Histology is the study of animal and plant tissues. Tissues are defined as cells with their ground substance acting together in the performance of a particular function. An organ is an aggregation of tissues that occur and function together to provide a division of labor. Epithelial tissue covers body's surface and most of the inner cavity. It also provides the essential functions of protection; containment of body fluids and transport in and out across body surfaces. Connective tissue is quite diverse and is not as cellular as other types of tissue. Connective tissue provides stiffness to the body (bone) and helps the body withstand tension, stress and shearing (twisting) forces.
The basic difference between connective tissue structure and epithelial structure are the following: 1) Cells of connective tissue are not directly attached to one another unlike epithelial cells; 2) Connective tissue is derived from mesenchyme unlike epithelial tissue which is…… [Read More]
Pathologists are often called 'the doctor's doctor ' -- when other doctors are experiencing an impasse, they go to a pathologist for advice, to provide clarity. As someone who has always enjoyed working as a teacher and preparing teaching materials, I look forward to this role in relation to my fellow physicians.
pon arriving in the nited States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field,…… [Read More]
" (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003)
Prior to visualization of the molecule of interest it is necessary to "fix and section the brain tissue. Double-labeling immunofluorescence is stated to detect "localization of a protein of interest as well as the distribution of the protein relative to another marker such as a neurochemical or organelle marker." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003 Fluorescence imaging labeled tissue through use of confocal makes provision of "high-resolution analysis of the extent of colocalization, with a theoretical limit of resolution of 0.1 to 0.2 um." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) Immunofluorescence techniques are stated to "in general...utilize secondary antibodies conjugated to a flurosphore." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) It is important according to Volpicelli-Daley and Levey to choose flurosphores with "minimal background staining and a minimum overlap of excitation/emission spectra...when performing double labeling experiments." (2003)
IV. FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY
The work of Coling and Kachar (1997) entitled: "Theory and Application of…… [Read More]
Wilm's tumor refers to a very rare type of kidney cancer that is also known as nephroblastoma, a type of cancer which can impact both kidneys, though usually first developing in just one. Because Wilm's tumor so frequently impacts children, doctors tend to think that "the tumor begins to grow as a fetus develops in the womb, with some cells that are destined to form into the kidneys malfunctioning and forming a tumor" (kidshealth.org, 2013). At the same time, even though this condition is more common to children, it can still occur in adults. It generally manifests between the ages of 3 and 4 and becomes less likely to occur around the age of five.
Symptoms and Signs
It's important to acknowledge that while this condition does occur with a set group of symptoms, some children experience no symptoms whatsoever. Another important aspect to remember is that…… [Read More]
It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.
The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…… [Read More]
Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:
There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.
Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:
The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the…… [Read More]
revolution in understanding genetic contributions to the susceptibility for developing particular diseases and disorders has been the development of the notion of "personalized medicine." The "personalized" connotation of this growing facet in the practice does not refer to individualized treatments as much as it refers to a personalizing of treatments targeted at a specific subset of patients, for example the development of certain drugs that can target specific cancer-causing genes found in patients' tumors. A drug currently being reviewed by the FDA for release is crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. ALK is believed to be active in several different types of tumors, including about five percent of non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In patients with advanced NSCLC it has been found that those carrying the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene possess a protein product of this fusion that contains a constitutive kinase activity that…… [Read More]
microwave oven is one of the great inventions of the twentieth century since millions of homes in America have one. Microwave ovens are popular because they cook food incredibly quickly. They are also extremely efficient in their use of electricity because a microwave oven heats only the food and nothing else.
A microwave oven uses microwaves to heat food. Microwaves are radio waves. In the case of microwave ovens, the commonly used radio wave frequency is roughly twenty-five megahertz, which is 2.5 gigahertz. Radio waves in this frequency range have an interesting property: water, fats and sugars absorb them. When they are absorbed they are converted directly into atomic motion in other words, heat. Microwaves in this frequency range have another interesting property: most plastics, glass or ceramics does not absorb them. Metal reflects microwaves, which is why metal pans do not work well in a microwave oven.
People often…… [Read More]
ectopic/heterotopic brain tissue. Extracranial brain tissue without direct connection to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneous embryonic defect that is usually located on the occipital or parietal area of the scalp. Most of the time these are harmless and can be removed. These often are called heterotopic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain tissue or (CEB).
ECTOPIC OR HETEROTOPIC BRAIN TISSUE
Extracranial brain tissue that is directly connected to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneious embryonic defect. These are usually located on the occipital or parietal areas of the scalp. They are often called heteropic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain (CEB) (Janniger 1). Most of the time these are simple defective tissue that can easily be removed from the scalp. However, there are several different types of ectopic brain tissues and some of these can be signs of underlying central nervous system problems. Each of…… [Read More]
male and female are fraught with controversy, while some believe that behavioral and thinking differences between male and female are based on cultural differences, other people argue that the biological factors largely lead to sex differences. In reality, argument on thinking difference between men and women is very complex, often conflated and confused. Several evidences have shown male and female's brains differ in function and structure, however, there is no precise evidence how these differences affect and female behaviors or thinking differences between male and female. By consequence, gender variation is often misappropriated and exaggerated by mass media to perpetuate myths and reinforce stereotypes.
Objective of this study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the way men and women think. The study also discusses the physiological differences in the men and women's brains.
Argument on Thinking and Brain Difference between Male and Female
The size of the…… [Read More]
ole of Autoimmunity in Three Endocrine Disorders
A number of endocrine illnesses are immune mediated and can now be reliably predicted. Autoimmune disorders can occur in a person and people related to them. Families with history of autoimmunity, and has had antibody screening done, becomes aware of those that carry such risk. Knowing the prevalence of such disorders and the diseases associated with them can help in early diagnosis and prevent them from becoming more serious. Autoimmunity affects several glands in the body. Studies reveal that alleles are very important in the determination of tissue-specific targeting (Aaron W. Michels & George S. Eisenbarth, 2010).
The Process of Autoimmunity
Autoimmunity is necessary for the body to maintain its health by countering effects of external virulent and organic attacks. It involves regulatory networks that provide the body with immunity against infection. It has not yet been determined why instances arise where autoimmunity…… [Read More]
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…… [Read More]
There are costs to bearing and believing in such a secret.
These costs are manifested in many ways. There are the psychosomatic costs Jesse endures, his impotence, his weakness around the black boy in the jail, his tremors at the thought of Otis, "Now the thought of Otis made him sick. He began to shiver." There are also the psychological costs that Jesse is plagued by, the self-delusion associated with believing racism is moral, the mental anguish, and the constant struggle over whether he can trust his coconspirators, "They were forced to depend on each other more and, at the same time, to trust each other less" (Baldwin). What Baldwin is underscoring with these psychological and psychosomatic burdens is that the path Jesse has followed, a path of racism and discrimination, has led him to a very troubled existence.
Baldwin wants the reader to understand that proponents for a Jim…… [Read More]
In The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal inpoche (2002) distills the essence of Tibetan Buddhist teachings into a format digestible for a modern Western audience. The central premise of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is that death can be a "teaching for us all," (inpoche, 2002, p. 3). The title of inpoche's book refers to the Tibetan Book of the Dead, which describes the bardo, of transition between this life and the next. Through a concerted practice of meditation and spiritual discipline cultivated in the person's current lifetime, a practitioner can remain conscious through the bardo and therefore die as a self-empowered and spiritually aware being. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is divided into three main parts: sections on living, dying, and on death and rebirth. There is also a conclusion and appendixes. inpoche opens his Tibetan Book of Living and Dying with…… [Read More]
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…… [Read More]