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Health Care Drivers for Increased
Words: 3735 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23797263
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097

United States

0.109

0.093808

0.036112

0.068

Utah

0.1071

0.1401

0.035696

0.073

Vermont

0.1326

0.0988

0.040851

0.114

Virgin Islands

NA

NA

NA

Virginia

0.1048

0.0829

0.080009

0.092

Washington

0.1229

0.0669

0.027831

0.068

West Virginia

0.1293

0.0774

0.036499

0.055

Wisconsin

0.0954

0.0357

0.032367

0.097

Wyoming

0.1251

0.1453

0.053867

0.075

Notes

All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.

Definitions

Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30.  for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.

Sources

Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).

From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…

References

Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.

Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.

Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].

Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.

Health Politics and Policy Matt
Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75272452
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The Obama administrate had just announced that they would be revoking federal funding for the Medicaid Women's Health Program amid a fight over several clinics that were affiliated to providers of abortion amshaw & Belluck, 2012()

Gov. Perry issues a letter to Thomas Suehs who is the head of the Texas Health and Human Services Commission directing him to work with the legislative leaders to identify potential sources of funds to keep the program afloat amshaw & Belluck, 2012()

The program itself costs around $40 million which is 90% covered by the federal government. Therefore this cut in budget would mean that the Texas state would need to find about $36 million to fund the program amshaw & Belluck, 2012()

Since the program provides care to about 130,000 low-income women all over the state, Gov. Perry felt that the program was extremely beneficial to the state and that is why…

References

http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/mead-state-must-keep-trying-health-care-reform-projects/article_5cd2a264-f221-509e-97fe-f0ecc5d91ef7.htmlBarron, J. (2012). Mead: State must keep trying health care reform projects Retrieved March 10th, 2012, from Ramshaw, E., & Belluck, P. (2012). Perry Pledges to Finance Texas Women's Health Program Retrieved March 10th, 2012, from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/09/us/perry-pledges-to-finance-texas-medicaid-womens-health-program.html?_r=1&emc=tnt&tntemail0=y

Health & Safety Plan for
Words: 1989 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 26774808
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Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)

Work practice and administrative controls

Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…

References

Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from  http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf 

Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.

Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.

Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.

Health Care Database Design and
Words: 1419 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22182467
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A patchwork of laws provided narrow privacy protections for selected health data and certain keepers of that data." (Administrative Simplification in the Health Care Industry) Therefore, new technologies such as relational databases have simplified the data gathering and maintenance processes of all types of healthcare related data like the physician information process. It is not unheard of today for healthcare and insurance providers matching or 'sinking data' on a monthly or quarterly basis because of the availability of better communication capabilities as well as compatible database comparison processes.

Even the doctors themselves have access to providers' systems and databases today. Through automatic telephone systems, business to business Internet portals, and tape or disk delivery processes, all of a physician's personal, office and patient information can be updated easily. In many cases, the entire process including security and confirmation is a completely hands free operation. In other words, without human intervention,…

Works Cited

Administrative Simplification in the Health Care Industry. Ed. HIPAA. Health and Human Services. 23 Oct. 2004 http://www.hipaa.com/.

HMO Patients Can Contact Their Doctors Electronically as Blue Shield of California Expands Online Communication Services. Ed. Unknown. October 29, 2003. Relay Health. 23 Oct. 2004  http://www.relayhealth.com/rh/general/news/newsRecent/news49.aspx .

Hoffer, Prescott, and McFadden. Modern Database Management. 7th ed. Add City: Add Publisher, Add Year.

Database

Healthcare - The Truth About
Words: 3685 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27551651
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The experiences of seniors within the healthcare delivery system will alter how all Americans view healthcare. The healthcare delivery systems and overall organizational structure in the United States has been slow to adjust but that rest of the world is currently in flux that will migrate into our system. Technological advances in communication have made telehealth and telemedicine vialbel solutions to our outdated healthcare industry orgainzational structre. While these types of advances are only in their infancy, "...there seemed to be broad acceptance that telehealth and telemedicine had provided positive benefits to the worlds healthcare delivery system." (Telehealth Applications) Our technoloically challenged seniors have actually discovered the trend within the healthcare system and telehealth and telemedicine seems to be an advance that will find worldwide support so we as a nation will be reqquired to jump on the bandwagon.

In conclusion, this article review focused on new Healthcare Delivery Systems…

References

Farnsworth, Chris. "The Truth About Fraud" Washington Monthly 01 May 1997.

Joshua-Amadi, Mabel. "Recommendations: A Study in Motivation: Recruitment and Retention in the NHS" Nursing Management. February (2003).

Soloye, Daniel J. "Privacy and Power: Computer Databases and Metaphors for Information Privacy" Stanford Law Review July (2001).

Telehealth Applications. (2004) "Current Telehealth Applications" Retrieved October 26, 2004, at  http://www.startegis.com/epic/internet/inict-tic.nsf/PrintableE/it07545e.html

Health Care A the Different
Words: 2409 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52518976
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Day treatment programs can provide services at less cost because the patient goes home at night after being treated during the day, which often is used for rehabilitating chronically ill patients (Sharfstein, Stoline, & Koran, 1995, p. 249). The mere fact of having more choice benefits some patients by giving them more say in their care.

Patient-focused care involves a method for containing in-patient costs for hospitals and for improving quality by "restructuring services so that more of them take place on nursing units rather than in specialized units in other hospital locations, and by cross-training staff on the nursing units so that they can do several 'jobs' for the same small group of patients rather then one 'job' for a large number of patients" (Kovner, 1995, p. 186). Kovner notes a number of barriers to this type of care. One reason has been that hospitals have not had to…

References

Doctors Say Managed Care Strains Patient Relationships (1997, June 9). Westchester County Business Journal 36(23), p. 24.

Kovner, a.R. (1995). Hospitals. In Jonas's Health Care Delivery in the United States, a.R. Kovner (ed.), pp. 162-193. New York: springer Publishing.

Moore, G.T. (1991,

April 24). Let's provide primary care to all uninsured Americans ? now! JAMA, pp. 2108-2109.

Healthcare System Management Is the
Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 71180711
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Based upon the fact the baby boomers are all approaching retirement age, it would be a good idea for the organization to pursue programs that are geared towards seniors. Programs that are geared towards seniors are a great way to produce quality comprehensive health care for those in the community that need it. The organization might pursue the idea of opening a PACE program. " The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is a capitated benefit authorized by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) that features a comprehensive service delivery system and integrated Medicare and Medicaid financing" (Program of All Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), 2009). The PACE program features complete medical and social services that rely on an interdisciplinary team approach in an adult day health center that includes in-home and referral services depending on the person's needs (Program of All Inclusive Care for the…

References

Baker, J. Judith & Baker, R.W. (2006). Healthcare Finance, Basic Tools for Nonfinancial

Managers. Maryland: Aspen Publications, Inc.

Bury, Elizabeth, Carter, Kara S., Feigelman, Masha and Grant, Jennifer M. (n.d.). Retrieved June

2, 2009, from Web site:

Health Care Bill Formulation Oral
Words: 3227 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15017313
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The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.

Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…

References

Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:

Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,

Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell.

Healthcare Disparity in Georgia
Words: 1488 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82886029
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Healthcare Disparity in Georgia

HIV infection continues to be a substantial trouble in Bibb County, Georgia. This illness substantially impacts lots of areas and Bibb County shares among the greatest HIV rates in America. One reason Bibb County deals with greater rates of infection is due to the high minority populace. Likewise, high levels of poverty and joblessness can make it tough for an individual to keep his/her health plan and access their primary-care service provider and acquire the required therapy for HIV. Social preconception likewise extends unfavorable mindsets of the community and can force the individual from looking for therapy or even testing for HIV.

The very best protection against HIV is enlightening the general public about the illness. outine testing for HIV is vital too. The first intervention would be to associate with a regional testing center and have the ability to check people as well as inform…

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). HIV / AIDS among youth. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 24, 2011, from  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/PDF/youth.pdf 

Hamilton, D. (2011). What constitutes best practice in healthcare design? The Health Environments Research and Design Journal 4(2), 121-126. Retrieved from  http://www.herdjournal.com/ME2/Default.asp 

Maurer, F.A., & Smith, C.M. (2009). Community/public health nursing practice: Health for families and populations (4th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders.

Bachanas, P., Morris, M., Lewis-Gess, J., Sarett-Cuasay, E., Flores, A., Sirl, K., et al. (2002). Psychological adjustment, substance use, HIV knowledge, and risky sexual behavior in at-risk minority females: developmental differences during adolescence. Journal Of Pediatric Psychology, 27(4), 373-384. Retrieved from MEDLINE with Full Text Database.

Health Immunizing Your Baby Protecting or Harming
Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99685893
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Health

Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?

Positives for Vaccinations

Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations

Negatives for Vaccinations

Ethical Issues

Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…

Works Cited

Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-

Specific

Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business

Source

Health Community Health Even Though
Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55407161
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As a group, the 3 groups in this study showed significant increases on both the school-level accountability indicators like performance and progress and the core content indicators like reading, math, and writing for the 3-year period. This was expected and likely due to the importance placed on academic reform throughout the entire state educational system. Holding time constant, the level of implementation was an important factor, particularly on the reading and math indicators. Schools implementing CSHP at a low level had a considerably lower proportion of students meeting both the reading and the math standards than schools implementing CSHP at a high level.

Interestingly, schools implementing CSHP at a low level also had a considerably lower proportion of students meeting both the reading and the mathematics standards than those schools not implementing CSHP at all. This finding was not surprising given that for academically struggling schools, upholding fidelity across multiple…

References

Rosas, S., Case, J., & Tholstrup, L. (2009). A Retrospective Examination of the Relationship

Between Implementation Quality of the Coordinated School Health Program Model

and School-Level Academic Indicators Over Time. Journal of School Health, 79(3),

Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients Probing What
Words: 3532 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69380077
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Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients

Probing what information is available about the current status of placement or accommodation and level of personal healthcare available to mentally impaired and emotionally disturbed individuals, it is clear that the analysis is as diverse as there are different mental illnesses. While statistics on managed care treatment for people with severe and disabling mental illnesses are sparse, it is evident that the financial responsibility to care for and house these patients is enormous.

According to Dr. David Satcher, the Surgeon General (1999), approximately 20% of the U.S. adult population has a mental illness. He says, "These illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, anorexia nervosa, and severe cognitive impairment. More serious mental illnesses include ipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mental illness accounts for 15% of overall burden of disease -- more than malignant cancer and respiratory diseases -- and as far back as 1996 the direct cost…

Bibliography

Boulard, G. (2000, April). Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill. State Legislatures, 26, 12. Retrieved February 13, 2004, from Questia database,  http://www.questia.com .

Callahan, D. (1993, October) Minds and hearts: priorities in mental health services.

The Hastings Center Report.

Fox, M. & Kim, K. (2004, January) Evaluating a Medicaid Home and Community-based Physical Disability Waiver. Family and Community Health. Vol 27: 37.

Health Culture & Globalization Health Culture and
Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47542333
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Health, Culture & Globalization

Health, Culture and Globalization

Culture plays an integral role in the lives of societies and individuals all over the world. Across countries and societies, different kinds of culture exist and govern the daily lives of people. Defined technically, culture is the system of beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that a specific group of people perceives and considers as their worldview. Countries have different cultures, and within each culture exists sub-cultures, created because of the diversity/differences existing from even the same group of people with the same nationality, race, or ethnic membership.

Culture inadvertently affects every aspect of an individual's life. Its influence could be as mundane as deciding what to wear and eat for the day, or as critical and important not only to the individual but also to the society, such as deciding who to vote for depending on the candidate's similarities in beliefs and…

References

Eckersley, R. (2007). "Culture, spirituality, religion and health: looking at the big picture." The Medical Journal of Australia, (186)10 Suppl.

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. Available at:  http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/ 

Huynen, M., P. Martens and H. Hilderink. (2005). "The health impacts of globalization: a conceptual framework." Globalization and Health, (1)14.

Healthcare as an Institution Is of Course
Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34774822
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healthcare as an institution is, of course, the need to care for the sick and the injured. However, in the contemporary model of healthcare, effective communication during a crisis is not only important, but also vital. Communication by healthcare professionals takes the concern and worry out of the situation; offers a quicker resolution, makes better control of information possible, earns the trust of the public and individual families; and keeps the flow of information consistent and accurate, thus averting potential external problems. Based on my current experience in the nursing field, I realize that to advance my professional goals, as well as contribute soundly to the profession, I must expand my educational experience and am therefore seeking entrance into the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) in Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing.

I believe I am well-qualified and motivated to undergo this program. Currently, I am a master's prepared Neonatal Nurse Practitioner…

Health Care and the Law - Are
Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43189183
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Health Care and the Law - re Preferred Drugs Lists Helpful or Harmful to Low-Income Patients?

Pear, Robert. (pril 6, 2004) "U.S. ppeals Court Backs State Efforts at Drug Cost Control." New York Times. rticle Retrieved at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/06/politics/06DRUG.html?pagewanted=print&position=

One of the most controversial issues today when questioning how the nation's health care system will deal with the spiraling cost of prescription drug care is how to manage the cost of prescription drugs within the Medicare system. The escalating cost of vitally necessary drugs has driven many otherwise law-abiding merican consumers to make use of the Internet, purchasing their drugs from dubious sources around the world -- or Canada, which has nationally controlled, subsidized health care, a system that both limits costs and care. However, low-income patients do not even have this recourse, and are at the mercy of their physicians, the legal system, and the pharmaceutical industry.

On Friday of…

Also significant was the fact that the drug companies bringing the suit "had argued that Michigan was improperly using the Medicaid program to benefit elderly people and pregnant women at the expense of Medicaid recipients." But the court decided the state was in its rights, noting that more resources will be available for existing Medicaid beneficiaries." (Pear, 2004)

Indeed, Janet Olszewski, director of the Michigan Department of Community Health said that by encouraging doctors to use the list of preferred drugs, the state had sharply reduced the growth of Medicaid drug spending. "In the three years before the program took effect, Ms. Olszewski said, that Michigan saw annual increases of 11% per prescription, "now it's just 4.2%." (Pear, 2004)

However, the director did not note if health care, in terms of quality, had been maintained or improved, amongst the pregnant or elderly or any of the individuals in question supposedly benefiting from the program. Cost alone was mentioned, quantified, and cheerfully reported.

Health Care Brochures
Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44054306
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Marketing Brochure

Human Resources as a ompetitive Advantage

(peachschools.org)

Five Keys to Developing Human Resources as a Source of ompetitive Advantage

Re-envision Human Resources from a personnel dept to a strategic planning function

Use HR to reach out to nursing and medical programs

Actively recruit new staff

Take active role in preparing new job descriptions

Promote internal candidates and retain top employees

Our people are our strength. To facilitate this strength, we need to have the best people possible. This means strengthening our recruiting processes to bring in the best, and then providing them with the type of environment that will ensure that they remain with the company for years to come.

Job Descriptions

Job descriptions are a critical success factor, because they define what jobs are done and who does them. This ensures that everything is done, and done well. We will always have the right people in place.…

Community outreach

Education and Focus are the Keys

Each year, there will be a different focus for the organization and its outreach events. In 2014, this will be nutrition for a healthier body and mind. In 2015, the theme will be exercise for a healthier body and mind. The theme for 2016 has not yet been announced yet. Last year's theme of Strategies for Aging Well resulted in record-breaking donations and awareness levels. With the tremendous success of these events in the past, it is expected that they will continue. These are also excellent fund-raising opportunities for the different charitable causes that the organization has worked with, and for gaining large-scale corporation donations to the effective running of Pleasant Manor. We are also actively involved in events that are run by our key corporate sponsors and are expecting to proceed with these in the future as well, since they provide mutual benefit with our suppliers and other key strategic partners.

Health Promotion and Primary Prevention
Words: 808 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30756030
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Community Teaching Proposal for Primary Prevention/Health Promotion

The objective of this study is to create a community teaching proposal for primary prevention and health promotion. The work of Kulbok, wet al (2012) reports that public health nursing practice is "population focused and requires unique knowledge, competencies, and skills." (p.1) Public health nursing makes the requirement of working with communities and populations "as equal partner and focusing on primary prevention and health promotion." (Kulbok, et al., 2012, p.1)

Community Teaching

Community teaching for primary prevention and health promotion involves educating community members about what is required to address primary prevention and promotion of health. This can be accomplished through community-wide meetings held at a central location in the community. As noted by Kulbok et al. (2012) "In the 21st century, public health nurses practice in diverse settings including, but not limited to, community nursing centers; home health agencies; housing developments; local…

References

Anderson, DR, et al. (2012) Primary Care Nursing Role and Care Coordination: An Observational Study of Nursing Work in a Community Health Center, The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17 No. 2. Retrieved from:  http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Primary-Care-Nursing-Role-and-Care-Coordination.html 

Connor, N. et al. (2012) Healthy People 2020 from Theory to Practice in a Nursing Program. The University of Central Florida. Retrieved from: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.aptrweb.org/resource/resmgr/tp2012_presentations/conner_aptr_tp12.pdf

Kulbock, PA, et al. (2012) Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17. No. 2. Retrieved from:  http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html

Health Care Reform
Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95131691
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American Health Care

After leading the world in the health of its citizens throughout most of the 20th century, the United States has fallen behind virtually all other wealthy nations in that regard, not to mention having fallen behind several nations that once relied substantially on U.S. aid (Dykman, 2008). While most of the developed world has already embraced the concept of universal government-funded national health care systems, the U.S. still relies on a for-profit model that has proven to be incapable of meeting the health care needs of society in any manner that is efficient, cost-effective, and equally available to all members of society. Even worse, the ongoing political influence of lobbyists for the for-profit health insurance industry continues to succeed in undermining meaningful health care reform (Kennedy, 2006), including by watering down the historic Affordable Care Act that eventually passed into law in 2009. Finally, the available evidence…

References

Dykman J. (2008). "Five truths about health care in America." Time, 172(22): 42-51.

Kennedy E. (2006). America: Back on Track. New York: Viking.

Reid T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin.

Tumulty K., Pickert K., and Park A. (2010). "America, the doctor will see you now."

Health Plans Saving Infants
Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17503767
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Infant Mortality

In today's day and age with the massive amount of resources to humanity, it is a wonder as to why infant mortality is still a problem. The impact of the healthcare system has made improvements in this area, but there are still issues that lack clarity. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the need for free basic health insurance for new born babies to prevent illness and suffering. This essay will first summarize the problem before offering solutions on how best to address the problem.

The Centers for Disease Conrol (CDC) defined infant mortality as "the death of an infant before his or her first birthday." In this first year of life, the child is especially vulnerable to the threats of his or her environment and the risk of an infant dying is especially strong. Through medical and social evolution, infant mortality has generally gone down…

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Public Health Approaches to Reducing U.S. Infant Mortality. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6231a3.htm 

Chapman, S. (2009). Health Care and Infant Mortality: The Real Story. Creators.com 2009.

Dizikes, P. (2014). How a health care plan quickly lowered infant mortality. MIT News, 30 April 2014. Retrieved from  http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/how-health-care-plan-quickly-lowered-infant-mortality-0430 

Morman, E. (2011). Infant Mortality in Detroit: Finding Solutions. Metro Parent, Oct 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.metroparent.com/Metro-Parent/October-2011/Infant-Mortality-in-Detroit-Finding-Solutions/

Health Bill
Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29213295
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NY Health

If passed, Bill No. A05389A would establish the New York Health program, which would be a comprehensive system of access to health insurance for residents of New York State. Among the elements of the bill are that it would create the administrative structure for the plan, determine the scope of benefits and the payment methodologies, and it would establish the New York Health Trust Fund, which would hold the monies used to finance the plan. A commission would be established in order to implement the plan, and the foundation for negotiations between New York Health and healthcare providers would be established (NYSA, 2014).

The bill creates a sweeping change in the health care system in New York, so it would affect nurses in a few different ways. At its heart, A05389A would affect the payer ecosystem, which is not directly related to nursing, but because it would allow…

References

Matthews, K., & Thompson, C. (2014). NY's poor gain from health insurance coverage. Washington Times. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from  http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/nov/22/nys-poor-gain-from-health-insurance-changes/ 

NYSA. (2014). A05389 Summary. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from  http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?bn=A05389 

NY Department of Labor. (2014). Long-term occupational employment projections. NY Department of Labor. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://www.labor.ny.gov/stats/demand.asp

Health Care Reform for Medicare
Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17860547
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Medicare Health Care eform

The Medicare is an American health program that is administered by the federal government and serves as a health insurance for people aged 65 years and above. The Medicare is also designed for people with disabilities and people diagnosed with the renal disease. (Davis, Cathy, & Stuart, 2013). The Medicare is currently being funded by the premiums, payroll tax, surtax from general revenue. In 2015, over 55 million American enrolled for the Medicare services where 46 million people are people aged 65 years and above and 9 million are young people. On the average, Medicare covers half of the health costs and the enrollees are to cover the remaining costs through a separate insurance, supplemental insurance, or out-of-pocket. Since the inception of the Medicare, the cost of funding the program continues to increase, and the rising costs of funding are becoming unbearable both for the current…

Reference

Blum, J. (2011). Improving Quality, Lowering Costs: The Role of Health Care Delivery System. Center for Medicare Management.

Davis, K. Cathy, S. & Stuart, G. (2013). Medicare Essential: An Option to Promote Better

Care and Curb Spending Growth, Health Affairs 32, no. 5: 901 -- 9.

Golberstein, E. Kayo, W. Yulei, H. et al. (2013). Supplemental Coverage Associated with More Rapid Spending Growth for Medicare Beneficiaries, Health Affairs, 32, no. 5. 873 -- 81.

Health and Disease in Russia
Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10891412
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Between 1995-2002, 99% of all births in ussia were attended by skilled health personnel, while the number of physicians per 100,000 people was 420 between 1990-2003, and the number of people with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs in 1999 was between 50-79% (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."

Nutrition, Water and Smoking

The United Nations reports that in 2000, 99% of ussia's population had "sustainable access to an improved water source. Between 1999-2001, 4% of the population was undernourished, while between 1995-2002 of all children under the age of 5, 3% were underweight and 13% were under height for their age group. From 1998-2002, 6% of all infants in ussia were born with low birth weight (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."

One of the leading, preventable health risks is smoking.

In 2000, 10% of all adult ussian women smoked, compared to 63% of all adult men (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)." This illustrates why men may be more likely to suffer from…

References

Lokshin, Michael M. And Ruslan Yemtsov. (26 February, 2001). "Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia." The World Bank

Group. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://econ.worldbank.org/working_papers/1417/).

UN Development Programme. (accessed 28 February 2005).  http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_RUS.html ).

WHO. (accessed 28 February 2005).  http://www.who.int/countries/rus/en/ ).

U S Health Legislation
Words: 1648 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30385008
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Health care reform is term used to refer to the creation of government health policy that impact the delivery of healthcare in the United States of America. Primarily, healthcare attempts to widen the population that gets healthcare through the two common insurance programs, public and private. It widens the horizon of care providers that the public can choose from. Healthcare also enhances the access to health care specialists, enhances quality of care as well as decreasing the cost of health care. Basically, Health care covers four basic functional components of the U.S. health care delivery system include financing, insurance, delivery, and quality care

Legislation for Health Care Finance

The name of the bill name is Medicaid evenue Act 2012 and number of legislation is IL S. 159. This bill was proposed by the Illinois Democratic Senator Antonio Munoz previously of General Assembly (93rd) and currently of the 1st District (…

Reference

Legislative Information System. (2012). Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from www.ilga.gov.

Michigan House Republicans. (2012). Michigan House Representative. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from http://www.gophouse.com/welcome.asp?District=088

National Conference of State Legislatures. (2012, September 25). Federal Health Reform: State Legislative Tracking Database. Retrieved October 2012, from www.ncsl.org.

Turner, G.-M. (2012, June 13 ). If ObamaCare Is Judged Unconstitutional, Here's How To Reform Healthcare. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from www.forbes.com.

Effects on Public Health of Health Care Reform
Words: 5200 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40260343
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Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States

Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.

The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…

References"

1)

Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from  http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm 

2)

How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from  http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html

Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and
Words: 2500 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72970397
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Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm

Patterns of health and illness

Physical Health

Mental Health

Spiritual Health

Social Health

Impact of Broader Environments

Natural

Built

Social

Economic

Political

Critical eflection

Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).

Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…

References

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.

Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.

Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.

Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.

Health Organization Case Study
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Health Organization Case Study

The mission of Banner Healthcare is to make a difference in the lives of people through excellent patient care. They achieve this by providing leadership for excellence in patient safety and clinical care. Traditionally, healthcare institutions focused on analyzing aggregate performance, questioning causation, monitoring scorecards and identifying gaps. Planning and managing stages at integral to the process of achieving Banner Healthcare's vision. Planning entails the development of standards, rules, and work teams necessary for the work. Concurrent management involves patient-oriented care and coordinated health care. Across the various work teams, care management efforts and the number of people are involved in making clinical improvements across the organization have been gradually increasing.

This occurs regardless of whether they are work groups, system wide teams, strategic initiatives, and special projects. The work is organized under functional teams. Besides the functional teams, initiative work groups and clinical consensus groups…

Reference

Wickramasinghe, N. & Sharma, S.K. (2010). Creating knowledge-based healthcare organizations. Hershey Penns: Idea Group Pub.

Health Structures in Government Levels Health at
Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 90642390
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Health Structures in Government Levels

Health at different Government Levels

Health Structures at Government Levels

Health at Government Levels

A national government has a task in ensuring quality health assurance standards across its region are up-to-date. Similarly, increased rates of unexpected epidemics have put governments under the surge of dealing accordingly with factors that can affect the nation directly and indirectly. Different governmental levels of health are identified and objectified in various agency websites. In this context, I have identified with a state level website; Illinois Public Health Institute website. Information presented to the website articles prioritizes in reducing and preventive, curative diseases, complementing health policies and championing for environmental changes.

Website Article eview

The Illinois Public Health institute articulates its review and implication to health quality through partnership programs. The website has supported state-oriented health involvement in ameliorating health levels, in Illinois. The institution has show-cased partnering programs with…

References

Baum, F and Kahssay, H.M. Health development structures: an untapped resource. World Health Organization. Vol 1 Issue 1. Pg 96-114.

Ladeia, M.L., Jacob, P., Borges, M.C., Rogero, M. M and Ferreira, S.R.G. (2011). Studies of Gene variants related to Inflammation, Oxidative, Stress, Dyslipidemia and Obesity: Implications for a nutrigenetic approach. Journal of Obesity. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-31.

5th March 2012. Illinois Public Health Institute. Retrieved from URL http://www.iphionline.org / Accessed on 27th March, 2012.

Health Care in the Wake on New
Words: 1147 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5433181
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Health Care

In the wake on new and very contentious health care reform, many firms have undergone extensive transformations. These transformations have been predicated on both cost control and quality management. In particular quality management has had a profound impact on the underlying business operations of many health care firms. For one, firms are now finding methods in which to enhance the overall patient experience while also mitigating potential loses due to negligent means. The focus on quality management has also made firms more efficient in regards to the overall delivery of service. In particular, my firm has done extensive work with reducing elderly accidents within the facility. This quality management initiative has not only reduced costs associated with accidents, but it also has enhanced the trust and patient experience of all stakeholders within the firm (Kelly, 2011).

Identify the milestone you chose in the history of quality improvement in…

References:

1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81

2) Kohn, L.T., Corrigan, J.M., & Donaldson, M.S. (Eds). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

3) Kelly, D.L. (2011). Applying quality management in healthcare: A systems approach (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press

4) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick A. (2009). "Chapter 1

Health Management Discussion Questions First Student the
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Health Management (Discussion questions)

First student

The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) is a law governing how and when patients may be denied treatment or moved from one hospital to another in cases of extreme medical conditions. EMTALA was legalized as a component of the 1986 consolidated budget reconciliation (ichards & athbun, 2009). Sometimes, it is known as the CONA law. This generalized name has generated other laws. A common provision under the COBA name is the statute that governs continuation of benefits derived from medical insurance after job termination. The principal provision of this statute is as follows:

Patients visiting the emergency unit seeking treatment or examination for medical conditions must be given the required medical screening diagnosis. This will be helpful in identifying if they are suffering from emergency medical conditions. In case they are, then hospitals are obliged to either furnish them with appropriate treatment…

References

Davis, N.A., & Cleverley, W.O. (2010). Essentials of health care finance: A workbook for health information managers. Chicago, Ill: American Health Information Management Association.

Ferenc, D.P. (2013). Understanding hospital billing and coding. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier.

Richards, E.P., & Rathbun, K.C. (2009). Medical care law. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.

Institute of Medicine (2013). Emergency medical services at the crossroads. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

Healthcare Occupational Safety and Health
Words: 1605 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44142264
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The penalties for being out of compliance when OSHA comes knocking should be enough to motivate any healthcare facility to devise a plan to make sure that they are in compliance with OSHA's regulations. The startling thing is that it took an initiative like NEP to wake these facilities up and get them thinking about being compliant. Since they deal with people and their well being on an everyday basis, these are things that they should have been doing all along and not just because there is an increased probability of getting into trouble by OSHA.

eferences

Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? etreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx

Healthcare workers. (2012). etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/

New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). etrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6EM

Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and esidential

Care Facilities. (2012). etrieved from http://www.hancocklaw.com/p/OSHA_Newsletter_212_May_H1768037.PDF

Prepare Your Facility…

References

Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? Retreived from  http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx 

Healthcare workers. (2012). Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/ 

New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). Retrieved from  http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6REM 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and Residential

Healthcare Reimbursement and Billing
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Health Care Reimbursement and Billing

Both Mrs. Zwick and Mr. Davis face significant issues in the presented scenarios. Mrs. Zwick has multiple considerations under Medicare Parts A, B and D, in addition to her hospital-acquired urinary tract infection. Meanwhile, Mr. Davis must address the severe time constraints and costs of COBRA in light of his job termination. These two scenarios underscore current difficulties and complexities of current health care in the United States.

Discussion of Mrs. Zwick's coverage under Medicare Parts A, B and C

Medicare Part A (often called "hospital insurance") (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011, p. 15) assists in covering inpatient hospitalization and skilled nursing facilities, hospice and home health care (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011, p. 14). There is usually no monthly premium if you and/or your spouse paid Medicare taxes while employed (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011,…

Ethical implications of Mrs. Zwick's incurring costs related to her hospital-acquired condition are applicable despite the rehabilitation facility's exemption from POA/HAC Medicare laws. Having no first-hand knowledge of the cause of the urinary tract infection, no clear indication that I work at the rehabilitation facility and neither the privilege nor the duty of diagnosis, it would be unethical for me to tell Mrs. Zwick about my suspicions. Rather, a nurse is required to maintain his/her professional boundaries (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 6). Simultaneously, a nurse is supposed to assure "responsible disclosure of errors" to patients and act to stop bad practices and promote best practices (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 6). Consequently, a nurse in my position faces a dilemma: lack of personal knowledge and authority vs. my concern for the patient's well-being and constant improvement of the profession. In the face of this dilemma, I would: contact the rehabilitation facility's newly-hired nurse and advise/remind him/her of the duty to report to the appropriate supervisor and responsible disclosure to Mrs. Zwick; contact Mrs. Zwick's personal physician and explain the entire situation; direct Mrs. Zwick to discuss her health issues with her personal physician, who can review, diagnose and discuss the ramifications of her medical records, including but not limited to the urinary tract infection (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 7). The desired outcomes would be: the rehabilitation center's absorption of Mrs. Zwick's costs related to her hospital-acquired infection through pressure exerted by its own nursing staff and Mrs. Zwick's personal physician; Mrs. Zwick's awareness of the true cause of her infection by health care providers who are directly responsible and capable.

Explain how the COBRA will allow Mr. Davis to continue his insurance coverage while he is out of work.

Due to Mr. Davis' termination from an employer of more than 20 employees, he can obtain coverage for himself, his spouse and his dependent children for up to 18 months (U.S. Department of Labor, 2012). In addition, due to his chronic cycle cell anemia, he may be entitled to an additional 11 months' extension for disability (U.S. Department of Labor, 2012). His employer is required to give a qualifying event notice to COBRA; then, COBRA sends a notice of the right to elect to continue coverage and an explanation of the steps that must be taken to continue coverage; Mr. Davis, his spouse and either or both of them in behalf of dependent children may elect for continuation of coverage

Health Care Reform Recommendations to
Words: 1761 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32743451
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On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program.

orks Cited

American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…

Works Cited

American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.

American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.

Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."

Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008  http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html .

Health Inequalities Several Factors Have
Words: 3135 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10387894
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ichard Mitchell and Professor Daniel Dorling from the University of Leeds and Dr. Mary Shaw from the University of Bristol on the parliamentary constituencies of Britain revealed a number of social policy scenarios. The study traced the impact of the variations to society that might be brought through the effective execution of three social and economic policies. Firstly, they examined the efficacy of the policy of modest redistribution of wealth to counteract the health inequalities. During the decades 1980s and 1990s there were a considerable variation in the wealth possessions of rich and poor reflected in the major variations in their health enumerated by mortality rates. The study revealed that by returning to the inequalities in wealth of 1983 about 7500 deaths annually could have been prevented. (educing health inequalities in Britain)

The study assessed the impact of such policy to be most effective in the Birmingham Ladywood constituency in…

References

Health inequalities kill thousands" (27 September, 1999) Retrieved at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/456807.stm . Accessed 3 September, 2005

Introduction to health inequalities" Retrieved at http://www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/HealthInequalities/HealthInequalitiesGeneralInformation/HealthInequalitiesGeneralArticle/fs/en-CONTENT_ID=4079644&chk=8WiiZg. Accessed 3 September, 2005

Link BG; Phelan JC. (May, 2005) "Fundamental Sources of Health Inequalities" Policy

Challenges in Modern Health Care. pp: 71-84. Retrieved at  http://www.rwjf.org/research/researchdetail.jsp?id=1944&ia=141 . Accessed 4 September, 2005

Healthcare Program Review Tactics
Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73321825
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Healthcare Plan eview

The author of this report is to answer three general questions relating to healthcare program evaluation. The first question asks the author of this report to examine the overall purpose of healthcare program evaluation. The second question asks the author to identify at least five different types of common healthcare program evaluation techniques. Finally, one of those methods in particular will be selected and there will be a drilling down into more detail on that single type. While the purpose and method of operations is quite similar with all program evaluation types, there are some subtle to major differences from type to type.

At its core, the purpose of healthcare program evaluation is to analyze and improve the operations and performance of a healthcare program based on a systematic and full review of what is going right, what is going wrong and what needs to be changed.…

References

Fink, A. (1992, October 15). Formats:. National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Retrieved September 16, 2014, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ 

PMC1336469/?page=1

MUSC. (2014, September 16). Program Evaluation 101. Program Evaluation 101. Retrieved

Healthcare Issue in Culturally Diverse Situation
Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90191911
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Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA

County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).

The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…

REFERENCES

County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&

Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA:  http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm 

Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State:  http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704 

Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA:  http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill

Healthcare Partnership in the Community Discuss an
Words: 1099 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9191466
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Healthcare Partnership in the Community

Discuss an example of healthcare partnership in your community and specifically cite examples that show how nurses, both individually and collectively, influenced the care provided. What obstacles were confronted and what strategies were employed in order to effectively overcome them.

One community healthcare partnership that is salient in my mind is Texas Department of State Health Services' program on tuberculosis or TB. This group of projects is specifically handled by the Office of Border Health, specifically because communicable diseases transmitted over the Texas-Mexico border will inadvertently affect the state of community health of both countries (i.e., the U.S. And Mexico). Under the program, two projects have been successful and known for its accomplishment in helping decrease TB prevalence in communities near the Texas-Mexico border: Proyecto Juntos and TBNet.

Proyecto Juntos specifically centers on "bilateral TB control," centering its efforts to curbing TB prevalence by monitoring…

References

Texas Department of Health Services, Office of Border Health. Available at:  http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/borderhealth/ 

Texas Organization of Nurse Executives. Available at: http://www.texasnurse.org/

Health Care Legislative Bill
Words: 1387 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5151645
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Healthcare Legislative Bill

The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts

The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).

With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, (2010), Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations

The American Journal of Medical Practices, (2011), The Impact of single-payer Medicare

Program, New York

Health Prevention Programs
Words: 2666 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64756401
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Health Promotion Lesson Plan

The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.

Prevention has become a major issue…

References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web.  http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html

Healthcare the Role of the
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1213888
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Centralization and decentralization of HM

Centralized HM operations are conducted within the HM department and they assume that all employee related actions be implemented by the human resources specialists. Such an endeavor creates a context in which the human resource actions are taken in an objective and professional manner. Specifically, the decisions are made based on the organizational benefits and the technical considerations at an overall organizational level. In the case of decentralization nonetheless, the human resource decisions are taken in a less formal manner and they are influenced by personal bias of the medical staff conducting the interviews. The benefit is nevertheless that of the staff decisions being made not on grounds of organizational benefits, but on skills and abilities at a medical level.

A centralized human resource department then supports organizational gains and objectives, whereas a decentralized human resources act supports professional and medical benefits. It is expected…

References:

Connor, E.T., Educational tort liability and malpractice, University of Iowa,  http://www.uiowa.edu/~c07p134/tort.htm  last accessed on March 3, 2011

Salvador, F.A., Which is better? Formal authority or informal authority? Entrepreneur, http://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/features/article/which-is-better-formal-authority-or-informal-authority last accessed on March 3, 2011

Website of Medicare,  http://www.medicare.gov  last accessed on March 3, 2011

Health Care -- a Right
Words: 2910 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4306884
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However, they contradict themselves trough supporting one's right to commit physician-assisted suicide, since this would virtually mean that the individual who is no longer willing to live is not provided with health care meant to prevent him or her from dying (Epstein, 1999, p. 1).

Among those opposed to the fact that health care is becoming increasingly better are those who are in their twenties and are obliged to work hard in order to pay for their own medical insurance and for that of the underprivileged (Bonner, 2010).

Contemporary health care is basically provided by groups forced to pay taxes in order for others to benefit out of the process. The fact that health care is a privilege and not a right was made obvious ever since the 1954 foundation of the Department of Health, Education, and elfare. The name contained the term welfare with the intention of highlighting how…

Works cited:

Bloche, M.G. ed., The Privatization of Health Care Reform: Legal and Regulatory Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Epstein, R.A. Mortal Peril: Our Inalienable Right to Health Care? (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1999)

Heirich, M. Rethinking Health Care: Innovation and Change in America (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998)

Sanders, B. (2009). Retrieved from the Huffington Post Website:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rep-bernie-sanders/health-care-is-a-right-no_b_212770.html

Healthcare Spending by the New York State
Words: 3674 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 191982
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Healthcare spending by the New York State persistently surpasses its earnings. That difference continues to be expanding and is also anticipated to broaden unless of course there happen to be severe, continuous modifications in spending budget actions. Lieutenant Governor ichard avitch, in "A 5-Year Strategy to Deal with the State of New York's Spending budget Deficit" released during March 2010, approximated this structural disproportion within the state's spending budget to become no less than $13 billion. The structural inequality isn't simply the consequence of the economic downturn that started during 2007, and a commonly strengthening economic climate is not going to get rid of it.

To help the State of New York in providing the solutions and dedication to quality that its residents rely on, structural modifications are needed. The aim of this paper is actually to summarize one particular realignment - solving an outright inequity involving the state as…

References

California Public Employees' Retirement System, "Facts at a Glance: Health," September 2010,  http://www.calpers.ca.gov/eip-docs/about/facts/health.pdf .

Citizens Budget Commission, Out of Balance: A Comparison of Public and Private Employee Health Benefits in New York City, December 2009,  http://www.cbcny.org/sites/default/files/REPORT_Survey_12162009.pdf .

City of New York Office of Labor Relations, "New York City Summary Program Description, Health Benefit Program," 2010, http://www.nyc.gov/html/olr/downloads/pdf/healthb/full_spd.pdf.

Government Finance Officers Association, "Recommended Practices, Health Care Cost Containment 2004,"  http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/corbaHealthCareCostContainment.pdf  .

Healthcare Debate Summer '09 The
Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9493851
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Others believed that cost control would become a matter for distant and impersonal government boards, with a direct effect on care, and that the reduced competition brought about by the federal government's entrance into the insurance market in any form would simply lead to rising healthcare costs without any real control or oversight. These two pictures of dire futures brought about by the healthcare bill seem to be mutually exclusive, with one predicting uncontrolled expenses and the other control so tight that care is potentially denied for expense reasons alone, but both were a part of the argument against the national healthcare bill.

Oversight

There has also been considerable debate regarding exactly who will be overseeing the program. There was considerable talk of "death panels," a deliberately fear-invoking image of a bunch of suit-wearing individuals determining when it was time for a person to die rather than continue to receive…

Another hugely contentious issue in the healthcare debate that raged in the summer of 2009 was the control of the expenses of the program, and how that would be related to the care received and the cost of that care (and the insurance to begin with) to the average taxpayer. On one side, many politicians and advocates stressed that even a single-payer system wouldn't mean that a government bureaucrat would decide care based on a need to control expenses; the programs overseers would assess the costs of providing healthcare and adjust spending and rates accordingly, just as occurs in the private insurance and medical services industries. Others believed that cost control would become a matter for distant and impersonal government boards, with a direct effect on care, and that the reduced competition brought about by the federal government's entrance into the insurance market in any form would simply lead to rising healthcare costs without any real control or oversight. These two pictures of dire futures brought about by the healthcare bill seem to be mutually exclusive, with one predicting uncontrolled expenses and the other control so tight that care is potentially denied for expense reasons alone, but both were a part of the argument against the national healthcare bill.

Oversight

There has also been considerable debate regarding exactly who will be overseeing the program. There was considerable talk of "death panels," a deliberately fear-invoking image of a bunch of suit-wearing individuals determining when it was time for a person to die rather than continue to receive expensive medical care. The thought of panels of government bureaucrats overseeing every aspect of care, including end-of-life care, was horrific to many people, and a major source of anger and opposition to the bill. Proponents of the bill, however, insisted that the doctor and patient would still determine health care plans, and that the government's role would purely be in ensuring adequate funding in order to cover the vast majority of currently uninsured Americans. The reconciliation of these two views is still long in coming.

Health Care Financing Issue Analysis
Words: 2286 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89271788
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While the study had a number of scientific limitations; the two most significant were: 1) although the response rate of interns that volunteered to participate was 80%, those that did participate may not have been representative; and 2) the case-crossover analysis cannot account for the contribution of within-person factors that may have been co-variables with exposure status.

Evaluation

As a result of the related research, hospitals will be using medical resident interns as a means of making up for the lack of doctors caused by financing concerns. The redistribution of medical interns was expected to be completed before the next residency training year starts July 1, 2005, however, it remains currently underway. The Association of American Medical Colleges has stated that the health care system would be better off if the cap were lifted so hospitals could respond to the needs of their communities, such as adding a new cardiology…

Bibliography

Barger, L., Cade, E., Ayas, N., Cronin, J., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. & Czeisler, C. (2005).

Extended Work Shifts and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes among Interns. NEJM

Cauchon, D. (2004). Medical Miscalculation Creates Doctor Shortage. USA Today,

Croasdale, M. (2004). Residency Slots Reallocated to Relieve Doctor Shortages.

Health Care Program Past Current Future
Words: 2421 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52306007
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Health Care Past, Current, And Future

The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.

Past Health Care Services -- Early America

Health care in colonial…

Works Cited

Daly, John. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York:

Springer Publishing Company.

Gorsky, Martin. (2010). Good Health for America? History Today, 60(2), 1-6.

McCarthy, Robert L., and Schafermeyer, Kenneth W. (2007). Introduction to Health Care

Health Qs Massachusetts Cost Limiting Proposal One
Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34567608
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Health Qs

Massachusetts Cost Limiting Proposal

One of the major problems of the current healthcare system implemented by the State of Massachusetts is the cost of maintaining the program and providing the necessary healthcare to Massachusetts' citizens dependent on the state insurance program. Ideally, of course, the program would be paid for via the revenues generated form business contributions, premium payments into the state system, and general tax funding. Revenue can only make up half of the solution for paying for the system, however; costs must also be effectively managed and strictly limited if the program is to be successful in the long-term. One proposal for limiting these costs is switching from a reimbursement-for-services model of physician payment to the creation of performance-based salaries or regular payments.

There are several features of moving to a pay-for-performance rather than a pay-for-service model that have the potential to yield significant savings. As…

Healthcare Integrity Is a Major Issue for
Words: 1315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2662441
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Healthcare

Integrity is a major issue for healthcare organizations because there are many avenues for fraud, and for people to demonstrate a lack of ethics. The problem is that the temptation is sometimes too great and despite the fact that there are laws in place to guard against these practices unethical behavior takes place anyway. The government, which supplies a lot of the money which goes for treatments through Medicare and Medicaid, has structured certain laws to make sure that the practices of healthcare organizations are ethical, but billions of dollars in fines are still doled out every year. The big drug companies complain of arcane and hard to decipher legalese, but the fact is that although they realize the issue and the penalty they continue to subvert the law. This paper looks at qui tam statutes and cases, Medicare and Medicaid admissions criteria, installing a corporate integrity program, and…

References

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA). (2010). Summary of self- referral and anti-kickback regulations. Retrieved from  http://www.asha.org/practice/reimbursement/medicare/regulations_sum.htm 

Hanford, J.T. (2001). Regulation of the healthcare professions. Ethics & Medicine, 17(3), 188-190.

Louthian Law Firm. (2012). Healthcare fraud qui tam whistleblower protection lawsuits.

Mattie, A. & Ben-Chitrit, R. (2009) The federal False Claims Act and qui tam actions: What every healthcare manager should know. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 12(2), 49-65.

Healthcare in the United States Where We
Words: 2445 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5665201
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Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going

The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.

Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…

Reference List

Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.

Healthcare Lobbyists Drugmakers Hospitals and
Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91197596
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Each of these was included in the initial Senate bill, but was struck from the final Senate version. Despite the victories, the group isn't ready to pledge support for health reform bills. The AMA will not endorse any legislation unless Congress gets rid of the mandated payment cuts of more than $200 billion over 10 years in the government's Medicare program for the elderly. The cuts are part of Congressional action that was passed in 1997 in order to cut costs in the Medicare program, but have never gone into effect. There are also several hospitals, insurers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and advocacy groups that are withholding final support. Most of these groups have pledged support to health care reform in principle while working privately through lobbyists to protect their industries (Eaton and Pell, 2010).

Healthcare lobbyists range from very large companies and corporations to very small groups who are all looking…

References

BREAKING: Health care lobby invests in reform summit. (2010). Retrieved March 1, 2010, from Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington Web site:

 http://www.citizensforethics.org/node/44211 

Eaton, Joe and Pell, M.B. (2010). Lobbyists Swarm Capitol to Influence Health Reform.

Retrieved March 1, 2010, from the Center for Public Integrity Web site:

Healthcare and the Uninsured According
Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 91952671
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Polls examining public support of the bill and specifically the public healthcare option vary significantly. ith regard to physicians, the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed over six thousand medical doctors and found there was a majority in favor of federally provided public healthcare insurance (Keyhani & Federman). Other polls have suggested an opposition to the public option (Marmor).

The public option would provide an affordable alternative to the current private health insurance options and would provide impetus for competition and positive change. hether "America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009" will be passed is currently uncertain. hat is certain is that the healthcare and health insurance system is currently not sufficient to provide healthcare support for nearly 48 million uninsured Americans. Alterations need to be made to increase access and affordability for those individuals who desire health insurance.

Conclusion

The healthcare and health insurance system in the United States…

Works Cited

Harrington, Charlene, Carroll L. Estes, and Cassandra Crawford. Health policy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2004.

Keyhani, Salomeh, and Alex Federman. "Doctors on Coverage -- Physicians' Views on a New Public Insurance Option and Medicare Expansion." N. Engl J. Med 361.14 (2009): e24.

Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The healthcare fix. MIT Press, 2007.

Marmor, T. "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." 7 Apr 2009. 1 Nov 2009 .

Healthcare Assessing the Effect of
Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82305509
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Through the use of statistical modeling the researcher was able to arrive at the validation of their hypothesis.

Assessment of esearch Findings

Based on the results of the statistical modeling used in conjunction with the Household Component of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data set, it was found that tax subsidies do not have a differentially large or targeted effect on the prevalence of high burdens (Selden, 2008). Selden (2008) defines burdens as cash and wage equivalents of employer premium contributions. The results show that tax subsidies assist those above the poverty line more than those below it. The study is concluded prior to explaining why this is so, yet the author contends there are many other factors in addition to tax-based subsidies that have an impact on those below the poverty line being able to afford medical care even with tax-based subsidies.

Analysis

This research study shows that at…

References

Selden, T. (2008). The effect of tax subsidies on high health care expenditure burdens in the United States. International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, 8(3), 209-23.

Health Threats in Turkey One
Words: 1390 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93689756
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" ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) Other messages of the campaign were to stress the need to avoid high risk pregnancy, prior to age 18 or after age 35 and to stagger pregnancies by two years to help the maternal body recover and be strong enough to care for the developing infant and go through labor successfully. The campaign, promoting these ideas states that it has been successful in reaching its goals, and has currently reached 66% of the population in the regions where the campaign was launched. ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) There is not mention as to whether the campaign will end, or be expanded to a broader audience in Turkey.

Turkey's example program could serve as a template for other health issues that need to be expressed to the public in Turkey and in other nations with challenged health care delivery infrastructures and limited public knowledge of…

Works Cited

Brennan, Teresa. Globalization and Its Terrors. London: Routledge, 2003.

Kaul, Chandrika, and Valerie Tomaselli-Moschovitis, eds. Statistical Handbook on Poverty in the Developing World. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.

Weiker, Walter F. The Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981.

E-Health Project in Turkey" International Telecommunications Network Website Retrieved November 15, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/e-strategies/e-applications/Turkey_E-health/index.html

Healthcare Hadley Jack John Holahan Teresa Coughlin
Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27285173
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Healthcare

Hadley, Jack, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, & Dawn Miller. (2008). Covering the uninsured in 2008: Current costs, sources of payment, and incremental costs. Health Affairs, Web

Exclusive, 399-415.

According to Hadley (et al. 2008), "the cost of expanding coverage to the 16% of Americans who are uninsured would add 5% to national health spending" (Hadley 2008: 399). This cost is considerable, yet the cost of allowing the status quo to remain is far greater. In the article, "Covering the uninsured" the authors use quantitative analysis to determine how much care uninsured persons currently receive, how much of it remains uncompensated because of an inability to pay, and how much more coverage would be consumed if all Americans did have health insurance (Hadley 2008: 399). Their data encompasses interviews of 102,000 people who were part of the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys; data from government budgets and health care providers; surveys…

Reference

Hadley, Jack, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, & Dawn Miller. (2008). Covering the uninsured in 2008: Current costs, sources of payment, and incremental costs. Health Affairs, Web

Exclusive, 399-415.

Health Care Strategic Management
Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87390397
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Healthcare Strategic Management

In healthcare programs, I would like to implement a free healthcare service to poor people at least once a week. This is to provide assistance to those who are not blessed enough to fund their health checkups and care. Even if this program will not show profit, I believe that providing the needy with the health service that they need can help in the maintainance of good health to all people.

The poor health of people that I see in many countries, specifically in African nations, as well as those in the different communites in the U.S. particularly in the slam areas, has triggered me with the plan of providing free health services to the needy. I have the idea that if they cannot maintain a good living for themselves, at least helping them monitor and check their health status can lessen their burdens in life. In…

Bibliography

What Benefits Will I Get?

MassResources Online.

http://www.massresources.org/pages.cfm?contentID=50& pageID=13& subpages=yes& dynamicID=695#benefits

Healthcare Policies
Words: 1952 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86833684
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Health Policies Medicare

hen everyone in our country finally starts to reach the age of 65 years of age or older, then every person will become eligible for Medicare. It is clear that there are some elderly that are having minimum health concerns while others recurrently are dealing with medical issues for which they will have to seek out treatment by the doctor. However, research is starting to display that there are at least five top conditions that are enhancing on medical and drug spending. It is obvious that Heart disease circumstances are the number one medical issue that the those that are considered elderly are facing and that is becoming very costly to them. Most are unaware that the second one is the disease cancer and it could be internal or external for various elderly patients. Other issues such as joint ailments a lot of the times can cost…

Work Cited:

Wenzlow, Audra T., et al. "Effects of a Discharge Planning Program on Medicaid Coverage of State Prisoners with Serious Mental Illness." Psychiatric Services 62.1 (2011): 73-8.

Sommers, Benjamin D. "Loss of Health Insurance among Non-Elderly Adults in Medicaid." Journal of General Internal Medicine 24.1 (2009): 1-7.

Verdier, James, and Allison Barrett. "How Medicaid Agencies Administer Mental Health Services: Results from a 50-State Survey." Psychiatric Services 59.10 (2008): 1203-6.

Harman, Jeffrey S., Allyson G. Hall, and Jianyi Zhang. "Changes in Health Care use and Costs After a Break in Medicaid Coverage among Persons with Depression." Psychiatric Services 58.1 (2007): 49-54.

Health Care Debate Over the
Words: 1442 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17337115
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At which point, the overall costs of care will be passed on to the tax payer in the form of higher taxes. This leads to a decrease in the overall quality of care and it will not slow the price increases, as the government seeks to restrict access to these services. Then, when the program becomes broken (such as: what is happening to Social Security) removing or reforming the bureaucracy is nearly impossible. (Messerili, 2010)

A second argument that many critics make about universal health care is: it will stifle innovation. Whenever, the government is running any kind of program, they will place a large number of restrictions and regulations on the industry. When this takes place, you are causing some of the best and brightest minds to seek careers in other fields, as the restrictions from the government are too cumbersome. A good example of this would be: the…

Bibliography

Trends in Health Care Costs and Spending. (2006). Retrieved March 13, 2010 from Kaiser Foundation website:

 http://www.kff.org/insurance/upload/7692_02.pdf 

Andersen, R. (2007). Changing the U.S. Health Care System. Washington D.C: National Academy Press.

Gratzer, D. (2002). Better Medicine. Toronto, on: ECW Press.