Handwashing Essays (Examples)

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Does Antimicrobial Soap Promote Drug Resistance in Children

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69390200

Antibacterial Soap by Children Promote Antimicrobial Drug esistance?

Patient Problem:

Today, young people are encouraged to wash their hands several times a day in order to stay healthy (Clean hands save lives, 2015). This guidance is based on research that confirms that regular handwashing is the most cost-effective approach to keeping young people healthy (Clean hands save lives, 2015). For instance, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) emphasizes that, "egular handwashing, particularly before and after certain activities, is one of the best ways to remove germs, avoid getting sick, and prevent the spread of germs to others. It's quick, it's simple, and it can keep us all from getting sick" (Clean hands save lives, 2015, para. 1). The potential exists, though, that using antibacterial soap versus regular soap and water causes antimicrobial drug resistance in children. These concerns are similar to concerns that the over-prescription of powerful antibiotics for…… [Read More]

References

Clean hands save lives. (2015). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www. cdc.gov/handwashing/index.html.

Forrester, M. A. & Borthwick-Hunter, E. (2015, April 1). Understanding the development of musicality: Contributions from longitudinal studies. Psychomusicology, 25(2), 93-96.

QSEN. (2015). Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing. Retrieved from http://qsen.org/about-qsen/.

Rogers, C. (2015). FDA taking a closer look at "antimicrobial" soap. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/forconsumers / consumer updates/ucm378393.htm.
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Technology to Enhance Learning Distance and Online Applications

Words: 2163 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65833335

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Topic:Technology to Enhance Learning: Distance & Online Applications
Instructions:
Application: Online Course Design Online education offers convenient and effective means by which nurses, nursing students, and other populations can gain valuable learning experiences. In this Application, you will design an online learning environment on a nursing-education topic of interest to you. If you would like to put your course online, you are invited to try Moodle, a free course management web application, but this is not a requirement of the assignment.To begin, review Chapter 6, EuroDesigning the Online Learning Environment," in Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education (OEuro(TM)Neil, Fisher, &…… [Read More]

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Reducing Nosocomial Infection Rates

Words: 1968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53557067

hygiene techniques with traditional soaps may or may not be more effective than using alcohol-based solutions concerning reduction in nosocomial infection rates in acute hospitals. With recent usage of alcohol-based solutions, use of traditional antibacterial soaps may be outdated and take longer. Nosocomial infections present as a major issue for acute care hospitals and require research in identifying the most effective way to sterilize hands to avoid increasing infection rates. While traditional handwashing with antibacterial soaps have been done for years, water availability and time taken to perform handwashing may not promote efficiency among hospital staff. Alcohol-based solutions require no water and additional washing or scrubbing. This research paper will focus on recent articles and studies that highlight which method works best.

Integration and Synthesis of the Evidence

Many articles and studies the past and in recent years attest to the effectiveness and efficiency of alcohol-based solutions. One 2012 studied…… [Read More]

References

Appelgrein, C., Hosgood, G., Dunn, A., & Schaaf, O. (2016). Ozonated water is inferior to propanol-based hand rubs for disinfecting hands. Journal Of Hospital Infection, 92(4), 340-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2015.08.029

Chen, S., Chou, C., Huang, J., Tang, Y., Kuo, Y., & Chien, L. (2013). Antibacterial effects on dry-fast and traditional water-based surgical scrubbing methods: A two-time points experimental study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 16(2), 179-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12082

Howard, J., Jowett, C., Faoagali, J., & Mckenzie, B. (2014). New method for assessing hand disinfection shows that pre-operative alcohol/chlorhexidine rub is as effective as a traditional surgical scrub. Journal Of Hospital Infection, 88(2), 78-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2014.06.013

Salmon, S., Truong, A., Nguyen, V., Pittet, D., & Mclaws, M. (2014). Health care workers' hand contamination levels and antibacterial efficacy of different hand hygiene methods used in a Vietnamese hospital. American Journal Of Infection Control, 42(2), 178-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2013.07.013
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Primary Health Promotion and Prevention

Words: 1949 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89024893

Teaching Plan Summary

In developing countries, Handwashing with Water and Soap (HWWS) is one of the most economical yet effective approaches to treating faecal-oral vectored diseases (Curtis, 2009). Consequently, a good HWWs campaign would benefit many in the society, especially school going children (Biran et al., 2009). The following paper will investigate teacher response to driving effective HWWS intervention in different schools across the globe (Xuan et al., 2013).

There are different HWWS campaigns going on in a wide variety of schools. These could range from in class lectures, advice from student advisors to talks during school meetings or common school meetings. Statistics show that HWWS promotional campaigns take place at least once a month for the entire school and at least once a week in each individual class.

According to the research, up to 35 HWWS promotional classes took place over the test period with up to 566 students…… [Read More]

References

Biran A, Schmidt WP, Wright R, Jones T, Seshadri M, Isaac P, (2009). The effect of a soap promotion and hygiene education campaign on handwashing behavior in rural India: a cluster randomized trial. Trop Med Int Health; 14: 1303_14.

Bowen A, Ma H, Ou J, Billhimer W, Long T, Mintz E, (2007). A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a handwashing-promotion program in Chinese primary schools. Am J. Trop Med Hyg; 76: 1166_73.

Curtis V. (2009). Planned, motivated and habitual hygiene behavior: an eleven country review. Health Educ Res; 24: 655_73.

Elliott J. (1991). Action research for educational change. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
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Epidemiological Study Proposal Nursing Hand

Words: 5318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85369119

These are questions dealing with attitude and are the most important questions when doing qualitative social science research to gauge relationships among events. In addition to construction questions about attitudes, it is important to have the questions drafted in the correct format (Nachmias, 2008).

The Quantitative methodologies will be the statistical tests designed for the overall model to incorporate the information provided through one, two or all of the Qualitative data analysis methodologies. The tests used to determine the relationship between these "qualitative" factors and increases in Infection rates, will be the Chi-Square, Student's T-Test, ANOVA (to test for variations among the data), the construction of a Linear Regression Model and the calculation of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, otherwise known as "R-Squared" (Nachmias, 2008).

These tests will be utilized in conjunction with a predetermined level of significance, or alpha. Since these tests will all be measuring the means and relationships…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Barrett, R. & Randle, J. (2008). Hand hygiene practices: nursing students' perceptions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(14), 1851-1857.

Beggs, C.; Noakes, C.; Shepherd, S.; Kerr, K.; Sleigh, P. & Banfield, K. (2006). The influence of nurse cohorting on hand hygiene effectiveness. American Journal of Infection Control, 34, 10, 621-626.

Larson, E.; Quiros, D. & Lin, S. (2007). Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates. American Journal of Infection Control, 35(10), 666-675.

Roberts, C.; Roberts, J. & Roberts, R.J. (2009). Investigation into the effect of an alcohol-based hand product on infection rate in a nursing home setting. Journal of Infection Prevention, 10(4), 138-142.
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Reducing Nosocomial Infections through Planned Behavior Theory

Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86799842

Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviors to Nosocomial Infections

Identify a public health theory you will use to support the implementation of your prevention and health promotion activities. Provide evidence that supports the use of this theory within the program you designed

According to the tenets of the theory of planned behavior, individuals first think about a behavior (e.g., the intent to act) and only then proceed to act (Chambers & Benibo, 2011). The dependent variables of intent to act in the theory of planned behavior include individual attitudes, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and behavioral norms which are in turn dependent variables to the actual behavior demonstrated (Chambers & Benibo, 2011). The theory of planned behavior has been applied in a number of different settings, including in the context of nosocomial infections (Hughes, 2008).

In this context, the planned behavior theory conceptualizes individuals' intent to engage in handwashing as involving…… [Read More]

References

Bijari, R. & Abassi, A. (2014, January 1). Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern Khorasan hospitals. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 43(2), 197.

Chambers, V. & Benibo, B. R. (2011, October 1). Reactions to the 2008 economic crisis and the theory of planned behavior. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, 15(4), 17-20.

Davis, R. & Anderson, O. (2012, April). Predictors of hospitalized patients' intentions to prevent healthcare harm: A cross sectional survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(4), 407-415.

HAIs at a glance. (2017). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/index.html .
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Nurse Lit Review Type of Research Study

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40827640

Nurse Lit eview

TYPE OF ESEACH STUDY - Quantitative or qualitative

Descriptive, correlational, experimental, quasi-experimental, phenomenological, grounded theory ethnographic, historical

SAMPLE METHOD & SAMPLE SIZE

Knoll, Lautenschlager & Lipp (2009). British Journal of Nursing.

Impact of workload on hygiene practices.

Quantitative.

Experimental.

trials of nursing staff.

Statistical.

Enforcing hygiene practices has practical healing benefits for nurses.

Souweine, B. et al. (2009). Intensive Care Medical Journal.

Compared hygiene practices. Hand rubbing vs. hand washing.

Quantitative.

Experimental.

person nursing staff.

Workers completed self report questionnaires.

Hand rubbing with alcohol is preferred to handwashing in some instances.

Creedon, S. (2006). International Journal of Nursing Technologies and Classifications.

Observe health worker compliance in handwashing guidelines.

Quantitative.

Quasi-experimental.

73 doctors and nurses in an Irish ICU.

Questionnaire responses.

Knowledge of handwashing guidelines can lead to positive outcomes.

Allen, L. et al. (2014). Nevada Nformation.

Compared hand washing with hand sanitizer.

Quantitative.

Descriptive.

Literature review.

Statistical.…… [Read More]

References

Allen, L., & et al. . (2014). Professionalism in Nursing. Nevada RNFormation, 18(1).

Creedon, S.A. (2005). Healthcare workers' hand decontamination practices: compliance with recommended guidelines. Journal of advanced nursing, 51(3), 208-216.

Evans, M.W., Breshears, J., Campbell, A., Husbands, C., & Rupert, R. (2007). Assessment and risk reduction of infectious pathogens on chiropractic treatment tables. Chiropractic & osteopathy, 15(1), 8.

Knoll, M., Lautenschlaeger, C., & Borneff-Lipp, M. (2010). The impact of workload on hygiene compliance in nursing. British Journal of Nursing, 19(16), S18-S22.
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Washing in Nursing and Medicine

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86741092



Moreover, the specific cause of transmission are the low compliance rates of hospital personnel with basic antiseptic protocols such as simple hand washing. Surprisingly, the worst offenders were those with the highest degree of formal training: namely physicians and registered nurses. In some studies, compliance rates among hospital personnel were only between fifteen and thirty percent. Finally, empirical studies have also concluded that compliance rates are lowest in high-volume institutions and among understaffed medical units.

Solution

The solution is rather obviously quite simple. Among the most important aspects of reducing hospital-acquired nosocomial hospital infections is increasing the rates of hand washing among hospital personnel. Naturally, the more direct patient contact individual personnel have, the more important adherence to strict hand-washing policy is. Since physicians and nurses routinely care for many patients during a typical shift, it is crucial for them to become the most compliant rather than the least compliant…… [Read More]

References

Sheridan-Leos, Norma. "Oncology care setting design and planning Part II: Designing healthcare settings to prevent fungal infections and improve handwashing."

Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (June 1, 2008).

Full Text of Article Below

This is the second in a two-part series on designing healthcare settings to improve patient safety. Part I addressed concepts of error theory and evidence-based practice as they relate to planning safe care environments (Sheridan-Leos, 2008). Part II describes the design and planning of oncology care settings to prevent fungal infections and improve provider handwashing.
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Typhoid Fever About 400 Cases

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28254775

When they enter the gallbladder and lymphatic tissue they multiply in enormous numbers. It is when they re-enter the intestinal tract that the disease can be diagnosed from stool samples.

Symptoms

The first symptoms are usually headache, muscle pain and a fairly high fever. The problem is that these symptoms only occur about ten days after infection. It isn't until four to five days later that a rash occurs. The rash takes on the appearance of small, flat, red spots. A week after that those spots darken and look like bruises. If the disease has progressed this far, the patient begins to have short periods of unconsciousness, then the kidneys fail, a cough begins, and the rash turns to gangrene in the extremities. If no treatment has been given at this point, up to 50 per cent of patients die. It is possible to survive without treatment, with luck, but…… [Read More]

Bibliography

CBWInfo.com. "Typhoid Fever: essential data." 1999. cbwinfo.com. 18 February 2010 .

Encyclopedia of Health. "Typhoid Fever." Encyclopedia of Health, Volume 17. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. 1052.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "Typhoid Fever." 24 October 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 February 2010 .
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Nurse's Knowledge Migrating Catheters Washing

Words: 2079 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62610661



As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.

ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aziz, a.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, a., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., & Mullin, B. (2009).

Sharps management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness.

British Journal of Nursing, 18(2), 92-98.

Billington, a., Crane, C., Jownally, S., Kirkwood, L., & Roodhouse, a. (2008).
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Self-Efficacy Theory Describe Theory Rationale Selecting Theory

Words: 520 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77804285

Self-Efficacy Theory

Describe theory rationale selecting theory. 2. Discuss theory works support proposed solution. 3. Explain incorporate theory project.

Self-efficacy theory and the promotion of hand-washing

According to the Centers for Disease Control, hand-washing is one of the most important ways in which to curtail the spread of a wide range of infections and bacteria. Hand-washing can reduce the risks of contracting the common cold, influenza, and other viruses (Wash your hands, 2012, CDC). It can also lessen the chances that bacteria such as E.coli and salmonella will be transmitted from the preparer of food to the diner, or that contaminants from raw poultry and other meats will be spread to fruits, vegetables, and other components of the meal. Hands should be washed thoroughly after preparing food, using the toilet, dealing with animals or children, or handling garbage. But many people fail to take this simple step.

Hand-washing is one…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Self-efficacy. About.com. Retrieved:

http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/self_efficacy.htm

Wash your hands. (2012). Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved:

 http://www.cdc.gov/Features/HandWashing/
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Cryptosporidium Case Study

Words: 2638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30745552

Cryptosporidium Case Study

Cryptosporidium is reported as a "coccidian protozoan parasite" and one that has received a great deal of attention over the past two decades as a "clinically important human pathogen." (Hannahs, nd, p.1) The discovery of Cryptosporidium is reported as associated with E.E. Tyzzer who described a "cell-associated organism in the gastric mucosa of mice" in 1907 as reported in the work of Keusch et al. (1995). (Hannahs, nd, p.1) Cryptosporidium was believed for several decades to be a "rare, opportunistic animal pathogen." (Hannahs, nd, p.1)

The first case of human cryptosporidiosis occurred in a three-year-old girl in rural Tennessee in 1976 suffering from severe gastroenteritis for two weeks and reported in the work of Flanigan and Soave (1993). Cryptosporidium parvum was discovered through use of an electronic microscopic examination of the intestinal mucosa. Cryptosporidium parvus was associated with AIDS cases in the 1980s and this resulted in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cabada, MM (2011) Cryptosporidiosis Medication. MedScape. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215490-medication#2

Cabada, MM (2011) Crytosporidiosis Treatment and Management. MedScape. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215490-treatment#aw2aab6b6b6

Casemore, D.P., Garder, C.A., and O'Mahony, C. "Cryptosporidial infection, with special reference to nosocomial transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum: a review." Folia Parasitol, 1994; 41 (1): 17-21.

Cryptosporidiosis in Immunocompromised Persons (2012) Illinois Department of Health. Healthbeat. Retrieved from:  http://www.idph.state.il.us/public/hb/hbcrypto.htm
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Short Film Review

Words: 1726 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42681055

Marjoun and the Flying Headscarf filmmaker Susan Yousseff presents the self and subjectivity of Marjoun, a young Muslim woman and daughter of immigrants. I will speak of Marjoun as though she were a case scenario. Marjoun in depicting her own self as the protagonist is dependent upon the headscarf of the film's title, a hijab which she insists on wearing even indoors (to her mother's derision) and which becomes a crucial symbol at the climax of the story, but which overall represents her own greater outward religious observance in front of her parents.

Marjoun's mother and father are in conflict with Marjoun and her vision of herself in crucial ways. Marjoun's ostentatious religious display of wearing her hijab indoors -- which her mother criticizes -- mostly bewilders her mother and sister, who seem more assimilated than Marjoun. Yet Marjoun's father is in conflict with that observant Muslim woman's commitment to…… [Read More]

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Hygiene and the Theory of Planned Behavior

Words: 514 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52153399

Hygiene and the Theory of Planned Behavior

Describe the theory and your rationale for selecting the theory

Among healthcare subjects, hand hygiene falls under the theory of planned behavior. The act of engaging in proper hand-washing practices is of foundational importance to providing a safe, healthy and sanitary context for healthcare. However, according to the study by O'Boyle et al. (2001), many healthcare professionals simply do not comply with expectations in this area. This denotes the need for improved behavioral compliance among healthcare professionals. This need underscores the cause for selected the theory applied here. According to O'Boyle et al., "most health care workers (HCs) are aware of the rationale for hand hygiene procedures, yet failure to adhere to guidelines is common." (O'Boyle et al., p. 352)

Discuss how the theory works to support your proposed solution

This theory is particularly useful in moving toward the proposed solution of instituting…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

O'Boyle, C.A.; Henly, S.J. & Larson, E. (2001). Understanding Adherence to Hand Hygiene Recommendations: The Theory of Planned Behavior. American Journal of Infectious Control, 29(6), 352-360.
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Evidence-Based Practice Project a Literature Review Conducted

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68908398

Evidence-Based Practice Project

A literature review conducted by abie and Curtis (2006) aimed at establishing the effects of washing hands in reducing respiratory infections. The literature was obtained by searching CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science library. The inclusion strategy for the review were any studies that reported having an impact of hand washing to reduce respiratory infections. All articles included in the review were published before June 2004. This was a quantitative systematic review, which made it an effective method of analyzing and evaluating the selected studies. After searching for the relevant articles, the researchers found 395 articles, but only 61 articles were selected after the researchers reviewed their abstracts (abie & Curtis, 2006). The review and selection process continued and the final review included only eight articles, which the researchers established were more relevant to their study. Having eliminated the articles that focused on children…… [Read More]

References

Loeb, M., McGeer, A., McArthur, M., Walter, S., & Simor, A.E. (1999). Risk factors for pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections in elderly residents of long-term care facilities. Archives of internal medicine, 159(17), 2058-2064.

Rabie, T., & Curtis, V. (2006). Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Tropical medicine & international health, 11(3), 258-267.

Smith, P.W., Bennett, G., Bradley, S., Drinka, P., Lautenbach, E., Marx, J., . . . Stevenson, K. (2008). SHEA/APIC Guideline: infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility. American journal of infection control, 36(7), 504.
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Robust and Effective Ways of

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6045418

This clearly shows that alcohol-based hand-washing, when used regularly and vigorously (e.g. prior to any healthcare procedure by any level of personnel), infection will be reduced.

The Saudi study was a bit more detailed, with protocols varying depending on severity of procedure (surgery, etc.) and the administering of prophylactic antibiotics as part of the regular treatment procedure. Statistical analysis of the samples showed no significant differences between the Betadine Group and the Alcohol-Based Gel Group. However, the total number of infections within both groups were quite small, 20 out of 600 subjects in the trial. This suggests that the conditions at the Saudi hospital were already more sterile, with less than 5% (3.33%) even developing infections; compared to 13.1% in Vietnam. In both cases, demographic differences between patients were not statistically significant in the protocol.

Combining the data from the two studies, however, results in two conclusions: 1) There is…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Al-Naami, M.Y., et al., (2009). EWMA Journal. 9 (3): 5-10.

Nguyen, K., et al., (2008). Tropical Medicine and International Health. 13 (10): 1297-1302.
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Caglar S Yildiz S Savaser S 2010

Words: 1935 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27292841

Caglar S; Yildiz S; Savaser S. (2010). Observation results of hand-washing by health-care workers in a neonatal intensive care unit. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(2), 132-137.

In this article the authors wanted to determine whether healthcare professionals were washing their hands and if they were doing so effectively. The researchers observed 344 incidents in which hand washing was warranted and found that nurses were 63% compliant and physicians were 53% compliant. However, when it came to making sure that the job was done thoroughly, physicians were able to do a better job than nurses at a 24% to 13% rate of success. Since hand washing has been proven to be the most effective and simplest method for preventing infection, it is imperative that healthcare professionals perform it as often as needed and thoroughly.

amos M.M., Schrader, ., Trujillo, ., Blea, M., & Greenberg, C. (2011). School nurse inspections improve…… [Read More]

Researchers are trying different techniques to increase the incidence of compliance with hand washing guidelines and in this study they used social pressure. Initially, compliance with hand washing regulations was deemed to be significantly below expected standard within the nursing staff. To hopefully combat this, researchers told the staff that they were going to weigh the soap dispenser bags to see if people were actually using them or not. The object of the study was to determine if this type of pressure would induce the staff into better compliance with hand washing regulations. The researchers found that this type of behavioral technique is very effective.

15. Parish, C. (2008). Patient campaigner calls for TV cameras to check hand-washing. Nursing Standard, 22(38), 6.

The author of the article looked at the compliance records of staff and whether patients and visitors used infection controls. The campaigner, Roger Goss, said that because MRSA and other similar healthcare-acquired infections were becoming more dangerous that staff and visitors needed to be monitored more closely to prevent spread. The man advocated that close-circuit televisions be used to determine compliance with regulations, and he encouraged staff to be fired and visitors not welcomed if they did not comply. The warning here to nurses is that people are watching whether they wash their hands properly, and they are ready to have them terminated if they do not.
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Washing Journal Reflective Journal Awareness

Words: 1537 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11108254

The maintenance stage can be brainstormed with students and staff from the middle school in future months, based on the response and enthusiasm students have displayed in carrying out the initial project, and based on the number of days missed because of sickness after the hand-washing project vs. The average number of days of school missed due to illness prior to the hand-washing project. Shown that actions like hand-washing can prevent sickness, students will come on board other health-related issues.

May 29, 2006. I believe that if I have shown good research techniques in presenting my proposal for this program, and if I employ logic as well as creative planning and understanding of today's middle school-level abilities, I will succeed. Meantime, after every session on my computer, I will wash my hands in hot water for 15 seconds, because there are hundreds if not thousands of bacteria on these keys,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Duran, Lynne S. (2003). Motivating Health: Strategies for the Nurse Practitioner. Journal of The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 15(5), 200-201.

Journal of Environmental Health (2006). Millions of Germs and Bacteria Await Kids at School.

Monk-Turner, Elizabeth, & Edwards, Donald, & Broadstone, Josh, & Hummel, Robert, & Lewis,

Selena, & Wilson, Dorothy. (2005). Another Look at Hand-Washing Behavior. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(7), 629-634.
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Cement Shortage Lakkireddy Et Al

Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20353210

Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.

Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation…… [Read More]

The authors questioned the role of Povidone-iodine vs. other antiseptics, noting that no detailed survey like the current one had ever been conducted on a large patient population. Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.

Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation affected the rates of infection. In fact, the antibiotics might have had a major bearing on the rates of infection and could abnegate the results of the current study.

However, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) do draw attention to the need for hygienic, aseptic surgical procedures including the use of topical antiseptics like Povidone-iodine. Especially when devices like PMs and ICDs are being implanted, the potential for infection rises. A more informative study might reveal which patient populations are at the highest risk of developing staph or other infections. Those patients who are the most at risk might benefit the most from prophylactic antibiotics as well as standardized, sterilized surgical procedures.
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Preventing an Influenza Pandemic

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48737008

Introduction

While public health emergencies crop up from time to time, it is critical that public health stakeholders be prepared to address emergency situations whenever they occur. The spread of influenza is one such public health emergency that stakeholders should be ready to address. Addressing these situations requires a number of steps to be taken: communication must be instrumental in conveying the urgency of the situation among medical personnel, researchers, governmental authorities, and so on, so that everyone is abreast of the situation and on the same page. An agreed upon method of response should also be established, so that the necessary actions can be implemented without hesitation or time lost because of unpreparedness.

Preventing the spread of disease is the top concern in a public health emergency. Prevention requires using all the means at one’s disposal—from the media (through which alerts can be given and calm, orderly instructions can…… [Read More]