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I have, as the transtheoretical model suggests, gone through the decisional balance that encourages me to weigh pros and cons of quitting smoking. I noted that quitting might be time-consuming (con); might make me irritable and for a while, horrible to be around (con); and would most certainly be the most difficult thing I have ever done (con). The pros, however, seem so much more invigorating and include younger looking skin, better breath, better smelling clothes and home, and most importantly, improved health and well-being. Moreover, I included improved familial relationships as a significant pro-in my decision to quit. I anticipate my intervention will work because it is a well-thought out plan that involves systematic stages; assistance from qualified medical staff; and support from friends and family. Knowing that I can rely on myself as well as external supports will ensure that I reach the maintenance stage and remain smoke-free…
Cancer Prevention Research Center. "Transtheoretical Model." Retrieved Feb 26, 2008 at http://www.uri.edu/research/cprc/transtheoretical.htm
The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.
Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…
Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986.
Bronfenbrenner, U 1994 'Ecological Models of Human Development', International Encyclopaedia of Education, Vol 3, Oxford, Elsevier.
Eddy Module 2. Dr. James Eddy. Social Learning Theory (SLT/SCT): Reciprocal Determinism, Expectations, Value Expectancies. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://mediasrv1.ccs.ua.edu/CCS-AO2/HHE520/tape2b/2b_clip1.wmv
Eddy Module 2a. Dr. James Eddy. SLT/SCT (cont'd): Observational Learning, Reinforcement, Self-Efficacy, Emotional Coping. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://mediasrv1.ccs.ua.edu/CCS-AO2/HHE520/tape2b/2b_clip2.wmv
Promoting Positive Health ehaviors
Every Woman Matters Program was launched in 1992 in Nebraska, United States of America, for the women residents of the state. This program encourages women to get annual check-ups for free. The program is designed for women aged between 40 to 74 years, who have none or restricted health insurance, along with earning low levels of income. The women residents of Nebraska can fill out enrollment forms available to them from various hospitals as well as on the internet in order to be facilitated by the program (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). If the application is accepted, the program will send a welcome pack which the applicant should take with them on their doctor's appointment. They should ensure to inform the doctor beforehand that they are a part of Every Woman Matters Program.
The Program administrators will then inform the applicant of their…
Adkins, A. (2012). Nebraska Medicaid Income Requirements. Retrieved from eHow: http://www.ehow.com/list_7502474_nebraska-medicaid-income-requirements.html
Breast Cancer in Young Women. (2012, June 26). Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/guide/breast-cancer-young-women
Department of Health and Human Services. (2012, October 30). Office of Women's and Men's Health Income Eligibility Scale for Nebraska Colon Cancer Screening Program. Retrieved from Department of Health and Human Services: http://dhhs.ne.gov/publichealth/Documents/EWM_2012-2013IncomeGuidelines.pdf
Educating Young Women about Breast Cancer. (2012). Retrieved from The EARLY Act: http://wassermanschultz.house.gov/earlyact/
Balanced Conceptualizations Mental Health Behavior
The report also shows that mental health and illnesses are based on interacting and multiple psychological, biological, and social factors including illness and health. The information presents clear evidence for a relationship to risks of mental illnesses that are related to indicators of poverty and low levels of education. In other studies, low income and poor housing are prime determinants. Greater vulnerability among disadvantaged people within communities of mental illnesses is explained through factors such as experience of hopelessness and insecurity, the risks of violence and rapid social change, as well as physical ill health. Further, it is clear that mental health has a connection to behavior (Zeanah, 2012). Mental, behavioral, and social health problems have a probable intercalation with intensifies effects on well-being and behavior.
Violence, substance abuse, and abuses of children and women lead to health problems such as depression, anxiety, and heart…
Leach, M.M., & Aten, J.D. (2013). Culture and the Therapeutic Process: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Morgan, W.P., (2013). Physical Activity and Mental Health. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Prager, K.J. (2013). The Dilemmas of Intimacy: Conceptualization, Assessment, and Treatment: Conceptualization, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: Routledge.
Videbeck, S., (2013). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
health behavior theories,' what comes to mind?
When I surveyed my nursing colleagues regarding their knowledge of health behavior theories, I encountered a very diverse range of responses. Some of them were aware of specific theories pertaining to health behaviors such as Nola Pender's Health Promotion Model or the Stages of Change Model. A few were not aware of specific theory names but had a general sense of theories which impacted their practice, such as the notion of 'contemplation' in the Stages of Change Model which suggests that first people must contemplate change before they are capable of enacting it.
In general, the practitioners that were most cognizant of specific health behavior theories had the most positive feelings about these constructs. Even if they did not use them consciously on a regular basis, they said that they did at times unconsciously influence their practice. One nurse who worked with young…
Marsden, P. (2005). Memetics and social contagion. Viral Culture. Stanford. Retrieved from:
The transtheoretical model. (2015). ProChange. Retrieved from:
Seven-Year Follow-up of a Multiple-Health-Behavior Diabetes Intervention" by Toobert et. al (2010) are all multiple-variable line graphs. Line graphs are usually graphs connecting points that show trending properties within a specific time period, usually in the form of seconds, days, hours, weeks, months, or years. The x-axis of the particular chart is usually the time measured on a gradual basis, while the y-axis of the line graph is the quantity of the second measure. One can use line graphs in various quantity-over-time-driven experiments and data collection during a specific time period. For example, line graphs are common when it comes to comparing monthly or yearly stock profit and loss. They can also be used to measure the dosage of medicine and results thereof at a particularly given time; the average seasonal temperature per year; or the trending network values of a musical artist during a given time-period.
Multiple trends can…
There are many diseases that can be treated if they are detected at an early stage. A number of such diseases include cancers including colon, cervical and breast cancers. All of the mentioned diseases can be fatal if they are not treated in a timely manner. For treatment in a timely manner, it is important that the disease is detected while it is still benign and not that harmful. For that purpose people need to get screened so that they know if they have any kind of morbidity. Many campaigns are being run all over the world for creating awareness about these screening tests among women so that they can help fight their disease while it is still at an early stage. However, there are many hurdles to the effectiveness of such campaigns and one of which is the financial limitations. Therefore, there is a program that has been…
Backer, E.L., Geske, J.A., Mcllvain, H.E., Dodendorf, D.M. AND Minier, M.D. (2005).
Improving Female Preventive Healthcare Delivery Through Practice Change: An Every Woman Matters Study. JABFP, Vol, 8 (5).
Every Woman Matters Program (2013). Helping Women Live Healthier Lives < http://dhhs.ne.gov/publichealth/Pages/womenshealth_ewm.aspx>
UNFP. 2011. "Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control" http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/ENGLISH-%20Cervical%20Cancer%20Guidance.pdf .
Cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors are the two study groups in this study.
The total risk score at 4.14 is the greatest relative difference and is significant because it is greater than the
Since being healthy includes a sound mind, less worrying over financial problems leads to a stronger, sounder mind.
Drinking a lot of water throughout the day is another health-promoting behavior. Drinking a lot of water adds natural moisture to your skin, giving a fresh glow today and helping the aging process tomorrow. It also helps when I exercise to drink more water because being properly hydrated during exercise allows me to have a better, more productive workout. Drinking water also improves my energy and increases both my mental and physical performance. Additionally it allows for proper digestion and relieves headaches and dizziness. For those reasons I believe that not smoking and drinking water regularly are two of my important health-promoting behaviors.
My Detrimental Health ehaviors
As improvements in health become more necessary and evident, the medical industry will continue to work to improve the overall health of all individuals. However,…
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. (2005).
Pender's is a theory of preventive medicine, for the healthy rather than the chronically ill. However, in an age where lifestyle-related disease are on the rise, it can provide an important function, particularly for nurses facing an epidemic of pre-diabetic and diabetic adolescents reared on poor diets and little physical activity. Some might protest that the genetic component to even Type II Diabetes, or obesity in general, might be unacknowledged in the model, but Pender would no doubt respond to her critics that although it is true that certain individuals have a greater predisposition to certain lifestyle diseases, everyone can act within those parameters to improve their life with preventative medicine, as counseled by her model.
McEwen & illis. (2007). "Chinn & Kramer Model." From Chapter 5 of Theoretical bases for nursing.
Pender, Nola J. (2003). "Most frequently asked questions about the Health Promotion
Model and my professional…
McEwen & Willis. (2007). "Chinn & Kramer Model." From Chapter 5 of Theoretical bases for nursing.
Pender, Nola J. (2003). "Most frequently asked questions about the Health Promotion
Model and my professional work and career." Last modified 4 Aug 2006. Retrieved 14 Sept 2007 at http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty/pender/pender_questions.html
Pender, Nola J., Murdaugh, C.L., & Parsons, M.A. (2002). "Assumptions and theoretical principles of the Health Promotion Model." Retrieved 14 Sept 2007 at http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty/pender/HPM.pdf
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Health Care Communication
As the nation's health care resources become more and more strained, health care professionals are being asked to do more with less. They are being pressured to find cheaper ways to improve the quality of health care they deliver. Given the current circumstances, this sounds difficult and even unreasonable, but it may not be entirely impossible.
One simple way for medical professionals to improve the quality of health care they provide is by improving their health care communication skills. Health care communication is "The art and technique of informing, influencing, and motivating individual, institutional, and public audiences about important health issues. The scope of health communication includes disease prevention, health promotion, health care policy, and the business of health care as well as enhancement of the quality of life and health of individuals within the community." (U.S.D.S.H.S., 2000, p.11-20).
In health care, as in all aspects of…
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Volume I, Focus Area 11: Health Communication (second edition) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Zachariae, R. et. al. (2003). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. British Journal of Cancer, 88(5), 658-65.
Heisler, M. et. al. (2002). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(4), 243-52.
Safran, D.G. et. al. (1998). Linking primary care performance to outcomes of care. Journal of Family Practice, 47(3), 213-20.
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…
Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,
Osteoporosis and the Health Belief Model
Discuss the Health Belief Model
The Health Belief Model was initially a systematic mode of predicating and thus preventing health behavior. By focusing on the relationship between the practices and the behaviors of health services it aimed to create a theoretical presentation of the same. Later it was revised to motivate the general health for the 'purpose of distinguishing illness and sick-role behavior from health behavior'. [Brown, 1999] The HBM is essentially a concept that integrates psychological motivators with physical and social settings. Its said to have been initiated in 1952 by three socio-psychologists, Godfrey Hochbaum, Stephen Kegels and Irwin osenstock. During the 1950's the society realized a need to prevent disease rather than cure it. The U.S. Public Health Service was more concerned with preventing outbreaks which would have a nationwide impact than with trying to solve and cure the symptoms that individuals…
Brown, Kelli M. [January 11, 1999] HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Community and Family Health University of South Florida
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999a). NOF Physician's Guide: impact and overview [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/physguide/impact_and_overview .
National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999b). Osteoporosis Fast Facts [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/stats.htm .
Health Care Trends
With the passage of the Affordable Care Act the personal health of every American has become an important issue. While most health care funds are spent treating diseases and other health problems, there has recently been a push toward focusing on prevention of health problems. For example, "chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes are now responsible for more than 75% of health care costs." (Berman, 201, p.328) But as these health problems are almost entirely preventable a focus on prevention could save a great deal of money that would be better spent elsewhere. Therefore many Americans are beginning to endorse policies that prevent health problems before they start. Some of these ideas involve incentives to reward people for healthy behavior while others involve penalties to punish those who do not. However, research indicates that punishments are not as effective as incentives when it…
Blacksher, Erika. (2008). "Carrots and Sticks to Promote Healthy Behaviors." Hasting
Center Report. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1353/hcr.0.0002/abstract
Berman, Micah. (Fall 2011). "From Health Care Reform to Public Health Reform."
Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, vol. 39 (3). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1748-720X.2011.00603.x/abstract
Health Belief Model and Health Education
Public/population health standards place the conventional medical individual care model within several determinants of health. Currently, various public health models exist and are available for a huge range of purposes such as the Health Belief Model. These various health models exist to provide an improved understanding of the dynamics relating to the health and wellbeing of populations. In addition, there are social determinants of health (SDOH), which basically refer to the political, social and economic factors that impact the health of individuals and populations. The social determinants of health also refer to the ecological model and place significant emphasis on healthcare institutions and organizations established by humans to organize or structure social processes relating to individuals and populations’ health including health education. This paper examines how the Health Belief Model can be used to address the issue of health education.
The Issue of Health…
This paper will outline some of the high-level issues in the American health care system. At this level, the discussion centers around issues such as the political environment, the influence of key stakeholders and power structures. By analyzing the health care system through these lenses, the observer is able to better understand why (or why not) good ideas are implemented (or not). There are five central questions that will be addressed in this discussion, starting with the impact of socioeconomic and sociopolitical factors on US health care policy.
Socioeconomic / sociopolitical factors
One of the most critical issues in the US health care system is the socioeconomic disparity in health outcomes. This is typically driven by access to care. Lantz, House & Lepkowski (1998) found that mortality risk was a function of income, with the lowest-income groups in their study having the highest mortality risk. While there…
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
Psychosocial Model of Health
Use questions 2, 3, 5, 11, and 12
Many times a health professional will look at a health issue and see only the problem at hand. The difficulty with this approach is that most health problems affect the entire person whether or not the issue is localized or not. The psychosocial model of health looks at more than an individual's physical state to determine how they will respond to treatments in the short- and long-term. A patient's psychological well-being and their support system are as important as a willingness to see a treatment through to the end. The following paper looks at two patients and whether they were well-served from a psychosocial perspective, and, if not, what improvements could be made to serve the patient better.
In the documentaries, two of the patient interviews stood out as especially relevant to this discussion. One of these…
Back, A.L., Arnold, R.M., Baile, W.F., Fryer-Edwards, K.A., Alexander, S.C., Barley, G.E., Gooley, T.A., & Tulsky, J.A. (2007). Efficacy of communication skills training for giving bad news and discussing transitions too palliative care. Arch International Medicine, 167, 453-459.
Douglass, J.L., Sowell, R.L., & Phillips, K.D. (2003). Using Peplau's Theory to examine the psychosocial factors associated with HIV-infected women's difficulty in taking their medications. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 7(1).
Ellingson, L.L. (2002). Introduction to the field of healthcare communication. Communication Research Trends, 21(3).
Holland, D.J., Bradley, D.W., & Khoury, J.M. (2005). Sending men the message about preventive care: An evaluation of communication strategies. International Journal of Men's Health, 4(2).
Health Structures in Government Levels
Health at different Government Levels
Health Structures at Government Levels
Health at Government Levels
A national government has a task in ensuring quality health assurance standards across its region are up-to-date. Similarly, increased rates of unexpected epidemics have put governments under the surge of dealing accordingly with factors that can affect the nation directly and indirectly. Different governmental levels of health are identified and objectified in various agency websites. In this context, I have identified with a state level website; Illinois Public Health Institute website. Information presented to the website articles prioritizes in reducing and preventive, curative diseases, complementing health policies and championing for environmental changes.
Website Article eview
The Illinois Public Health institute articulates its review and implication to health quality through partnership programs. The website has supported state-oriented health involvement in ameliorating health levels, in Illinois. The institution has show-cased partnering programs with…
Baum, F and Kahssay, H.M. Health development structures: an untapped resource. World Health Organization. Vol 1 Issue 1. Pg 96-114.
Ladeia, M.L., Jacob, P., Borges, M.C., Rogero, M. M and Ferreira, S.R.G. (2011). Studies of Gene variants related to Inflammation, Oxidative, Stress, Dyslipidemia and Obesity: Implications for a nutrigenetic approach. Journal of Obesity. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-31.
5th March 2012. Illinois Public Health Institute. Retrieved from URL http://www.iphionline.org / Accessed on 27th March, 2012.
All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.
Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.
Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).
From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…
Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.
Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.
Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].
Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.
Realistically this compliance and assistance should be sought and used before, during and after negotiations with other health care organizations with which this organization might merge or enter a joint venture. Furthermore, the proposed contract itself should be passed by the FTC's Office of the General Counsel or its designee for approval before final ratification of the contract.
In order to merge and operate in a joint venture acceptable to the FTC, the organization must be mindful of Title 15 of the U.S. Code, specifically Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 18, Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1, 2, and Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. In addition, due to the FTC's recent special interest in the mergers/joint ventures of health care organizations, particularly but not solely in connection with price fixing, the organization should assume that…
Cornell University Law School. (n.d.). Legal Information Institute - 15 U.S.C. Section 1. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from www.law.cornell.edu Web site: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15 /1' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Furthermore, and despite its popularity as a tourist destination because of its natural beauty, the Appalachians are not a sterile environment by any means and the people who live there have higher risks for certain types of conditions than their counterparts elsewhere. According to Bauer and Growick (2003), "Americans who live in Appalachia experience unique and different ways of life than most Americans. Appalachian culture runs from the bottom half of the State of New York through the mountains of West Virginia and Southeast Ohio to the flatlands of Alabama. This area of the country offers different perspectives and challenges to life. Because of the geographical vastness and uniqueness of the Appalachian culture, many people with disabilities who live in Appalachia are unable to access rehabilitative services and agencies" (emphasis added) (p. 18).
Likewise, many rural residents throughout Appalachia may have septic tanks and will lack access to other…
Anguiano, R.P., & Harrison, S.M. (2002). Teaching cultural diversity to college students majoring in helping professions: The use of an eco-strengths perspective. College Student Journal, 36(1), 152.
Barrett, E., Hackler, R., Highfill, K.A., Huang, P., Jiang, X., Monti, M.M., & Peipins, Lucy. (2002). A Norwalk-like virus outbreak on the Appalachian Trail. Journal of Environmental Health, 64(9), 18.
Bauer, W., & Growick, B.M. (2003). Rehabilitation counseling in Appalachian America. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 69(3), 18.
Brown, J.W., & May, B.A. (2005, April). Rural Appalachian women's formal patterns of care. Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research, (2)6, 1-21.
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) the Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books
Integrity is a major issue for healthcare organizations because there are many avenues for fraud, and for people to demonstrate a lack of ethics. The problem is that the temptation is sometimes too great and despite the fact that there are laws in place to guard against these practices unethical behavior takes place anyway. The government, which supplies a lot of the money which goes for treatments through Medicare and Medicaid, has structured certain laws to make sure that the practices of healthcare organizations are ethical, but billions of dollars in fines are still doled out every year. The big drug companies complain of arcane and hard to decipher legalese, but the fact is that although they realize the issue and the penalty they continue to subvert the law. This paper looks at qui tam statutes and cases, Medicare and Medicaid admissions criteria, installing a corporate integrity program, and…
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA). (2010). Summary of self- referral and anti-kickback regulations. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/practice/reimbursement/medicare/regulations_sum.htm
Hanford, J.T. (2001). Regulation of the healthcare professions. Ethics & Medicine, 17(3), 188-190.
Louthian Law Firm. (2012). Healthcare fraud qui tam whistleblower protection lawsuits.
Mattie, A. & Ben-Chitrit, R. (2009) The federal False Claims Act and qui tam actions: What every healthcare manager should know. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 12(2), 49-65.
the Allied health care staffing agency is a staffing agency that focuses on the niche of the nursing jobs within the healthcare industry in Chicago
The Allied healthcare staffing agency works to recruit registered nurses belonging to all medical Specialties, Practical Nurses that are licensed also called LPNs, Nursing Assistants that are certified also called CNAs and Specialists from the allied health sciences. These professionals would be hired both from the area of the metro city as well as the suburbs and placed within the hospitals, the neighborhood medical centers, Adult care facilities, clinics, and rehabilitation centers.
The mission of the Allied Healthcare Staffing Agency is to provide the best opportunities of employment both to its collaborators which are the local healthcare organizations as well as serving the entire nursing community to provide amply amount of job opportunities to choose from in a time when the turnover of…
Bureau, U.C. (2000). Census 2000 Demographic Profile Highlights:. chicago illinois, fact sheet .
commerce, U. d. (2010). bear facts, state illinois. bureau of economic analysis .
directory, a. h. (2010). free stats & national stats. Retrieved september 7, 2011, from american hospital directory: www.ahd.com
Lindberg, R.C. (1991). To Serve and Collect: Chicago Politics and Police Corruption from the Lager Beer Riot to the Summerdale Scandal. chicago: praeger publications.
Healthcare Quality Management
PDCA Modeling in Healthcare
Psychiatric emergencies in medical settings may be particularly challenging since the staff does not encounter them frequently and may not have experience dealing with behavioral crisis intervention. The purpose of this exercise is to help staff improve understanding and coping with nonmedical emergencies that occur in medical settings using the PDCA cycle.
X is a 41-year-old male admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of possible stroke. The patient is ambulatory, 5'10," and 350 lbs. Mr. X presented to the emergency department the day before after apparently losing consciousness at home. The initial CAT scan of his head was negative. It is suspected that Mr. X may be an IV drug user since his urine toxicology screening came back positive for opiates. The medical staff thinks that Mr. X had a seizure prior to admission, but he has shown no abnormal signs…
Bennet, L., & Slavin, L. (2009, April 3). What Every Health Care Manager Needs to Know. Retrieved from Continous Quality Improvement: http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/CQI.htm
i Six Sigma. (N.d.). Focus - PDCA. Retrieved from I Six Sigma: http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/focus-pdca/
Pestka, E., Hatterberg, D., Larson, L., Zwygart, L., Cox, A., & Cox, D. (2012). Enhancing Safety in Behavioral Emergency Situations. Medsurg Nursing, 335-341.
However, they contradict themselves trough supporting one's right to commit physician-assisted suicide, since this would virtually mean that the individual who is no longer willing to live is not provided with health care meant to prevent him or her from dying (Epstein, 1999, p. 1).
Among those opposed to the fact that health care is becoming increasingly better are those who are in their twenties and are obliged to work hard in order to pay for their own medical insurance and for that of the underprivileged (Bonner, 2010).
Contemporary health care is basically provided by groups forced to pay taxes in order for others to benefit out of the process. The fact that health care is a privilege and not a right was made obvious ever since the 1954 foundation of the Department of Health, Education, and elfare. The name contained the term welfare with the intention of highlighting how…
Bloche, M.G. ed., The Privatization of Health Care Reform: Legal and Regulatory Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Epstein, R.A. Mortal Peril: Our Inalienable Right to Health Care? (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1999)
Heirich, M. Rethinking Health Care: Innovation and Change in America (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998)
Sanders, B. (2009). Retrieved from the Huffington Post Website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rep-bernie-sanders/health-care-is-a-right-no_b_212770.html
S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Furthermore, subpart C explains the privileges and the protections of confidentiality that is attached to the patient's record along with much exception (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).
The penalty for anyone who breaks confidentiality is imperative. In "November, 23, 2009" was increased to $11,000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). This goes for anyone in the medical field or has access to this information. A person has to follow HIPAA precisely or face a huge fine. If one thought of this ahead of time, whether or not they own a business, then no issues would arise legally. However, sometimes this does occur, especially for those who want to harm another person, yet in the medical field the goal is not to do this to any individual, regardless, otherwise he or she could face losing their license in…
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Civil Rights. (2011). Your health information privacy rights. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services Civil Rights:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Health information privacy. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:
Health Care eform:
One of the major topics that have had a long history in the United States is health care reforms, which has been characterized by huge debates. Following decades of failed attempts by various Democratic presidents, a new law was enacted by President Obama to overhaul the country's health care system. The enactment of this legislation came after a year of harsh partisan combat with the purpose of ensuring access to health care insurance for millions of Americans. In addition to being the most controversial topic, health care reform law was the largest single legislative accomplishment of President Obama. Notably, this legislation will cost America's government approximately $940 billion over the next decade based on an analysis by the Congressional Budget Office. The office has also estimated that the law will lessen federal deficit by about $138 billion during the same period and a further reduction of the…
Cannon, M.F. (2010, March 1). The Best and Worst Health Care Reform Ideas. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from http://dailycaller.com/2010/03/01/the-best-and-worst-health-care-reform-ideas/
Cohn, J. (2011, January 20). About that Whole "Replace" Thing & #8230; Retrieved December 15,
2011, from http://www.tnr.com/blog/jonathan-cohn/81821/about-whole-replace-thing
"Health Care Reform.." (2011, November 15). The New York Times. Retrieved December 15,
Health Care oles in Communication
Communication is a fundamental piece of health care education and has been shown to improve health outcomes, patient compliance, and patient satisfaction. Quality health care emphasizes knowledge and utilization of communication skills. Health care professionals often express anxiety and lack of confidence and are deficient in a creating a situations that are conducive to open and candid communication with patients (Kameg et. al., 2009).
Effective communication involves gathering information, establishing a relationship or connection with a patient, and supporting the person through words and other non-verbal forms of interactions. Effective communication involves not only the interactions between the staff and the patient but also the interactions between staff and the interactions between the staff in front of the patient. Many times the high demand for services in a health care facility cause the staff to overlook the importance of good communication skills and enables situations…
Beer, J.E. (2003). Nonverbal Communication: Communicating across cultures. Cultures at work. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.culture-at-work.com/nonverbal.html
Coiera, E. (2006, May). Communication systems in healthcarre. Clinical Biochemist Reviews. nursing.Vol. 27, Issue 2, 89-98. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/
Gamble, T.K. & Gamble, M. (2006). Communication works. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill.
Health Communication. (2010). Health communication. Healthy people 2010: Objectives for improving reproductive health. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.hhs.gov /opa/pubs/hp2010/hp2010rh_sec2_healthcomm.pdf
Information technology and computers have also begun to affect, in ways that are both bad and good, family life, community life, education, freedom, human relationships, democracy, and many other issues. By looking into the broadest sense of the word it can be seen that cyber ethics should actually be understood as a branch of applied ethics, and ethics should be something that is believed in by all that provide medical information, whether via the Internet or in some other way, since providing false or fraudulent information could be damaging and potentially deadly for many people.
This particular branch of ethics analyzes and studies information technology and what type of ethical and social impacts it has. Within recent years this new field has led to countless courses, workshops, articles, journals, and many other ways of expression. With the World Wide Web becoming so popular when it comes to health care information,…
Bynum, T.W. (1999) the Foundation of Computer Ethics. A keynote address at the AICEC99 Conference, Melbourne, Australia, July 1999. Published in the June 2000 issue of Computers and Society.
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…
1. Eakin, Douglas and Michael Ramlet. (2010) "Health Care Reform is Likely to Widen Budget Deficits -- Not Reduce Them." Health Affairs, 29, no.6:1136-1141. Eakin and Ramlet examine the underpinnings of the Congressional Budget Office's projection that enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will decrease deficits, and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade. This is an excellent article with regards to my article, written by two policy commentators at the forefront of their field. This article shows expertise in medical economics and offers compelling, clear arguments for the increase in the federal deficit due to the massive spending on entitlements as a result of passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. They project deficits, opposing the Congressional Budget Office, through their insightful analysis.
2. Marmor, Theodore, Jonathan Oberlander, and Joseph White. (2009) "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." Ann Intern Med. 150:485-489. Controlling the costs of medical care has long been an elusive goal in U.S. health policy. This article examines the options for health care cost control under the Obama administration. The authors argue that the administration's approach to health reform offers some potential for cost control but also embraces many strategies that are not likely to be successful. Lessons the United States can learn from other countries' experiences in constraining medical care spending are then explored. This article offers evidence for the lack of cost containment in the Obama administrations' plans for health reform. It gives a good analysis of the international scene in health care as well.
3. Collins, Sara, Michelle M. Doty, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Alice Ho. (2004) "The Affordability Crisis in Health Care." Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey. Published in 2004, The Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted from September 2003 -- January 2004, presents new and timely information on where the American public stands on solutions to reform the health care system. The survey finds widespread support for federal efforts to extend health insurance to more people, as well as a widely held belief that the financing of health care should continue to be a shared responsibility among individuals, employers, and the government. The survey also uncovered potential reasons for such strong support for health care reform. Among the insured and the uninsured alike, there is concern that health care security in the United States is eroding. People are experiencing reductions in insurance coverage that are threatening their financial security.
4. Etheridge, Lynn (1984) "An Aging Society and the Federal Deficit." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 521-543. This article serves as early warning sign of the deficit battles to come. It argues that the conflict between the growing needs of an aging society and a federal budget which cannot afford its current commitments has become one of the nation's most difficult government policy dilemmas. Assistance for the elderly through Social Security, Medicare, and other programs-is already the federal government's largest fiscal responsibility. In 1985 these programs will require nearly half of all domestic program spending an estimated $256 billion. The future costs of these commitments will rise rapidly well into the next century, accounting-with national defense and interest costs-for virtually all of the spending increases in the projected $200 to $300 billion deficits. Etheridge asserts that the decisions about the nation's assistance to the elderly -- and about reaffirmation, reform, and/or retrenchment of these commitments-will thus be central to the coming budget debates.
Are healthcare inequalities UK
Defining Health Inequality
The term healthcare disparity or healthcare differences have been defined in a number of ways. Healthcare inequality can be defined as the difference of the health levels of any tow comparable demographic groups within a certain country or a region even when proper healthcare facilities are available. The inclusive incidences include higher rates of mortality as well as morbidity within the people who belong to lower occupational classes and are poorer. These rates are higher as compared to the mortality rates in the people who belong to better occupational classes being richer and more privileged. Second important aspect that has been highlighted in the definitions of healthcare inequality includes increased rates of occurrence of mental healthcare-based issues in people from poor classes.
A number of countries have been highlighted with healthcare inequalities including Canada and UK. Since 1980, the documentation of…
Asthana, S, and Dr. Halliday, J 2006, What works in tackling health inequalities?: pathways, policies and practice through the life course, Studies in poverty, inequality, and social exclusion, The Policy Press.
Barron K. 2009, Health inequalities: written evidence; Volume 422 of HC SeriesPaper (Great Britain. Parliament. (Session 2007-08). House of Commons)) Written evidence, The Stationery Office.
Davies P. 2007, The NHS in the UK 2007/08, 9th edn, The NHS Confederation.
Dowler E. 2007, Challenging health inequalities: from Acheson to choosing health, Health and Society Series, The Policy Press.
Health eform Act
The work of Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood (2010) entitled "Employee Benefit Plan eview -- Meyerowitz, Health care eform Is Here -- Now What?" states that health care reform laws are expected to have an impact that is significant in nature and this is on the health insurance industry as well as on employee benefit issues as well. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which was then supplemented and modified, less than one week later, by the Health Care and Education Tax Credit econciliation Act (HCEA)." (Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood, 2010) Those two laws are referred to as "Health Care eform" or "Health eform Laws." (Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood, 2010) The Health eform Laws are reported, while being extremely lengthy and in depth and very detailed to "leave open a host of issues that will have to be resolved either through agency regulations…
Current Internal Revenue Code (Standard Federal version), SEC. 45R. EMPLOYEE HEALTH INSURANCE EXPENSES OF SMALL EMPLOYERS (2010) WK_ Current Internal Revenue Code SEC 45R EMPLOYEE HEALTH INSURANCE EXPENSES OF SMALL EMPLOYERS.pdf
Part III - Administrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous Section 45R -- Tax Credit for Employee Health Insurance Expenses of Small Employers Notice 2010-44
National Tax Advisory (2010) What you need to know now about the tax aspects of health reform litigation. 6 Apr 2010.
IRS Rulings & Other Documents (2002-Current), Rev. Rul. 2010-13, Internal Revenue Service, (May 3, 2010) WK_ IRS Rulings Other Documents 2002-Current Rev Rul 2010-13 May 3, 2010.pdf ©2010 Wolters Kluwer.
Healthcare in Marketing (Lasik)
Lasik's Methods in Other Health Care Organizations
Customer profiling is a vastly unexplored marketing method in the health industry. While it has been used to target very specific markets, such as potential consumers of elective surgery, other markets have been largely neglected (arber 2001). The reasons for this are many, but mostly they include difficulties with medical data gathering, and legal issues regarding potential customer profiling.
Despite the above-mentioned difficulties, there are several organizations that can and do benefit from customer profiling. One such entity is the pharmaceutical industry (Winterhalter 2002). Here the customer being profiled is normally the health care professional, rather than the patient. y gathering geo-demographic data as well as customer loyalty information from a group of health professionals, pharmaceutical companies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of their marketing practices. This will further benefit not only the professionals, but also the healthcare consumer,…
Barber, F.A., R.K. Thomas, M. Huang. "Developing a profile of LASIK surgery customers." Marketing Health Services, Iss. 2, Vol 21. Chicago: Summer 2001.
Business Wire. "New Customer Wins Position Lawson as Dominant Enterprise E-business Solution Provider to Healthcare Industry." New Orleans, 2001.
Winterhalter, K. "Customer profiling in the healthcare industry." Weber Shandwick, 2002. http://www.browna2.fsnet.co.uk/PMLive/doctor_who_frame.htm
Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)
Work practice and administrative controls
Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…
Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf
Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.
Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.
Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.
Centralization and decentralization of HM
Centralized HM operations are conducted within the HM department and they assume that all employee related actions be implemented by the human resources specialists. Such an endeavor creates a context in which the human resource actions are taken in an objective and professional manner. Specifically, the decisions are made based on the organizational benefits and the technical considerations at an overall organizational level. In the case of decentralization nonetheless, the human resource decisions are taken in a less formal manner and they are influenced by personal bias of the medical staff conducting the interviews. The benefit is nevertheless that of the staff decisions being made not on grounds of organizational benefits, but on skills and abilities at a medical level.
A centralized human resource department then supports organizational gains and objectives, whereas a decentralized human resources act supports professional and medical benefits. It is expected…
Connor, E.T., Educational tort liability and malpractice, University of Iowa, http://www.uiowa.edu/~c07p134/tort.htm last accessed on March 3, 2011
Salvador, F.A., Which is better? Formal authority or informal authority? Entrepreneur, http://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/features/article/which-is-better-formal-authority-or-informal-authority last accessed on March 3, 2011
Website of Medicare, http://www.medicare.gov last accessed on March 3, 2011
Health Care Situation: Medical Error Due to Doctors' Bad Handwriting
Identify a health care news situation that affects a health care organization such as a hospital, clinic or insurance company.
I have identified the following health care news situation as the topic of my paper: "Poor Handwriting of Doctors and its implied risks for the Patient, Hospital and Medical Malpractice Insurance." Poor handwriting of physicians resulting in poor legibility of entries into patients' medical records carries very dramatic risks for all above-mentioned interest bearers. It can result in severe health danger for the patient and - in extreme situations - even cause a patient's death. Doctors' bad penmanship has long been seen a problem within organized medicine and the patient safety movement. Three American Medical Association (AMA) policies dating back to 1992, urge doctors to "improve the legibility of handwritten orders for medications" and review all orders for accuracy and…
Berwick, Donald M. & Winickoff, David E. (1996). The truth about doctors' handwriting: a prospective study. BMJ Vol. 313 (21-28 December 1996). 1657-1658. www.bmj.com/content/313/7072/1657.full, accessed 21 August 2011.
Bruner, Anne & Kasdan, Morton.L. Handwriting Errors: Harmful, Wasteful and Preventable.
1-4. www.kyma.org/uploads/file/.../Harmful_wasteful_and_preventable.pdfSimilar, accessed 22 August 2011.
Gallant, Al. (22 November 2009). For a secure electronic health record implementation, user authentication is key. 1-2). searchhealthit.techtarget.com/.../User-authentication-is-critical-for-pl.., accessed 24 August 2011.
Health Care Communication
Background- Within the modern nursing paradigm, there must be a clear link between a health outcome and the process that helps ensure those outcomes. Typically, outcomes are classified in terms of preventability, impact, severity and an overall holistic view of the client's safety issues. Positive behaviors that impact individuals either rescue or protect patients from potential or actual events. This is also part of the issue with modern communication and dissemination of information to patients, stakeholders, and the community (Burns and Grove, 2005).
At the heart of healthcare as an institution is, of course, the need to care for the sick and the injured. However, in the contemporary model of healthcare, effective communication during a crisis is not only important, but also vital. Communication by healthcare professionals takes the concern and worry out of the situation; offers a quicker resolution, makes better control of information possible, earns…
Alligood, et.al. (2002). Nursing Theorists and their Work. Philadelphia: Mosby.
Burns, N. And Grove, S. (2004). The Practice of Nursing Research. St. Louis:
D'Antonio, P., et al., eds., (2007). Nurses Work: Issues Across Time and Place. New York:
Health and Psychology
In the past, research findings have pointed out that illnesses are brought about by a constellation of factors. This effectively means that contrary to popular belief, no single factor can be said to cause illness and hence social, psychological and biological factors all have a role to play in relation to illness. It is on this realization that health psychology is founded. In this text, I concern myself on health and psychology.
The elationship between Health and Psychology
In basic terms, psychology concerns itself with mental processes and behavior. According to Pitts and Phillips (1998), health psychology addresses a number of questions regarding the link between health and psychology through identifying how health and illness relates to an individual's emotional psychological bases. In a large way, an individual's physical health remains intertwined (sometimes inexorably) with his or her mental state. Thus effectively, our vulnerability to ailments can…
Pitts, M. & Phillips, K. (1998). The Psychology of Health: An Introduction. Routledge
What is diversity?
Diversity refers to the differences that occur among people and groups which should be taken into account in the healthcare setting. In the healthcare environment diversity and the recognition of diversity is an extremely important concept as it deals with recognizing the needs and requirements of the individual, as well as the needs and requirements of different groups. Furthermore, diversity is seen in a positive light in the healthcare context, as understanding diversity means that the healthcare professional is in a better position to understand the needs of the patient and to improve the treatment of people from different groups or areas of society.
Discuss and give examples of how people are diverse.
People can be diverse in various ways. One could refer to gender differences, as well as cultural and ethnic diversities. Understanding these differences becomes important in dealing with specific…
Davidhizar, R., Dowd, S., Newman-Giger, J. ( 2008). Model for cultural diversity in the radiology department. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3387/is_n3_v68/ai_n28683141/
Day treatment programs can provide services at less cost because the patient goes home at night after being treated during the day, which often is used for rehabilitating chronically ill patients (Sharfstein, Stoline, & Koran, 1995, p. 249). The mere fact of having more choice benefits some patients by giving them more say in their care.
Patient-focused care involves a method for containing in-patient costs for hospitals and for improving quality by "restructuring services so that more of them take place on nursing units rather than in specialized units in other hospital locations, and by cross-training staff on the nursing units so that they can do several 'jobs' for the same small group of patients rather then one 'job' for a large number of patients" (Kovner, 1995, p. 186). Kovner notes a number of barriers to this type of care. One reason has been that hospitals have not had to…
Doctors Say Managed Care Strains Patient Relationships (1997, June 9). Westchester County Business Journal 36(23), p. 24.
Kovner, a.R. (1995). Hospitals. In Jonas's Health Care Delivery in the United States, a.R. Kovner (ed.), pp. 162-193. New York: springer Publishing.
Moore, G.T. (1991,
April 24). Let's provide primary care to all uninsured Americans ? now! JAMA, pp. 2108-2109.
Healthcare Budgetary Decision Making
With resources becoming increasingly limited in the healthcare industry, managers are continually challenged with devising effective strategies for dealing with budgetary concerns. The most prominent challenge comes in the form of decision making that results in striking a balance between cost reduction and the maintenance of high quality care and safety for patients. The following discussion outlines approaches that can be utilized by managers to effectively deal with budgetary concerns in healthcare settings, with an emphasis on the advantages of group decision making strategies.
It is evident that there is often a struggle in the healthcare industry for managers to continually and effectively manage depleting resources, address the ever-changing needs of patients, and all the while provide a high level of patient care (Sibbald et al., 2010). This struggle has at its core a need for improvement in regards to the processes in which priorities are…
Burleson, G. (1984). Management, budgeting and the use of resources -- a private sector review. Hospital and Health Services Review, 80(3), 124-5.
Sibbald, S.L., Gibson, J.L., Singer, P.A., Upshur, R., Martin, D.K. (2010). Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 131.
Xie, H., Chaussalet, T., Toffa, S., Crowther, P. (2005). A software tool to aid budget planning for long-term care at local authority level. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 114, 284-90.
Part D -- Both articles show us that reform is crucial to fixing the American health care system. ight now, it is buried under insurance monopolies, supply side dynamics and government institutions that fail to regulate, or compensate, for promised care. Using a model of externalities, the healthcare system should, in fact, result in a system in which pricing was not a motive for care, and would not require the consumer to hold the burden of propping up the system.
Part E -- Marginal means the margins of the existing state of the health care market; what cost or benefit that might change if the allocation of resources were to change. If one good or service, for instance, was changed then it would affect other units or services. The way that marginality focuses on health care benefits, for instance, is looking at the costs of preventative care vs. chronic or…
Cowen, T. Goodwin, (n.d.) Public Goods and Externalities. The Library of Economics
And Liberty. Retrieved from: e:/wcom [email protected] econ externalities
N., et al. (2007). Externalities. Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved from e:/wcom [email protected] econecon 04 microexternalities!encyc of earth.doc
S. health care market, and this is evident in the lack of coverage for money and the rapidly increasing coverage for those who have it. The article does touch on a key source of inefficiency beyond government regulation -- the opacity of the insurance and health care markets. The most efficient markets rely on perfect information -- or something close to it -- for their functioning. At present, the health care market is so opaque that few customers truly understand what they are paying for or even how much they are paying. The WSJ rightly supports the elements of the Bush plan that will improve public availability of market information, as this will increase efficiency -- in some cases significantly.
4. A marketizing measure would bring market principles into the market, or improve the quality of those principles in the existing market. This reform has only a handful of elements…
Nurses, who have first hand knowledge and understanding of how to live healthy and how to take proper care of themselves, are far better equipped to teach others about these concepts. Certain populations can benefit greatly from prevention, especially those who are prone to specific types of diseases or conditions.
One of the most common behaviors that leads to many chronic and often very damaging health conditions is smoking. Smoking can cause a multitude of diseases and conditions from emphysema to heart disease to lung cancer (Chapman, 2007). The list goes on and on. But smoking is 100% preventable and nurses need to understand not only how to treat these smoking-related diseases but how to more importantly discourage and prevent people from smoking in the first place. Many nurses agree that this behavior leads to many of the worst case scenarios for people with pre-existing chronic conditions. It is therefore…
Chapman, Simon. (2007). Public Health Advocacy and Tobacco Control: Making Smoking
History. Blackwell Publishing, New York, NY. Pp. 55-56.
Chung, Daniel C. (2008). "Stool DNA Testing and Colon Cancer Prevention: Another Step
Forward." Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 149, No. 7. pp. 509-510.
In the case of pill mills, participating physicians and pharmacists bill insurance companies or Medicare for prescription drugs, allowing participating beneficiaries to resell those drugs to criminal middlemen. The pharmacy then repurchases the drugs at a lower cost. According to the USGAO, any misuse of beneficiary identification information is a felony.
Criminals may also steal beneficiary information by creating drop boxes. The drop box scheme involves establishing a phony health care company in order to obtain insurance or Medicare payments. Like the drop box scheme, the pill mill scheme, and the rent-a-patient scheme, third-party billing also involves felony acts. Illegally obtaining beneficiary identification numbers, a criminal can use third-party billing agents to receive insurance payouts. The third-party billing company may not even be aware of the scheme. In other cases, the third-party billing company is a part of the scheme, defrauding by tacking on fraudulent claims to legitimate ones and…
Cornell University Law School. "Health Care Fraud." Retrieved Aug 7, 2008 from http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/healthcare_fraud
United States General Accounting Office (USGAO). "Health Care Fraud." Retrieved Aug 7, 2008 from http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:NcKXTYWPgDEJ:www.gao.gov/new.items/os00015t.pdf+health+care+fraud&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&client=firefox-a
Health and Social Sciences
Health, Well Being and Social Care in UK
Sociological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psychological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psycho-Social Needs of Service Users in UK
Health and Social Sciences
This report casts light upon the various aspects of physical and mental health of people living in United Kingdom. The selected sample chosen for this study belongs to the settings of people who do not belong to UK from their old generations and they are spending the lives of homelessness there. In other words, the paper is about physical and mental health of people who belong to other areas of the world but are settled in UK for education of job purpose. Since they are outsiders, they do not have permanent place to live in, they make temporal arrangements depending upon their requirements. Their priorities are different…
BBC News, 2011. Archbishop calls for NHS bill to cover spiritual health. [Online] Available at: < http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15570290 > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Department of Health, 2012. Public Health, adult social care and the NHS. [online] Available at: < http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/index.htm > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
International Health Insurance, 2012. 3 Easy Steps to Health Insurance. [Online] Available at: < http://www.international-health-insurance.com / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Men's Health News, 2012. The Hardest Workout You're not Doing. [online] Available at: < http://news.menshealth.com/the-hardest-workout-youre-not-doing/2012/02/10 / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
The relationship between the doctor and a possible patient is established when the physician asks the person for the first time as how he could be of possible help. This direct and simple enquiry is the beginning of the trust of the patient that has to be put in the physician for any treatment to proceed. The patient is in need of help at that time, and has to trust the professional for getting the help and the patients want to do it. They need a person to take care of them during their period of suffering from illness. This relationship between the patient and the physician in the financial sphere also involves the same amount of reliance, confidence and trust, as otherwise, not treatment can be undertaken. This makes it essential that the physicians clearly mention to the patients when there is any conflict of interest in…
"Changes in Health Care Financing and Organization: Deriving Best Practice Models for the U.S. Health Care Safety Net: A Cross-State Meta Analysis of Finance, Organization and Outcomes" Retrieved from http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:h3F83ojarhYJ:depts.washington.edu/eprc/areas/proposalnarrative%2520web.pdf+Changes+in+Health+Care+Financing+and+Organization+& ; hl=en Accessed on 7 June, 2005
'Health Administration Press" (March/April 2003) Journal of Health Care Management.
Volume 48, Number 2. Retrieved from http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:p36ZB3H0T4AJ:www.ache.org/pubs/jhm482.cfm+healthcare+finance+relationship+centered& ; hl=en Accessed on 7 June, 2005
"The Core Program: Trust and the Patient -- Professional Relationship" (September, 2000) The
ef: The Health Care bill signed by Andrew M. Cuomo -- Governor for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder
I wish to state that the legislation must have come in earlier than this. Autism is a condition that requires medication and care for children and the legislation passed by the Governor Albany, NY on November 1, 2011 requires that the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder be brought under the health care coverage. This is a laudable step in New York and it will be a blessing to such families with autistic children to afford the expensive health care costs. The law now makes it mandatory for the health insurance companies to provide coverage for treatment of autism spectrum disorders, and the companies however may resort to 'deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance consistent with those imposed on other benefits.' (Cuomo, 2011)
Discussing the law Governor Andrew M. Cuomo said that the…
Cuomo, Andrew M. (2011) "Governor Cuomo Signs Law to Expand Health Care
Coverage for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder"
Retrieved 12 November 2011 from http://www.governor.ny.gov/press/1112011Spectrum%20Disorder
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2011) "Insurance coverage for Autism"
Healthcare Reform Models
Health Care Reform Models
Shim and colleagues (2012) argue for taking advantage of provisions within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 that emphasizes preventive and integrated care. They propose that the primary care setting is ideal for screening patients for signs of mental illness and associated risk factors. A mental health wellness program could also include coaches and other experts that interface with patients on an individual basis, including at the patient's home.
Long-Term Behavioral Health Care
Bao and colleagues (2012) examined four patient populations defined by disease severity and ability to pay, and then assessed how these four groups will fare under the behavioral health provisions in the ACA. Patients with private insurance and suffering from mild to moderate mental illness will probably receive the best care at a Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH). The authors suggest that the presence of…
The government should provide health care, because the economic characteristics of health care make it ripe for abuse in a market environment. Government should provide as a service to its population those goods that, for one reason or another, are open for abuse in a normal market economy. Normally, the main condition is natural monopoly, which makes the case for government involvement in commodities like electricity, water, or policing. Health care is not a natural monopoly in that there can reasonably be a number of different providers, but it has other characteristics that make it a strong candidate for government intervention.
In even the freest capitalist economies, there are public goods that the government provides. The government provision of certain services is accepted by populations because the alternative -- total anarchy -- results is a severely degraded quality of life. No government services at all is a failed…
Besley and Gouveia write about different modes of health care provision. They discuss in particular some of the cost drivers in the American system, and evaluate some other systems in order to come to some conclusions about what other options exist. They note that insurance is a key issue for a private health care system, and because of this most countries opt for public health care systems, typically with mandatory insurance.
Gupta and Davoodi seek to understand how corruption affects the provision of government services, including health care. Unfortunately, their analysis has significant bias, as they begin with the assumption that government-run programs are inherently corrupt.
Transparency International is an organization that measures the level of government corruption in all the countries of the world. This source was required to examine the claims of Gupta and Davoodi. It was found that in the West there is very little government corruption. While the U.S. has more than most Western nations, it remains a spurious claim on the part of Gupta and Davoodi that corruption is inherent in government programs. Further, the line between corruption (accepting payment in return for favors) and capitalism (accepting payment to provide a service) is not explored.
Lloyd and Sreedhar wrote about Hobbes' moral and political philosophy. Hobbes' seminal discussion about the state of nature is relevant because societies have evolved different forms of governance specifically to avoid the state of nature; an argument that government should not be involved in health care must consider the implications of having such a weak government -- these range from the state of nature to poor health outcomes and quality of life measures.
These were categorized into three aspects, which the care provider could control for the benefit of the patients. These were satisfaction with the punctuality of the caregiver; the quality of interaction between the patient and the caregiver; and the overall dependability of health care. Promptness or punctuality with care or service was rated most highly by both groups. eing on time affected their functioning and comfort throughout the day, specifically with dressing, bathing and daily activities. Promptness was considered the easiest and most controllable aspect for the provider. The quality of interaction made the patients feel safe, respected and valued. And satisfaction with the overall dependability of health care mostly involved the caregiver's following through with the patient's suggestions, especially those by the more frail patients. This last aspect was also well within the control of the health care provider (Kolodonsky, et al.).#
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of…
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of U.S. elders do not have health insurance coverage -- not even Medicare (Online). American Academy of Family Physicians.
http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/media/releases/2004/uninsured-elders-4-1-04 (Accessed 18 August 2009).
Cummings, S.M.; Neff, J.A.; and Husaine, B.A. (2003), functional impairment as a predictor of depressive symptomatology: the role of race, religiosity and social support (Online). Health and Social Work, National Association of Social Workers. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb138/is_1_28/ai_n28983552 (Accessed 18 August 2009)
Kolodinsky, J.; Junghun, N.; Lee, J.K.; and Dorzewiczewski, M. (2001). Degree of frailty and elderly satisfaction with personal care services in a community setting (Online). Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, ProQuest Information and Learning Company. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5516/is_200101/ai_n21465985 . Accessed 18 August 2009).
Health Care Infrastructure
The Cooperative Health Care Clinic made by the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan is an illustration of a pioneering program for healthcare beneficiaries sponsored by a managed care plan. Under this program, the clinic employs a multidisciplinary team to extend care to groups of old aged patients who use the service more often than not and are laid up with chronic conditions. The alternative program comprises of medical care, patient education and health promotion. The measurement of result of the pilot study comprised contentment of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as also quality and cost of care. (Werner, 1997)
In spite of the achievement of several of the managed care program in taking care for healthcare beneficiaries, some researchers have noted that health plans "might at the maximum be hesitant" regarding investing in care for the patient who is ill for a long period of time.…
Garson, Arthur. (1998) "The U.S. Healthcare System 2010: Problems, Principles, and Potential Solutions" American College of Cardiology. Retrieved from http://www.bcm.edu/pa/speech.htm Accessed on 16 December, 2004
Werner, Michael J. (1997) "Adapting a Successful Program to Meet New Challenges" American College of Physicians. Public Policy Paper no 2.Retrieved from http://www.acponline.org/hpp/pospaper/medref.htm Accessed on 16 December, 2004
In the current era of managed care in medicine, physicians and other healthcare providers and institutions have been under tremendous pressure to reduce costs. In that regard, avoiding unnecessary hospitalization is one of the most important goals of lowering the costs of healthcare delivery (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004). Toward that end, diverse strategies have evolved to provide as many healthcare services as possible on an ambulatory basis.
Hospitals and insurance companies now encourage patients to participate in preventative medicine and routine testing intended to lower the costs associated with hospitalization over the long-term. The strategy is simply to reduce the incidence of serious illnesses, particularly those that typically develop over many years and which are capable of prevention through behavior modification and early detection through diagnostic testing (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004).
Because state and federal governments must absorb much of the costs of uncompensated medical services, the many administrative agencies…
References Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004) Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.) St. Louis: Mosby.
Many of the chapters relate to medical research as well as medical procedures, with the informed consent issue in particular affecting both human beings involved in medical research and those facing a medical crisis and wanting to now what their treatment will entail.
Throughout, the authors present ways of thinking about these ethical issues and also encourage medical personnel to consider these matters and to have a means for making decisions in mind at all times and to follow certain procedures in analyzing a situation and making a determination as to what behavior is acceptable and what is not. Some of the issues discussed are more controversial than others, with abortion being perhaps the most controversial and so the most in need of an ethical structure to decide between competing interests. The death and dying issue is another with two clear positions polarizing the argument and with a range of…
Garrett, Thomas M., Harold W. Baillie, and Rosellen M. Garrett.
Health Care Ethics: Principles and Problems. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2001.
The absence of illness does not thoroughly explain "Health", it can as well be described as wellness of the body and mind. More technically, health can be defined from two perspectives -- bodily and psychological health. A state of well-being due to regular exercises, adequate nutrition, sufficient rest, sensitivity to signs of sickness and when to seek help is referred to as Physical health. A person's fitness is showcased by his/her body make-up, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular stability, and adaptability. Mental wellness refers to psychological and emotional welfare.
As defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), mental health is "a state of wellness in which an individual discovers and harnesses his abilities, make headways regardless of stress encountered in life, can complete tasks adequately and profitably with substantial end product, and also contributes immensely to the uplift of his or her locality." (Nordqvist, 2015). A means of enabling people…
Boundless, 2016. Research Methods for Evaluating Treatment Efficacy - Boundless Open Textbook. Boundless. Available at: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/treating-psychological-disorders-19/introduction-to-the-treatment-of-psychological-disorders-99/research-methods-for-evaluating-treatment-efficacy-382-12917/ [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Brassai, L, Piko, B, & Steger, M 2011, 'Meaning in Life: Is It a Protective Factor for Adolescents' Psychological Health?', International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 1, p. 44, Advanced Placement Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Cuijpers, P. et al., 2014. EU-Compass for Action on Mental Health and Well-being. PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION AND PROMOTION OF RESILIENCE. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/mental_health/docs/ev_20161006_co03_en.pdf [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Gillham, J.E. et al., 2012. Preventing Depression in Early Adolescent Girls: The Penn Resiliency and Girls in Transition Programs. Handbook of Prevention and Intervention Programs for Adolescent Girls, pp.124 -- 161.