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Losing a loved one is a major event that every individual experiences because death is a normal part of life. The process through which an individual approaches death or grieves after losing a loved one is usually affected by his/her social environment. The social environment affects this process through familial, societal, and cultural factors. One of the most common issues in today's social work practice helping clients deal with the loss of a loved one. Consequently, understanding the grieving process and models is an important competency for social workers because of the likelihood of handling clients who need to learn and know how to grieve with the loss of a loved one. An understanding of the grieving process helps the social worker to understand how to address the needs of a grieving individual and his/her family. However, social workers need to develop self-care strategies since handling such individuals can…
Grieving in Literary Works
Wolterstorff is able to find joy after his loss in more than one way. Specifically, the author was actually able to transition through the various stages of grieving as outlined by Elisabeth Kubler-oss. Those stages include denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and understanding (Ferrini and Ferrini, 2008). Towards the end of the book, for instance, it is clear that he is able to arrive at an understanding of the entire significance of the death of his son and in that understanding he is able to once more experience joy. That understanding, of course, has a lot to do with his faith as a Christian as much as his ability to transition through the aforementioned five stages. It is pivotal to understand that the evolution of an individual through each of these five stages is not linear, and Wolterstorff's experience certainly details this fact. Still, he is able…
Ferrini, R.L., Ferrini, A.F. (2008). Health in the Later Years. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1997). On Death and Dying. New York: Scribner. Print.
Matthew. (n.d.) The book of Matthew. www.biblegateway.com / Retrieved from https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+12%3A36&version=KJV
therapy is usually applied in cases such as the one exhibited by Kong, following the loss of a loved one. The procedure is outlined below:
The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview
The informal assessment of individuals faced with the effects of the loss of a loved one such as Kong's case is the semi structured interview. This approach allows the therapist to classify victims according to the symptoms that they exhibit. The approach allows for the recording of changes in profile symptoms demonstrated over time. The information below should be collected from a client.
The mental illness history of the family
Ones medical history
Any past visits or interactions with a psychiatrist
One's social history
Varying aspects of one's specific information should be collected regarding the loss of a loved one
There is need to focus the interview details on the secondary and primary…
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…
Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption. http://www.adoption-articles.com/adoption_business.htm
Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/224728/adoption_the_child_commodities_market.html?page=2
Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.
Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York
The first on the recommended list is that the physician must acknowledge the grief that the person is feeling, and also acknowledge the fact that he, himself, may not know what the bereaved person is going through at that particular moment. He can directly express sympathy for the bereaved family, and he can talk freely about the deceased, and mention his name too, when talking about him. He can elicit questions about the exact circumstances in which the death had occurred, and he can ask direct questions about how the bereaved feels, and what he thinks about the death and how it has affected him. The don'ts to be followed by the physician or clinician are that the clinician must never adopt a casual or passive attitude, like for example, saying, 'call me if you want to talk'. He must also learn never to make statements that what happened was…
Ambrose, Jeannette. "Traumatic Grief, what we need to know as Trauma Responders" Retrieved from http://www.ctsn-rcst.ca/Traumaticgrief.html. Accessed 15 July, 2006
Christie, Grace. (2000) "Healing Children's Grief, surviving a parent's death from cancer"
Crisis Intervention" Retrieved at http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Crisis-intervention.html. Accessed 14 July, 2006
Davidson, Joyce D. (1999) "Living with Grief, at work, at school, at worship"
Biological Aspects of Aging
I can honestly say that I have been extremely affected by this course in terms of general knowledge related to the death, dying and grieving process. Prior to taking this class, I was largely ignorant of the various processes that all people (who live long enough) go through relating to their interminable procession towards the grave. One of the most salient aspects about this particular course was the ramifications of improvements in science, technology, and medical care that has allowed for an increasingly aging population. With many baby boomers now headed towards their latter stages of life, the relevance of this class, its textbook, and additional course materials has never been greater. In certain ways, I feel as though I am much more cognitively prepared for what is to come in the future. Yet one of the benefits of this class is that it has also…
Ferrini, R.L., Ferrini, A.F. (2008). Health in the Later Years. New York: McGraw-Hill.
No author. (2001). "Types of euthanasia." PregnantPause.org. Retrieved from http://www.pregnantpause.org/euth/types.htm
Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows
The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.
Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…
Bibliography for Chapters One and Two
Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson
Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).
I was able to see the patience and love that Jane has extended to my children. She very patiently taught my youngest child all his shapes and colors during his eighteenth month.
Jane's effort in teaching my children was manifested in ways more than one. My middle child showed drastic improvements in her reading level. She even jumped two reading levels in just one year! My eldest daughter, on the other hand, was able to excel in soccer and in school as well. I must say that my children have become the well-adjust persons that they are now through Jane's help.
One of the best things that Jane did for my family, especially for my children was helping them during one of the toughest times of their lives. In 2006, my children lost their mother. Jane's presence got them through this grieving process. She was not just their nanny, nor…
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf
Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.
Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…
Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.
Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic
Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5
Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
In the case of the former of these groups, there is a demand for proper training and experience in helping family members face the practical realities imposed by the death of a loved one. Further, research demonstrates that many acute care settings are lacking in the capacity to manage these particular issues, failing particularly to make some of the most basic steps needs to help the bereaved face this difficult period. According to Murphy et al. (1997), a survey of area hospice facilities revealed that such settings were problematically deficient in the areas of preparation for bereavement. Accordingly, Murphy et al. report that "the facilities completed surveys about on-site services routinely offered by licensed hospice agencies. 55% of the homes sent sympathy cards after the patients death. 99% of the facilities did not provide materials to the family or primary caregiver on the grieving process or bereavement after the death.…
Benoliel, J.Q. (1999). Loss and Bereavement Perspectives, Theories, Challenges. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 30(4), 263-272.
Birtwistle, J.; Payne, S.; Smith, P. & Kendrick, T. (2002). The role of the district nurse in bereavement support. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 38(5), 467-478.
Bunting-Perry, L.K. (2006). Palliative Care in Parkinson's Disease: Neuroscience Nursing Implications: Bereavement Care. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 38(2), 106-113.
Hanson, L.C.; Danis, M. & Garrett, J. (1997). What is wrong with end-of-life care? Opinions of bereaved family members. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 45(11), 1339-1344.
Charlie Fineman who is played by actor Adam Sandler in the 2007 movie Reign Over Me, is a man who, following the 9/11 attacks, has lost his wife and daughters. Unable to confront the trauma consciously, he develops an unusual behavior, choosing to cut himself off from the life he used to know before the tragic events occurred. He becomes withdrawn and non-communicative, his behavior reflecting a vegetative state. He feels unable to let go of the past and develops an obsessive, non-dangerous attachment that determines him to remodel his kitchen regularly. Because of the last words he had said to his wife, remodeling the kitchen became Fineman's response to the guilt he was feeling. He thus developed a survivor's guilt to which he responded. He also cannot respond positively to social interactions because he has implanted himself with the belief that people would only remind him of the loss…
reaking up is never easy whether you are the person who is breaking up or you are on the receiving end. Humans, by nature, are creatures of habit and tend to avoid change, even if the situation we are in makes us unhappy. The fear of breaking up is a fear of the unknown. Even though a relationship is not fulfilling, or perhaps has problems such as abuse or other issues, often we are reluctant to end it, because fear of the unknown is greater than our perceived discomfort. reaking up is a loss, the process that we go through when we break up with someone is much the same as when a loved one dies. Some of the same techniques that help us through a loss by death can help us to regain our footing and go on with our life after a break up.
There are three…
Archer, J. The nature of grief. London: Routledge. (1999).
Attig, Tho we grieve: Relearning the world. New York: Oxford University Press.. (1996).
Benner, D.G. (Ed.). Baker encyclopedia of psychology and counseling. (2nd ed.). Grand Rapids,
MI: Baker Books. (1999).
Lewis writes a Grief Observed
Lewis: A Grief Observed
In C.S. Lewis' A Grief Observed, Lewis talks of the process of grief. Specifically, he discusses this process through a long and painful and journey which deals with the death of his wife. While he is not interested in going back he does talk about his love for his wife Joy and how this particular experience of grief meshes with ideas that he has expressed in some of the earlier things that he's written. Even though he spends much time revisiting the memories of the past he says that he finds that he is terrified by the idea of going back and being happy begin in that same way (Lewis, 70). He goes through various stages of grief and his faith undergoes much analysis and reflection. Sometimes he remembers some of the things about Joy that affect him very strongly.
African-American males between the ages of 15 and 24 are at relatively higher risk of suicide according to Center for Disease control and prevention. Since 1980s the suicide rate has increased tremendously and many young seemingly successful males are committing suicide following years of suffering from chronic depression. Such cases highlight the importance of recognizing signs of depression young males but since researches and studies do not always reach parents on time, they fail to stay on top of it. This is how Gina Smallwood felt when in 2008 her young son shot himself right before his 20th birthday. (Thomas, 2009) Gina had no idea Kelvin was at the risk of suicide or that there were any statistics that placed African-American youth at greater risk of suicide. Instead she felt that since her son had been an honor student and had a bright future ahead of it; suicide would be…
Poussaint, A., & Alexander, A. (2000). Lay my burden down: Unraveling suicide and the mental health crisis among African-Americans. Boston: Beacon
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control.
Suicide injury deaths and rates. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov
Barnes, DH (2006). The Aftermath of Suicide Among African-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3), 335-348.
Loss of loved ones is always traumatic and always requires sort-term and long-term emotional recovery. In situations where the family has the opportunity to hold a funeral ritual and also to include the remains in whatever particular way their culture prescribes, the funeral ritual provides an opportunity to fully (and publicly) express grief in the manner that (at least) eliminates the unconscious (or repressed) grief of loss that can otherwise re-emerge long after the typical grieving process. Families who have certainty about the loss of their loved one also have the opportunity afforded by psychological closure to begin the long-term process of emotional recovery to the normalcy of life without acute emotional sorrow or worry.
By contrast, in situations where their surviving family members lack certainty about the loss and have no opportunity to hold a funeral ritual, surviving family members may not have an opportunity to fully (or publicly)…
Levine, Carol. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
Iowa: McGraw Hill. 2008.
Sagan, Carl. Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House. 1997.
In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious teachings and substituting the rules of organized religion with very basic ideas such as "do no harm." In that regard, the commandment "do unto others" is a perfectly useful and easily understandable ethical principle that could be taught with much better results without the cloak of its religious context.
Instead of teaching that human beings are incapable of ascertaining what is right and what is wrong without divine help and that we are morally tarnished by our involuntary thoughts, we would learn that one ought not to treat other unfairly or cause them harm and that the worse our involuntary desires and thoughts, the more moral credit we deserve for resisting the impulse to act on them. Ultimately, one of…
Egner, R.E. And Denonn, L.E. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London,
Einstein, A. (1999). Ideas and Opinions. (Edited by Seelig, C.) New York: Crown.
Hawking, S. (2001). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes.
Armstrong's findings additionally relate that due to previous research and the influence of perinatal loss on postpartum depression on partnered relationships. Armstrong states that differences in continued psychological stress between mothers and fathers after a subsequent birth is another area requiring further evaluation. Specifically stated is that it is necessary to evaluate "...the strength of partnered relationships during future childbearing experiences is important to identify any potential influence of the loss on couple, as well as family, outcomes. Understanding possible gender differences may help neonatal nurses and other healthcare providers to recognize couples at risk for discord." (2007)
Neonatal nurses are those who work closely with infants and parents and in the best position to make identification of depression and to pose questions about the individuals symptoms including:
3) energy or fatigue levels;
4) ability to concentrate; and 5) as well the neonatal nurse is in…
Gold, K.J., Dalton, V.K. And Schwenk, T.L. (2007) Hospital Care for Parents After Perinatal Death. Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 109. No. 5 May 2007.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E. And Evans, CDH (2002) Assessment of Guidelines for Good Practice in Psychosocial Care of Mothers After Stillbirth: A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2002;360:114-18.
Alexander, K.V. (2001) the One Thing You Can Never Take Away": Perinatal Bereavement Photographs. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing Vol. 26(3) May/June 2001. 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Greiving Case Study
Grief is a powerful, and somewhat self-regulating condition which we face having experiences a traumatic event. The wonders of our human ody respond with pre-programmed efficiency in order to help us adjust to the reality of the new situation. In the face of a traumatic occurrence, when our emotional or mental reaction may e to shut down, or run and hide, the grieving response gives a person the needed oundaries in which they can continue to function. However, some time after the events have past into the distance, the need exists for the person to process through the grief. Only y processing the grief can the person reenter a healthy relationship with the daily responsiilities of life, and healthy relationships with others in their life.
Charley's current situation in life is a function of poor decisions in his adult life. However, these decisions are also a response…
Lindemann, Erich. (1994) "Symptomatology and Management of Acute Grief." In Essential Papers on Object Loss. New York: New York UP, 1994.
Major Depressive Episode. (2004) Bravenet clinical Capsule. Accessed 18 Feb 2004. Available from: http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/mjrdepep.htm
Alcorn Jr., M. (2001, Spet. 22) Ideological Death and Grief in the Classroom: Mourning as a Prerequisite to Learning. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society/
Manveet, K. (2002, June 4) Children and grief New Straits Times;
First, the assignment of an arbitrary time period where bereavement is "normal" and after that particular time frame it becomes dysfunctional has no empirical basis. Secondly, the exclusion criteria in the DSM -- IV -- T most likely resulted in individuals who would have benefited from treatment not receiving treatment for their depressive symptoms until this particular time period expired. That is inexcusable. Finally, the research indicates that there may be some minor differences between bereavement and major depression; however, the two are not often clinically distinguishable aside from noting that in one case there was a loss of a loved one and yet individuals who are experiencing severe symptoms in bereavement are at risk for more serious issues. By eliminating the exclusion criteria clinicians are given much-needed room to treat their patients in individualized basis as opposed to a standardized cookie-cutter protocol.
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(3rd Ed.). Washington DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th Ed. -- Text Revision). Washington DC: Author.
Equally destructive is the attitude that communicating with the Deaf person may involve more time and effort than one wishes to expend" (Zieziula, 1998, p. 193).
Moreover, and perhaps one of the most important challenges related to this issue, a large percentage of deaf individuals do not trust the hearing society. "Historically, the dominant hearing culture has relegated deaf people to social categories such as "handicapped" and "outsider." The history of oppression and exclusion of the deaf community -- although with important variations depending on the countries -- and the ignorance and rejection of the natural and preferred means of communication of many of them is a well-known and many times denounced phenomenon," (Munoz-Baell & uiz, 1999, p. 1).
Finally, there is a real deficiency of information in Deaf culture regarding hospice and its related services. Finding appropriate facilities can be a time-consuming and frustrating process.
The program: breaking down…
Berke, J. (2009). Deaf Awareness Week. Retrieved April 10, 2010, from the About.com Website: http://deafness.about.com/cs/events/a/deafawareness.htm
Deaf Community Health Workers Provide Education and Support to Deaf Patients, Facilitating
Access to Linguistically and Culturally Appropriate Care, Improving Patient Health
Knowledge and Adherence to Recommended Care. (2005.) Retrieved April 10, 2010, from the AHRQ Health Care Website: http://www.innovations.ahrq.gov/popup.aspx?id=2757&type=1&name=print
Death and Dying
There is no right or wrong way to react to someone's death or to someone who is dying. Grief is as individual as anything can be. Some cry uncontrollably and even have to be sedated. Others become silent and uncommunicative. A person's culture will invariably impact the way they grieve because it will socially dictate behaviors that are appropriate or inappropriate to a given set of conditions. There are some communities which, instead of grieving, choose to think only of the good times that they spent with the deceased. The Irish tradition of the wake exemplifies this model of grief. Other cultures, such as the Jewish people, will take days to mourn their loved one and devote a week to the process. In the United States there are many cultures all living in one place and each has its own practices about dealing with grief and the…
"Perspectives on Death: Cultural and Historical."
Being dismissed coldly by a partner can be a bit like having a partner die, haram writes on page 62. And when you go through the grief of losing a sweetheart who has been with you for years, "being present in the emotion is the best way forward" even though it "just doesn't feel" right at the time.
Emotional intelligence can be implemented into any situation, especially a situation where death is involved. and, as this paper pointed out through the literature, emotional intelligence helps the sufferer understand why it is necessary to "cry…scream or get angry" when the shock of sudden loss hits. In the end, the emotionally intelligent person will be thankful that he or she did not ignore the emotions. hether or not omens appear in dreams, when the loved one is near death, the steps that are taken to deal effectively with the situation…
Berta, Peter. (2007). Omens. Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Retrieved March 1, 2011, from http://www.deathreference.com/nu-pu/omens.html.
Goleman, Daniel. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Random House
McBride, Patricia, and Maitland, Susan. (2001). The EI Advantage: Putting Emotional
Essentially, by taking such a strong stance against breaking their own regulations, even in cases of death, Yahoo! was upholding utilitarian principles in order to benefit the community as a whole. Thus, the company was focused on upholding a commitment to privacy for all of its members. It was unfortunate that Justin Ellsworth lost his life in the line of battle, but that could not jeopardize the promise Yahoo! made to its millions of users. If the company was to just give up one user password, it could have the potential to do so again, thus risking the privacy rights of others. Moreover, there are also deontological considerations against the internet company giving up private account information, even after death. In this sense, the company had an obligation to Justin Ellsworth to uphold its promise of protecting his personal information. The marine had himself agreed to the terms and conditions…
Leach, Susan Llewlyn. (2005). Who gets to see the e-mail of the deceased? The Christian Science Monitor. Web.
Losing a son or daughter challenges personal faith in God and can bring a person to the brink of despair. In Lament for a Son, Nicholas Wolterstorff accomplishes the difficult goal of communicating his grief over the loss of his son. The author achieves his goal by grounding his sorrow in Biblical truth and also by allowing himself to proceed between the various stages of death within the Kubler-oss model. The stages of grief include the initial phase of denial and self-isolation, even shame. Anger is a pervasive problem in the face of grief, and Wolterstorff admits his confrontation with anger at God and the seeming unfairness over the death of his son. Accompanying anger is often the stage of bargaining, in which the individual speaks to God without a full acceptance or understanding of His ways. Wolterstorff's challenge, which he seeks to communicate with his readers, is…
Axelrod, J. (2006). The 5 Stages of Loss and Grief. Psych Central. Retrieved on March 6, 2015, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-5-stages-of-loss-and-grief/000617
Wolterstorff, N. (1987). Lament for a Son. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Worden, J.W. (2008). Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy. 4th edition. Springer.
Paul dealt with the various issues of the Thessalonian church in both a practical and theoretical manner. He chose to deal with grief and loss by enabling discussion and explanation of the Second Coming and the concept of resurrection. He provided comfort and guidance to his members, a social aspect of associations and clubs often witnessed within their cities. In addition, he preached a ministry of pleasing God to prepare for the day when Christ returns.
Greek city life often involved clubs and associations. This meant most Greeks participated in social clubs and activities. Paul operated within a club or association context. He knew this was a practical way to appeal to the Thessalonians as clubs and associations allowed members to participate, created a sense of community, and even covered funeral expenses. Paul also knew the omans would not view the synagogue as a threat if it were seen as…
Authors, V. (2008). Holy Bible (NIV).
Grant, M. (1986). A guide to the ancient world. [Bronx, N.Y.]: H.W. Wilson.
Polhill, J. (1999). Paul and his letters. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman.
1. Paul worked for money instead of simply relying on contributions and donations. (True or False)
Losing a pet is difficult for anyone, but children may take longer to grieve and get over the loss than adults do. A small amount of depression, acting out, or gloominess can be expected, and should go away. Longer periods or abnormal activity following loss should be addressed by the parent, a counselor or minister, or a grief counselor. Warning signs of severe or prolonged grief will vary depending on the child's age, relationship with the pet, emotional maturity, circumstances involved with the death, and so on.
Others find that children are far more resilient that adults in coping with death. Because they have a limited ability to understand chronology, unless faced with something quite traumatic, they are usually able to process grief, accept the issue, and sometimes with a little help or explanation, simply move through the issue with very little scaring. Children are exposed to many more issues…
Alat, K. (2002). "Traumatic Events and Children: How Early Childhood Educators
Can Help." Childhood Education. 79 (1): 2.
Bjorklund, D. 2006-08-10 "Spot Died Last Week: Children's Picture Books About
the Death of a Pet" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American
Sally and Mike have experienced the tragic loss of their son. Their differential coping mechanisms are creating new conflict in the marital relationship. Sally reports morbid reflection and possible suicidal ideation. Mike has possibly reached a state of acceptance about their son's death, but he might also be stuck at the first stage of Kubler-Ross's model, which is denial. There are several layers of this crisis, but it is important to target issues in a straightforward way to keep the crisis intervention brief, as it is designed to be.
Crisis interventions using the ABC Model are designed to be brief and to the point. In the case of Sally and Mike, the ABC Model can be combined with the application of Kubler-Ross's Five Stages of Death and Dying. These five stages include Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance. Reaching a point of acceptance is a treatment goal.
The ABC Model…
Art therapy is particularly useful with younger children. With children under the age of eight it can be difficult for them to grasp the concept of death, it can be equally as difficult for them to express the things they are feeling about the loss of a loved one (Shaw, 2000). Through the medium of drawing or painting a counselor may gain a better understanding of their patient's subjective experience of the loss as well as any unresolved emotions or unanswered questions remaining after the fact. Art therapy is also an effective means of determining the relative normality of a child's cognitive function following a traumatic event (Shaw, 2000).
Older children respond more effectively to client centered interviews (Shaw, 2000). A client centered interview is a psychoanalytic approach which encourages the patient to talk extensively guided minimally by questions or suggestions from the therapist. This approach might allow through the…
1. Tomita, T., & Kitamura, T. (2002). Clinical and research measures of grief: A reconstruction. Comprehensive psychiatry, 43, 95- 102.
2. Larson, D., & Hoyt, W. (2007). What has become of grief counseling? An evaluation of the empirical foundations of the new pessimism. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 347- 355.
3. Currier, J., Holland, J., & Neimeyer, R. (2007). The effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children: A meta- analytic review of controlled outcome research. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, 36, 253- 259.
4. Forte, a., Hill, M., Pazder, R., & Feudtner, C. (2004). Bereavement care interventions: A systematic review. BMC Palliative Care, 1-14.
Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.
Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…
A.J., an 82-year-old female, was admitted three weeks ago with acute on chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) after presenting to the emergency department (ED) with c/o progressive worsening SOB, leg edema, and fatigue. She has a history of severe CHF, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction (MI), renal insufficiency, and hypothyroidism. Since admission, A.J. has needed intubation and ventilation for acute decompensated heart failure due to a massive MI. She is alert when not sedated but has been too unstable for a cardiac catheterization and has needed vasoactive medications to support her blood pressure. Her renal function has declined and plans are being made for hemodialysis. Today when speaking with A.J.'s husband, he conveys to you her nurse that "she would not have wanted all of this." "
Discuss the pros and cons of continued therapy and what role nursing can play in helping the patient and family.
This case deals with…
Eat, Pray, Love
Into the Wild
Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail
epresentation from Media Studies -- Culture and its elevance
Post Modernism Literature
Importance of Culture in Analysis
Theory and Methodology
Thematic Analysis -- Framework
Thematic analysis is appropriate for the following situations
Detective and inductive approaches
Analysis of two different phased of data
Analysis and Process of Comparing Literary Works of Post-Modern Period
Post Modernism Writers
Post Modern Literary Theory
A person's personal, work, and family life and how they relate to nature all define how well the person knows himself. This article will explore how one comes of age and life stages by comparing three movies and three novels. The books are Motorcycle Diaries (Che Guevara), Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail (Cheryl Strayed) and Into the Wild (John Krakauer). The…
Bhuvaneshwari. "THE THEORY OF POSTMODERNISM IN THE INTERPRETATION OF LITERATURE." Research Journal of English Language and Literature (2015): 629-637. Journal.
Clifford, Amber. "Book Review: The Motorcycle Diaries: Notes on a Latin American Journey." International Journal of Motorcycle Studies (2005).
Kaplan, Jeffrey. "Young Adult Literature in the 21st Century." The Research Connection (2005): 11-18. Review Paper.
Kim, Farah. Life Lessons to Learn from Hector and the Search for Happiness. 29 January 2015. Online Document. 17 October 2016.
They become part of our personality and the way in which interact with others and feel about ourselves. When one of these connections is lost by means of death, it is painful, because the connections are important to us. Like the connections we form in life, the loss of these connections also shape us in an important way. The way and the time of death, as well as the specific person who dies, becomes as much part of us and our personality as the living connections we make. This means that we never really "let go." Instead, we integrate what the death means to us as part of the events in life that shape our personality. It is therefore important to hold on, in a sense, to what the person meant to us, and how the death affected us. This is an improtant part of life; being aware of how…
Japan Tsunami Disaster March 2011 -- Present
Societal Consequences Discussion
The earthquake and following tsunami that hit Japan was truly a disaster -- part natural and part technological. It affected the Japanese population in many ways. There were the initial consequences that included massive loss of life and population displacement. However, there are also lasting consequences that can even include factors such as the mental health, physical health, and other societal consequences that can be long lasting. This analysis will look at the impact to the citizenry from multiple perspectives, discuss the roles of non-governmental agencies (NGOs) in the after math of the disaster, and discuss what organization would lead a recovery response if such an event occurred in the United States.
Societal Consequences Discussion
The societal consequences that have come as a result of the disaster can be thought of from different perspectives and on many different…
IASC. (2007). IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. Retrieved from IASC: http://admin.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/IASC-Guidelines-Mental-Health-Psychosocial.pdf
Kormino, T. (2015). Role of International NGO in an Uprecedented Disaster in Japan. Disaster Risk Reduction, 13-26.
Pietrangelo, A. (2011, April 12). Feeling for Japan: Coping and Recovering from Disaster. Retrieved from Natural Choice: http://www.naturalchoice.net/blogs/greenies_0411.html
PSID. (N.d.). Recovery. Retrieved from Psychosocial Support in Disasters: http://www.psid.org.au/recovery
Nursing and Spirituality
How did the transport nurse manage the patient's physical needs?
When the patient was moved to a stretcher he was placed on a travel ventilator and the transport and bedside nurse had to suction his secretions. But he did not appear to tolerate the other ventilator well so the transport nurse instead used the manual resuscitation bag for transport. Since the manual ventilation continued to go well it was used in place of the travel ventilator for the duration of the transport.
How did the transport nurse manage the spiritual needs?
The patient was placed close to his wife's casket so that he could easily see her. The nurse allowed the family time and space for themselves but stepped forward to offer guidance when needed, such as the offering of a prayer. Later a life review was begun that gave the entire family an opportunity to begin…
Lament for a Son: Christian Grief
There are few human experiences as all-encompassing in their horror as the loss of a child. It feels unnatural for a child to die before a parent. The "natural" order of things is that the parents raise the children, se them on their way, and die, making way for the new generation to make its own mark on the world. When a child dies, especially at an age as young as 25, the entire world is ripped from the remaining parents, who must suddenly live not only with the greatest loss a person could experience, but also with the unexpected nature of that loss. This is the case with Dr. Nicholas Wolterstorff, author of Lament for a Son, a book written in dedication to his son who died at the age of 25 after a mountain climbing accident. What makes Dr. Wolterstorff's book unusual…
Feldmeyer, M. (2012, Aug. 12). "Lament for a Son." Sermon at Duke University Chapel. Retrieved from: https://chapel.duke.edu/sites/default/files/LamentForASon -- 08-12-12_0.pdf
Schroden, J. (2007, May 19). "Lament for a Son." Retrieved from: http://justinschroden.efoliomn.com/
Timms, D. (2009). "Lament for a Son." In Hope. Retrieved from: http://www.hiu.edu/inhope/issue9_28.html
Of course my parents beamed, and my teacher even more so.
The application of the psychosocial theory in my case is the fact that an aspect of myself that I was not aware of was allowed to emerge first by my interaction with my teacher and then by my interaction with the rest of the participants in the extra program. I never knew that I could be good at mathematics until I made the effort required by my teacher. In this way, she had a profound effect on my life as a whole, and not only on my Mathematics grade. Indeed, she made me aware that I am able to do whatever I want to and even those things I believe are beyond my reach. Because of her, I no longer need to doubt my ability to do everything I want to, and to do it well.
Meditation also plays…
Corey, Gerald. I never knew I had a choice. Cengage Learning, 2008.
Millman, Dan. Way of the Peaceful Warrior. HJ Kramer, 2009
Customer relationship management (CM) is an essential component of organizational management. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on a CM strategy for United Behavioral Health a subsidiary of United Health Care . . United Behavioral Health is dedicated to presenting customers with high quality, cost-effective, managed mental health and substance abuse services to its customers. The investigation suggests that the company's core values have been successfully implemented into the company's CM Strategy. The current CM strategy utilizes technology to allow customers to voice their opinions. Currently the company's website ubhweb.uhc.com provides a page that offers help to members that are experiencing problems. In addition, it provides customers with "coaches" that can help whenever problems arise. The company's customers are currently divided into three different groups; the employer division, the health plan division and the public sector. We found testimonials of customers who were extremely satisfied with the care…
Your Customers are Speaking To You. Do You Hear Them? 2002. 2 December 2004
Gupta S. Binggeli U., Poomes C.D., CRM in the Air. The McKinsey Quarterly. Page Number: 6+.
Jacobs F.A., Claire Kamm Latham, Choongseop Lee. 1998. The Relationship of Customer Satisfaction to Strategic Decisions. Journal of Managerial Issues. Volume: 10. Issue: 2. Page Number: 165+.
Difficult Situations as a Nurse Practitioner
The scenario for the nurse practitioner centers on Angela Smith and her family. Angela is a 55-year-old who suffered a stroke and admitted after neighbors noticed some really odd behaviors. The situation was further complicated when Angela suffered a respiratory arrest and required mechanical ventilation and after a second CT scan the team found that she bleed into the ventricles and brainstem which may have caused irreversible brain damage. Her condition is quite serious and there must be a decision made about how to proceed with the care for Angela. It is likely that she will need long-term ventilation and PEG and the neurological team suspects that the brain damage is irreversible.
The most difficult aspect to this scenario is that there is no advanced directive and the family is being indefensibly optimistic regarding the potential for recovery. In fact, the patient's…
Burchum, J. (2002). Cultural Competence: An Evolutionary Perspective. Nursing Forum, 5-15.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services: A Model of Care. Journal of Transactional Nursing, 181-184.
Tervalon, M., & Murray-Garcia, J. (1998). Cultural Humility vs. Cultural Competence: A Critical Distinction in Defining Physician Training Outcomes in Multicultural Education. Journal for Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 117-125.
Learning Log: Reflections
Culture can refer to many different aspects of human life that affect personal and professional relationships. We usually think of culture in terms of nationality: the Japanese culture, for example, is said to emphasize personal relationships and interconnectedness more than individualistic American culture. Cultures are often classified as more 'high context' or more 'low context' in orientation. In 'high context' cultures, inside knowledge, the relative position of someone on a leadership hierarchy and an awareness of the 'double meaning' of certain gestures is more important, than in a low context culture in which 'what you say is what you mean,' such as in the U.S.
Learning about different cultural perspectives and worldviews has made me more mindful about contextualizing my own. I have also noticed that even within nations, culture may vary -- a company located in an urban environment, versus one located in a rural…
Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth & David Kessler. 2010. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Grief.com. Accessed at http://grief.com/the-five-stages-of-grief / [December 27, 2010]
McNamara, Carter. 1999. Basic context for organizational change. Management help.
Accessed at http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/orgchnge.htm#anchor493930 [December 27, 2010]
McNamara, Carter. 2000. Organizational culture. Management help. Accessed at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm [December 27, 2010]
Health Promotion Plan
Health Promotion in Hospice
The use of Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory as the framework for the health promotion plan, for improving depressive symptoms among hospice patients (Nursing Theories, 2012), is appropriate and consistent with a patient-centered care model. This model provides enough room for a gradient of patient self-care efficacy, from fully autonomous to unconscious, which is appropriate for the hospice setting. The author of Health Promotion in Hospice emphasized the need to increase the care efficacy of both hospice patients and their caregivers and mentioned how the role of a hospice nurse must remain fluid to constantly changing care needs of hospice patients. Under Orem's model there is thus a gradient of self-care need and autonomy that is negatively correlated and where deficits emerge the nurse must step in to meet these care needs.
I would also emphasize the concept of 'nursing client' discussed in Orem's…
Hirdes, J.P., Freeman, S., Smith, T.F., & Stolee, P. (2012). Predictors of caregiver distress among palliative home care clients in Ontario: Evidence based on the interRAI Palliative Care. Palliative & Supportive Care, 10(3), 155-63.
Murray, R.B., Zentner, J.P., & Yakimo, R. (2008). Health Promotion Strategies Through the Life Span. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Ng, C.G., Boks, M.P., Roes, K.C., Zainal, N.Z., Sulaiman, A.H., Tan, S.B. et al. (2014). Rapid response to methyphenidate as an add-on therapy to mirtazapine in the treatment of major depressive disorder in terminally ill cancer patients: A four-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, published online ahead of print 20 Jan. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.01.016.
Nursing Theories. (2012). Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory. Accessed 2 Mar. 2014 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html .
That day is always in your possession. That's the day you remember," (p. 97). Thus, both stories keep alive the romantic vision of love as a positive and enduring force.
The most extraordinary aspect of both of these stories is the way in which love is portrayed realistically. Love is never easy, whether between interracial couples, between parents and children, or between lovers. For example, "The worst mistakes I've made have been the ones directed by sweet-natured hopefulness," suggests that love is often over-idealized (Baxter, p. 80). In Feast of Love, marital infidelity is dealt with and so are other forms of betrayal including the perceived betrayal of death. Similarly, death is dealt with deftly in Secret Life of Bees. hen May commits suicide, the grieving process is an extraordinary expression of love by her sisters and also by Lily and Rosaleen. As Lily states, "People who think dying is…
Feast of Love. (2007). Robert Benton (Director). Portland, or
The Secret Life of Bees.
As with other Hispanic groups, there may be a greater reluctance to seek professional help in dealing with psychological issues because of a belief that the church, rather than Western psychological medicine, should address such problems. The greater economic security of middle-class Cuban immigrants and their children thus has not meant an entirely uncomplicated relationship with the new American homeland.
Although it is a small island, the history of Puerto ico has been marked by many influences, spanning from Africa to Spain to Latin America. "There is an essential dichotomy [in] Puerto ico's relationship with the United States. Within American jurisdiction, as reflected by common citizenship, flag, currency and numerous applicable Federal laws, Puerto ico might seem in everything but name a State of the Union. But on the other side you will find a culture and society profoundly different from that in the mainland. It is a…
Bachay, Judith & Rafael Montes. (2010). Article 14: The Cuban-American grieving process
Counseling.org. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/VISTAS/vistas04/14.pdf
The declining economic status of Puerto Ricans. Health Affairs. Retrieved September 17,
2010 at http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc102d.pdf
As the novel veers toward Paul's efforts to reconcile with his son, inspired as he has been by his chance-meeting with Adrienne, the novel takes on different proportions. For Paul and Adrienne, meeting one another would not just serve as a way to move into a new phase of life, but it would also become a catalyst to their respective dealings with the past. For Adrienne, this would come in the form of her consultations with her daughter and for Paul it would come in the initiation of a meaningful relationship with his son in adult life.
The novel makes metaphorical reference to this intercession of the past and a renewed hope through the house in Rodanthe. The beach bungalow carries its own sense of a bright history, a faded middle age and an internal promise of refreshing affirmation, even in Adrienne's own observation. Here, the author describes "with the…
Sparks, N. (2002). Nights in Rodanthe. Warner Vision Books.
During that time, I cannot recall mourning, but I cannot recall feeling much of anything else, either.
My grief returned more intensely than before at the graveside service.
Afterwards, I was exhausted by the emotional flood that I had experienced, but it is equally possible that the relief was more a function of all the energy that it had required not to release during the time between my father's death and his funeral. As powerful as the feelings of outright grief were some of the more unexpected feelings I began to experience in the next few weeks: feelings of anger at my father, anger at myself, shame, totally inexplicable feelings of hurt, and fear, and also relief.
A realized for the fist time, only weeks after my father's death, that I was angry at my father: angry that he'd refused the dialysis which could have prolonged his life; angry at…
Empathy and rapport with subject has to be profound, particularly where the researcher may have a priori thoughts or personal stakes with the matter at hand. If the latter exists, it may be better that she not do the research.
Analysis of the research can be somewhat daunting given the vast amount of material (interview notes, tape-recording, jottings etc.) generated by the interviews. The way one goes about this is via a brief cursory reading of the material, roughly identifying key themes and points. One then aggregates these key themes in a set of notes and organizes them with the aid of (for instance) a mind-map or post-it notes so that they become points that one then uses to review the original material again and add to or modify in order to assess whether what one has noted is correct and complete (Hycner, 1985).
Nonetheless, analysis can still be tricky…
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenolgoical research methods. Sage Pub. CA
Shea, C. (1999). The practical art of suicide assessment. Hoboken, U.S.
Wann, TW. (1964). Behaviorism and phenomenology. Univ. Chicago: Chicago.
This fact certainly holds true for Ehrlich, who purposefully moved to Wyoming, which some have labeled as one of the least populated states, to get away from an urban existence of overly similar familiarities. This experience is the basis for "The Solace of Open Spaces," in which she plunges into a world of natural life and hardship primarily to deal with the death of a lover. However, by immersing herself in an experience that is wholly foreign to her and her previous form of existence, she is able to gain the much needed solace she was looking for, while also recovering her sense of self and her subjective perspective with which to view the world from afresh.
This motif of escaping the literal, physical trappings of daily existence to enter into a new mind state in which to view one's self and regain one's subjectivity is evinced within Dillard's "Total…
Saw From Where I Stood by Marisa Silver offers a lot to women's literature. Firstly, it is an effectively told story, with the literary techniques of the story making it an important piece of literature, regardless of its themes. Secondly, the themes are important to women. Thirdly, it offers a new perspective as it is told from a man's point-of-view. Finally, we can compare it to another important story, A Sorrowful Woman by Gail Godwin. By comparing the two stories we can see both the similarities between the two stories and also the unique features of What I Saw From Where I Stood.
Firstly, we can look at the story as an example of an excellent short story regardless of its place in women's literature. The literary techniques throughout the story are both effective and powerful. The first noticeable thing is that the real subject of the story is told…
family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.
Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.
The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…
American Psychological Association (2015). Managing stress for a healthy family. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/managing-stress.aspx
Brimhall, A.S. & Gardner, B.C. (n.d.). Altering the abyss.
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Gergen, K.J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist 40(3): 266-275.
The scene is full of hope and joy, and the use of light helps to illuminate this mood.
Once Laura crosses the road, the scene is described quite differently. At first it is "smoky and dark," however Laura does manage to see in some of the cottages flickers of light in the shadows. These flickers of light represent flickers of hope, but they are far less luminous than those which were presented during the garden party.
"The Indian Camp" also makes use of light and dark imagery as a means of signifying elements of the initiation process. Nick and his father start off their journey in the dark of night, which signifies the lack of knowledge that surrounds Nick, and his blindness to the events that are about to take place in the shanty in the Indian camp. Like Laura's experience in the village, Nick too is able to see…
Hemingway, Ernest. "Indian Camp." Stories of Initiation. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, 2009. 7-12..
Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party." Stories of Initiation. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, 2009. 46-64.
Mordecai, Marcus. "What is an Initiation Story?" Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Winter, 1960), pp. 221-228
children cope with friendship and death after reading Charlottes' Web?
The book, Charlotte's Web is probably the best selling paperback and is really a story about a farm, and how friendships develop between different animals and how they help each other. In this book, the most important development is the friendship that develops between Wilbur and Charlotte. Wilbur is a pig and Charlotte is a spider which turns out to be the leader of all animals. The book developed as a natural consequence to the author having resided on a farm and seen all the animals in action. In this book, Charlotte ends up saving the pig from slaughter and in practice; the author himself had tried to save a pig and not succeeded. The author has written about many such animals, but this became the most popular.
Animals were dear to the author and though the animals…
Children and Grief. American Academy of Child. July, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/grief.htm Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Hartman, Holly. Charlotte's Web. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/spot/charlotte1.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Helping Children Cope with Loss, Death and Grief: Response to a National Tragedy. National Association of School Psychologists. 22 October, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/NEAT/grief.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Information for the Media on Childhood Traumatic Grief. The National Child Traumatic Stress. Retrieved from www.nctsnet.org/nccts/asset.do?id=361 Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Although Forest lacks the type of intelligences that allow him to succeed in school such as verbal and mathematical intelligences, he has profound goodness within his heart. This shows his interpersonal or empathetic intelligence. He selflessly helps others throughout his life and seems to intuitively know what to say to people like Jenny, when they feel sad. This also gives him emotional resiliency, as famously expressed in his comment about how 'life is like a box of chocolates.' Forest is kinesthetically gifted, as can be seen in his great speed as a runner. And he is also intrapersonally intelligent -- he understands himself. He knows that he is lacking in intelligence, but that he is a good-hearted person and believes that makes him worthy of love, even Jenny's love (Smith 2008).
Of the three deaths Forest experiences in his life, only one is to be expected: that of a death…
The key and the search function to help Oskar survive the loss of his father by occupying him with the search for meaning. It is altogether a more fruitful or at least less lengthy search than those of his grandparents. It is also more proactive than his mother's search, which begins with denial.
The key is also symbolic of the new connections that Oskar forms in his search. In searching, the void is filled not so much by the final achievement as also by the accomplishments along the way. In addition to learning more about his family in general while also making new friends in the process, Oskar makes closer connections with his living relatives. In this way, his father's memory serves to reaffirm life rather than the tragedy of death. Contrary to what Oskar and his grandmother initially believe, neither life nor death is meaningless. Both convey a deeper…
An eligible employee shall be entitled to a total of seven days of leave because of the death of a parent, spouse, son, daughter, or person for whom the employee serves as designated representative... If the deceased died in the line of duty as a member of the uniformed services. Such leave is intended to permit the employee to prepare for or attend the burial ceremony of the deceased member of the uniformed services and may be paid or unpaid leave.
Conversely, however, the United States Federal government presently has no laws in place to similarly (or otherwise, in comparable and appropriate ways) formally acknowledge and honor the passing of federal government personnel other than military personnel.
According to U.S. Code Title 5, Part III; Subpart E; Chapter 63; Subchapter II (2005), the federal government does in fact authorize, according to three separate sections of Title 5: (1)…
Acuff, J. (c2004). The relationship edge in business: Connecting with customers and colleagues when it counts. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Andrus, P. (2005). Grief in the workplace. Martin & Castille. Retrieved February 3, 2005 at http://www.mourning.com/your_grief_workplace.html .
Banusiewics, J.D. (2004). Customs of military funerals reflect history, tradition.
United States Department of Defense. Retrieved January 31, 2005, at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2004/n06102004_200406106.html .
Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart
Foundation of the Study
This study examines the legislative and judicial climate that enables corporations like Wal-Mart to engage in practices that violate workers' rights. The popular consensus is that Wal-Mart, the largest retail store in the United States, displays an inordinate disregard for the human dignity and morale of its employees and, despite continual litigation, continues to blatantly violate the legal rights of its employees. Wal-Mart faces charges of violating The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (2011) by asking management to adjust time sheets so that overtime will not need to be paid, and so that all employees will work under the hourly limit required by the union in order to obtain membership. Employees were insured, without their knowledge, against their death by Wal-Mart. The company was named beneficiary; following death of an employee, the entire benefit amount was retained by the corporation. Not a…
Business Day, Companies. (2011) The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/
Byrne, T.P. (2009). False profits: Reviving the corporation's public purpose. Discourse, 57 UCLA L. Rev. Disc. 25, UCLA School of Law, UC Berkeley, (Associate, Chadbourne & Parke, LLP). Retrieved http://uclalawreview.org/?p=1056
Clifford, S. (2011, March 29). Where Wal-Mart failed, Aldi succeeds. The New York Times. Retrieved
"You can use it if you want to," he said. The horror of Dunne's death is that it fixes the deceased in time. Frustrated and full of self-reproach, Didion is left to look and keep on looking for fresh possibilities in the past: missed clues, wrong turns, alternate endings, places to correct the record, to, as she says, "get it right."
Finally, she realizes that it is okay if she does not "get it right." It is okay to be wrong. It is okay not to be her infallible self. "Life changes fast. Life changes in an instant. You sit down to dinner and life as you know it ends." This is where the studies of Erikson and Gould come into play. Didion is not alone. More than likely, most of the people who read her book will be in the same situation with someone close person at one time…
Didion, J. 2005. Year of Magical Thinking. New York: Alfred Knopf.
Erickson, E., and Erickson, J. (1998) the life cycle completed. New York: Norton.
Gould, R.L. 1972. The phases of adult life: a study in the development psychology.
Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 129., no. 5.
Function #1: Mitigation
At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.
At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:
The identification of hazards and the research of their causes
The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified
The offering of research and development grants to local projects
The promulgation of buildings safety standards
elative to the competencies of the local governments…
Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal
Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X
Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14
Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
Mortality and Life eview
For most of us, a sense of impending mortality prompts a need to find closure, conduct a full life review and reconciliation (Clarke, 2007). The reality that death is a natural process -- leading towards an inescapable final destination -- seems implausible at first glance. For a variety of reasons, death has become a taboo subject that no longer represents an accepted progression of life, but something unnatural to be wrestled against. Coming to terms with impending mortality is challenging and calls forth a range of deep emotions that need to be expressed. Expressing these intense feelings and reviewing one's life is essential to finding peace and allowing true healing on an emotional and spiritual level (Sand et al., 2009).
The definition of the life review process is described as a "naturally occurring, universal mental process" (Butler, 1963). In other words, it is a normal developmental…
Breitbart, W., Gibson, C., Poppito, S., & Berg, A. (2004). Psychotherapeutic Interventions at the end of life: A focus on meaning and spirituality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(6), 336-372.
Butler, R.N. (1963). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. Psychiatry, 26, 65-75.
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Broken Heart Syndrome
Cardiovascular Case Study
Broken heart syndrome, otherwise called stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), represents an adverse physiological response to an acute psychological or physical stressor (Derrick, 2009). The death of a loved one or experiencing a physically traumatic event, represent two examples of life stressors that can cause this reversible form of cardiomyopathy. Although effective treatment is available, the seriousness of the condition is such that it explains how a person can literally die of a broken heart.
An estimated 1.2 million people suffered from an myocardial infarction (MI) in 2007 and approximately 1% (Derrick, 2009, p. 50) to 2% (Wittstein, 2012, p. 2) of MI events was probably due to TTC. Women are far more susceptible to TTC than men and represent approximately 89% of all cases (Derrick, 2009, p. 50). This gender bias shifts the estimated prevalence of TTC among female MI patients…
American Heart Association, American Stroke Association. (2011). Women & cardiovascular disease: Statistical fact sheet 2012 update. Heart.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319576.pdf
Derrick, Dawn. (2009). The "broken heart syndrome": Understanding Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Critical Care Nurse, 29, 49-57.
Fitzgerald, Helen. (2000). Helping a grieving parent: Working through Grief. AmericanHospice.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.americanhospice.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=84&Itemid=8
Liao, Joshua. (2011). Takotsubo: Octopus trap. Journal of Medical Humanities. Published ahead of print online Aug. 9. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/ak0776051x43w701/