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Primarily, he is remembered for the contributions he made in the area of microeconomics (Simon, 1978). He created organizational decision-making, which was very significant, and the ideas that he came up with in that area are still known and accepted today. Uncertainty in this particular area was another one of the concepts that Simon introduced and that is still important today (Simon, 1991). Most of the works that he wrote concerned themselves with decision-making, and he expended on this concept and worked with it for most of his life. It was so important for him that he revisited it in many different ways throughout his life and the books and articles that he wrote.
Henri Fayol (n.d.) Retrieved at http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/fayol.htm.
Simon, H. (1991). "Organizations and markets." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(2), 28.
Simon, H. (1978). Autobiography. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved at http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1978/simon-autobio.html
Simon, H. (1997). Administrative behavior, 4th edition. New York:…… [Read More]
Discipline was to be secured through good superior, clean, and fair agreements and judiciously applied sanctions. Sanctions included remonstrances, warnings, fines, suspensions, demotions, and dismissals (Parker & Lewis, 1995, p.219)
esearch has been done to show the significance of long-rang planning practices in the food, chemical, oil, steel, machinery, electronics, and retail segments of U.S. industry (ue, 1973, p.23). Variations of Fayol's theory provide the curriculum framework for most collegiate business schools (Carter, 2001, p.454). Carter (2001) reported that Fayol's attempts to specify how the nature of managerial work varies across hierarchical levels of the organization are still being perused (Carter).Berdayes (2002) stressed the usefulness of the rationalization of work processes and organizational structures, with an emphasis on elaborating a clear, hierarchical division of labor, as well as clear " lines of command."
Fayol's theory of management is relevant to today's manager by expressing the need for long-range planning (ue,…… [Read More]
Delegation of duties is an important element of any successful management program. The ability to effectively delegate responsibilities focuses on the strengths of each team member and allows them to handle the areas that they have strengths in.
In the field of electronic engineering this can include assigning different steps of the process to different engineers or engineering assistants.
In addition to delegating the things that need to be done to complete the job it is important to have check points to know that the various delegated assignments are being completed on time.
Coordinating is the fourth step in the process that Fayol developed. Coordinating has to do with making sure there is consistency throughout the company for each project. In the field of engineering this means understanding the project at hand, what will be needed to complete that project, the time line that the project needs to follow and…… [Read More]
This is also conducive, the realization of a 'higher' but clear objective in the command of someone with clear accountability to keep about company order, or principle ten. For social order to prevail there must be an appointed place for every employee and every employee must be in his appointed place.
Ethical violations are interesting to compare in light of the previous questions principle of eleven, of equity. For all personnel to be encouraged to carry out their duties with devotion and loyalty to the organization and its ideals and specific goals, people must be treated with kindliness. A sense of equity results from combination of kindness and justice. Equity excludes neither "forcefulness nor sternness," merely fairness. This can be seen with a common organizational problem of 'time theft' where individuals use work hours for personal matters without making note of this on their time sheets. If the management…… [Read More]
Taylor had faith that the best man for the job is to be chosen. He is required to possess the physical and intellectual qualities to attain the required output. However, it was up to the management to make it sure that the right people were chosen and trained. This forms the foundation for the quality circles.
Operatives congregate to deliberate on work related difficulties, prove into the reasons and solutions and take appropriate action. However, for this to work effectively, the involved operatives must be trained. Third one is to bring together the science of work and scientifically chosen and skilled personnel. The students are to visualize an anticipation of MacGregor here. What Taylor was actually, anxious to eliminate was the managerial mental block. Management, he discovered opposed his philosophy due to the fact that they visualize higher hourly rates of pay. What they did not visualize was the potential…… [Read More]
External environment plays a key role in the manager's roles. Different factors in the external environment create opportunity and present threats to which the organization needs to respond. It is important for managers to conduct an environmental scan in order to better understand the environment in which they operate. Juervicius (2013) explains one system, the PESTLE system, which forces managers to think about the different external factors that affect their business.
The PESTEL model features an analysis of the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal environments. For the manager, each of these provides the framework for analyzing the operating environment. These factors are all significant, and unrelated to other external factors like competition and demand drivers. For example, where there is political risk (like a government shutdown), the manager can better understand this risk by working through the PESTEL framework. The economy is a critical input, and technological changes…… [Read More]
Effective Communication in the Age of Technology: The Importance of Oral Communication in the Business Environment
The role that communication plays in the business environment is vital, since it keeps an organization knowledgeable about each member and/or department's activities and accomplishments. Furthermore, it allows members to become aware of other members of the company, although interaction may not be possible for all members and the organization's departments. Indeed, Henri Fayol has elucidated on the important function of communication in business: "In dealing with a business matter or giving an order which requires explanation to complete it, usually it is simpler and quicker to do so verbally than in writing. Besides, it is well-known that differences and misunderstandings which a conversation could clear up grow more bitter in writing. Thence it follows that, whenever possible, contacts should be verbal; there is a gain in speed, clarity and harmony."
In the…… [Read More]
Skills and Functions for Management
For a manager to succeed in his or her job role they must blend complex managerial skills and functions with the managerial role. This paper will discuss the development of the management role, the definition of management, management functions and roles to help the reader discern how combining the functions, skills and behaviors of management leads to success within the workplace. The paper will also explain how management continues to change with changes in organizations and in the workforce. Management has transformed from a science to an art form that requires an increasingly complex set of skills and competencies among managers to not only manage change but also teach employees how to do the same.
Development of Management
Early management theory developed as a science suggesting that management was something that could be analyzed and interpreted based on scientific principles. Early human relations theorists focused…… [Read More]
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…… [Read More]
Evolution of Management
A Brief History of the Evolution of Management Principles and Models
The evolution of management theories and principles in modern management thought began in the late nineteenth century and advanced rapidly all through the twentieth century up until the present day. The need to define management and the role of managers became a vital part of production as well as the need to effectively complete many business functions. This led to the foundation of various management theories that were aimed at orchestrating different business functions in an environment where the separation of labor demand some level of coordination. Classical management theories focused on the best methods for assigning the labor of various individuals and there related tasks. This line of thinking was not only necessary, but evolved into a robust field of academic study as well as professional practitioners that specialize in management. This paper…… [Read More]
" (arnett, 2007) There are three steps involved in controlling including: (1) establishing performance standards; (2) comparing actual performance against standards; and (3) taking corrective action when necessary. (arnett, 2007) Standards of performance are often referred to within the organization by terms including 'revenue', 'costs', or 'profits' as well as other terms such as 'units produced', 'number of defective products', or 'levels of customer service'. (arnett, 2007) Performance management can be accomplished through "financial statements, sales reports, production results, customer satisfaction and formal performance appraisals." (arnett, 2007) This is a process that generally involves all levels of management. This process is one in which the manager takes the actions required to make sure that workers activities "are consistent with and contributing toward the accomplishment of organizational and departmental objectives." (arnett, 2007)
This work has reviewed the eight aspects of management in the organization which have included:: (1) planning; (2)…… [Read More]
What is an Organizational Theory?
In the organizational sciences (e.g., organizational behavior, organizational psychology), one of the more misunderstood terms is organizational theory. To some, organizational theory is a field of study; to others, it is the process of using metaphorical language to describe organizational processes (e.g., McKenna & Wright, 1992; Morgan, 1986), or it represents an attempt to determine the best way to organize work organizations. The term is used to indicate all of these things, but an organizational theory is really just a way of organizing purposeful human action. Given the diversity of purposeful human endeavors, there are numerous ways to organize them, and, hence, a great many organizational theories.
Major Organizational Theories
Having provided a brief overview of the field of organizational theory, we now move on to a consideration of the major organizational theories themselves. Organizational theories simply represent ideas or models of the form…… [Read More]
GANTT and PERT Chart Tools
"One look is worth a thousand words"
(Barnard, 1920s, as cited in Lutz, 2009, p. 7).
Critical Chart Choices
Just as the project manager must evaluate alignment, benefits, and risks as well as other business and project factors when considering projects to manage, the project manager must also routinely make critical chart choices. During the course of a project, the project manager must assess whether GANTT charts, critical path analysis, task tracking, time capture, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) or another type chart will best serve to compute the estimate for the project's completion. In the book, Project portfolio management: a practical guide to selecting projects, managing portfolios, and maximizing benefits, Levine (2005), a project management specialist and consultant since 1962, asserts that tactical management systems range from the management of individual projects to the management of programs packed with projects, and may ultimately…… [Read More]
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…… [Read More]
The company was able to turn a profit of $2.7 billion in fiscal 2009, its first annual profit since 2005. The company has been profitable for the past five quarters (MSN Moneycentral, 2010). On that basis, Mulally appears to be meeting the company's goals. However, given its financial situation -- the company still has negative equity -- the transformation process cannot be considered complete. Thus, Mulally should retain his transformational style until Ford has completed its turnaround.
The move to a transactional style should wait until the company is more consistently profitable, has built a base of equity, seen its share price improve further, and has pared down its product line further. The company has received a boost from Mulally's leadership, but still needs help from a recovering economy to complete the transformation.
Barsky, A. (2008). Understanding the ethical cost of organizational goal-setting: A review and theory development.…… [Read More]
The personnel performance and human motivation components of the study of organizational behavior also date back to the late 19th and early 20th century work of theorists like Max Weber and to the 20th century works of Douglass McGregor and Abraham Maslow (George & Jones, 2008; NAU, 2010). Weber outlined the most productive breakdown of organizational hierarchies, elements of working groups, and the relationship between individual employees and their supervisors. McGregor and Maslow contributed psychological theories that identified specific factors that determine levels of personal commitment and satisfaction of individual employees within organizations (George & Jones, 2008; NAU, 2010).
The Importance of Organizational Behavior to Modern Business Management
Understanding organizational behavior in all of its applications is an essential requirement in modern business management (NAU, 2010; obbins & Judge, 2009). Naturally, the specific aspects of organizational behavior that are most important to individual business managers depend on the responsibilities of…… [Read More]
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…… [Read More]
A more definitive explanation is; "... A proposed explanation for a phenomenon." (Scientific Reference) a hypothesis should be able to be tested and functions as a directive for further research.
In my research study for example, the hypothesis that was explored was that certain circumstances in different historical periods affect the development of the areas of expertise and their application to project activities. These circumstances include social and cultural movements; the development of scientific and technical knowledge, among others. This hypothesis provides the incentive for further research and determines to a large extent the direction or trajectory of the research outcomes.
5. Explain briefly why applied research instead of basic research will typically be done in industry and commerce, and describe two examples of applied research
The answer to this question becomes clear when the looks the difference between basic and applied research. Basic research is theoretical and is aimed…… [Read More]
manager." The introduction describe " -development important a manager mix a bit coaching theories ( I a coaching I techniques Kolb' learning cycle techniques fuore managers improve ), I a part body essay real life examples managers coaching techniques -development successful ( describe techniques ).
The importance of self-development in becoming a manager
Self-development is defined first and foremost as an overall holistic desire to find one's freedom and the desire to connect with one's self and own sense of worth, integrity and happiness so as to enjoy abundant happiness both at home and at work. Self-development in simpler terms is that amazing quest / journey that a person embarks on; a point of realization when all the pieces of a person's life fall together and they finally remove their own self limitations and inhibitions that hinder or stop any person more so a manager from achieving greatness. This definition…… [Read More]
Southwest Airlines Organizational Culture
Analysis of Organizational Culture at Southwest Airlines
Application of the OCP Framework
Developing Organizational Culture at Southwest Airlines
Implementation of Organizational Culture
Organizational Culture as an Important Determinant of Organization's Success
Southwest Airlines is a world renowned air travel company and a low cost leader in airline industry of USA. Formed in 1971 by ollin King and Herb Kelleher, the company is committed to "providing highest level of customer service with pride and caring" to its varied market segments ranging from leisure travellers to freight transportation. The two most important stakeholders for the company are its employees and its customers. Southwest Airlines owns 520 different types of aircrafts and serves 411 cities and 63 million customers at 59 airports in 30 different states within the United States with its nonstop air travel service (Southwest Airlines Inc., 2010).
The major reason for company's 35 years of phenomenal…… [Read More]
cultural diversity issue of non-American employees communicating frequently in their own native language creating an environment of sensitivity and bias amongst the non-Hispanic community.
Handling Diversity in an Organization
The contents of this paper focus on the cultural diversity involving Films ecovery Systems, an American company located at the heart of Chicago, Illinois. The paper takes an insight into the issue and also proposes solutions that can resolve the problem. The most important aspect of the paper is that it takes into account the material we find and read in books and compares to what degree the literature is actually applicable in real life situations.
The study of public administration includes a spectrum of many disciplines, which include psychology, sociology, philosophy and also management sciences. Even though, the nature of public administration does not conveniently classify its elements into components, public administration is primarily categorized to highlight the…… [Read More]
Leadership Through History
Frederick Taylor is generally considered the first pioneer in the field of management that used a scientific approach. Later individuals would expand on theis system, such as Henri Fayol, who added the theory of administrative management, and Max eber, who added the levels of bureaucracy, and many others have made incremental steps towards the field. Management concepts were of the division of labor which originated in the industrial revolution. Before the division of labor, most employees would work on a single good and make it from start to finish. hen the concept of the division of labor was introduced it allowed individuals to specialize in a specific task which greatly improved the efficiency. The theories of scientific management, administrative management, and bureaucracy were developed as different methods in which organizations organize themselves to take advantage of the concept of specialization and meet their organizational objectives.
One of…… [Read More]
, 2010). The model includes several mediator (e.g., knowledge exchange) and moderator variables (e.g., self-leadership competencies of actors) that explain why and when this approach is effective and looks at leadership in more of a comprehensive way than focusing on one individual. Such perspectives have suggested that when employees become involved in the decision making processes then this can strengthen leadership.
Transactional leadership is the leadership model that represents what most people view as the concept of management. Transactional leadership is defined by an exchange relationship between the managers and the employees that are all motivated by their own self-interests and meeting the expectations that are associated with their job description. Transactional leadership consists of monitoring, controlling, and motivating employees through economic incentives and other types of exchange incentives (Bass, 1985). Most of the motivation in this model stems from financial exchanges such as by either salaries, performance…… [Read More]
Project Information, History, Intent, and Life Cycle
Gray and Larson, (2008) define project as "a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result." (p 5). Essential feature of a project is that it has a defined beginning and end often subject to time or fund constraint to achieve stakeholder's goals and objectives. Gray and Larson (2008) differentiate between project and program. "A program is a group of related projects designed to accomplish a common goal over an extended period of time." (Gray and Larson, 2008 p 6). Major goal of any project is to satisfy customers' objectives, and features of a project are they:
have established objectives.
Have a life span definitely a start and the end.
Usually involve several professionals and departments.
Have specific costs, time and performance requirements.
However, a project is different from program where workers are performing repetitive operations daily within…… [Read More]
Week 1 Discussion
Decision making in large organizations can be difficult to properly grasp because its characterized by numerous issues that emerge within the organization. Quantitative and qualitative decision making processes in public finance are similar in the sense that they are utilized to analyze data relating to budget management and other relevant issues. These processes in turn help in effective decision-making with respect to the desired objectives. However, quantitative decision-making process is based solely on empirical data while qualitative decision-making is based on a more holistic perspective. An example of qualitative observation is police testing of new, less lethal gun technology through consideration of the cost benefit analysis (CBS, 2015). On the contrary, an example of quantitative observation is the big budget cuts by state leaders through consideration of empirical data (News9.com, 2010).
Quantitative decision-making seemingly takes precedence in budgeting and issues affecting criminal justice agencies. Quantitative decision-making provides…… [Read More]
Theory and Philosophical Orientations
An area of interest for a possible research topic that I consider is organizational performance. My topic of research interest is the effect of employee participation on organizational performance. The philosophical orientation that mirrors my worldview is the interpretivist research paradigm. In-depth inquiry is enabled by interpretivist research, which sees knowledge as subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, knowledge is not generalizable – it is contextual, situational, or circumstantial. This means that different individuals interpret their world differently. To ensure in-depth inquiry, interpretivist research focuses on a small sample and employs qualitative techniques such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, and observations. Such techniques enable the researcher to cultivate a closer relationship with the subjects (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015). A close relationship gives the researcher an opportunity to understand the perspectives, experiences, and worldviews of the subjects with respect to the research phenomenon (Creswell,…… [Read More]