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Gulliver's Travels And Other Writings
Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's Travels and Other Writings" main idea is all about Lemul Gulliver and the journey he made to the land of the six-inch-high Lilliputians and the sixty-foot-tall Brobdingnafians' royal court. Go with the traveler to Laputa Island, a flying island, which is inhabited by people of great intelligence but not an ounce of common sense. Go with the traveler to the lands of Houyhnms, which is a race consisting of horses that are civilized who are the masters of human Yahoos (Goodreads). The setting of the travels is basically England and imaginary places of Laputa, Brobdingnag, Blefuscu, Houyhnhnmland and Laputa. Several significant religious and political conflicts took place in the 18th century like the Tories vs. the Whigs, Catholics vs. Protestandsas well as the Ireland-England and France-England wars. There was also controversy about how Ireland would be ruled. The author was born in…
Claude Rawson. (2013). Gulliver, Travel, and Empire. CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture.
Goodreads. (n.d.). Retrieved from Goodreads: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6262281-gulliver-s-travels-and-other-writings
Gulliver's Travel - Plot Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved from Sparknotes: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/gulliver /summary.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Jonathon Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726) is a satiric novel aimed at revealing the trends of seventeenth-century philosophy, including ideas on human nature. For instance, as Gulliver, the main character embarks on a journey to discover what man is, he descends into a journey of pure madness.
Swift separates man into two groups in this novel -- the Houyhnhnms and the Yahoos. Swift's theme of human nature is very strong here, as the Houyhnhnms resemble horses in every way except that they possess absolute reason, while the Yahoos look just like humans except for their savage brutality.
The Houyhnhnms and the Yahoos are used by Swift to illustrate the problem of the nature of man. Swift also uses a fairytale setting, makes it acceptable to the audience, and then taunts his readers with questions about their own lives. Using the character of Gulliver as his voice, Swift creates a…
Kant, Immanuel. Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Ethical Philosophy. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1983.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. New York: Penguin, 1987.
Swift, J. Gulliver's Travels. Gulliver's Travels and Other Writings. New York: Bantam, 1726.
" His misfortune follows him again and his boat is wrecked and the sea brings him to a strange land inhabited by giants. He makes a connection to the daughter of the farmer which captures him and later Gulliver and his new friend are brought to the court. The king of Brobdingnag does not favor Gulliver and rejects most of his suggestions. After a while Gulliver is picked up by a bird of large proportions and thrown into the sea where an English vessel finally finds him.
In the third book of "Gulliver's travels"- a Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Glubbdubdrib, Luggnagg, and Japan, Gulliver once again boards a ship which is soon captured by pirates. Gulliver and the rest of the crew are abandoned on an uninhabited island. While trying to devise a plan to insure his survival, Gulliver notices a floating island in the sky. The residents of the…
There is also the revelation by Swift that a self-love mechanism can be resorted from self loathing.
Examples of pride that Swift satirizes
Metaphors are used in the voyages to bring out the specific aspects of swift's satire. The human affair is stripped of their grandeur through the scale of life reduction in Lilliput. Ranks, international war and politics lose their importance. Human pride is also satirized when Gulliver in the second voyager is a Lilliputian. The grossness of human habits and forms are highlighted by the relative size of Brobdingnagians who illustrate some positive attributes in comparison to the Lilliputians who depict human pretension and pride pettiness. Swift also satirizes the Houyhnhnms perfect reason representation that is unimpeded by excessive emotions or irrationality. Humans defect are highlighted by the domestic animal absurdity of displaying more characteristics of humanity than the humans themselves. This is shown in the Yahoo whose…
"My Master, after some Expressions of great Indignation, wondered how we dared to venture upon a Houyhnhnm's Back, for he was sure, that the weakest Servant in his House would be able to shake off the strongest Yahoo, or by lying down, and rolling on his Back, squeeze the Brute to Death" (IV.4). This reaction suggests that it is possible to survive without enacting tyranny over the freedom of another animal's will, and also that such a lifestyle where creatures and thinking beings are owned is not strictly necessary for survival.
Because they have no material wants, the Houyhnhnms seem to live without the need of law courts, and do not really understand vices such as "the Desire of Power and Riches, of the terrible Effects of Lust, Intemperance, Malice and Envy" (IV.4). Also, the Houyhnhnms do not understand war, because in their society without ownership of land or property…
Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels. Lee Jaffe. Created 13 September 1999. Updated
2005. 16 Mar 2007. http://www.jaffebros.com/lee/gulliver/index.html
Females are given the role of nurturing and rearing their children, among other functions such as domestic management. The role of the female as nurturer and domestic helper in the Huouyhnhnm society is because the horse creatures are not willing to entrust the care of their children to the Yahoos, who act as servants of the Huoyhnhnms.
Among the European Yahoos, which Gulliver belongs to, the stereotypical female remains a fixture. That is, females remain subservient to males, and are considered 'objects' to be used or individuals to be detested, as Gulliver described females as either nagging wives or "that prostitute female Yahoos acquired a certain malady, which bred rottenness in the bones who fell into their embraces." Thus, among European Yahoos, males assume the "important" roles and positions, while females are relegated to what are considered "trivial" roles (i.e., domestic management and being objects of sexual desire for males.…
According to Gulliver, "Undoubtably philosophers are right when they tell us that nothing is great or small than by comparison." In the novel, Gulliver's Travels, Jonathan Swift tackles many of the contemporary issues of his day. His portrayal of English society alludes to the fact that he perceived many evils in the structure of society. Swift focuses his perspective on five primary issues throughout his book: war, government and politics, economy, society, and mankind as a whole. AS a result of his insightful perspective into the fabric of society, Gulliver's Travels, is regarded by many as being one of the greatest satires in modern history.
Many argue that it was Swift's intention is to ridicule his government, his rulers, and human nature as a whole. However, this point is arguable to say the least. In Part IV of his book, Swift provides illustrations of the two poles of…
The Opposition between Savagery and Civilisation as Concepts, as Presented in Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, Book 4
Savagery and civilization are compared side by side on the island of the Houyhnhnms—horses who have the intellect of rational human beings and rule over humanoids—the Yahoos—who look like humans but have the intellect of irrational beasts. In Part 4 of Gulliver’s Travels, Swift inverts the traditional mores of Enlightenment ideology to display humankind as deeply flawed and irrational. The Enlightenment Era had prided itself on its use of and devotion to Reason. It placed logic and naturalism at its core—and yet Swift saw fit to take aim at the Enlightened ones of his own era and skewer them with ironic juxtapositions and satirical barbs. Humans are presented as savages on the island of the Houyhnhnms and beasts are presented as wise demi-god like creatures. Swift’s point is that man is neither…
Rawson, Claude. \\\\"Gulliver, Travel, and Empire.\\\\" CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 14, no. 5 (2012): 7.
Switf, Jonathan. Gulliver’s Travels.
A two mighty powers have, as I was going to tell you, been engaged in a most obstinate war for six-and-thirty moons past. It began upon the following occasion: It is allowed on all hands, that the primitive way of breaking eggs, before we eat them, was upon the larger end; but his present majesty's grandfather, while he was a boy, going to eat an egg, and breaking it according to the ancient practice, happened to cut one of his fingers; whereupon the emperor, his father, published an edict, commanding all his subjects, upon great penalties, to break the smaller end of their eggs. The people so highly resented this law, that our histories tell us there have been six rebellions raised on that account; wherein one emperor lost his life, and another his crown. These civil commotions were constantly fomented by the monarchs of Blefuscu; and when they were…
Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1912.
4.1 Translations and Author Intention: Didacticism
Fantasy genres and motifs like those Swift uses in Gulliver’s Travels have the power to veil moral messages within the structure of the novel. When they rework an original text, translators can also embed their own didactic messages that overlap with that of the author. Translating didactic messages can prove challenging, as differences in historical epoch, culture, and social norms can sometimes alter the author’s original goals. Similarly, translated texts can—and perhaps should—include different intertextual references that make more sense to their audience. The complexity or changing nature of intertextual references does not necessarily cloud the author’s original intent (Nikolajeva 38). Both the Jenkins/Casas version and the Stilton version can be considered didactic.
Didacticism refers to using a text deliberately for instructive purposes, usually entailing moral messages. However, didacticism can just as well serve overarching political or social goals. Some didactic texts include extratextual…
Bixler, Phyllis. “Didacticism and Morality in the Novel and Children’s Literature.” Children’s Literature Association Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 19-22.
Nikolajeva, Maria. “Comparative Children’s Literature: What Is There To Compare?” Papers, Vol. 18, No. 1, http://www.paperschildlit.com/pdfs/Papers_2008_v18no1_p30.pdf
. . "were observed to be the most unteachable of all brutes" (Swift 227). Here we see how Gulliver abandons religion as a teaching tool and a way to coexist with his fellow man. He believes that society cannot only function without religion but that it can do so quite well.
Gulliver learns he is not what he thought he was and he is not as spectacular as he wanted to be. He realizes that he is from the very race that he considered repulsive and imperfect. Ross asserts that, "Gulliver, "trying to be a rational animal, reveals that he is not wholly so, but only capable of reason, in a limited Houyhnhnm way" (Ross xiii). This is the thing that drives Gulliver to madness. The Houyhnhnms' rejection of him is devastating. He discovers that if he thinks the human race is disgusting than he must be as well. This…
Ross, John. Introduction: Gulliver's Travels. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1948.
Swift, Jonathon. Gulliver's Travels. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1948.
There are several examples in the text, like when Gulliver must urinate on a fire to put it out or when the scientist in Lagado attempts to turn human waste back into food. Swift is showing us that we can preach what we want to about mankind and his spirituality, but the bottom line is that mankind is dirtier than all of that, we just choose not to see it; or rather, we come up with theories to ignore the realities of life.
Earlier, it was mentioned that the Houyhnhnms were the closest to a utopian society in the text, so it is interesting to consider the fact that this is a society that is made up of non-human creatures. This point is important in understanding Swift's message, as well as his criticism of England: only non-human creatures are capable of creating and living in a utopia. He seems to…
Fox, Christopher B. Gulliver's Travels (Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism.
Bedford/St. Martin's; 1st edition, 1994.
Fox, Christopher B. The Cambridge Companion to Jonathan Swift. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2003.
fantastical voyage in Gulliver's Travels, Gulliver encounters a race of highly intelligent horses whose extreme rationality seduces the protagonist. Gulliver's increasing hatred for humanity becomes a dark vehicle for Swift's through satire of human nature. The Houyhnhnms embody Enlightenment ideals, as they are led by reason over emotion and essentially devoid of passion. However, the horses nevertheless exhibit prejudice in their treatment of the Yahoos and Gulliver. The Houyhnhnms represent qualities that human beings often blindly strive toward, and Swift shows that pure reason is not necessarily superior to the nuances of human emotion. Gulliver perceives the Yahoos through the Houyhnhnms' eyes, as horrible brutes. Because of their resemblance to human beings in physical and psychological makeup, Gulliver begins to despise humanity. Swift thus presents a paradox: Gulliver's perception of human beings is in many ways correct. However, his sweeping generalizations of human nature results in unproductive behavior. For instance,…
Gulliver's Travels has seen its fair share of political examination, as well as attempted to locate consistent political characterization, including a foolproof political allegory. Why have people vested such interest in analyzing what many consider a hallmark in world and English literature? Perhaps it is because it represents the best example of satirical work, and demonstrates clear political and social criticism. From a gradual transition of absolute governments to modern democracy, Swift gave importance to concepts of balance of power, tolerance, and examination, important aspects of modern society.
Within the first section of the four parts, Swift wrote, Swift tells of the initial voyage Gulliver undertakes. The journey has detail and Swift strongly emphasizes his perspective of the British political system and the religious struggle within England. The first point where Swift emphasizes his perspective is when Gulliver became acquainted with the diminutive Lilliput's and admired their system of government.…
Firth, Charles Harding. "The Political Significance of 'Gulliver's Travels'." British academy, 1919.
Swift, J., & Turner, P. (1998). Gulliver's travels. Oxford [England: Oxford University Press.
Another technique Swift uses is the blame for praise or praise for blame. Find at least 2 examples of where Swift does this. What is he actually saying in each instance? Why does he use this technique?
Swift's use of irony is also evident when Gulliver an experience 'excellent' or other praiseworthy terms, when they are doing something abominable to him. Gulliver tries to be gracious when he is examined by 'wise men' who say absurd things about his appearance: "One of these virtuosi seemed to think that I might be an embryo, or abortive birth. But this opinion was rejected by the other two, who observed my limbs to be perfect and finished; and that I had lived several years, as it was manifest from my beard, the stumps whereof they plainly discovered through a magnifying glass. They would not allow me to be a dwarf, because my…
Gulliver's Travels," "Tartuffe," "Madame Bovary," "The Death of Ivan Ilyich," & "Things Fall Apart"
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and compare how the theme(s) of "Things Fall Apart" by Achebe relate to the theme and/or storylines of "Gulliver's Travels," by Swift, "Tartuffe," by Moliere, "Madame Bovary," by Flaubert, and "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" by Tolstoy. All these authors use their works to "expose and alter the fundamental moral codes that determine political systems and social mores" (Levine 136).
POLITICAL SYSTEMS AND SOCIAL MORES
Things Fall Apart," by Chinua Achebe is a novel about an African family named Okonkwo, who try to fit in to the white man's society. However, their own society was balanced, happy, and complete, and they did not really need to fit in with the white man. hen they did, it ultimately destroyed their society, and way of life.
Gulliver's Travels," by…
Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary: Life in a Country Town. Trans. Gerard Hopkins. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Grossman, Debra. "SparkNotes on Gulliver's Travels." SparksNotes.com. 2002. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/gulliver
Levine, Alan. "Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart as a Case Study in Nietzsche's Transvaluation of Values." Perspectives on Political Science 28.3 (1999): 136-141.
Moliere, Jean Baptiste Poquelin. "Tartuffe." Project Gutenberg. 2002. http://digital.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=2027
Thisclearly implies that this sort of perception was more of a weakness than an advantage.
Samuel Johnson's "The Vanity of Human ishes"
In this poem, the author demonstrates to the audience the reality of struggle in life. The author, just like, he mentions in the poem's title demonstrates how human wishes are, in many cases egoistic and useless. According to Meyers (p 1), Johnson had his reflection long years of human struggle, unavoidable fates, and theerroneous hopes. The author demonstrates some of the common situations that ordinary human being experience under the authority of certain political powers, which seem to have a hand in the sealing of their destinies. The author, in exploring this demonstrates how cruel, humiliating, and unwarranted such treatments are. The actions that the persona witnesses in the society make life to him more of a tragedy than anything else does. He in fact states that the…
Chaucer, Geofrey. & Purves, Laing, D, the Canterbury Tales, Auckland: The Floating Press, 2012
Cunningham, J. S, Samuel Johnson: The vanity of human wishes and Rasselas, London: Edward Arnold, 1982
Flohr, Birgitt, Swift's Attitude to Reason in Book IV of Gulliver's travels "Swift Was a Rationalist with No Faith in Reason." Retrieved August 5, 2013, http://www.itp.uni-hannover.de/~flohr/papers/m-lit-18-century1.pdf
The Life and Death of Julies Caesar Shakespeare homepage | Julius Caeser | Entire play, Retrieved, August 5, 2013, http://shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar/full.html
Fleischer is important in the study of the development of animation technology because he was virtually the only rival to Disney that existed in the early part of animation history. hile other studios mostly concentrated on animal figures that could talk and had human features, Max and his studio were one of the first to use actual human cartoon figures including such classics as Gulliver's Travels. Although the owner of Max's studio, Paramount Pictures, eventually called in their loan to the subsidiary and then later reorganized the studio, Max Fleischer and his group were an important developer of many famous cartoon icons such as Superman, Betty Boop, and Popeye the Sailor. This analysis will look at some of the major works of the studio as well as some of the lessor known works that eventually made the company too unprofitable to continue under the Fleischer Studios brand.
History and orks…
Amazon. (N.d.). Max Fleischer's Gulliver's Travels (1939). Retrieved from Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Fleischers-Gullivers-Travels-Jessica-Dragonette/dp/product-description/B001M6SH6K
Infoplease. (N.d.). Max Fleischer. Retrieved from Infoplease: http://www.infoplease.com/biography/var/maxfleischer.html
Pointer, R. (2011). Max Fleischer's Series. Retrieved from The Bray Animation Project: http://brayanimation.weebly.com/max-fleischer-series.html
Gulliver's Travels" by Jonathan Swift, and "Frankenstein: Or the Modern Prometheus" by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly. Specifically, it will discuss family ties -- Gulliver's neglect of his family compared to Victor's neglect of his. During the Enlightenment, many issues of life and society were considered important to the very necessity and enjoyment of life. Both authors create characters that are far from normal and neglect their families in chaotic and unbelievable worlds. They abandon their families for their own selfish pleasures and wants. The authors view family as important to society, and so, they create characters that are opposite to point to their beliefs about man, society, and what is natural in relationships.
Both of these works use family ties, and the lack of them, to perpetuate their own distinct views on the Enlightenment movement, an intellectual movement prevalent in the 18th century, when both of these writers were working and…
Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein Or, the Modern Prometheus. New York: Collier Books, 1961.
Swift, Jonathan. Turner, Paul, ed. Gulliver's Travels. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Williams, Kathleen. Jonathan Swift and the Age of Compromise. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1958.
Now he is to be punished fo his good deed: "...the said Quinbus Flestin, in open beach of the said law, unde colou of extinguishing the fie kindled in the apatment of his Majesty's most dea impeial consot, did maliciously, taitoously, and devilishly, by dischage of his uine, put out the said fie..." Aticle II stated "That, the said Quinbus Flestin having bought the impeial fleet of Blefuscu into the oyal pot and being aftewads commanded by his Impeial Majesty to seize all the othe ships...and educe that empie to a povince, to be govened by a vice-oy fom hence; and to destoy and put to death not only all the Big-Endian exiles, but likewise all the people of that empie, who would not immediately fosake the Big-Endian heesy: he... like a false taito against his most auspicious seene, Impeial Majesty, did petition to be excused...: In Aticle III he…
references to women throughout and nearly always they are negative. He refers to the misery of marriage, to women's vanity, selfishness, and greed. He mentions their idle, incessant chatter. The only woman in the book he likes is Glumdalclitch who is really a young girl about nine or ten years old. Swift makes fun of women but not at great length. This is understandable since it is a man's world he's criticizing.
In the fourth part of the book, Swift makes his most devastating criticisms of human beings. They are cast as lower animals in a place where horses are noble, moral, and rational. The uncivilized humans are called "Yahoos," an expression that endures today. Yahoos today are generally country people without city manners who speak in vernacular and wear overalls. The Yahoos in Gulliver's Travels are gross, violent, and stupid. By looking them, Swift points out that human beings are the only animals capable of deception. Other animals have no vices and are incapable of crime. Only human beings desire power and riches. Only human beings go to war with each other -- and over whether flesh be bread, or bread be flesh; whether the juice of a certain berry be blood or wine: whether whistling be a vice or a virtue; whether it be better to kiss a post, or throw it into the fire; what is the best color for a coat, whether black, white, red, or grey; and whether it should be long or short, narrow or wide, dirty or clean; with many mores" (p. 214).
Of war, he states a number of foolish causes, "Sometimes one prince quarrelleth with another for fear the other should quarrel with him (reminds one of George Bush and Saddam Hussein). Sometimes our neighbors want the things which we have, or have the things which we want, and we both fight until they take ours, or give us theirs" (p. 214). This leads to two pages of irony on war and the uncivilized use of weapons: "a soldier is held the most honourable of all others; because a soldier is a Yahoo hired to kill in cold blood as many of his own species, who have never offended him, as possibly he can" (p. 215).
Swift is especially hard on lawyers, judges, laws of precedence, and the trial system, which deals only with irrelevant facts. Legal language and jargon perverts and postpones justice.
He states his low opinion of lawyers succinctly: "...that in all points out of their own trade they were usually the most ignorant and stupid generation among us, the most despicable in common conversation, avowed enemies to all knowledge and learning..." On the use of money, he points out "That the rich man enjoyed the fruit of the poor man's labor...that the bulk of our people was forced to live miserably, by labouring every day for small wages, to make a few live plentifully."
Gulliver wants more than anything to be accepted as a Houyhnhnm, a species he believes is perfect. Swift reveals irony through the fragility of the human condition. Gulliver is heavily influenced by the Houyhnhnms and he begins to admire them far too much. In fact, it is safe to say that he idolized them. Their opinions "opened my eyes and enlarged my understanding, that I began to view the actions and passions of man in a very different light" (250). He worships them and slowly begins to despise anything that is not of the Houyhnhnms, including his very own kind. Gulliver wants to fit into the Houyhnhnm circle and simply forget everything else. The Yahoos are the "most unteachable of all brutes" (227). To say such a thing not only insults others but also insults oneself but Gulliver is so drunk with adoration, he cannot think straight. He believes he…
Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.
Swift, Jonathon. Gulliver's Travels. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1948.
He also loses his robe in the process; this increases his pathetic quality and allows for a mantle to be passed on to someone with twice the art.
Swift's Gulliver's Travels
5) Based on what you've read, is this really a work for children? What is going on here that might fly right over the heads of most young children? This book satirizes almost every institution of Swift's day, from the government to the Church. The fact the Lilliputians and Blefuscuans are fighting over which end of the egg to eat first is funy to children, but has deeper and somewhat sadder implications for adults.
6) Describe the narrator. What kind of character is he? What observational details does he choose to focus on? What, if anything, do these observations tell us about his own preoccupations or obsessions? Te things Gulliver notices seem to shift with each new country and…
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)
Satire and Irony in Dublin
LIFE OF JONATHAN SWIFT
Jonathan Swift is widely regarded as the greatest writer of satire in English literature. Yet it is crucial for understanding Swift's satire to know that he was not really English. Swift was born in Dublin in 1667, to a family that originally had emigrated from England -- for this reason, he is generally described as "Anglo-Irish." Swift did his university studies in Dublin at Trinity College, graduating in 1686. From here he became the personal secretary to a politician and writer, Sir William Temple, and moved to England. Political machinations, however, hampered Swift's advancement in a political career -- instead he would end up taking a position in the Protestant Church of Ireland, ultimately rising to the position of Dean at Saint Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin.
Swift's career encompassed both literature and politics. As a wit and satirist,…
Over the last few years, it is evident that the airline industry in the U.S. has been experiencing long standing as well as novel challenges (The American Antitrust Institute, 2012). These includes the increase in the price of fuel, slowing demand for air travel and pressures to expand globally. Consolidation among various airlines across the country is the most common remedy that most of the airline firms are applying.
In April 2012, the U.S. Airways made an announcement to move and take over the American Airlines. American airline is the fourth largest airline in the United States while U.S. Airways is the fifth (Plane Buzz, 2013). This merger, therefore, will make the U.S. Airways- American the largest in the United States with a combined share of more than 21% (The American Antitrust Institute, 2012).
The merger is worth 11 billion U.S. dollars and will turn America into the largest…
Carlton, D.W., Landes, W.M. & Posner, R.A 1980 'Benefits and Costs of airline mergers, The
Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 65-83
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3003401?uid=2134&uid=2&suid=70&uid=4&sid=21101927848577
Raper, K.C, Love, A.H. & Shumway, R.C 2007, Distinguishing the Source of Market Power, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 89, No. 1 (Feb., 2007), pp. 78-90 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/4123564?uid=3738336&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101942783417
Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift are two of the greatest satirists in literature because they capture elements of truth that force us to look at ourselves as a society. hile both authors reflect on political and economic conditions of the eighteenth century, their work is timeless because their topics ultimately return to humanity. Their achievements lie in the fact that they depict man in circumstances that are both thought provoking and amusing. Pope's "The Rape of the Lock" and "The Dunciad," along with Swift's "A Modest Proposal" and Gulliver's Travels demonstrate how satire takes its best form when its target is human nature.
The satirist is quite lucky in that he has many varieties of subjects when it comes to human nature M.H. Abrams observes that in most instances the satirist considers "prevalent evils and generally observable human types, not with particular individuals" (Abrams 2211). This is certainly true with…
Abrams, M.H. "Alexander Pope." The Norton Anthology of English Literature W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 2209-14.
Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." The Norton Anthology of English Literature W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 2233-52.
The Dunciad." The Norton Anthology of English Literature W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 2291-6.
Ross, John. Gulliver's Travels. Introduction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1948.
Since its inception, Southwest Airlines has grown significantly to become one of the most reputed, low-cost, and longest-standing airline that offers the largest number of domestic flights within the United States. For more than four decades now, the company has been able to sustain its appeal to consumers and its low cost originator image, even though that discernment and view has now become more of an old tale than the present reality. The airline company has done well to increase and improve its market base all over the United States; however, it lacks presence in the international market.
SWOT Analysis is a valuable and convenient tool employed for understanding a firm's strengths and weaknesses, identifies the opportunities available for the organization and the threats it faces. In the business realm, an organization can utilize this technique in order to attain a sustainable share in the market. The company…
Center for Aviation. (2014). Southwest Airlines SWOT: Financial strength is mainstay, but cost and culture challenges loom large. CAPA. Retrieved from: http://centreforaviation.com/analysis/southwest-airlines-swot-financial-strength-is-mainstay-but-cost-and-culture-challenges-loom-large-187714
Gulliver Business Travel. (2012). The secrets of Southwest's continued success. The Economist. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/blogs/gulliver/2012/06/southwest-airlines
Mind Tools. (2016). SWOT Analysis: Discover New Opportunities, Manage and Eliminate Threats. Retrieved from: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_05.htm
Schmidt, A. (2015). Important Factors that Can Affect Southwest in the Future. Market Realist. Retrieved from: http://marketrealist.com/2015/07/important-factors-can-affect-southwest-future/
It is only when you have the answer that you can understand the changes in the movie. The movie is clearly devoid of controversial material but it still challenges old mind-sets and fixed ideas about faith. Instead of targeting relgion as an organized insitutue, it seels to address the very nature of faith without specifically targeting Christianity.
In some ways then, the movie version is more suitable for children. It helps them ask some questions whil enjoys the magnificent beauty of the fantasy world. On the other hand, it lacks strength of the book. The book is however not suitable for children, especially pre-teens. For one, it is too heavy for them to fully comprehend or even digest and hence leaves a lot of room for explanation. But it doesn't raise some questions and many give some teens a chance to ask some difficult questions and then seek answers.
Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.
Society and Culture
In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).
Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…
AllRefer. Interior decoration, Interior Design and Home Furnishings. AllRefer.com. 11 May 2004. http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/I/interior.html
Brainard, Rick. Daily Life: 18th Century Society: An Overview. 18th Century History. 11 May 2004. http://www.history1700s.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=105
Colonial Williamsburg. 18th Century Clothing. 11 May 2004. http://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/index.cfm
Malaspina Great Books. Alexander Pope. 11 May 2004. http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_951.asp
According to Pilarski (2007), "the financial situation of the airline industry, especially in the U.S.A., has been between disaster and catastrophe," (p. 3). Financial wizards like Warren Buffet have made "bombastic pronouncements" related to the economic illnesses of the airline industry (9). Dynamic entrepreneur ichard Branson, himself seduced by the desire to own an airline, has likewise stated, "How do you become a millionaire? Start as a billionaire, and then buy an airline," (cited in "In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1, 2012). Airline companies operate with razor-thin profit margins, if any at all. Moreover, the situation was bad enough befofre but has grown worse since September 11. "Since 9/11, we've seen tremendous changes surrounding the airline industry: security, regulations, and operational costs. Overall, these variables have had tremendous, and far-bearing, negative impacts on the industry," ("In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," 2012).…
"Global airline industry profits to falter at $3bn in 2012," (2012). New Statesman. June 11, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.newstatesman.com/business/transport/2012/06/global-airline-industry-profits-falter-3bn-2012
"In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," (2012). Retieved online: http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1
Pilarski, A.M. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Pilarski, A.M. (2010). The fallacy of airline mergers: Two drunks holding unto each other will not walk straight. Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. Retrieved online: http://www.avitas.com/publications/adampilarskiarticles/The%20Fallacy%20of%20Airline%20Mergers%20Two%20Drunks%20Holding%20Unto%20Each%20Other%20Will%20Not%20Walk%20Straight.pdf
Notes de Madariaga, "It is hard to argue that Catherine's regime was intellectually oppressive, as many of her detractors have done, in the face of such a clear example of her confidence in the response of society to her rule." (97). A lax censorship and publishing permission epitomized Catherine's personal outlook of encouragement of enterprise in as many fields as possible rather than state control.
Catherine, herself, was a prolific writer. Thousands of sheets of paper covered in her journals have survived. The most noteworthy of all was her 1767 Great Instruction, published to present before the elected representatives of nobles, townspeople, Cossacks, tribesmen and state peasants, not serfs, the general principles through which the assembly should codify laws. The 650 articles of the Instruction defined the functions of social estates and described the means of establishing rule of law and citizen welfare. Catherine was influenced by German and French…
Norton I Introduction on the Restoration and 18th Century
The cultural life of ritain dominated much of Europe during the 18th century.
Though many people continue to live a farmer's life, the majority of people began to seek out new horizons.
Many English People began to realize the possibilities business and a consumer society had to offer.
London became somewhat of a "microcosm of the world" during the 18th century, and people in surrounding communities modeled much of their perspective off of life in high society England (NAEL, 2003).
The streets were bombarded constantly with sights and sounds indicating a wakeful and noisy emerging cultural basis.
Society became a hub of finance, trade, manufacturing, commerce and entertainment.
Ships filled up rivers with travelers and goods from all over the world.
It became "fashionable" and commonplace for consumers to meet up in clubs and coffeehouses to talk about the latest news…
Norton Anthology of English Literature. "Norton I Introduction on the Restoration and The 18th Century" Norton and Company, pp1726-1743
NAEL, Sept. 29, 2003, http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/18century/welcome.htm
Tarsem is able to tell his story through different acting styles and by changing the tone of the film quite suddenly.
hile the two stories in the film are disparate though they involve similar elements, the stories come to meet when they both tend to go into a darker vein. The audience learns how Roy was hurt and we watch as Roy tries to manipulate Alexandria. hile this is happening, there is also a move toward the darker side when the adventurers meet some pretty dark challenges. There is a great shift in the movie overall, going from fantastic and quirky to almost scary.
hat "The Fall" mainly tells us about stories is that while there are certainly rules to storytelling, once one has a grasp on creating a story through character and plot, one can easily break rules of storytelling (Lamb 2), which is what Tarsem has done. The…
Block, Bruce. The Visual Story, Second Edition: Creating the Visual Structure of Film,
TV and Digital Media. Focal Press; 2nd edition, 2007. Print.
Ebert, Roger. "The Fall." The Sun Times. Web. Accessed on January 25, 2011:
As with any film, what is captured by the eye of the camera in this film is done with skill, expertise, and a high level of perfection in direction. The locations are captured by the camera in a way that supports and adds to the film's satire. For instance, in the gypsy camp, where Turkish and Tommy have gone to purchase a caravan to serve as an office for Turkish to work out for the fight he has to fix, the pair must walk around what appears to be large pile of excrement - and it doesn't appear to be animal in nature. Gross, yes, but it works with the conveyance of the stereotypical image that the director is attempting to convey.
Much the same holds true when Brick Top is giving Turkish and Tommy a tour of the pig pens. It is a harsh looking environment that successfully…
Ritchie, G. (dir), 2000, Snatch, Columbia Pictures and SKA Films, UK.
Figure 3. Cover art for Miyazaki's Nausicaa DVD set
Source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_t68ar0SFX54/SrvMLVUJMyI/AAAAAAAADy4 / Ol1Z06z6YdE/s400/Nausicaa.jpg
The economic success of Nausicaa convinced its producers that the market for their type of work was viable, resulting in the explosion of the global manga and anime markets (Schilling, 1997). Launching Studio Ghibli as a framework in which to produce his theatrical follow-up to Nausicaa, Miyazaki's worked on Tenku no Shiro Laputa, another fantasy adventure story concerning a search for the lost flying island of Laputa. According to Schilling, "As in Nausicaa, a spunky princess was the heroine and the story contained a respect-nature-or-die subtext, but the action element was more central, the plotting less labyrinthine" (1997, p. 139). This release failed to achieve the financial success that Nausicaa enjoyed, though (Schilling, 1997). In 1988, Miyazaki wrote and directed a new movie, Tonarl no Totoro ("My Neighbor Totoro") in which he applied a different approach that…
Ishihara, T. (2005). Mark Twain in Japan: The Cultural Reception of an American Icon.
Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.
Koppelman, A. (2008). "Why Phyllis Schlafly Is Right (but Wrong) about Pornography."
Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 31(1): 105-107.
The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…
Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's
Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.
Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.
Descartes' Discourse Method (Part IV). Descartes begins problem prove existence ends argument proving existence God. Read Discourse Method located http://www.earlymoderntexts.
Swift's "A Modest Proposal"
Jonathan Swift's satirical essay "A Modest Proposal" is meant to stand as criticism regarding how upper class individuals in Ireland had a tendency to harshly discriminate people belonging to lower classes. The fact that the writer provides a very complex description about how the upper classes need to behave is likely to influence most readers in believing that he was actually interested in putting across truthful opinions and that he was really determined to assist wealthy individuals. Moreover, Swift provides a number of calculations with the purpose of having people acknowledge the financial benefits associated with his plans. It is not until the last passages of the essay that readers are probable to understand that it is actually meant to be satirical and that the writer's…
Booth, W.C. (1975). A Rhetoric of Irony. University of Chicago Press.
Smith, F.N. (1990). The Genres of Gulliver's Travels. University of Delaware Press.
Swift, J. (2004). A Modest Proposal and Other Prose. Barnes & Noble Publishing.
Montanism / Theology
Like many early heresies, Montanism has not left behind much in the way of written testimony: only one Montanist writer, Tertullian, has works that survive, and it is primarily in his work that the statements of the Montanist movement (Montanus, Prisca and Maximilia) survive in quotation. Gonzales notes that, among many differing interpretations of Montanism, one view sees them as something like "an early Pentecostal group." [footnoteRef:0] It is clear from accounts of Montanism that it included the emphasis on the Holy Spirit, including manifestations of glossolalia, that are seen in contemporary Pentecostals. ut overall, Montanus seems to have combined several contradictory impulses into his schismatic movement. The first hinged upon greater involvement of women in ministry: the heresy of Montanus is seldom mentioned without reference to "those demented women Prisca and Maximilia," as Saint Jerome calls them in his letter to Marcella refuting the Montanist heresy.[footnoteRef:1]…
Gonzales, Justo L. And Gonzales, Catherine Gunsalus. Heretics for Armchair Theologians. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2008.
Saint Jerome, Letter XLI. Accessed online at: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf206.v.XLI.html
Saint Justin Martyr, First Apology XXVI. Accessed online at: http://www.crossroadsinitiative.com/library_article/269/first_apology_of_st._justin_martyr.html
Swift, Jonathan. A Tale of a Tub. Accessed online at: http://www.online-literature.com/swift/ tale-of-a-tub/8/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
history Mercy International Centre Dublin Catherine McAuley . ( http://www.mercyinternational. ) A history significance Jonathan Swift St. Patricks Cathedral Dublin ( http://www.stpatrickscathedral. ) A synopsis Kilmainham Jail, years functioning description peat bogs Ireland, (significance) The Famine Memorial Dublin ~ established built? Connemara marble churches Ireland? A explanation current political system Ireland .
The Mercy International Centre in Dublin is the hallmark of the mercy mission and its background is essential in providing people with a better understanding of the principles that help build this type of ideology. The building's architecture is not necessarily special, but it compensates through its history and through the intense feelings that numerous people coming here experienced. hile being acquainted with its history a person is very probable to look at it very different from how he or she would have been inclined to perceive it in the beginning.
The building came to function as a…
Cunningham, L. Reich, J. "Culture and Values, Volume II: A Survey of the Humanities with Readings," (Cengage Learning, 16 Jan 2009)
"Brief History of the Peat Industry in Ireland," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.heartland.ie/articles/brief-history-peat-industry-ireland
"Famine Memorial," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.discoverireland.ie/Arts-Culture-Heritage/famine-memorial/31500
"Galway Cathedral," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.dochara.com/places-to-visit/galway-cathedral/
Hayao Miyazaki has been described as "the best animation filmmaker in history," (Ebert, 2002). His tenure includes the lifetime achievement award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which Miyazaki can add to his Oscar for the acclaimed 2001-2002 film Spirited Away. Now in his seventies, Miyazaki has indicated a transition away from feature-length film projects toward lower-key ventures, even while his Tokyo-based company Studio Ghibli remains viable. However, there has been some indication that even Studio Ghibli may dismantle, raising important questions about the future of Japanese animation and Miyazaki's role in it. The primary reason why Studio Ghibli may be closing its doors is related to the changing nature of animated film in general. Miyazaki remains committed to the hand-drawn anime, but knows that "the era of pencil, paper and film is coming to an end," (cited by White, 2014). That may be true for Hollywood,…
Baseel, C. (2014). Hayao Miyazaki working on new project, says "I'm going to continue making anime until I die" Retrieved online: http://en.rocketnews24.com/2014/11/08/hayao-miyazaki-working-on-new-project-says-im-going-to-continue-making-anime-until-i-die/
Ebert, R. (2002). Hayao Miyazaki Interview. Retrieved online: http://www.rogerebert.com/interviews/hayao-miyazaki-interview
Twemlow, J. (2014). Consign Jurassic World to prehistory, give me Studio Ghibli films any day. The Guardian. Retrieved online: http://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2014/dec/08/consign-jurassic-world-to-prehistory-give-me-studio-ghibli-films-any-day
White, J. (2014). Hayao Miyazaki addresses Studio Ghibli's future. Empire. Retrieved online: http://www.empireonline.com/news/story.asp?NID=42719
STYLE OF RITING AND TEACHING METHODS IN PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Teaching and preaching have always been considered cornerstones of Christian beliefs. For devout Christians, teaching others about various things of value is what their entire religion is based upon as Gospel of Matthew mentions that Jesus is believed to have instructed his disciples to "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the orld" (Matthew 28: 19-20). Teaching has thus been considered an important part of religious beliefs and it is one responsibility that Christians must shoulder. For this prominent Christian figures with authority over the subject have also upheld the responsibility of teaching. Saint Augustine for example maintained that it was…
Augustine. On Christian Doctrine. Trans D.W. Robertson, Jr. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.
Batson, E. Beatrice. John Bunyan: Allegory and Imagination. London: Croom Helm, 1984.
Bunyan, John. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. 1666. Ed. Roger Sharrock. Oxford: Clarendon, 1962.
Bunyan, John. The Pilgrim's Progress. 1678. Ed N.H. Keeble. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1984.
murkiness of love tenderness can lead?" "How many times we will kill for love." "The rare thing herself felt in her breast a warmth that might be called love. She loved that sallow explorer. If she could have talked and had told him that she loved him, he would have been puffed up with vanity." All these settings represent different definition of "love."
The Smallest Woman in the World provides a poetic, at times poignant, perspective of love. Looking closely at the first quotation where the lady felt such perverse tenderness for the smallest of the African women claiming that an ounce of prevention being worth a pound of cure. She was upset all day, almost as if she were missing something. Here, the woman seemed to have been concerned about the vulnerability of the Little Flower. Her words points at the need for companionship for the Little Flower, and…
However, both articles show, despite the criminal justice system's best effort, that is often not the case. Juveniles often return to the court system repeatedly, and when they do, they are often tried as adults, which only seems to add to the problem. It is not that the court systems are ineffective (although in some cases it seems that they are), it is that they are still trying to develop ways to deal with juvenile offenders, and many of the methods they are trying do not seem to be effective in keeping kids out of criminal activities.
While the first article seems to be more positive in the results it talks about, the second article has an important point to make about rehabilitation. The people that are most affected by it, the offenders, say it works, and it seems to work much more effectively than being tried as an adult.…
Redding, R.E. (2008). Juvenile transfer laws: An effective deterrent to delinquency? Retrieved 11 May 2010 from the NCJRS.gov Web site: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/220595.pdf .
Sheppard, D. & Kelly, P. (2002). Juvenile gun courts: Promoting accountability and providing treatment. Retrieved 11 May 2010 from the NCJRS.gov Web site: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/jaibg_2002_5_1/contents.html .
What many of these other people have to say about themselves and their situation an about the change of hear they may have now that they have heard Pippa sing could be fodder for a dramatic monologue in the way Browning would later shape that form.
The poem covers an entire day, New Year's Day, a day of remembrance and renewal, a day of change from one year to the next and from one state of mind to another. Significantly, then, Pippa's songs serve as a form of forced New Year's resolution for many of these people, making them rethink their lives and make a decision where before they could not. This story contrasts in some ways with that of Sebold and Ottima. The lovers now are Jules and Phene. Jules is the butt of a cruel joke by his fellow art students. He is inclined to leave Phene and…