assessment eport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Findings released in 2007 showed that global temperatures were unequivocal and accelerating. The magnitude - an average increment of 0.74 degrees centigrade in the past century, was notably the highest warming trend in recent times. The worrying aspect is that the warming trend is bound to continue with a predicted increment of about 1.8-6.4 degrees centigrade in the coming years (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). The increasing temperatures will have profound effects on life on earth as it is expected that the warming will disrupt…
Berg, L.R. (2008). Introductory Botany: Plants, People, and the Environment. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Islam, M.R., Chhetri, A.B., & Khan, M.M. (2011). Greening of Petroleum Operations:The Science of Sustainable Energy Production. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Maslin, M. (2006). Global Warming. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press.
McInerney-Lankford, S.A., Darrow, M., Rajamani, L., & Banque M. (2011). Human Rights and Climate Change: A Review of the International Legal Dimensions. Washington, D.C: World Bank.
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…
"CEH Protects People from Toxic Chemicals and Promotes Business Products and Practices That Are
Safe for Public Health and the Environment." Center for Environmental Health. N.p., n.d.
Web. 01 Mar. 2013.
"How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE." How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE. N.p., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
How global warming induced natural resource shortages will cause violent conflict in the Middle East
Background on Climate Change
Implications for the Middle East
Global warming, or climate change, is no longer begging the question of when the effects of this phenomenon will begin to unfold; rather the changes in the climate are already being witnessed. There are many at risk populations all over the world. Many of these populations already are dealing with food and/or water shortages which will only become more problematic in the near future. Once resources become scarcer and exceed the carrying capacity of the local or regional population then this will introduce a new level of conflict that has the potential to easily become violent. There are few mitigation strategies that can help this point. Migration is always an option, but regional areas will be affected in similar ways. This analysis…
Britanica. (N.d.). Greenhouse Effect. Retrieved from Answers: http://www.answers.com/topic/greenhouse-effect
Brown, O., & Crawford, A. (2009). Rising temperatures, rising tensions: climate change and the risk of violent conflict in the Middle East. Retrieved from IISD: http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/rising_temps_middle_east.pdf
Clayton, M. (2007, March 22). Global boom in coal power - and emissions. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0322/p01s04-wogi.html
CO2 Now. (2011, November 16). Earth's CO2 Home Page. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from CO2 Now.
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…
Antonio, R. & Brulle, A. (2011). The unbearable lightness of politics: climate change denial and political polarization. The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 52 (2011) 195-202.
Cox, P., Betts, R., Jones, C., Spall, S. & Totterdell, I. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate change model. Nature. Vol. 408 (9 November 2000) 184-187.
Crowley, T. (2000). Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science. Vol. 289 (14 July 2000), 270-277.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S., Clausen, H. Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C., & Oeschger, H. (1984). North Atlantic climate oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity.
The Arctic is affected by global warming before the rest of the world because of the presence of ice and snow, and the Arctic will intensify the human consequences of global warming because of the ways ice and snow are integral to regulating Earth's surface and atmospheric temperatures.
The second step in the process of global warming in the Arctic is therefore the melting of ice and snow. Due to the increase in anthropogenic chemical emissions, the greenhouse effect is exacerbated. The exacerbation of the greenhouse effect then causes a rise in surface and atmospheric temperatures. Due to the rising atmospheric and surface temperatures, snow and ice in the Arctic begin to melt. The melting of snow and ice in the Arctic leads to several unfortunate consequences. First, sea levels begin to rise as the ice melts. Rising sea levels can cause major upheavals in climate: not only can flooding…
Bhattacharya, Shaoni, "Arctic Warming at Twice Global Rate." New Scientist. 2 Nov 2004. Online at http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6615 ..
Climate." United States Environmental Protection Agency. 7 Jan 2000. Online at http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/climate.html .
Ravilious, Kate. "Arctic Melt May Dry Out U.S. West Coast." New Scientist. 11 April 2004. Online at http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn4856 .
It is indeed sad to point out that the Kyoto protocol has not been enforced as a result of its rejection by the U.S. government and the ussian move of deferring it.
As pointed out by Hamada (2006).the process of controlling the global weather change should be done through a combined and unified effort of all nations. These must include the entire global community of the developed and the developing nations. It is therefore important to put aside political differences and then advance a sense of unity in coming up with an appropriate framework to be used in tackling global warming. A global strategy should therefore be put forward to tackle the problem. The design of the global strategy must accommodate the situation of all the participating nations. On the technical aspect, the strategy must involve the view of both social and natural scientist.
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global…
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global Warming"
Guardia (2009). Climate change increasing malaria risk, research reveals http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/31/climate-change-malaria-kenya
Hamada, T (2006). How Should Global Society Address Climate Change? - The Kyoto Protocol
The growing population has a great impact on the extent of global warming and its consequences for society, economy and the environment. This means that there is rising in greenhouse emission, more people means more industry. Scientists worry about the emission from developing countries which may contribute to global environment problems even sooner than expected. ut not only the developing countries contributes to the emission but also rich industrialized countries have been putting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for many years now. "20% of the world's population can not continue to indiscriminately pollute the atmosphere at the expense of the majority" (M. Glantz 2005). Rich industrialized countries contributes a higher percentage of emission at the atmosphere that increases the environment's temperature of global warming and results to change of weather pattern to different regions. "Africa's contribution to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases has been minimal,…
Glantz.H. (March 2005) Climate Change Global Warming and Sub-Saharan Africa. Fragile Ecologies. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: http://www.fragilecologies.com/mar02_05.html. s
Global Warming. Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/qthinice.asp
Klueger J. (2008). Global Warming Heats Up. Time Magazine. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1176980,00.html
Increased agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production, and mining also contribute a significant share of emissions. In 1997, the United States emitted about one-fifth of total global greenhouse gases.
Global average surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century. Of these, 1998 was the warmest year on record. Snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Globally, sea level has risen 4-8 inches over the past century. Worldwide precipitation over land has increased by about one percent. The frequency of extreme rainfall events has increased throughout much of the United States. Scientists expect that the average global surface temperature could rise 1-4.5°F (0.6-2.5°C) in the next fifty years, and 2.2-10°F (1.4-5.8°C) in the next century. Evaporation will increase as the climate warms, which will…
Environmental Protection Agency http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/Climate.html
National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming.html
These are valid scientific measurements, which prove that atmospheric CO2 equilibrium has been drastically disturbed by human activities. [Ross Glebspan]
At this rate of increase, the atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected to increase the average global temperature by around 3 to 7 degrees F. y the end of this century. This increase over a hundred-year period represents a huge shift compared against the entire time scale of the planet. Those who argue that global warming is a natural happening have to explain why nature would shift gears all of a sudden? Also, how could increased CO2 levels also be part of the claimed natural process?. These questions and the true facts make it unambiguous that global warming is definitely a man-induced phenomenon. These arguments can be buttressed with the recently documented drastic climatic shifts.
The eleven hottest years of the previous century occurred between 1983 and 2000 while 1991-95 happens…
Environmental Defense, 'Global Warming: The Facts are Clear', available at http://www.undoit.org/pdfs/factsheet_factsclear.pdf Accessed On Nov 14th 2006
Environmental Defense, 'Hurricanes and Global Warming: Is there a Link,"
Available at, http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?contentID=4804&linkID=67 Accessed on Nov 14th 2006
PIPA, 'Global Warming', available at http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/global_warming/gw1.cfm
Given the natural changes in atmosphere, to determine which problems are created by man and which parts by natural occurrences is problematic (Climate 2).
Greenhouse gas concentrations caused by additional land coverage and land use, pouring into the Earth's atmosphere will certainly continue to create additional warming of the Earth's temperatures, raising the average temperature, changing precipitation and storm patterns, as well as raising seal levels from melting glaciers. However, the U.S. Strategic Plan is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at any atmospheric level, implying that net emissions of greehouse gases will need to slow and eventually stop, hopefully reversing the effect, so that greenhouse gas emision will "approach levels that are low or near zero." (Climate 3).
Meanwhile, making small changes in individual homes and yards can create big reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and save money. Changing the kind of light bulbs used, using energy-saving appliances, maintaining heating…
This is true regardless of your belief on this particular issue.
In the last work to be discussed in this document "Global arming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms" there is a cry, by educators to come to terms with the facts about global warming and get a sense of how to teach these facts to educators and students. The information being given to educators is depressing, as one student educator stated and figuring out a way to teach the issues is difficult. ithout the development of a greater understanding of the "butterfly effect" of technology there will likely not be a more responsible humankind.
If the global warming trend continues, the results could be depressing indeed: melting polar ice along with thermal expansion of the oceans could raise the sea level, flooding coastal cities, and many agricultural landscapes could dry out, becoming deserts. And yet,…
Cline, William R. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1992.
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Parsons, Michael L. Global Warming The Truth behind the Myth. New York: Insight Books, 1995.
Rye, James A., Donna D. Strong, and Peter A. Rubba. "Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms." Social Education 65.2 (2001): 90.
The urban village is being constructed on brownfield land that was formerly being used by an oil refinery that was called the Llandarcy Oil efinery that was owned by BP. This oil refinery was constructed between the years 1918 and 1922 and it has been labeled as the first crude oil refinery in the country. Since there were some economic changes, the site was closed in the year 1997 (Brownfield renewal in Wales and South West egion, 2007).
Planned Outputs of the Urban Village
According to the plan that has been prepared for Coed Darcy, the community will comprise of 4,000 homes along with employment space, community facilities as well as open space that covered an area of 1,300 acres. The estimate of the development of this community is about 1.2 billion pounds. Moreover, four new schools have also been planned for this community. These schools include 2…
"Brownfield renewal in the South West and Wales region" (2008). Investor Site Visit - 1st October 2007. St. Modwen Properties PLC.
"Coed Darcy gets outline planning permission" (2007). WalesOnline.
"Coed Darcy Name Revealed at Llandarcy Development Exhibition" (2008). Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council.
"Coed Darcy Urban Village" (2008). The Prince's Foundation.
Moreover, the mean temperature of the planet earth shall only change once there is an inequality between the rates of energy added and energy lost. What this implies is that any substance which can alter the rates of flow of energy may cause the warming of the earth or the cooling of the world.
As far as man-made global warming is concerned, the additional carbon dioxide in the air is known to decrease the rate as which planet earth cools to the exterior space. This readily happens in nature during the greenhouse effect of the atmospheric system. The greenhouse effect is a natural process in which water vapor, clouds, carbon dioxide and methane serve as a radiative blanket. Therefore, the lower atmosphere of the earth and the surface are lagged. Consequently, the earths mean surface temperature is escalated by approximately thirty three degrees celsius. Likewise, the globe's natural greenhouse effect…
Roy, Spencer W.
Models is Wrong.31 May 2009. 24 May 2010.
" (McDonald-Gibson, 2007) Therefore, although the entire planet suffers the consequences, it is a limited part of its inhabitants that perpetuates the crisis. From this perspective, developing nations demanded, on a regular basis even, the right to speak out their intentions and to have a unified position in terms of promoting sustainable development and implicitly the general environmental policies promoted by the UN.
Yet another element is in fact in relation to the previous two. Developed nations, although somewhat reluctant to their limitation of economic practices that would increase the limit of emissions, promised strategies and results for succeeding in reducing the greenhouse effects and all the additional side remarks. In this sense, throughout the debates on environmental policies, states such as Canada, France, and the United States would sponsor any initiative with the precise target. Therefore, there are some proposals for developing nations to reduce their need for fuel.…
European Union. The Kyoto protocol - a brief summary. European Union web site, accessed 19 June 2007, at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/kyoto.htm
Freestone, David, and Charlotte Strech. Legal aspects of implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Mechanisms. Making Kyoto work. Oxford: OUP.
Hohmann, Harald. Basic documents of international environmental law. International Environmental Law & Policy Series. Vol 1. London: Graham&Trotman, 1992.
Hollo, Erkki ed al. Legal aspects of climate change: Instrument choice and the Kyoto mechanisms. Retrieved 19 June 2007, at http://www.sci.utu.fi/projects/maantiede/figare/UGS/UGS-177.pdf
Global warming occurs due to the rise in temperature. The trapping of light and heat from the sun causes this rising of temperature. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor are the green house gases, these gases trap the light and heat from the sun, and as a result, the temperature rises. This global warming hurts a large number of people, plants and animals living in the earth. There are many reasons due to which global arming is increasing day by day. Human beings also cause global warming but many other things are also responsible for it (Maslin, 2006).
The main activity that human beings perform due to which global warming occurs is to flaming the fossil fuels. Whiled riving a car, carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect. In addition to this, jet fuel in the airplane also contributes in releasing the carbon…
Archer, D. (2011). Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Karling, H.M. (2011). Global Climate Change. Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publ.
Maslin, M. (2006). Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press.
The same thing with our super-modern companies and school: although they have found sophisticated ways to conceal their garbage from people's eyes, the garbage still exists and is contaminating to the atmosphere. As is known, despite their tremendous care taken to avoid lethal gas emission, the landfill may still produce emission of methane gas that is produced by the decaying waste material and modern garbage, concealed thoguh it is by our institutions, produces the same results.
Recycling is still our only option. It has a superior effect on reducing lethal emissions since it reduces the amount of energy used by the industry most of which produces fossil fuels like gasoline, diesel and coals that transform themselves into carbon dioxide, methane, and other toxic greenhouse effects. In this way, recycling acts as preventative rather than as implementation after matter (Morris, 1996). Incinerators and landfills used in recycling projects also produce reduced…
Pennsylvania. Department of environmental protection. Recycling saves our environment.
Rogers H (2002) Gone Tomorrow: The Hidden Life of Garbage USA: New Press
San Luis Obispo County (2004) Comparison of environmental burdens. San Luis Obispo County Integrated Waste Management Authority San Luis Obispo, California
Currently she is a Scientist III working with the Institute for the Study of Society and Environment (ISSE) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. Her research focuses on human exploitation of climate-sensitive natural resources, and the socioeconomic and institutional factors affecting resource management decisions in the context of uncertainty and competing interests.
Dr. Thomas J. ilbank received a Ph. D. In Geography from Syracuse in 1969. He is a recognized expert in energy and environmental policy, developing countries, global change, technology and society, and institution-building. Currently he is employed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the title of Corporate Research Fellow and Leader, Global Change and Developing Country Programs. Dr. ilbank has studied the links between everyday economic and household activities and climate change. He is a contributor to the book, Global Change and Local Places: Estimating, Understanding, and Reducing Greenhouse Gases. This book reports on…
Hansen, James. GISS Personnel Directory. 2010. Goddard Institute for Space Studies. 27 July 2010. .
Miller, Kathleen. Institute for the Study of Society and Environment. 2010. Kathleen Millar's Home Page. 27 July 2010. < http://www.isse.ucar.edu/staff/miller/index.php>.
Simmons. 5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming. NDI. Environmental Graffiti. 27 July 2010. .
Wilbank, Thomas J. Environmental Sciences Division. 2010. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 27 July 2010. < http://www.esd.ornl.gov/people/wilbanks/index.shtml >.
As of May 2, 2009, CNN has reported there are 160 confirmed cases of swine flu across the United States of America and about 108 cases throughout the rest of the world.
Although the swine flu (H1N1) strain's discovery in the 1930s has shown not so much an aggressive spread of the disease through the years worldwide, a flaccid approach to the prevention and eradication of any communicable pathogen could result into a catastrophe worldwide, as transmission methods are numerous and casual like mere sneezing, coughing, and usual human activities, like handshakes, kissing and talking with an infected or healthy pathogen carrier.
Preventive measures include keeping one's self healthy by having a well-balanced diet, taking in ample or optimal amounts of water (8 glasses of water for normal individuals) to keep one normally hydrated, getting enough quality sleep and rest (normally 8 hours of sleep) with some stress relieving naps,…
Black, Richard. Global Warming risk 'much higher'. BBC NEWS. 23 May 2006.
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
30 and 0.50 g-hp-hr for the same factors respectively.
The actions taken by the EPA in this regard is justified given the fact that greenhouse gases account for 90 to 99% chance of global warming. Some of the prominent greenhouse gases that contribute to this problem are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and HFCs. In the U.S., emission from heavy-duty vehicles on highways account for 28% of the problem. So, the EPA has to intervene at some point to control these emissions and this is the right way forward. This rule will discourage manufacturers from introducing vehicles that are high on performance, but continue to emit high amounts of greenhouse gases such as nitrogen oxide.
Most manufacturers today have the technology to reduce these emissions and it is a matter of personal choice whether they want to use the technology or not for a cleaner air. Some manufacturers do not…
Johnson, Tim. (2011). "Vehicle Emissions Review 2011." Corning.
Environmental Protection Agency. (August 2011). "Final Rule making to establish greenhouse gas emissions standards and fuel efficiency standards for medium and heavy-duty engines and vehicles." http://epa.gov/otaq/regs/hd-hwy/ncp/420f12001.pdf (Accessed March 9, 2012).
Environmental Protection Agency. (January 31, 2012). "Non-conformance penalties for on-Highway Heavy duty diesel engines." http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-31/html/2012-1936.htm (Accessed March 9, 2012).
The Debate of Global Warming
Global Warming is a serious problem for our planet and our generation. This is a topic of much concern and debate. The climate change in our environment has been the center of many debates. Global warming is the increase in temperature in the earth's surface and in the oceans. This increase in temperature and potential continued increase in temperature is a significant threat to the environment and planet earth as we know it. This type of imbalance in the environment can impact us significantly. Scientist believes that there are things we can do as a society to prevent this horrible change in climate.
There are some natural causes that create the climate changes. One of the natural causes is the release of methane gas from the arctic tundra and wetlands. The greenhouse gas is a gas that collects heat and keeps it stored…
Climate Change Information Resources (2004). What causes global climate change? Retrieved from http://ccir.ciesin.columbia.edu/nyc/pdf/q1a.pdf
Environment News Service (2002). U.S. Report Links Human Actions to Global Warming. Retrieved from http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jun2002/2002-06-03-02.asp
Langdon, K. (2003). Human Activity and Global Warming. Journal of the Prometheus Society. 140. Retrieved from http://www.polymath-systems.com/pubpol/globwarm.html
Causes of Global Warming
In the past twenty (20) years, human society has consumed and emitted yearly total emissions of about 6 billion metric tons of "carbon dioxide equivalent" gases worldwide, according to National Geographic (2011). These yearly emissions may seem irrelevant as a number, but this is the amount of gases emitted that contributed to the worsening condition of global warming in the world today. Global warming has so far resulted to the alarming and gradual climate change happening in most parts of the world today. Summer time could be shortened because of global warming, followed by a period of strong rains in unexpected seasons. Harvest period for farmers are significantly changed as a result of unexpected draughts or shorter periods of rain in another part of the country. What was expected as rain turned out to be a shower of hail stones. These are just observed changes in…
"What causes global climate change?" (2005). Climate Change Information Resources- New York Metropolitan Region. Available at: http://ccir.ciesin.columbia.edu/nyc/pdf/q1a.pdf
"What causes global warming?" (2011). National Geographic Official Website. Available at: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-causes
perturbed by humanity (how and why)?
Although the most obvious effect of human-generated climate change may be the warming of the earth, it is not the only negative impact of the increased concentration of fossil fuels in the environment. This is reflected in notions such as the fact that "environmental consequences of increasing ocean acidity, caused by the solution of CO2, may be at least as serious as greenhouse-induced temperature rise." The increased solution of CO2 due to industrialization can affect the massive amounts of flora and fauna living in the ocean, which can also have an impact upon terrestrial life which depends upon fish for food. The fishing industry is likely to be impacted as well as animals that depend upon fish to survive.
Climate change is also not easily reversible. "Natural sources and sinks of CO2 are closely balanced, maintaining the total abundance in the atmosphere and oceans…
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
In the GEOMA methodology, carbon dioxide displaces methane within the water lattice which reforms into a more stable state than was present with the methane. While this new technology is still in development, it is very promising (Traufetter, 2007). ecent advances by researchers from Japan, China, India, Canada, Australia, and the United States could result in commercial exploitation of Methane gas within the decade.
Natural gas recovery techniques have come a long way since that first primitive well in Fredonia. Now, a complex and sophisticated process brings natural gas from the field to your home. Exploration for new sources of natural gas has become a highly evolved science. Geologists study the physical structure of a potential site. The scientists can use seismology and magnetometers to develop three dimensional models of the earth using computer programs designed for that purpose. These models allow the geologists to narrow down specific areas that…
Gaia Theory: A Critical Analysis
In the 1960's, James Lovelock, a British atmospheric chemist, was engaged in research commissioned by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration
NASA) in the United States. Specifically, the studies were intended to develop a method for determining reliably whether or not biological life existed on Mars. Part of Lovelock's work involved analyzing certain elements of Earth's atmospheric properties and mechanisms, in order to understand how a planet teeming with biological life might be differentiated accurately from interplanetary distances from a planet completely devoid of biological life (Enteractive, 1995).
While Lovelock's NASA research project originally pertained to Mars rather than to the Earth, his findings led him to postulate a theory in which he characterized
Earth as a complex living organism, rather than merely an inanimate host for the many terrestrial life forms dependent on it for sustenance. Lovelock called his theory
Gaia" after an ancient…
American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science (Feb 3/98)
Gaia Hypothesis to Get Some Respect? Accessed August 20, 2004, at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:28868503&num=18&ctrlInfo=Round5b%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=
Enteractive. Earth Explorer (Feb 1/95) Gaia: Theory of a Living Earth. Accessed August 20, 2004, at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:28013470&num=11&ctrlInfo=Round5b%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=
Gould, S.J. (1991) Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History