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Group Therapy: Stages and Process
Group therapy has become a popular method for treating a wide range of addictions, disorders, and grief processes. As Corey and Corey (1997) state: "Groups provide a natural laboratory that demonstrates to people that they are not alone and that there is hope for creating a different life" (p. 5) Other benefits of group therapy include information-sharing, a sense of belonging, catharsis, emotional support, progress through confrontation, and development of altruism and social skills (University of Illinois at Urbana Psychology Dept, 2010) There are many variations of group therapy, including multi-family, Adlerian, support, self-help, and counseling or psychotherapy (University of Illinois at Urbana Psychology Dept, 2010). Most therapeutic group programs involve 3 major stages: initial, transition, and working (Corey & Corey, 1997), or the 5 stage version: forming, storming, norming, performing, and terminating (University of Illinois at Urbana Psychology Dept, 2010).
In the initial stage…
Bandy, S. (2010). Behavioral Activation Techniques for Depression in a variety of settings: Groups, Peer-to-Peer and Non-Clinical Settings. Powerpoint presentation. Chestnut Health Systems, IL, USA.
Brodsky, G. (1999). The Hidden Method. Retrieved 02-19, 2011, from multiplefamilygrouptherapy.com: http://www.multiplefamilygrouptherapy.com/The%20Hidden%20Method.htm
Corey, S., & Corey, G. (1997). Groups: Process and Practice. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole.
Sonstegard, M., & al, e. (2004). Adlerian Group Counseling and Therapy: Step-By-Step. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Group therapy and intervention
Define Group Therapy
Group therapy can take many different forms. Simply stated, group therapy is therapy given to more than one individual, usually more than two. It can be family-directed, as in the case of family therapy, or it can consist of a group of strangers. In the case of some groups, such as self-help groups like Alcoholics Anonymous, there may be no therapist-facilitator. In other instances, there may be a counselor to provide guidance and structure to the therapeutic experience. In supportive group therapy, the process often unites individuals with a common, shared experience, such as the experience of bereavement. In the case of family therapy, it may center upon family conflicts and how families relate to one another.
Define and explain the purpose of different types of groups, (ex. Self-help groups…etc.).
In the case of family therapy, the family is…
Family counseling. (2012). Good Therapy. Retrieved:
Forming, storming, norming, and performing. (2012). Mind Tools. Retrieved:
Goals -- For Bion, groups have specific goals that are differentiated by the manner of dissonance individuals bring: drug dependency, sexual abuse, a fatal disease, etc. his coming together out of homogeneity with a clear and stated aim -- dealing with the issue. Each group may or may not be identical in make up; for instance, there can be commonalities within the group, but the goal is the same. Uncovering the barriers to good health in the individual. It is clear rehabilitation from the issue that harbors negativity or an inability to be complete that allows for group therapy to use the interplay of the individual for a synergistic goal (Bion, 2004, 26).
Yalom, as noted, came to realize that there was really no such thing as a cure for the issues that surround dissonance. here is no such thing as permant conflict removal because humans continue to evolve and…
Technique- Bion's group require a task and an outline of moving from point A to point B. within the therapeutic process. This is a dual set of treatments -- one for each individual within the group, the other for the group as a whole organism itself. His view is that it is not the task of group therapy to deal with the individual's own psychological difficulties, but rather to transcend those difficulties so that the group dynamic will act as a healing element for the individual. To do this, Bion's technique focuses on the leader setting up a series of interventions and then stepping back to allow the group to work through these sets of dynamics in their own way; constantly guiding at appropriate times so that the group does not take the easy or passive way out of delving into difficult or painful discoveries (Lipgar and Pines, 2003. 29-36).
Yalom takes a number of environmental factors into consideration, which allows his technique to be more adaptive to the type of group and the place/time/setting of the therapeutic situation. Yalom's fluid technique is to help with the initial engagement and affiliation of the group; then work through the isues of power, status and compteition until the group experience begins to appear. Members are encouraged to describe their individual experiences to form common bonds with the rest of the group (you are unique but you are not alone). Yalom's technique then moves towards guiding the group towards exploration, but far less leader centered. He correlates the movement from leader centered to leader guide and exploration with positive achievement and movement towards change (Yalom and Leszcz, 309-10).
Curative Factors -- As previously noted, Yalom
In understanding further that the session referenced is focused on imparting ways in which group members may improve their own lives, group members additionally view John not as a friend but as an enemy capable only of passing judgment upon them.
Leader Interventions and Potential Outcomes
At this point, in viewing the severe lapse in productivity due to power structure and lack of trust within the group, it is clear that an intervention must be undertaken by John in order to move the group forward into the realm of positive outcomes. There are two main routes that John can take in order to alter the dynamics within the group. The first would highly ineffective, but can be seen as a route John would take based on his initial choice to ignore the comment directed toward him about the group's unhappiness from being "lectured to" each week. Such ineffective group leadership…
Berg, R., Fall, K., and Landreth, G. 2006. Group counseling: concepts and procedures,
4th ed. Routledge, New York, NY.
Bonney, W. And Ginter, E. 1993. "Freud, ESP, and interpersonal relationships: projective identification and the Mobius interaction," in Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 15(1): pp. 150-170. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Carns, A. And Carns, M. 1994. "Making behavioral contracts successful," in Teaching of Psychology, 42(2): pp. 155-160. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Therefore, one cannot conclude whether a trauma-centered, or present-centered approach is better for the treatment of substance abuse using group therapy.
Implications for Social Work
Studies regarding group therapy in veterans with substance abuse complications, the key benefits for those who participated was a longer-term effect. Group therapy enhanced the effect of other treatment modalities. However, the type of group therapy was found to be less important than the fact that the veteran received group therapy. For the social worker who works with the veteran population, it is important to understand the benefits of group therapy for the client.
Understanding that substance abuse in the veteran population is different from substance abuse in other populations, such as teenagers, is the key to providing them with the best line of defense. Group therapy can help the veteran learn positive coping mechanisms so that they do not have to turn to negative…
Gordon, S. (2008). Drinking Problems Greater Among Returning Combat Veterans. Health Day News. 12 August 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2009 at http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=news&id=112344&cn=14
Kerrigan, a., Kaough, J., & Wilson, B. et al. (2000). Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes of Veterans with Substance Use Disorders in a Partial Hospitalization Program. Psychiatric Services. 51: 1570-1572.
Lash, S., Petersen, G., O'Connor, E. & Lehmann, L. (2001). Social Reinforcement of substance abuse aftercare group therapy attendance. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 20 (1): 3-8.
Schnurr, P., Friedman, M., & Foy, D. (2003). Therapeutics - Trauma-focused group psychotherapy is not effective for posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Evidence-Based Mental Health. 60:481-489.
Group Addiction TX
The Psychodynamic Model
The Cognitive Model
The Humanistic Model
Ethical and Cultural Considerations
Psychology has a long tradition of interpreting human behavior across different paradigms. The current paper investigates a method of incorporating four main psychological paradigms: psychoanalytic, behaviorist, cognitive, and humanist, into group counseling treatment for addictions and compulsive behaviors. Each paradigm is briefly discussed then the integration of aspects from theoretical models that spring from the paradigms is examined. This integration is based on previous empirically-based findings that support the use of a specific facet or an approach to treatment and counseling. The integration of these paradigms is discussed in terms of the ethical and cultural considerations, the development of groups, and a model developed specifically to avoid recidivism in addictive or compulsive behaviors.
Psychology has a long tradition of interpreting human behavior across different…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders- IV-Text Revision. Washington D.C.: Author.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Barry, P. (2002). Mental health and mental illness. (7th Ed.) New York: Lippincott.
Cox, W.M. (1985). Personality correlates of substance abuse. In M. Galizio & S.A.
Group Therapy on Chemically Dependent Women's Self-Efficacy"
The specific purpose for the study is to determine the effects of both cognitive group therapy and experiential group therapy on the self-efficacy of women that are chemically dependent. The purpose is explicitly stated in both the abstract and the study itself, which makes it very easy to find a focus for the paper and a quick understanding of what they study aims to examine. There was no need to read the entire article simply to understand what the purpose of the study was or what the researcher planned on measuring.
The purpose is very clear on what it intends to study, but is somewhat less clear on how it plans to do this. In other words, the purpose mentions chemically dependent women, but it does not say in the purpose statement where these women will be located, what age range they will…
standards of presence inform your group practice? What challenges might you have in maintaining them? Are there any you would add or delete?
Many of the "Standards of Presence" outlined by life coach Joanna Davis are extremely idealistic, such as the notion that a group member must always be fully present and give authentic feedback and support to fellow members. However, the standards provide important ideals to aspire towards in the context of an effective group practice. Being positive and supportive rather than negative and judgmental is an essential part of keeping a healthy mindset when interacting with others (Davis 2010). The standards underline the need to always be 'present' and mindful in all components of one's existence. When someone is speaking in a group, instead of 'zoning out' and waiting for your chance to speak, it is important to actually listen to what the individual is saying, so your…
Davis, J. (2011). Statement of presence. Retrieved from:
Ethics of Group Therapy
Ethical Concepts Guiding Group Psychiatric Therapy Practice
Ethically inclined group psychotherapists use moral codes produced from their professions and from associations dedicated to the furtherance of group psychiatric therapy like a modality. Good examples from the former would be the Ethical Concepts of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association [APA], 2002) and also the NASW Code of Ethics (National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 1999). The second kind of codes are inclusive of the American Group Psychotherapy Association [AGPA] and also the National egistry of Certified Group Psychotherapists [NCGP] Guidelines for Ethics (2002) and also the Association for Specialists in Group Perform Best Practice ecommendations (Association for Specialists in Group Work [ASGA] (as cited in AGPA, 2002).
These codes provide recommendations on which attitudes and actions are desirable and just what considerations ought to be adopted or prevented. For instance, within the AGPA document,…
American Group Psychotherapy Association. (February, 2002). AGPA and NRCGP Guidelines for Ethics. Accessed March 15, 2006, http://www.agpa.org/group/ethicalguide.html .
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychological Association. (2003). Multicultural guidelines: Education, research and practice. American Psychologist, 58, 377-402.
Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford.
Solution Focused Group Therapy Depressed Individuals
Solution Focused Group Therapy on Depressed Individuals
People encounter various challenges in life ranging from diseases, lack of basic essential needs and psychiatric problems among others. This has given rise to various forms of therapies being adopted by specialists whilst offering solutions to depressed individuals. Group therapy has taken a center-stage in the management of depression. Butler et al. (2008) in their article titled "Meditation with yoga, group therapy with hypnosis, and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood: a randomized pilot trial" show that depression and anxiety form part of the well-known conditions named by individuals seeking treatment using therapies and complementary alternatives. Alternative therapies include yoga, qigong, tai chi, mediation, and exercise. They argue that people are increasingly using these therapies. Butler provides information claiming that yoga and exercise are effective therapies with high rates than uncontrolled activities (Butler, et al. 2008). The authors…
Butler, LD et al. (2008). Meditation with yoga, group therapy with hypnosis, and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood: a randomized pilot trial. Journal of clinical psychology, ISSN 0021-9762, 07/2008, Volume 64, Issue 7, pp. 806 -- 820
Constantino, M. J et al. (2008). Interpersonal Styles of Chronically Depressed Outpatients:
Profiles and Therapeutic Change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training,
ISSN 0033-3204, 12/2008, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp. 491 -- 506
This case conceptualization covers a weekly outpatient relationships group consisting of fifteen members, ages 25-50. All group members have been formally diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder and/or Depression, and some with more than one clinical disorder. Additionally, all members have attended this group for at least six months, most of whom attend regularly on a weekly basis. The case conceptualization includes background information on the clients, behavioral observations, clinical interpretations, and diagnostic impressions based on the DSM-5. A treatment plan and interventions for the clients are grounded in two primary theoretical orientations including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamics. A summary of the treatment, including client reactions, plus future recommendations are also provided. Ethical issues and quandaries are presented in accordance with the American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics. Finally, limitations and supervision needs are discussed in light of scope of counseling practice.
Background: Presenting Problem
Group counseling offers tremendous benefits to clients like Maria when offered as stand-alone interventions or in conjunction with other forms of therapeutic techniques. However, there are major differences between different types, styles, and forms of group counseling. The different types of group counseling include encounter groups, psychoeducational groups, counseling groups, therapy groups, and self-help or support groups. Research has highlighted the efficacy of multiple group therapies specifically for client populations who have endured intimate partner violence or domestic abuse (Sax, 2012). Participation in all types of groups can help Maria to rebuild trust in intimate relationships, while releasing her emotional dependency on her abusive partner. Role playing and other group activities can help Maria build specific communication and behavioral skills, while also reframing her relationship and redeveloping identity and sense of self. Thesis: While all group types increase members’ self-awareness, helping Maria to build the self-confidence she needs to make…
Sax, K. (2012). Intimate partner violence. The Group Psychologist 49(2012). Retrieved online: http://www.apadivisions.org/division-49/publications/newsletter/group-psychologist/2012/11/partner-violence.aspx
Steckl, C. (2014). Which type of therapeutic group is right for you? Mental Help. Retrieved online: https://www.mentalhelp.net/blogs/which-type-of-therapeutic-group-is-right-for-you/
Sullivan, C.M. (2012). Support groups for women with abusive partners. NRCDV. Retrieved online: http://www.dvevidenceproject.org/wp-content/themes/DVEProject/files/research/DVSupportGroupResearchSummary10-2012.pdf
Multiple studies support the use of cognitive behavioral approaches in individual therapy combined with group therapy sessions to support self-care behavior, self-efficacy and positive patient outcomes (Van der Ven, et. al, 2005; Bernard & Goodyear, 1002; Alterkruse & ay, 2000). Altekruse & ay (2000) also support the notion that group therapy may be interchangeable with individual therapy to promote positive outcomes among patients.
esults of the studies reviewed suggest a new approach to group therapy should include individual and group sessions that encourage patients to focus on their successes rather than failures. At this time the evidence supporting group therapy over individual therapy is conflicting. Much of the research suggests that both approaches may be equally effective. egardless many therapists still advocate group therapy as a primary modality for overcoming patient issues.
Pre-group training sessions may help members of the group adopt a new attitudes toward therapy that enables…
Altekrsue, M. & Ray, D. (2000). "Effectiveness of group supervision vs. combined group and individual supervision." Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(1):19.
Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd ed.).
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Classen, C. (2000). "Group therapy for cancer patients: A research-based handbook of psychosocial care." New York: Basic Books.
Stuart's willingness finally to insert himself into the group with some vulnerability would demonstrate a legitimate step for which he would receive ample support from the group. The functionality of this process would be rewarding to Julius, who took it is with some comfort which had been scarce in the prior two weeks.
Still, Stuart's case remains a difficult one throughout the process, with his strong professional and intellectual capabilities often undermined or sullied by his disengagement. This causes some resentment from others in the group and results in Stuart associating many of the women in the group with his wife, who responds similarly to the sense that he stands passively aside and witnesses human interaction without ever fully partaking. From the perspective of Julius, this is a mixed-bag, with the group causing confrontations with Stuart that often force him to mediate through his emotions. On the other hand, as…
Yalom, I. (2005). The Schopenhauer Cure: A Novel. Harper Collins.
Factors that augment risks of self-cutting
Treatment of Self-Cutting
Aims of Group Therapy
Aspects of Group Therapy
The aim of this research is to investigate and identify opinions regarding vital elements for successful group therapy and to suggest the distinguished elements as guiding principles for future group counselling guidelines, theoretical as well as program development. Therapists are to recognize the essential factors of group therapy, which contribute to positive therapeutic results. The important elements of group therapy established by the board of professionals shall be suggested as guiding principles for future group therapy, theoretical and program development (Edwards, 2001).
Group therapy is a type of psychotherapy whereby one or more therapists attend to a tiny group of patients together as a group. It entails one or more psychologists that head a group of approximately five to fifteen clients. In the same milieu, group counselling…
Conyne, R. K. (Ed.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of group counselling. Oxford University Press.
Edwards, S. A. (2001). The essential elements of multi-family group therapy: A Delphi study.
Fehr, S. S. (Ed.). (2012). 101 interventions in group therapy. Routledge.
Glass, S. D. (2010). The practical handbook of group counselling. Bloomington, Ind.: Trafford Publishing
Social workers deal with many different types of people in many different situations, but probably the most common interaction is with some type of group. The job of a social worker is to be an advocate for whomever the individual is working with and to find resources that the individual or group did not know existed. This work can either be difficult because the worker in question does not understand the dynamics involved in the work, or it can be made easy by focusing on the objectives of the particular assignment. When working with a group of people it is essential to remember what type of group it is, know the roles the different participants can take, and have the training required to adequately facilitate the group.
Understanding the type of group is the first step. The study guide (Maidment, 2010) lists the different types of groups that…
Beck, D., Fisch, R. & Bergander, W. (1999). Functional roles in work groups -- An empirical approach to the study of group role diversity. Psychologische Beltrage, 41(3), 288-297.
Bianchi, A., & Shelly, R.K. (2007). Guest editors' introduction: Group process as social microcosm. Sociological Focus, 40(2), 117-119.
Finn, J. (1999). An exploration of the helping processes in an online self-help group focusing on issues of disability. Health and Social Work, 24(3), 220-230.
Gross, B. (2002). Online therapy. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 5(5), 30-31.
Individuals trust that agreement speaks something relating to the fact. Complying with the group norms hence fulfils our requirement relating to mastery. When individuals privately, show their compliance since they trust group norms represent fact, the group has the impact of information. At the time when the chances are high, individuals are more inspired to take correct decisions, and hence correspond even strongly. Going away from the agreement weaken the impact of the group. Additionally, it weakens confidence, and hence we could feel perplexed, apprehensive and ambiguous. (Smith; Mackie 315-319).
Norms accord us the feelings of linkage since compliance to group principles lead to achieving a positive as well as principled social identity and getting respect from the members of the other group. Compliance as such gives rise to encountering a view of belonging, and it indicates assurance to members of other groups. A group has positive impact at the…
AlRoomi, Dhari. The effect of Cohesion of Group Productivity. The MBA Journal. 23 February 2006. http://businessadministration.wordpress.com/2006/02/23/the-effect-of-cohesion-of-group-productivity/
Bostro, Alan; Bredemeier, Brenda Jo Light; Gardner, Douglas E; Shields, David Lyle Light. The Relationship between Leadership Behaviors and Group Cohesion in Team Sports. Journal of Psychology, vol. 131, no. 2, 1997. pp: 196-211.
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study. Health Education & Behavior, vol. 33, No. 5, 2006, pp: 677-689
Glass, Scott. J; Benshoff, James. M. Facilitating group cohesion among adolescents through challenge course experiences. The Journal of Experiential Education. Fall, 2002. vol. 26, no. 2, pp: 47-51.
Different demographic groups also feel differently about the demographics of a group, and racial and gender differences can cause reduced efficacy for some individuals. Group size must also be considered.
Group cohesiveness is also another important factor in measuring group efficacy, though some cohesion can be detrimental to the group's purpose. The cohesive elements must support the group's states and intended purpose to be effective. Group development can also be studied; this perspective treats the group as an individual entity that changes over time, hopefully for the better. This concept is most useful to practitioners as a way of organizing the individual members of the group as far as their goals are concerned, and to draw their attention to the dynamics of the group, especially during times of group change.
Though empirical evidence is still difficult to come by when addressing group development, there is a general consensus in the…
Designing a Group
A Group for Individuals Concerned about School ullying Incidents
What population is the group designed to serve?
The group is ultimately designed to serve students of a school where bullying has occurred, and the entire school students, staff, and administrators. Local community members, such as physicians and health professionals would also be welcome; individuals who are professional counselors may have useful contributions. As well, it will serve the students' families, friends, and the community. Each of these individuals has something to contribute in a group dialogue about bullying, from a different perspective. The largest issue to be faced at the onset is empowering individuals, such as students, to speak frankly in the presence of not only their peers, but also in the presence of perceived authority figures.
Parental involvement is important so that the parent can assist with issues that their child may have had concerning bullying;…
Anti-bullying procedures for primary and post-primary schools. (2013). Retrieved from: https://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Policy-Reports/Anti-Bullying-Procedures-for-Primary-and-Post-Primary-Schools.pdf .
Berlin, R., & Ruscitti, D. (2011). Best Practices in Bullying Prevention and Intervention. Illinois: The County of Du Page.
Burns, J.H. (2015). Retrieved from Bully Proof Classroom: http://bullyproofclassroom.com/great-anti-bullying-activities
Developing an Evaluation Plan (n.d.): Retrieved from: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/evaluate/evaluation/evaluation-plan/main
Sobell research was to decide which of the two interventions was most effective. The research methods used by those conducting the interventions were thorough, thoughtful, and meticulous, and totally appropriate for volunteers hoping to at least cut back on their abusive behaviors. The researchers used a "…recruitment, screening, and eligibility" research method with these substance abusers in Toronto, Canada (Sobell, et al., 2009). The respondents answered a newspaper advertisement ("ARE YOU CONCERNED ABOUT YOUR DRINKING (DRUG USE)?") sponsored by the Addiction Research Foundation (Sobell, 673). The group sessions brought together between four to eight participants and in the group sessions the clients were "…given an opportunity to discuss all assignments and handouts" and were asked to share their experiences, typical of any group session where an intervention was taking place. In the group sessions two therapists each provided the "guided self-change" (GSC) intervention strategy with one person at a time…
Sobell, L.C., Sobell, M.B. (2009). Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive-Behavioral
Motivational Intervention in a Group vs. Individual Format for Substance Use
Disorders. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(4), 672-683.
Wade, C. (2015). Invitation to Psychology. Boston, MA: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).
The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.
Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…
Alcoholic Anonymous (2002). Service Material from the General Service Office: THE TWELVE STEPS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS
Browne, B.R. (1991). The selective adaption of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(3), 187206. Fagan, R.W. (1986). The use of volunteer sponsors in the rehabilitation of skid-row alcoholics. Journal of Drug Issues, 16(3), 321-337.
Doweiko, H.E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency (7th ed.). Pacifi c Grove, CA:
Evidence-Based Group Work
How can I increase attendance of a support group for at-risk teenage Latino students in a school setting?
Search for Evidence
In order to search for evidence in increasing attendance of a support group for Latino students in a school setting, I went to PubMed as my initial search engine. I chose PubMed because I have found it to be a great starting place for health-care research. Not only does it provide details about relevant articles, but it provides abstracts for most of those articles, as well as the full-text of many articles. Initially my question was how to increase the attendance of a support group for minority students in a school setting, but the amount of available information was overwhelming, so I then narrowed my search to the Latino community. The search terms that I used were "support group," "group therapy," "school setting," "teenage," "Latino," "Spanish,"…
Camacho, S. (2002). Addressing conflict rooted in diversity: The role of the facilitator. Soc Work Groups, 24(3-4), 135-152.
Marsiglia, F., Pena, V., Nieri, R., & Nagoshi, J. (2010). Real groups: The design and immediate effects of a prevention intervention for Latino children. Soc Work Groups, 33(2-3), 103-121.
McNeill, T. (2006). Evidence-based practice in an age of relativism: Toward a model for practice. Social Work, 51(2), 147-56.
Attendance will be required for all group members to optimize the effect of the sessions. Group members will be allowed to leave the group as long as the intention to leave is provided in writing. No reasons will be required.
Because of the nature of the group, a mutual confidentiality agreement will be signed by all group members, including leaders, at the first meeting of the group. There will generally not be homework, apart from the requirement to apply what has been learned to the work and home environment. Group members may report on results if they feel they want to.
There is no need for a formalized institution to determine the ground rules and structure of the meetings. This will be a collaborative process between me and the group members.
IX. Group essions
Group dynamics generally consist of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Group Dynamics, Unit 10).…
Adams, B.D. And Webb, R.D.G. Trust in Small Military Teams. Retrieved from http://www.dodccrp.org/events/7th_ICCRTS/Tracks/pdf/006.PDF
Armstrong, R. (2005) Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004
Borchers, T. (1999). Small Group Communication. Retrieved from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/groups/leader.html
Castano, E. Leidner B, and Slawuta, P. (2008, Jun). Social identification processes, group dynamics and the behaviour of combatants. International Review of the Red Cross, Vol 90, No. 870. Retrieved from http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/review-870-p259/$File/irrc-870_Castano.pdf
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…
Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,
and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://www.samhsa.gov .
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
Without doing this, a person may find that he or she is not getting as far with these people as hoped, and that is definitely detrimental to the people who need help the most. In order to help the maximum number of people in the minimum amount of time, following the eleven specific techniques makes the most sense.
7. In a women's prison, even with medium security inmates, there are dangerous people who have to be watched. There are many themes in Chapter 19, however, and all of them are important. With the women's prison group, the most important theme to come out of that chapter would be the idea that a lot of society thinks that the key should be thrown away both for prisoners and for people who have social work problems. Some of these people may be mentally ill, but most of these individuals just have emotional…
Setting the stage for the group
Psychological intervention might be most efficient when females start modification by leaving the abuser and get in a shelter. Shelters are an essential resource for victims because they offer females and kids security and link them with social, legal, and financial resources (Dutton, 1992). Furthermore, battered females in shelters have a greater threat for PTSD than those who do not look for shelter (Jones et al., 2001). Provided the problems connected with PTSD, these signs might disrupt victims' capability to successfully utilize resources made to enhance their security once they leave the shelter (Foa, Cascardi, Zollner, & Feeny, 2000).
Unlike various other PTSD victims, damaged ladies in shelters deal with continuous security issues. Numerous of their viewed dangers are genuine (Foa et al., 2000). For that reason, conventional PTSD therapies that include exposure are contraindicated, as habituation to feared stimulations might enhance their danger…
Baer, R.A. (Ed.). (2006). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician's guide to evidence base and applications. New York: Academic Press.
Bagshaw, D., Chung, D., Couch, M., Lilburn, S. And Wadham, B. (2000), Reshaping Responses to Domestic Violence: Final Report, University of South Australia.
Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford.
Betan, E.J., & Stanton, A.L. (1999). Fostering ethical willingness: Integrating emotional and contextual awareness with rational analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 295-301.
Gervaise et. al, (1999) point out that increasingly financial reimbursement restrictions from managed care agencies play a critical role "in the quality of patient care" (1). According to the researchers, "complicated contractual arrangements among multiple providers obstruct rather than facilitate provisions for continuity of patient care" (Gervaise, et. al, 1).
New Advances In Modern Care - Addressing Time Limited Therapy
In the short- and long-term it is likely that limits on therapy will remain. Thus new treatment models must be developed to ensure adequate care. New requirements and restrictions placed by managed care organizations necessitate change in the health care field. Much of the research available supports more training for psychologists so they learn techniques for succeeding using group therapy practices (Drotos, 1997; Kent, 2000; Joseph, 1997). Group oriented approaches enable successful time limited treatments and cost effective services that health maintenance organizations are more likely to support.
Ackley D.C. (1997). Breaking free of managed care. New York: Guilford.
Bistline, J.L, Sheridan, S., & Winegar, N. (1992). "Implementing a group therapy program in a managed care setting: Combining cost effectiveness and quality care." The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 73(1): 30.
Drotos J.C. (1997). "Upheavals in the land of the giants." Behavioral Health
Management, 17 (8), 39-40.
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.
Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
The always developing field of psychology and the tools used to develop this science, have provided many patients with much need relief. The constant evolution of the mind requires that clinical practices within mental health treatments also evolve and grow with the human race. The purpose of this essay is to discus Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), as a useful method of treating mental and psychological issues.
First CBT will be discussed in general, and useful ideas presented about the approach will be introduced. A practical example of this therapy will also be highlighted to contextualize the information. Next, this essay will address CBT can be used specifically for the treatment for depression and the issues associated with that idea. Finally, this essay will address how computerized CBT software programs are assisting in treating these types of issues.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is simply a form of psychotherapy that…
Barlow, DH, Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.
Boyes, A. (2012). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques That Work. Psychology Today, 6 Dec 2012. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-practice/201212/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-techniques-work
Dobson, K.S. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Guilford Press.
Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/000907
session of a group you are leading and members are giving each other feedback. One member, Jody, an Indonesian woman, says to another member "You know, there are negative feelings that I have been holding onto for weeks -- and before it's too late I think I am going to have to tell you what I've been feeling about you!"
What intervention would you make at this point? Would you encourage or discourage Jody from directing her negative feelings?
The group leader has a responsibility to create and maintain a safe environment where members can interact positively and productively to maximize their health outcomes. Negative confrontations at any of the four stages of group development ruin the calm environment that had already been created, creating room for defensiveness and scapegoating that could turn ugly if left unchecked (Corey, 2012). Based on this, I would intervene by discouraging Jody from voicing…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006). Substance Abuse: Clinical Issues in Intensive Outpatient Treatment. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006). Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Corey, G. (2012). Case Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Corey, M., Corey, G. & Corey, C. (2008). Groups: Process and Practice (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
elationship Problems Support Group
Support groups are usually created to bring together individuals facing similar problems or issues such as relationship problems. The concept behind the formulation of a support group is that members can get help for their issues through talking with others in a similar situation. In this case, relationship problems support group exist so that people facing relationship issues can share their experiences and advice each other on how to handle them. Support groups help individuals deal with their problems through providing better ways of coping and making members feel less isolated as they make important connections with others in the same situation. While relationship problems support groups are not group therapy sessions, they help members to deal with relational issues through providing emotional support and shared experiences.
A support group is basically defined as a gathering of individuals who share similar interests or concerns…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Support Groups: Make Connections, Get Help. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/support-groups/art-20044655
Peretti, A.G., Martins, P.P.S. & Guanaes-Lorenzi, C. (2013). The Management of Social Problems Talk in a Support Group. Psicologia & Sociedade, 25. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-71822013000500012
"Relationship Support Group."(n.d.). Divorce Dialogue. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.divorcedialogue.com/relationship-support-group-home.php
Sroufe et al. (2000). 5 Relationships, Development, and Psychopathology. In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed). Arnold J. Sameroff, Michael Lewis, and Suzanne M. Miller (Eds). Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/sroufe_rel_pathology.pdf
From the onset, it would be prudent to note that CBT has been shown to be an effective therapy technique – especially in attempts to adapt the behaviors of persons as well as alter their patters of thought. Indeed, as the American Psychological Association – APA (2017) points out, some of the concerns that CBT has been effective in addressing (as indicated by various research studies) include, but they are not limited to, “depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use problems, marital problems, eating disorders and severe mental illness.” In this text, I assess the utilization of CBT in family settings in comparison to its utilization in group settings. Further, I highlight some of the challenges that counselors could come across in their deployment of CBT in group settings.
To begin with, it is important to note that when CBT is applied to families, the focus happens to be…
American Psychological Association – APA (2017). What Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy? https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and-families/cognitive-behavioral
Bieling, P.J., McCabe, R.E. & Anthony, M.M. (2013). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Groups. Guilford Press.
Graham, P. & Reynods, S. (2013). Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children and Families. Cambridge University Press.
O’Hare, T. (2020). Evidence-Based Practices for Social Workers: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Oxford University Press.
Thimm, J.C. & Antonsen, L. (2014). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression in routine practice. BMC Psychiatry, 14(292), 43-51.
Group Counseling for Jake Green
The group will be designed for children suffering from Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The group will be for young children aimed at focusing on self-awareness. The children will be taught self-management skills like positive self-talk techniques and self-soothing behaviors. All this is aimed at improving their social skills and improve interactions with others. Having a group of ADHD children will allow Jake to recognize he is not alone and he will be able to interact with other children who have the same challenges. The group to be created will be a psychoeducational group because the purpose is to develop the members feeling, thinking, and behavioral skills by using a structured learning format. Psychoeducational groups are aimed at high-functioning individuals who have a deficit in specific areas (Pitschel-Walz et al., 2006). The group will be focused on educating group members regarding their disorder…
Ates, B. (2016). Effect of solution focused group counseling for high school students in order to struggle with school burnout. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(4), 27-34.
DeLucia-Waack, J. L., Kalodner, C. R., & Riva, M. (2013). Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Erford, B. (2014). Research and evaluation in counseling. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Furr, S. R. (2000). Structuring the group experience: A format for designing psychoeducational groups. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25(1), 29-49.
Nine-year-old Afro-Caribbean, Lennox, was referred by professionals and his teacher to the therapist. Those who suggested counseling were worried about the boy's conduct and behavior when at school. As Lennox's previous therapist resigned his job during the summer school-term, the boy was referred once again; by this time, he had reached the age of ten. Lennox was offered twelve months of one-on-one therapy. The problems cited in the original referral for counseling included lack of concentration in studies, attention-seeking behavior at school, persistent unpunctuality to class, and the boy's washed-out look. Another referral by an educator in the year 2009 cited the boy's weak concentration in class, poor social skills apparent in groups, defensive stance, need to remain "in control," lack of self-esteem, and failure to accept responsibility for his conduct. According to both referring educators' behavior rating, they were highly concerned about the boy. When he reached the age…
Groups for Relationship Issues
Support groups do what their title implies that they do -- they provide emotional, psychological and community support for individuals that are struggling with problems. This paper discusses support groups that exist to help people resolve romantic and other relationship issues that can stand in the way of a normal, peaceful existence. This paper delves into several kinds of support groups that deal with relationship issues, and discusses the potential solutions that different support groups offer to troubled participants.
hat are Support Groups? hat do Support Groups actually do?
Generally speaking, support groups for relationship problems or other issues provide a mechanism that offers some kind of therapy in response to "...the needs of people dealing with stress caused by life transitions, crises, or chronic conditions" (Fagan, et al., 1996). There has been a "proliferation of support groups in recent years," Fagan writes, which is a…
Brown, N.W. (2011). Psychoeducational Groups: Process and Practice. Milton Park, UK:
Taylor & Francis.
Fagan, T., and Warden, P.G. (1996). Historical Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Santa
Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing.
12 Step groups
step programs are famous for their role in the breaking of addictions. The programs cover such areas of addiction such as gambling, drug, and alcohol. Below is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 step program in breaking addiction to alcohol.
Background of Alcoholism
Facts concerning the abuse of alcohol are often overlooked as it is a frequently used drug that can be obtained from the nearest store or ordered from a menu in a restaurant. Alcohol abuse statistics raise several alarms but focusing the attention of the public to the alcohol effects can help raise awareness and help in the fighting of alcoholism (Get The Facts).
Just a few drinkers of alcohol stop consumption with the first bottle. Also, an evening of heavy consumption is not always done alone (Get The Facts). Chronically consuming alcohol leads to a host of effects. When done over a…
Get the Facts on Alcohol Abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://drugabuse.com/library/get-the-facts-on-alcohol-abuse/
The Birth of A.A. And Its Growth in the U.S./Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://www.aa.org/pages/en_US/historical-data-the-birth-of-aa-and-its-growth-in-the-uscanada
Diversity as a Barrier to Group Psychotherapy
According to the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, the psychopathology of college students, and their demand for counseling services in university college centers (UCCs) has risen substantially over the last decade (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). Well, there are number of reasons why this is so. The most significant of these perhaps is that the modern-day college student faces significant psychological concerns in the form of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and history of hospitalization resulting from lifestyle factors. It is reported, for instance, that between 15 and 20% of college students today suffer from depressive symptoms, compared to between 5 and 6% ten years ago (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). For this reason, most UCCs have adopted and expanded the use of group psychotherapy platforms as an alternative to the traditional individual psychotherapy in a bid to address the…
Lee, J. (2014). Asian International Students' Barriers to Joining Group Counseling. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 64(4), 444-464.
Perez, S.M., Yang, K.Y., Edelman, M.W. & Jones, J.M. (2014). South-East Asian-American Children: Not the Model Minority. Children of Immigrant Families, 14(2), 121-137.
Peters, S. (2015). Barriers to Group Psychotherapy for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students. Professional Dissertation (Wright State University). Retrieved July 14, 2015 from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=wsupsych1434388016&disposition=inline
Riva, M. (2013). Emphasizing Training and Supervision. The Group Psychologist, 23(1), 1-24.
(eysteher) This is significant, because it shows the impact that the ideas of Freud would have not only the world of psychology, but upon society. Where, these different ideas would become increasingly popular, as way of analyzing the different personalities. ("Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory")
How Freud is Viewed in Modern Times
In modern times, Freud is viewed with increasing amounts of controversy. This is because Freud himself was: known to create controversy when he was alive. With him, calling for people to accept his ideas as fact, those who disagreed with him were: viewed as out of touch with reality or blind to what is happening. This would shape how people would view his ideas in the future. As new forms of psychology developed, these views would create competing fields of study. Over the course of time, this would lead to divisions, as to which thinkers had the most correct analysis…
"The Dismal Theory of Freud's Psychoanalysis." UK Apologies. 2005. Web. 21 Jul 2010-
"Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory." Depression Guide. 2005. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Beysteher, Kristan. "Psychoanalysis." Personality Research. 2001. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Houser, Nancy. "Reflections on How Freud's Theories Standup.' Helium. 2010. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Therapies/Treatments That Can Be Done to Help the Immune System of a Patient 18-55 Diagnosed With Rheumatoid Arthritis
THERAPIES/TREATENTS TO HELP THE IUNE SYSTE OF An 18-55 PATIENT DIAGNOSED WITH RHEUATOID ARTHRITIS
Therapies/treatments that can be done to help the immune system of a patient 18-55 diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Cem Gabay, A, et al. (2013). Tocilizumab onotherapy vs. Adalimumab onotherapy for the Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADACTA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Phase 4 Trial.
Using a randomized population involving double-blind, Phase 4 superiority and parallel-group, the study used 76 centers found in different countries including the U.S. The patients used were above 18 years and suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis for the last six months and above. The patients were supposed to have shown intolerance to methotrexate or were not appropriate for a continuation of the treatment using this method. With the random assignment of 1:1, the…
Michael Schiff, Michael E. Weinblatt, Robert Valente, Desiree van der Heijde, Gustavo Citera, Ayanbola Elegbe, Michael Maldonado, Roy Fleischmann. (2013). Head-to-head comparison of subcutaneous abatacept versus adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis: two- year efficacy and safety findings from AMPLE trial. Clinical and epidemiological research Journal. 2013-203843v1, Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013- 203843
Ritika Khandpur1, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera1, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Alison Gizinski1, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Jason S. Knight, Sean Friday, Sam Li, Rajiv M. Patel, Venkataraman Subramanian, Paul Thompson, Pojen Chen, David A. Fox1, Subramaniam Pennathur and Mariana J. Kaplan. (2013). NETs Are a Source of Citrullinated Autoantigens and Stimulate Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Science Translational Medicine Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 178, pp. 178ra40, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005580
Scott, D. L. (2012). Biologics-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Journal, Vol. 91 No.1 January 2012. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.278
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Given the frequency of pressure ulcers, the strategies used in mitigating those wounds must be effective. Sherman reports that 61 ulcers in 50 patients got maggot therapy and 84 ulcers in 70 patients did not receive maggot therapy (instead, those wounds received traditional care). The results showed that "eighty percent of maggot-treated wounds were completely debrided" but only 48% of conventionally-treated wounds were "completely debrided" (Sherman, 208).
(Qualitative) Laura Jean van Veen presents a case in the Journal of ound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing; a 59-year-old woman (a Jehovah's itness) was seriously injured in an auto accident in Vancouver. In order to save her legs (her religion did not permit blood transfusions) the family asked for maggot therapy. After applying maggots weekly for 6 weeks, "…the patient [was] now free of infection" and had skin graft surgery (van Veen, 2008, 432).
(Qualitative) Another case study in the Journal of ound,…
Courtenay, M., Churdh, J.D.T., and Ryan, T.J. (2000). Larva therapy in wound management.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 93, 72-74.
Fenn-Smith, P. (2008). Case Study: Maggot Debridement Therapy. Wound Practice and Research, 16(4), 169-170.
Paul, Aaron G., Ahmad, Nazi W., Lee, H.L., Ariff, Ashraff M., Saranum, Masri, Naicker,
Magnetic Therapy: Sound Practice or Simple Phooey?
Ever since the Enlightenment and arguably even further back in the history of Western civilization, almost every technological advancement has been accompanied by new ideas about how to medically treat the human body. Many of these technological ideas, especially since the nineteenth century and hugely in the modern era, have led to significant advancements in treatment. Others, however, have been less scientifically successful and are less medical treatments and more mechanisms for sometimes well-meaning but often outright conning "practitioners" to extract profits from gullible patients. The following paragraphs examine the scientific evidence regarding magnetic therapies, coming to the determination that despite strong belief by some adherents the treatment is in almost all cases proven to be ineffective.
Past Use and Current Controversy
Ever since the 1500s, when some of the principles of magnetism began to be more scientifically observed, the use of magnets…
Cepeda, S., Carr, D., Sarquis, T., Miranda, N., Garcia, R. & Zarate, C. (2007). Static Magnetic Therapy Does Not Decrease Pain or Opioid Requirements: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia 104(2): 290-4.
Livingston, J. (2012). Magnetic Therapy: Plausible Attraction? Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.acemagnetics.com/eduarticles-magsportsbracelets-plausibleatt.html
Ramey, D. (2012). Magnetic and Electromagnetic Therapy. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.skeptically.org/quackery/id4.html
Valbona, C. & Richards, T. (1999). Evolution of magnetic therapy from alternative to traditional medicine. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 10(3): 729-54.
A review of the existing scientific literature
The use of magnets in medicine is long-standing. "Physicians from ancient Greece, China, Japan, and Europe successfully applied natural magnetic materials in their daily practice" (Marko 2007). This is "based on the belief that an imbalance of the electromagnetic frequencies or fields of energy can cause illness. By applying electrical energy to the body, the imbalance can be corrected. Many electrical devices are available on the market to treat a variety of symptoms" (Electromagnetic Therapy, 2012, New York Presbyterian Hospital). "With the advent of the commercial availability of electricity during the last 20 years of the Nineteenth Century with a push by inventors and visionaries like Thomas Edison, an increase in experimentation and applied research by means of electromagnetic fields became more intense during the middle of the twentieth century" (Pretorious et al. 2011). However, the therapy's full incorporation into contemporary…
Battisti, E., Albanese, A., Bianciardi, L., Piazza, E., Rigato, M., Vittoria, A., & Giordano, N.
(2007). Efficacy and safety of new TAMMEF (therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields) system in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
Environmentalist, 27(4), 441-445.
Cadossi, R., Setti, S., & Fini, M. (2011). Cartilage chondroprotection and repair with pulsed electromagnetic fields: I-ONE therapy. Environmentalist, 31(2), 149-154
A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed
The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…
From this discussion, Dubin (2009) then moves to presenting a new and unique model for implementation in both marriage and family counseling contexts. The current article models the "Basic Needs Genogram" as the primary method to be tested in contemporary therapy structures. This is a genogram that is based off the works of Glasser (1998) and breaks down our complexity of needs into five basic categories: "self-preservation, love and belonging, power or self-worth, freedom or independence and fun or enjoyment" (Dubin, 2009). These needs are interconnected and help drive behavior within the context of relationships, whether those relationships are marriage of familial structures. Dubin (2009) suggests that the Basic Needs Genogram will allow individuals, as well as family members to consider how current and past generational patterns influence the formation of their 'picture albums,'" which then dictate how their own relationships are formed and maintained (Dubin, 2009, p 17). It…
Duba, Jill A. (2009). Introducing the 'basic needs genogram' in reality therapy-based marriage and family counseling. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(2), 15-19.
Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of eality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of eality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…
Hazelden, Paul. "Reality Therapy" Retrieved at http://www.hazelden.org.uk/gr01/art_gr003_reality_therapy.htm . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Historic Overview of Psychiatric Care" Retrieved at http://www.jcjc.cc.ms.us/faculty/adn/jmcmillan/psychcl1.html. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "From Reality Therapy to Reality Therapy in Action" Retrieved at http://www.socc.ie/~wgii/articlebl.htm. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "The Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools" Retrieved at http://www.ncge.ie/handbook_docs/Section1/Reality_Therapy_Guide_Sch.doc . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
It is evidenced that soon after lapse of two months of treatment about 67% of the patients administered with manual therapy and 27% of the patients administered with exercise therapy could return to work revealing substantial difference through the follow up period. The study concluded that improvements are noticed in both the groups. However, the improvements in respect the patients administered with manual therapy are more prominent than that with exercise therapy. (Aure; Hoel Nilsen; Vasseljen, 2003)
Thus even though manual therapies are beneficial, it has been debated upon. However irrespective of the fact that delaying methods taking into consideration the reality that it compels the athlete to a therapeutic machine, still then it is acknowledged to have the significant techniques in alleviating pain, rehabilitating the common range of motion, and treating specialized conditions like myofascial pain syndrome. (Holt, 2004) However, such advantages are to be exploited from the physical…
Aure, Olav Frode; Hoel Nilsen, Jens; Vasseljen, Ottar. (15 March, 2003) "Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-up" Spine. Vol: 28; No: 6; pp: 525-531.
Beeton, Karen. (2003) "Manual Therapy Masterclasses"
Elsevier Health Sciences.
BMJ: Manual therapy beats out traditional treatment." (August, 2003) Journal of the American
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.
In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).
The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…
Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K, & Slyter, M. (2003). "The impact of menopause:
Implications for mental health counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 311.
Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Monteleone, P. Benussi, C., Bevilacqua, G.,
Vacca, F., Genazzani, A.R. (2005, Feb). "Effects of low dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women." Maturitas, 50(2): 91-7.
A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…
Brown, Laura S. Feminist Therapy, Part of the Systems of Psychotherapy, APA Psychotherapy Video Series (2006)
Brown, L.S. (1994). Subversive dialogues: Theory in feminist therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dutton-Douglas, M.A., & Walker, L.E.A. (Eds.). (1988). Feminist psychotherapies: Integration of therapeutic and feminist systems. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Conversion therapy is a topic that has both critics and supporters and has been recently in the news ever since California came out with a law banning conversion therapy for teenagers and children (Buchanan, 2012). Critics say that the therapy is an example of pseudo-science that it forcibly tries to change the gay's person's sexual tendencies and that, since this is unnatural and impossible, only eventuates in guilt and depression. Supporters, on the other hand, maintain that, as like every other therapy, conversion therapy cannot be expected to help all. More so, there are some individuals who do wish to change their sexual tendencies and, therefore, they should be enabled to sign up for conversion therapy would they so wish. Finally, the government has no right to interfere unless conversion therapy has been shown to be destructive to all clients; and this is has not yet evidenced itself to be.…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Gans, Laura A. (1999) Inverts, Perverts, and Converts: Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy and Liability, The Boston University Public Interest Law Journal 8
Haldeman, Douglas C. (2002), Gay Rights, Patient Rights: The Implications of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 33 (3): 260
ole of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease?
The objective of this work is to examine the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. Also examined will be the delivery system, the type of antibiotics and efficacy as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study including literature located in professional and academic journal and publications.
Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline
The work of Preshaw, et al. (2005) entitled "Long-Term Treatment with Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Has No Antibacterial Effect on Intestinal Flora" reports a study that sought to determine if a nine-month regimen of subantimicrobial doxycycline (20 mg. bid) had an effect on either the intestinal or the vaginal microflora. The study involved 69 individuals with periodontal disease who were randomized to receive drug or placebo control for a nine-month…
American Academy of Periodontology. (2000) Parameter on "refractory" periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71:859-860.
Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. (2004) In vitro models of tissue penetration and destruction by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72: 4689 -- 98.
Chen C, Slots J. (1993) The current status and future prospects of altering the pathogenic microflora of periodontal disease. Curr Opin Periodontol 1993;71-77.
Chen C, Slots J. (2000) Microbiological tests for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000-1999;20:53-64.
The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.
In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…
Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.
Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.
Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop
Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).
Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Domi, T (June 26, 2012 ) UPDATE: Prop 8 Witness Ryan Kendall Testifies on Conversion Therapy; Committee Approves 5-2
I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).
In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…
Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.
____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.
Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
William Glasser wrote the book reality therapy in 1965. Since its publication, it has gained increasing prominence in the United States, as well as the world. Dr. Glasser developed his ideology to address the limitations he found in the Freudian model of psychology. The methods and practices intrinsic to reality therapy differ substantially from conventional therapy. Dr. Glasser challenges several widely accepted notions of psychiatry, such as mental illness and the role of therapists. Glasser founded the William Glasser Institute to encourage the spread of his ideas into psychiatric practice.
Over the last thirty-five years, Glasser's ideology has proven to be an effective form of therapy, with successes in both institutional settings and private practices.
Reality therapy concentrates on the client's needs and getting them to confront the reality of the world. In Reality Therapy, these needs are classified into power, love and belonging, freedom, fun, and survival.…
Corey (2000). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 6th Ed. Brooks/Cole, 2001.
Glasser, Naomi (1989). Control Theory in the Practice of Reality Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.
Glasser, Carleen and William (2000). Getting Together and Staying Together. New York: HarperCollins.
Glasser, William (1965) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry. New York: Harper & Row.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.
Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.
The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.
My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…
For example, Jones and Charlton note that it is possible to develop appropriate problem-solving techniques in the following four major areas:
1. Identifying the goal which is appropriate and achievable;
2. Identifying exceptions to the usual pattern of problems;
3. Measuring the student's progress towards achieving the goal; and,
4. Providing useful and positive feedback.
Finally, SFBT can be used either as a "stand-alone" counseling approach or in tandem with other techniques. For example, Linton (2005) emphasizes that SFBT ". . . can operate as a stand alone approach or in conjunction with traditional models of treatment. Solution-focused mental health counselors do not view SFBT and traditional models of treatment as incompatible. Collaborating with clients to create counseling goals, be they directed towards abstinence, self-help group attendance, changes in thinking errors, or some other goal of the client's choosing, selves to enhance motivation to change" (p. 298). Likewise, Jones and…
de Shazer, S. (1979, Summer). Brief therapy with families. American Journal of Family
de Shazer, S. (1986). An indirect approach to brief therapy (Family Therapy Collections, Vol.
19, pp 48-55, Aspen Systems). Milwaukee, WI: Brief Family Therapy Center.