Group Therapy Essays (Examples)

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Group Process Social Workers Deal With Many

Words: 1153 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12224307

Group Process

Social workers deal with many different types of people in many different situations, but probably the most common interaction is with some type of group. The job of a social worker is to be an advocate for whomever the individual is working with and to find resources that the individual or group did not know existed. This work can either be difficult because the worker in question does not understand the dynamics involved in the work, or it can be made easy by focusing on the objectives of the particular assignment. When working with a group of people it is essential to remember what type of group it is, know the roles the different participants can take, and have the training required to adequately facilitate the group.

Understanding the type of group is the first step. The study guide (Maidment, 2010) lists the different types of groups that…… [Read More]


Beck, D., Fisch, R. & Bergander, W. (1999). Functional roles in work groups -- An empirical approach to the study of group role diversity. Psychologische Beltrage, 41(3), 288-297.

Bianchi, A., & Shelly, R.K. (2007). Guest editors' introduction: Group process as social microcosm. Sociological Focus, 40(2), 117-119.

Finn, J. (1999). An exploration of the helping processes in an online self-help group focusing on issues of disability. Health and Social Work, 24(3), 220-230.

Gross, B. (2002). Online therapy. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 5(5), 30-31.
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Group Cohesion Discussing Group Cohesion

Words: 3093 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47357272

Individuals trust that agreement speaks something relating to the fact. Complying with the group norms hence fulfils our requirement relating to mastery. When individuals privately, show their compliance since they trust group norms represent fact, the group has the impact of information. At the time when the chances are high, individuals are more inspired to take correct decisions, and hence correspond even strongly. Going away from the agreement weaken the impact of the group. Additionally, it weakens confidence, and hence we could feel perplexed, apprehensive and ambiguous. (Smith; Mackie 315-319).

Norms accord us the feelings of linkage since compliance to group principles lead to achieving a positive as well as principled social identity and getting respect from the members of the other group. Compliance as such gives rise to encountering a view of belonging, and it indicates assurance to members of other groups. A group has positive impact at the…… [Read More]


AlRoomi, Dhari. The effect of Cohesion of Group Productivity. The MBA Journal. 23 February 2006.

Bostro, Alan; Bredemeier, Brenda Jo Light; Gardner, Douglas E; Shields, David Lyle Light. The Relationship between Leadership Behaviors and Group Cohesion in Team Sports. Journal of Psychology, vol. 131, no. 2, 1997. pp: 196-211.

Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study. Health Education & Behavior, vol. 33, No. 5, 2006, pp: 677-689

Glass, Scott. J; Benshoff, James. M. Facilitating group cohesion among adolescents through challenge course experiences. The Journal of Experiential Education. Fall, 2002. vol. 26, no. 2, pp: 47-51.
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Group Change Individual and Group

Words: 784 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56647425

Different demographic groups also feel differently about the demographics of a group, and racial and gender differences can cause reduced efficacy for some individuals. Group size must also be considered.

Group cohesiveness is also another important factor in measuring group efficacy, though some cohesion can be detrimental to the group's purpose. The cohesive elements must support the group's states and intended purpose to be effective. Group development can also be studied; this perspective treats the group as an individual entity that changes over time, hopefully for the better. This concept is most useful to practitioners as a way of organizing the individual members of the group as far as their goals are concerned, and to draw their attention to the dynamics of the group, especially during times of group change.

Though empirical evidence is still difficult to come by when addressing group development, there is a general consensus in the…… [Read More]

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Group Designing for People Concerned About Bullying in a School

Words: 3650 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79386353

Designing a Group

A Group for Individuals Concerned about School ullying Incidents

What population is the group designed to serve?

The group is ultimately designed to serve students of a school where bullying has occurred, and the entire school students, staff, and administrators. Local community members, such as physicians and health professionals would also be welcome; individuals who are professional counselors may have useful contributions. As well, it will serve the students' families, friends, and the community. Each of these individuals has something to contribute in a group dialogue about bullying, from a different perspective. The largest issue to be faced at the onset is empowering individuals, such as students, to speak frankly in the presence of not only their peers, but also in the presence of perceived authority figures.

Parental involvement is important so that the parent can assist with issues that their child may have had concerning bullying;…… [Read More]


Anti-bullying procedures for primary and post-primary schools. (2013). Retrieved from:

Berlin, R., & Ruscitti, D. (2011). Best Practices in Bullying Prevention and Intervention. Illinois: The County of Du Page.

Burns, J.H. (2015). Retrieved from Bully Proof Classroom:

Developing an Evaluation Plan (n.d.): Retrieved from:
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Group Stage of Development Individual

Words: 2146 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55806480

The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).

The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.

Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…… [Read More]


Alcoholic Anonymous (2002). Service Material from the General Service Office: THE TWELVE STEPS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS

Browne, B.R. (1991). The selective adaption of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(3), 187206. Fagan, R.W. (1986). The use of volunteer sponsors in the rehabilitation of skid-row alcoholics. Journal of Drug Issues, 16(3), 321-337.

Doweiko, H.E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency (7th ed.). Pacifi c Grove, CA:
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Therapies Alternative Theoretical Approaches to

Words: 1120 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94944450

The benefits of including family in therapy sessions extend far beyond addressing the parents' concerns in this situation, however, and can help to identify underlying problems that led to osa's drug abuse and potentially provide more highly effective long-term solutions to these issues.

Adolescent females were the subject of one study that specifically examined the efficacy of family systems therapy interventions in cases of anorexia nervosa, and the efficacy of this approach compared quite favorable to other therapy techniques (Eisler et al. 2005). Especially noticeable in this study was an increased expression of emotion by all family members, leading to greater openness and a greater ability and willingness to share problems and support each other (Eisler et al. 2005). This effect would likely be highly beneficial to osa and her family as well, as there is almost certainly an underlying stressor that led to osa's drug abuse and overall decline…… [Read More]


Cornelius-Whit, J. (2007). "Learner-Centered Teacher-Student Relationships Are Effective: A Meta-Analysis." Review of educational research 77(1), pp. 113-43.

Eisler, I.; Dare, C.; Hodes, M.; Russel, G.; Dodge, E. & LeGrange, D. (2005). "Family Therapy for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: The Results of a Controlled Comparison of Two Family Interventions." Focus 3, pp. 629-40.

Frelberg, H. & Lamb, S. (2009). "Dimensions of Person-Centered Classroom Management." Theory into practice 48(2), pp. 99-105.

Ready, D.; Gerardi, R.; Backscheider, A.; Mascaro, N. & Rothbaum, B. (2010). "Comparing Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy to Present-Centered Therapy with 11 U.S. Vietnam Veterans with PTSD." Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 13(1), pp. 49-54.
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Evidence-Based Group Work How Can I Increase

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75295210

Evidence-Based Group Work

How can I increase attendance of a support group for at-risk teenage Latino students in a school setting?

Search for Evidence

In order to search for evidence in increasing attendance of a support group for Latino students in a school setting, I went to PubMed as my initial search engine. I chose PubMed because I have found it to be a great starting place for health-care research. Not only does it provide details about relevant articles, but it provides abstracts for most of those articles, as well as the full-text of many articles. Initially my question was how to increase the attendance of a support group for minority students in a school setting, but the amount of available information was overwhelming, so I then narrowed my search to the Latino community. The search terms that I used were "support group," "group therapy," "school setting," "teenage," "Latino," "Spanish,"…… [Read More]


Camacho, S. (2002). Addressing conflict rooted in diversity: The role of the facilitator. Soc Work Groups, 24(3-4), 135-152.

Marsiglia, F., Pena, V., Nieri, R., & Nagoshi, J. (2010). Real groups: The design and immediate effects of a prevention intervention for Latino children. Soc Work Groups, 33(2-3), 103-121.

McNeill, T. (2006). Evidence-based practice in an age of relativism: Toward a model for practice. Social Work, 51(2), 147-56.
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Military Therapeutic Group Introduction and

Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52442895

Attendance will be required for all group members to optimize the effect of the sessions. Group members will be allowed to leave the group as long as the intention to leave is provided in writing. No reasons will be required.

Because of the nature of the group, a mutual confidentiality agreement will be signed by all group members, including leaders, at the first meeting of the group. There will generally not be homework, apart from the requirement to apply what has been learned to the work and home environment. Group members may report on results if they feel they want to.

There is no need for a formalized institution to determine the ground rules and structure of the meetings. This will be a collaborative process between me and the group members.

IX. Group essions

Group dynamics generally consist of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Group Dynamics, Unit 10).…… [Read More]


Adams, B.D. And Webb, R.D.G. Trust in Small Military Teams. Retrieved from 

Armstrong, R. (2005) Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from 

Borchers, T. (1999). Small Group Communication. Retrieved from

Castano, E. Leidner B, and Slawuta, P. (2008, Jun). Social identification processes, group dynamics and the behaviour of combatants. International Review of the Red Cross, Vol 90, No. 870. Retrieved from$File/irrc-870_Castano.pdf
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]


Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Glbt Substance Abuse Therapies the

Words: 3295 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76452211

Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).

Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.

It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,

and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse

Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from .

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Psychoanalytical

Words: 2924 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38678874

The therapist encourages openness and honesty on the part of the patient. This parent-like role gives the therapist the power to influence the patient positively, and to interpret his self-defeating behavior and distorted beliefs about reality. The patient must be able and willing to profit from it. Since offenders are assumed to suffer from denial, lack of motivation to change, and unwillingness to cooperate with voluntary treatment, individual psychotherapy is generally thought to be ineffective. Suspicion and lack of rapport in the criminal justice context also interfere with effective use of the method. There are few reports on individual psychotherapy with sex offenders against children.

Group psychotherapy gives members the opportunity to share experiences, gain insight, learn to control unacceptable impulses, and find acceptance. Although used more commonly than individual psychotherapy, the effectiveness is unknown. There have been no replicable, controlled studies. One review found that studies were based on…… [Read More]


Barbaree, H.E. (1991). Denial and minimization among sex offenders: Assessment and treatment outcome. Forum on Corrections Research, 3, 30-33.

Brake, S.C., & Shannon, D. (1997). Using pretreatment to increase admission in sex offenders.

Conte, J.R. (1985). Clinical dimensions of adult sexual abuse of children. Behavioral Sciences the Law, 3, 341-354.

Cowden, E.L. (1970). The relationship of defensiveness to responses on the Sex Inventory.
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Forming - The Group First

Words: 1085 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96685737

Without doing this, a person may find that he or she is not getting as far with these people as hoped, and that is definitely detrimental to the people who need help the most. In order to help the maximum number of people in the minimum amount of time, following the eleven specific techniques makes the most sense.

7. In a women's prison, even with medium security inmates, there are dangerous people who have to be watched. There are many themes in Chapter 19, however, and all of them are important. With the women's prison group, the most important theme to come out of that chapter would be the idea that a lot of society thinks that the key should be thrown away both for prisoners and for people who have social work problems. Some of these people may be mentally ill, but most of these individuals just have emotional…… [Read More]

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Setting the Stage for the Group Psychological

Words: 4820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96691655

Setting the stage for the group

Psychological intervention might be most efficient when females start modification by leaving the abuser and get in a shelter. Shelters are an essential resource for victims because they offer females and kids security and link them with social, legal, and financial resources (Dutton, 1992). Furthermore, battered females in shelters have a greater threat for PTSD than those who do not look for shelter (Jones et al., 2001). Provided the problems connected with PTSD, these signs might disrupt victims' capability to successfully utilize resources made to enhance their security once they leave the shelter (Foa, Cascardi, Zollner, & Feeny, 2000).

Unlike various other PTSD victims, damaged ladies in shelters deal with continuous security issues. Numerous of their viewed dangers are genuine (Foa et al., 2000). For that reason, conventional PTSD therapies that include exposure are contraindicated, as habituation to feared stimulations might enhance their danger…… [Read More]


Baer, R.A. (Ed.). (2006). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician's guide to evidence base and applications. New York: Academic Press.

Bagshaw, D., Chung, D., Couch, M., Lilburn, S. And Wadham, B. (2000), Reshaping Responses to Domestic Violence: Final Report, University of South Australia.

Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford.

Betan, E.J., & Stanton, A.L. (1999). Fostering ethical willingness: Integrating emotional and contextual awareness with rational analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 295-301.
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Limited Therapy Effects of Managed

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20624228

Gervaise et. al, (1999) point out that increasingly financial reimbursement restrictions from managed care agencies play a critical role "in the quality of patient care" (1). According to the researchers, "complicated contractual arrangements among multiple providers obstruct rather than facilitate provisions for continuity of patient care" (Gervaise, et. al, 1).

New Advances In Modern Care - Addressing Time Limited Therapy

In the short- and long-term it is likely that limits on therapy will remain. Thus new treatment models must be developed to ensure adequate care. New requirements and restrictions placed by managed care organizations necessitate change in the health care field. Much of the research available supports more training for psychologists so they learn techniques for succeeding using group therapy practices (Drotos, 1997; Kent, 2000; Joseph, 1997). Group oriented approaches enable successful time limited treatments and cost effective services that health maintenance organizations are more likely to support.

There is…… [Read More]


Ackley D.C. (1997). Breaking free of managed care. New York: Guilford.

Bistline, J.L, Sheridan, S., & Winegar, N. (1992). "Implementing a group therapy program in a managed care setting: Combining cost effectiveness and quality care." The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 73(1): 30.

Drotos J.C. (1997). "Upheavals in the land of the giants." Behavioral Health

Management, 17 (8), 39-40.
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Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Therapy

Words: 1586 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9470176

Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy

Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques

Case of the Fat Lady

Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…… [Read More]


Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.

Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.

Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
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Cognitive-Based Therapy

Words: 1383 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4291134


The always developing field of psychology and the tools used to develop this science, have provided many patients with much need relief. The constant evolution of the mind requires that clinical practices within mental health treatments also evolve and grow with the human race. The purpose of this essay is to discus Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), as a useful method of treating mental and psychological issues.

First CBT will be discussed in general, and useful ideas presented about the approach will be introduced. A practical example of this therapy will also be highlighted to contextualize the information. Next, this essay will address CBT can be used specifically for the treatment for depression and the issues associated with that idea. Finally, this essay will address how computerized CBT software programs are assisting in treating these types of issues.


Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is simply a form of psychotherapy that…… [Read More]


Barlow, DH, Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.

Boyes, A. (2012). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques That Work. Psychology Today, 6 Dec 2012. Retrieved from

Dobson, K.S. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Guilford Press.

Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from
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Session of a Group You Are Leading

Words: 3450 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56050818

session of a group you are leading and members are giving each other feedback. One member, Jody, an Indonesian woman, says to another member "You know, there are negative feelings that I have been holding onto for weeks -- and before it's too late I think I am going to have to tell you what I've been feeling about you!"

What intervention would you make at this point? Would you encourage or discourage Jody from directing her negative feelings?

The group leader has a responsibility to create and maintain a safe environment where members can interact positively and productively to maximize their health outcomes. Negative confrontations at any of the four stages of group development ruin the calm environment that had already been created, creating room for defensiveness and scapegoating that could turn ugly if left unchecked (Corey, 2012). Based on this, I would intervene by discouraging Jody from voicing…… [Read More]


Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006). Substance Abuse: Clinical Issues in Intensive Outpatient Treatment. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006). Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Corey, G. (2012). Case Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning

Corey, M., Corey, G. & Corey, C. (2008). Groups: Process and Practice (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
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Relationship Issues Support Group

Words: 1817 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18945161

elationship Problems Support Group

Support groups are usually created to bring together individuals facing similar problems or issues such as relationship problems. The concept behind the formulation of a support group is that members can get help for their issues through talking with others in a similar situation. In this case, relationship problems support group exist so that people facing relationship issues can share their experiences and advice each other on how to handle them. Support groups help individuals deal with their problems through providing better ways of coping and making members feel less isolated as they make important connections with others in the same situation. While relationship problems support groups are not group therapy sessions, they help members to deal with relational issues through providing emotional support and shared experiences.

Historical Context

A support group is basically defined as a gathering of individuals who share similar interests or concerns…… [Read More]


Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Support Groups: Make Connections, Get Help. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from

Peretti, A.G., Martins, P.P.S. & Guanaes-Lorenzi, C. (2013). The Management of Social Problems Talk in a Support Group. Psicologia & Sociedade, 25. Retrieved from

"Relationship Support Group."(n.d.). Divorce Dialogue. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from

Sroufe et al. (2000). 5 Relationships, Development, and Psychopathology. In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed). Arnold J. Sameroff, Michael Lewis, and Suzanne M. Miller (Eds). Retrieved August 22, 2016, from
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Jake Green Case Study Group Counseling

Words: 3282 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23639234

Group Counseling for Jake Green

Group Description

The group will be designed for children suffering from Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The group will be for young children aimed at focusing on self-awareness. The children will be taught self-management skills like positive self-talk techniques and self-soothing behaviors. All this is aimed at improving their social skills and improve interactions with others. Having a group of ADHD children will allow Jake to recognize he is not alone and he will be able to interact with other children who have the same challenges. The group to be created will be a psychoeducational group because the purpose is to develop the members feeling, thinking, and behavioral skills by using a structured learning format. Psychoeducational groups are aimed at high-functioning individuals who have a deficit in specific areas (Pitschel-Walz et al., 2006). The group will be focused on educating group members regarding their disorder…… [Read More]


Ates, B. (2016). Effect of solution focused group counseling for high school students in order to struggle with school burnout. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(4), 27-34.

DeLucia-Waack, J. L., Kalodner, C. R., & Riva, M. (2013). Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Erford, B. (2014). Research and evaluation in counseling. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Furr, S. R. (2000). Structuring the group experience: A format for designing psychoeducational groups. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25(1), 29-49.
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Romantic and Relationship Difficulties Call for Support Group dynamics

Words: 1803 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19456228

Groups for Relationship Issues

Support groups do what their title implies that they do -- they provide emotional, psychological and community support for individuals that are struggling with problems. This paper discusses support groups that exist to help people resolve romantic and other relationship issues that can stand in the way of a normal, peaceful existence. This paper delves into several kinds of support groups that deal with relationship issues, and discusses the potential solutions that different support groups offer to troubled participants.

hat are Support Groups? hat do Support Groups actually do?

Generally speaking, support groups for relationship problems or other issues provide a mechanism that offers some kind of therapy in response to "...the needs of people dealing with stress caused by life transitions, crises, or chronic conditions" (Fagan, et al., 1996). There has been a "proliferation of support groups in recent years," Fagan writes, which is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, N.W. (2011). Psychoeducational Groups: Process and Practice. Milton Park, UK:

Taylor & Francis.

Fagan, T., and Warden, P.G. (1996). Historical Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Santa

Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing.
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Effectiveness of 12 Step Group

Words: 2812 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12395137

12 Step groups

step programs are famous for their role in the breaking of addictions. The programs cover such areas of addiction such as gambling, drug, and alcohol. Below is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 step program in breaking addiction to alcohol.

Background of Alcoholism

Facts concerning the abuse of alcohol are often overlooked as it is a frequently used drug that can be obtained from the nearest store or ordered from a menu in a restaurant. Alcohol abuse statistics raise several alarms but focusing the attention of the public to the alcohol effects can help raise awareness and help in the fighting of alcoholism (Get The Facts).

Just a few drinkers of alcohol stop consumption with the first bottle. Also, an evening of heavy consumption is not always done alone (Get The Facts). Chronically consuming alcohol leads to a host of effects. When done over a…… [Read More]



Get the Facts on Alcohol Abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from 


The Birth of A.A. And Its Growth in the U.S./Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from
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Diversity as a Barrier to Group Psychotherapy

Words: 3329 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60383525

Diversity as a Barrier to Group Psychotherapy

According to the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, the psychopathology of college students, and their demand for counseling services in university college centers (UCCs) has risen substantially over the last decade (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). Well, there are number of reasons why this is so. The most significant of these perhaps is that the modern-day college student faces significant psychological concerns in the form of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and history of hospitalization resulting from lifestyle factors. It is reported, for instance, that between 15 and 20% of college students today suffer from depressive symptoms, compared to between 5 and 6% ten years ago (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). For this reason, most UCCs have adopted and expanded the use of group psychotherapy platforms as an alternative to the traditional individual psychotherapy in a bid to address the…… [Read More]


Lee, J. (2014). Asian International Students' Barriers to Joining Group Counseling. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 64(4), 444-464.

Perez, S.M., Yang, K.Y., Edelman, M.W. & Jones, J.M. (2014). South-East Asian-American Children: Not the Model Minority. Children of Immigrant Families, 14(2), 121-137.

Peters, S. (2015). Barriers to Group Psychotherapy for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students. Professional Dissertation (Wright State University). Retrieved July 14, 2015 from!etd.send_file?accession=wsupsych1434388016&disposition=inline

Riva, M. (2013). Emphasizing Training and Supervision. The Group Psychologist, 23(1), 1-24.
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Therapies and Influences in the

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76239863

(eysteher) This is significant, because it shows the impact that the ideas of Freud would have not only the world of psychology, but upon society. Where, these different ideas would become increasingly popular, as way of analyzing the different personalities. ("Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory")

How Freud is Viewed in Modern Times

In modern times, Freud is viewed with increasing amounts of controversy. This is because Freud himself was: known to create controversy when he was alive. With him, calling for people to accept his ideas as fact, those who disagreed with him were: viewed as out of touch with reality or blind to what is happening. This would shape how people would view his ideas in the future. As new forms of psychology developed, these views would create competing fields of study. Over the course of time, this would lead to divisions, as to which thinkers had the most correct analysis…… [Read More]


"The Dismal Theory of Freud's Psychoanalysis." UK Apologies. 2005. Web. 21 Jul 2010-

"Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory." Depression Guide. 2005. Web. 21 Jul. 2010

Beysteher, Kristan. "Psychoanalysis." Personality Research. 2001. Web. 21 Jul. 2010

Houser, Nancy. "Reflections on How Freud's Theories Standup.' Helium. 2010. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
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Immune Boosting Therapies for RA Patients

Words: 2111 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23041738

Therapies/Treatments That Can Be Done to Help the Immune System of a Patient 18-55 Diagnosed With Rheumatoid Arthritis


Therapies/treatments that can be done to help the immune system of a patient 18-55 diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Annotated Bibliography

Cem Gabay, A, et al. (2013). Tocilizumab onotherapy vs. Adalimumab onotherapy for the Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADACTA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Phase 4 Trial.

Using a randomized population involving double-blind, Phase 4 superiority and parallel-group, the study used 76 centers found in different countries including the U.S. The patients used were above 18 years and suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis for the last six months and above. The patients were supposed to have shown intolerance to methotrexate or were not appropriate for a continuation of the treatment using this method. With the random assignment of 1:1, the…… [Read More]

Michael Schiff, Michael E. Weinblatt, Robert Valente, Desiree van der Heijde, Gustavo Citera, Ayanbola Elegbe, Michael Maldonado, Roy Fleischmann. (2013). Head-to-head comparison of subcutaneous abatacept versus adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis: two- year efficacy and safety findings from AMPLE trial. Clinical and epidemiological research Journal. 2013-203843v1, Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013- 203843

Ritika Khandpur1, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera1, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Alison Gizinski1, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Jason S. Knight, Sean Friday, Sam Li, Rajiv M. Patel, Venkataraman Subramanian, Paul Thompson, Pojen Chen, David A. Fox1, Subramaniam Pennathur and Mariana J. Kaplan. (2013). NETs Are a Source of Citrullinated Autoantigens and Stimulate Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Science Translational Medicine Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 178, pp. 178ra40, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005580

Scott, D. L. (2012). Biologics-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Journal, Vol. 91 No.1 January 2012. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.278
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Theory of Group Development

Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4997968

Group Develoment

Theory of Group Development

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.

Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…… [Read More]


Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.

Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.

Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:

Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Dialectical Behavior Therapy Dbt Dialectical

Words: 2722 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12226336

For them to survive crisis they are equipped with the skills to; self-soothing, thinking of the pros and cons, improving the moment and looking for destructive things to do. They can also exhibit acceptance skills by turning the mind to accept, radical acceptance and willingness vs. willfulness.

Individuals with under this therapy are taught how to regulate their emotions. This is because most of those suffering from this disorder are known to be angry, depressed, intensely frustrated and anxious among other behaviors. The steps taught towards emotional regulation include; identification and labeling of emotions, identification of obstacles to any change of emotion, reducing of vulnerability to having an emotional mind, by having more positive emotional events, giving the patient the ability to control the current emotions and wherever a negative one presents itself he/she can take the opposite action, and lastly, he/she can apply the distress tolerance techniques taught (Heard,…… [Read More]


Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., Lenzenweger, M.F., & Kenberg, O.F. (2007). Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study. The American Journal of Psychaiatry, 164(6).

Heard, M.A.S.H.L. (2009). Dialectical behaviour therapy: distinctive features: Routledge.

Westen, D. (2000). The efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology. Science and Practice, 7(1), 92-94.

Willem H.J. Martens. (2012). Therapy on the borderline: effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association.
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Maggot Debridement Therapy Is Maggot

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94862551

Given the frequency of pressure ulcers, the strategies used in mitigating those wounds must be effective. Sherman reports that 61 ulcers in 50 patients got maggot therapy and 84 ulcers in 70 patients did not receive maggot therapy (instead, those wounds received traditional care). The results showed that "eighty percent of maggot-treated wounds were completely debrided" but only 48% of conventionally-treated wounds were "completely debrided" (Sherman, 208).

(Qualitative) Laura Jean van Veen presents a case in the Journal of ound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing; a 59-year-old woman (a Jehovah's itness) was seriously injured in an auto accident in Vancouver. In order to save her legs (her religion did not permit blood transfusions) the family asked for maggot therapy. After applying maggots weekly for 6 weeks, "…the patient [was] now free of infection" and had skin graft surgery (van Veen, 2008, 432).

(Qualitative) Another case study in the Journal of ound,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Courtenay, M., Churdh, J.D.T., and Ryan, T.J. (2000). Larva therapy in wound management.

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 93, 72-74.

Fenn-Smith, P. (2008). Case Study: Maggot Debridement Therapy. Wound Practice and Research, 16(4), 169-170.

Paul, Aaron G., Ahmad, Nazi W., Lee, H.L., Ariff, Ashraff M., Saranum, Masri, Naicker,
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Magnetic Therapy

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90756684

Magnetic Therapy: Sound Practice or Simple Phooey?

Ever since the Enlightenment and arguably even further back in the history of Western civilization, almost every technological advancement has been accompanied by new ideas about how to medically treat the human body. Many of these technological ideas, especially since the nineteenth century and hugely in the modern era, have led to significant advancements in treatment. Others, however, have been less scientifically successful and are less medical treatments and more mechanisms for sometimes well-meaning but often outright conning "practitioners" to extract profits from gullible patients. The following paragraphs examine the scientific evidence regarding magnetic therapies, coming to the determination that despite strong belief by some adherents the treatment is in almost all cases proven to be ineffective.

Past Use and Current Controversy

Ever since the 1500s, when some of the principles of magnetism began to be more scientifically observed, the use of magnets…… [Read More]


Cepeda, S., Carr, D., Sarquis, T., Miranda, N., Garcia, R. & Zarate, C. (2007). Static Magnetic Therapy Does Not Decrease Pain or Opioid Requirements: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia 104(2): 290-4.

Livingston, J. (2012). Magnetic Therapy: Plausible Attraction? Accessed 12 December 2012. 

Ramey, D. (2012). Magnetic and Electromagnetic Therapy. Accessed 12 December 2012. 

Valbona, C. & Richards, T. (1999). Evolution of magnetic therapy from alternative to traditional medicine. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 10(3): 729-54.
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Electro Magnetic Therapy

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95283069

Electromagnetic Therapy

A review of the existing scientific literature

The use of magnets in medicine is long-standing. "Physicians from ancient Greece, China, Japan, and Europe successfully applied natural magnetic materials in their daily practice" (Marko 2007). This is "based on the belief that an imbalance of the electromagnetic frequencies or fields of energy can cause illness. By applying electrical energy to the body, the imbalance can be corrected. Many electrical devices are available on the market to treat a variety of symptoms" (Electromagnetic Therapy, 2012, New York Presbyterian Hospital). "With the advent of the commercial availability of electricity during the last 20 years of the Nineteenth Century with a push by inventors and visionaries like Thomas Edison, an increase in experimentation and applied research by means of electromagnetic fields became more intense during the middle of the twentieth century" (Pretorious et al. 2011). However, the therapy's full incorporation into contemporary…… [Read More]


Battisti, E., Albanese, A., Bianciardi, L., Piazza, E., Rigato, M., Vittoria, A., & Giordano, N.

(2007). Efficacy and safety of new TAMMEF (therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields) system in the treatment of chronic low back pain.

Environmentalist, 27(4), 441-445.

Cadossi, R., Setti, S., & Fini, M. (2011). Cartilage chondroprotection and repair with pulsed electromagnetic fields: I-ONE therapy. Environmentalist, 31(2), 149-154
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Reality Therapy in Marriage and

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99784069

From this discussion, Dubin (2009) then moves to presenting a new and unique model for implementation in both marriage and family counseling contexts. The current article models the "Basic Needs Genogram" as the primary method to be tested in contemporary therapy structures. This is a genogram that is based off the works of Glasser (1998) and breaks down our complexity of needs into five basic categories: "self-preservation, love and belonging, power or self-worth, freedom or independence and fun or enjoyment" (Dubin, 2009). These needs are interconnected and help drive behavior within the context of relationships, whether those relationships are marriage of familial structures. Dubin (2009) suggests that the Basic Needs Genogram will allow individuals, as well as family members to consider how current and past generational patterns influence the formation of their 'picture albums,'" which then dictate how their own relationships are formed and maintained (Dubin, 2009, p 17). It…… [Read More]


Duba, Jill A. (2009). Introducing the 'basic needs genogram' in reality therapy-based marriage and family counseling. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(2), 15-19.
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Reality Therapy it Was During

Words: 3568 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60708715

Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of eality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of eality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…… [Read More]


Hazelden, Paul. "Reality Therapy" Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 November, 2004

Historic Overview of Psychiatric Care" Retrieved at Accessed on 30 November, 2004

Lennon, Brian. "From Reality Therapy to Reality Therapy in Action" Retrieved at Accessed on 30 November, 2004

Lennon, Brian. "The Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools" Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
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Manual Therapy Is Regarded as

Words: 1862 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21085628

It is evidenced that soon after lapse of two months of treatment about 67% of the patients administered with manual therapy and 27% of the patients administered with exercise therapy could return to work revealing substantial difference through the follow up period. The study concluded that improvements are noticed in both the groups. However, the improvements in respect the patients administered with manual therapy are more prominent than that with exercise therapy. (Aure; Hoel Nilsen; Vasseljen, 2003)

Thus even though manual therapies are beneficial, it has been debated upon. However irrespective of the fact that delaying methods taking into consideration the reality that it compels the athlete to a therapeutic machine, still then it is acknowledged to have the significant techniques in alleviating pain, rehabilitating the common range of motion, and treating specialized conditions like myofascial pain syndrome. (Holt, 2004) However, such advantages are to be exploited from the physical…… [Read More]


Aure, Olav Frode; Hoel Nilsen, Jens; Vasseljen, Ottar. (15 March, 2003) "Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-up" Spine. Vol: 28; No: 6; pp: 525-531.

Beeton, Karen. (2003) "Manual Therapy Masterclasses"

Elsevier Health Sciences.

BMJ: Manual therapy beats out traditional treatment." (August, 2003) Journal of the American
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734

Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]


Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.

Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.

Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
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Hormone Replacement Therapy the Effects

Words: 2309 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56195216

Data Analysis

The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.

In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).

The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…… [Read More]


Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K, & Slyter, M. (2003). "The impact of menopause:

Implications for mental health counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 311.

Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Monteleone, P. Benussi, C., Bevilacqua, G.,

Vacca, F., Genazzani, A.R. (2005, Feb). "Effects of low dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women." Maturitas, 50(2): 91-7.
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Role of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment

Words: 2560 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94718984

ole of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease?

The objective of this work is to examine the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. Also examined will be the delivery system, the type of antibiotics and efficacy as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study including literature located in professional and academic journal and publications.

Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline

The work of Preshaw, et al. (2005) entitled "Long-Term Treatment with Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Has No Antibacterial Effect on Intestinal Flora" reports a study that sought to determine if a nine-month regimen of subantimicrobial doxycycline (20 mg. bid) had an effect on either the intestinal or the vaginal microflora. The study involved 69 individuals with periodontal disease who were randomized to receive drug or placebo control for a nine-month…… [Read More]


American Academy of Periodontology. (2000) Parameter on "refractory" periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71:859-860.

Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. (2004) In vitro models of tissue penetration and destruction by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72: 4689 -- 98.

Chen C, Slots J. (1993) The current status and future prospects of altering the pathogenic microflora of periodontal disease. Curr Opin Periodontol 1993;71-77.

Chen C, Slots J. (2000) Microbiological tests for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000-1999;20:53-64.
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Feminist Therapy and Postmodern Approaches

Words: 1662 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21054697

A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…… [Read More]


Brown, Laura S. Feminist Therapy, Part of the Systems of Psychotherapy, APA Psychotherapy Video Series (2006)

Brown, L.S. (1994). Subversive dialogues: Theory in feminist therapy. New York: Basic Books.

Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dutton-Douglas, M.A., & Walker, L.E.A. (Eds.). (1988). Feminist psychotherapies: Integration of therapeutic and feminist systems. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing.
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Conversion Therapy Is a Topic That Has

Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94727334

Conversion therapy is a topic that has both critics and supporters and has been recently in the news ever since California came out with a law banning conversion therapy for teenagers and children (Buchanan, 2012). Critics say that the therapy is an example of pseudo-science that it forcibly tries to change the gay's person's sexual tendencies and that, since this is unnatural and impossible, only eventuates in guilt and depression. Supporters, on the other hand, maintain that, as like every other therapy, conversion therapy cannot be expected to help all. More so, there are some individuals who do wish to change their sexual tendencies and, therefore, they should be enabled to sign up for conversion therapy would they so wish. Finally, the government has no right to interfere unless conversion therapy has been shown to be destructive to all clients; and this is has not yet evidenced itself to be.…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality

Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. 

Gans, Laura A. (1999) Inverts, Perverts, and Converts: Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy and Liability, The Boston University Public Interest Law Journal 8

Haldeman, Douglas C. (2002), Gay Rights, Patient Rights: The Implications of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 33 (3): 260
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Gestalt and Behavioral Therapies the

Words: 1762 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43622402

The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.

In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…… [Read More]


Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.

Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.

Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
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Conversion Therapy What it Is

Words: 2151 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15692904

Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop

Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).

My Opinion

Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality

Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. 

Domi, T (June 26, 2012 ) UPDATE: Prop 8 Witness Ryan Kendall Testifies on Conversion Therapy; Committee Approves 5-2
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Counseling and Therapy

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85569529

Person-Centered Therapy

I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).

In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…… [Read More]


Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
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Cognitive Therapy Is a Form

Words: 2526 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17174315

Treatment Process

To treat dysfunctional modes of either thinking or behaving in Cognitive Therapy three general approaches are applied: 1. Deactivation through distraction or reassurance 2, Modification of content or structure 3. The construction of more adaptive modes which "neutralizes' the maladaptive modes. These steps are fundamental in the process as each step is an aspect of the developed sense of self or core belief. To describe each process is also important. The concept of deactivation is essential but usually only partial as the mode of thinking or behaving is likely based in some truth, in other words the core belief has a particle of truth that is held and developed by the individual for adaptation and survival, therefore the therapist may need to reassure those parts of the mode that are based on truth and then distract the individual by reality testing or modification of the whole of the…… [Read More]


Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: basics and beyond. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hewstone, M. Fencham, F.F. & Foster, J. (2005). Psychology. Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing.

Robertson, D (2010). The philosophy of cognitive-behavioural therapy: Stoicism as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London, UK: Karnac Publishing.

Sanders, D. & Wills, F. (2005) Cognitive therapy: an introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Behavior Therapy

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48431061

Evolution and Development of Behavioral Therapy

The 20th century approach to psychology is notable because, while there was an emphasis on the medical approach to treating psychological disorders, there was also a focus on nonphysiological therapies that began to gain some credence in the medical profession. While nonmedical interventions were generally dismissed, "at least some nonmedical practices were no longer widely regarded by either professionals or the general public as quackery. An important contributor to the increased acceptance and status of nonmedical therapies was their enhanced relationship with science" (O'Donohue & Krasner, Year). These nonmedical therapies gained greater and greater usage in the mental health arena, and eventually came to be regarded not only as complementary treatments to standard medical interventions, but as "necessary components in the treatment of problems such as depression, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, and many of the anxiety disorders"(O'Donohue & Krasner, Year). One of the areas…… [Read More]


Fishman, D. & Franks, C. (Year). The conceptual evolution of behavior therapy. In Book Title.

City: Publisher.

Glass, C. & Arnkoff, D. (Year). Behavior therapy. In Book Title. City: Publisher.

O'Donohue, W., & Krasner, L. (Year). Introduction. In Theories of behavior therapy:
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Solution Focused Brief Therapy Sfbt

Words: 1994 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14165036

Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.

itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):

brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…… [Read More]


Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.

Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.

____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.

Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.
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Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies Cognitive-Behavior

Words: 1519 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58151900

The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)


Behavioral Therapy, (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.

Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…… [Read More]


Behavioral Therapy, (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
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Reality Therapy

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8235670

Reality Therapy

William Glasser wrote the book reality therapy in 1965. Since its publication, it has gained increasing prominence in the United States, as well as the world. Dr. Glasser developed his ideology to address the limitations he found in the Freudian model of psychology. The methods and practices intrinsic to reality therapy differ substantially from conventional therapy. Dr. Glasser challenges several widely accepted notions of psychiatry, such as mental illness and the role of therapists. Glasser founded the William Glasser Institute to encourage the spread of his ideas into psychiatric practice.

Over the last thirty-five years, Glasser's ideology has proven to be an effective form of therapy, with successes in both institutional settings and private practices.

Reality therapy concentrates on the client's needs and getting them to confront the reality of the world. In Reality Therapy, these needs are classified into power, love and belonging, freedom, fun, and survival.…… [Read More]


Corey (2000). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 6th Ed. Brooks/Cole, 2001.

Glasser, Naomi (1989). Control Theory in the Practice of Reality Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.

Glasser, Carleen and William (2000). Getting Together and Staying Together. New York: HarperCollins.

Glasser, William (1965) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry. New York: Harper & Row.