Histology Essays (Examples)

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Personal Statement Pathology Has Been

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20300564

Pathologists are often called 'the doctor's doctor ' -- when other doctors are experiencing an impasse, they go to a pathologist for advice, to provide clarity. As someone who has always enjoyed working as a teacher and preparing teaching materials, I look forward to this role in relation to my fellow physicians.

Upon arriving in the United States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field,…… [Read More]

Upon arriving in the United States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field, and give me the ability to learn from -- and perhaps to teach -- others who are grappling with issues spanning from cancer to nephrology to infertility to lifestyle-related illnesses.

From birth to death, I have seen the many varied states the human body can take in health and illness. My desire to engage in a pathology rotation is based upon these past, formative experiences and my desire to place this diversity within the uniquely helpful paradigms particular the discipline. By the end of the residency I know I shall not have realized my goal of becoming a 'doctor's doctor' but I am eager to enter upon the path and begin this lifelong journey.

J. Carlos Manivel, "Choosing pathology as a specialty," the University of Minnesota, May 2, 2010, [August 21, 2010] http://residency.pathology.umn.edu/
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CONNEXIN43 Expression Following Retinal Ischemia

Words: 4785 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33589871

" (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003)

Prior to visualization of the molecule of interest it is necessary to "fix and section the brain tissue. Double-labeling immunofluorescence is stated to detect "localization of a protein of interest as well as the distribution of the protein relative to another marker such as a neurochemical or organelle marker." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003 Fluorescence imaging labeled tissue through use of confocal makes provision of "high-resolution analysis of the extent of colocalization, with a theoretical limit of resolution of 0.1 to 0.2 um." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) Immunofluorescence techniques are stated to "in general...utilize secondary antibodies conjugated to a flurosphore." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) It is important according to Volpicelli-Daley and Levey to choose flurosphores with "minimal background staining and a minimum overlap of excitation/emission spectra...when performing double labeling experiments." (2003)


The work of Coling and Kachar (1997) entitled: "Theory and Application of…… [Read More]


Apoptosis (2009) Protocol Online. Available at:  http://www.protocol-online.org/prot/Cell_Biology/Apoptosis/index.html 

Coling, Donald and Kachar, Bechara (1997) Theory and Application of Fluorescence Microscopy. Current Protocols in Neuroscience. John Wiley & Sons.

Gallagher, S., Winston, S.E, Fuller, S.A. And Hurrell, J.G.R. (2004) Immunoblotting and Immunodetection. Current Protocols in Neuroscience 2004. John Wiley & Sons.

Introduction to Immunohistochemistry (2009) IHC World Life Science Information Network. Online available at: http://www.ihcworld.com/_intro/intro.htm
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Comparison of Pulmonary Autopsy Findings of the Rats Drowned at Surface and 50 Ft Depth

Words: 1967 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33347385

Pulmonary Autopsy Findings of the Rats Drowned at Surface and 50 Ft Depth

Critical Appraisal of a Research Article

Of the following literature that was examined, one of the most useful articles was entitled Pathology of the Lung in Near Drowning, a paper in which the researchers created an experimental model that simulated the changes that actually occurred in a subject which had nearly drowned. The purpose was to study the pathological changes that happen when someone or something is drowned. The methodology involved intubating rabbits in either salt or fresh water, and microscopically examining their lungs and hearts. The results indicated that within the first 30 minutes after being drowned, the vast majority of damage does not occur in the alveolar cells but in the vascular endothelium (Karch, S.B, 1986).

The next piece of literature that was reviewed was called Alveolar Macrophages and the Diagnosis of Drowning, in which…… [Read More]


B. Brinkmann, G. Fechner, K. Puschel, Lung histology in experimental

drowning, Z Rechtsmed 89 (4) (1983) 267 -- 277. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6837169 

Toklu AS, Alkan N, Gurel A, Cimsit M, Haktanir D, Korpinar S, Purisa S. Comparison of pulmonary autopsy findings of the rats drowned at surface and 50 ft depth. Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Dec 20;164(2-3):122-5.

Betz, P. Nerlich, A. Penning, R. Eisenmenger, W. Alveolar macrophages and the diagnosis of drowning. Forensic Sci Int. 1993. March 4; 62 (217-224) Retrieved from . http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/7690/1/eisenmenger_wolfgang_7690.pdf
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Wilm's Tumor Description Wilm's Tumor Refers to

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24754911

Wilm's Tumor


Wilm's tumor refers to a very rare type of kidney cancer that is also known as nephroblastoma, a type of cancer which can impact both kidneys, though usually first developing in just one. Because Wilm's tumor so frequently impacts children, doctors tend to think that "the tumor begins to grow as a fetus develops in the womb, with some cells that are destined to form into the kidneys malfunctioning and forming a tumor" (kidshealth.org, 2013). At the same time, even though this condition is more common to children, it can still occur in adults. It generally manifests between the ages of 3 and 4 and becomes less likely to occur around the age of five.

Symptoms and Signs

It's important to acknowledge that while this condition does occur with a set group of symptoms, some children experience no symptoms whatsoever. Another important aspect to remember is that…… [Read More]


Canver.gov. (2013, January). General Information. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/wilms/HealthProfessional/page1#Section_558

Kidshealth.org. (2013). Wilm's Tumor. Retrieved from Kidshealth.org: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/kidney/wilms.html#

MayoClinic. (2011, September 2). Symptoms. Retrieved from MayoClinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/wilms-tumor/DS00436/DSECTION=symptoms

Medscape.com. (2013). Etiology. Retrieved from Medscape.com: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/989398-overview#aw2aab6b2b2ab1
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Renaissance the Trend in Medicine

Words: 2914 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48408487

It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.

The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…… [Read More]


1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.

History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007

Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet,  http://www.lsumc.edu.com , Accessed May 12, 2007

Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007
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Healthcare Industry Medical Laboratories As the Conditions Change

Words: 1805 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11240207

healthcare industry/medical laboratories. As the conditions change and new information becomes available, one can easily realize that this industry has many components that drive it.


As demand for laboratory services is rather inelastic, laboratories can establish prices as they deem appropriate. Reimbursement for services is limited, however, by contracts which the laboratory holds with various healthcare plans (Daron 2008). These healthcare plans, including Medicare and Medicaid, will negotiate reimbursement fees with the laboratory that are lower than the laboratory's usual and customary fees (Eddy 2007). The laboratory agrees to accept the reimbursement received from the health plan as payment in full. Laboratories are often forced into contracting with the large health plans in its area because referring clinicians will often not send specimens to the laboratory for processing unless the contracts exist (Daron 2006). Because the reimbursement from the health plans is often very low, the laboratory must find…… [Read More]


Daron Acemoglu, David Cutler, Amy Finkelstein, and Joshua Linn. Did Medicare Induce Pharmaceutical Innovation? American Economic Review, 96(2):103{07, May 2006.

Daron Acemoglu and Amy Finkelstein. Input and Technology Choices in Regulated Industries: Evidence From the Health Care Sector. Journal of Political Economy, 116(5):837{880, October 2008.

Eddy M.M. Adang and George F. Borm. Is There an Association between Economic Performance and Public Satisfaction in Health Care? European Journal of Health Economics, 8(3):279{85, September 2007.

Anna Alberini and Aline Chiabai. Urban Environmental Health and Sensitive Populations: How Much are the Italians Willing to Pay to Reduce Their Risks? Working Paper 2005.105, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, 2005.
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Eukaryotic Cells

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72282896

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:

There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.

Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:

The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the…… [Read More]


Cooper, GM. (2000) "The Cell: A Molecular Approach." Sunderland (MA): Sinauer


Diffen. (2013) "Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell" Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from  http://www.diffen.com/difference/Eukaryotic_Cell_vs_Prokaryotic_Cell 

Gregory, Michael. (n. d.) "Protists" Lecture notes. Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20102/bio%20102%20lectures/protists/protists.htm
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Revolution in Understanding Genetic Contributions to the

Words: 1343 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75154087

revolution in understanding genetic contributions to the susceptibility for developing particular diseases and disorders has been the development of the notion of "personalized medicine." The "personalized" connotation of this growing facet in the practice does not refer to individualized treatments as much as it refers to a personalizing of treatments targeted at a specific subset of patients, for example the development of certain drugs that can target specific cancer-causing genes found in patients' tumors. A drug currently being reviewed by the FDA for release is crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. ALK is believed to be active in several different types of tumors, including about five percent of non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In patients with advanced NSCLC it has been found that those carrying the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene possess a protein product of this fusion that contains a constitutive kinase activity that…… [Read More]


Bang, Y., Kwak, E.L., Shaw, A.T. et al. (2010). Clinical activity of the oral ALK inhibitor PF- 02341066 in ALK-positive patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28 (18S), 3.

Christensen, J.G., Zou, H.Y., Arango, M.E., Li, Q., Lee, J.H., McDonnell, S.R., Yamazaki, S., Alton, G.R., Mroczkowski, B., & Los G. (2007). Cytoreductive antitumor activity of PF-2341066, a novel inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and c-Met, in experimental models of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Molecular Cancer Therapy, 6, 3314-3322.

Ku, G.Y. & Lima Jopes Jr., G. (2011). EML4-ALK in non-small-cell lung cancer: the breathtaking progress from benchtop to Phase III clinical trial. Therapy, 8(1)55-61.

Kwak, E.L., Bang, Y.J., Camidge, D.R. et al. (2010). Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in non-small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 263(18), 1693- 1703.
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Talking With Computers

Words: 1769 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2539803

microwave oven is one of the great inventions of the twentieth century since millions of homes in America have one. Microwave ovens are popular because they cook food incredibly quickly. They are also extremely efficient in their use of electricity because a microwave oven heats only the food and nothing else.

A microwave oven uses microwaves to heat food. Microwaves are radio waves. In the case of microwave ovens, the commonly used radio wave frequency is roughly twenty-five megahertz, which is 2.5 gigahertz. Radio waves in this frequency range have an interesting property: water, fats and sugars absorb them. When they are absorbed they are converted directly into atomic motion in other words, heat. Microwaves in this frequency range have another interesting property: most plastics, glass or ceramics does not absorb them. Metal reflects microwaves, which is why metal pans do not work well in a microwave oven.

People often…… [Read More]

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Ectopic Heterotopic Brain Tissue Extracranial Brain Tissue Without

Words: 4119 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48161127

ectopic/heterotopic brain tissue. Extracranial brain tissue without direct connection to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneous embryonic defect that is usually located on the occipital or parietal area of the scalp. Most of the time these are harmless and can be removed. These often are called heterotopic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain tissue or (CEB).


Extracranial brain tissue that is directly connected to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneious embryonic defect. These are usually located on the occipital or parietal areas of the scalp. They are often called heteropic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain (CEB) (Janniger 1). Most of the time these are simple defective tissue that can easily be removed from the scalp. However, there are several different types of ectopic brain tissues and some of these can be signs of underlying central nervous system problems. Each of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aplasia Cutis Congenita" Available Online at  http://www.keratin.com/af/af006.shtml 

Drolet, Beth Ann & Clowry, Lawrence. "The Hair Collar Sign: Marker for Cranial Dysraphism" Pediatrics Aug 1995 Part 1 of 2 Vol. 96 Issue 2 p. 309

Drolet BA, Clowry L. Jr., McTigue MK, Esterly NB. "The Hair Collar sign: Marker for Cranial Dysraphism" Pediatrics 1995 Aug 1996 (2 pt 1): 309-13

Fuloria, Mamta M.D. & Kreiter, Shelly M.D. "The Newborn Examination: Part I" American Family Physician Jan 1, 2002 Vol. 65 No. 1 www.aafp.org/afp
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Investigating Thinking Difference Between Men and Women

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17504878

male and female are fraught with controversy, while some believe that behavioral and thinking differences between male and female are based on cultural differences, other people argue that the biological factors largely lead to sex differences. In reality, argument on thinking difference between men and women is very complex, often conflated and confused. Several evidences have shown male and female's brains differ in function and structure, however, there is no precise evidence how these differences affect and female behaviors or thinking differences between male and female. By consequence, gender variation is often misappropriated and exaggerated by mass media to perpetuate myths and reinforce stereotypes.

Objective of this study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the way men and women think. The study also discusses the physiological differences in the men and women's brains.

Argument on Thinking and Brain Difference between Male and Female

The size of the…… [Read More]


Costandi, M. (2013). 50 Human Brain Ideas You Really Need to Know (50 Ideas You Really Need to Know series). Kindle Edition.

Graber, B. (2007). Brain. Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender. Ed. Fedwa Malti-Douglas. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA,. 185-188. Gale Virtual Reference Library.

Lewis, T. (2013). How Men's Brains Are Wired Differently than Women's. Live Science.

Witelson, S.F. Beresh, H. Kigar D.L. (2005). Brain size and Intelligence in one hundred Postmortem Brains: Lateralization, Sex, and Age factors. Brain A Journal of Neurology. 129,(2):. 386-398
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A concise Analysis of The role of autoimmunity in three endocrine disorders

Words: 1330 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42809379

Role of Autoimmunity in Three Endocrine Disorders

A number of endocrine illnesses are immune mediated and can now be reliably predicted. Autoimmune disorders can occur in a person and people related to them. Families with history of autoimmunity, and has had antibody screening done, becomes aware of those that carry such risk. Knowing the prevalence of such disorders and the diseases associated with them can help in early diagnosis and prevent them from becoming more serious. Autoimmunity affects several glands in the body. Studies reveal that alleles are very important in the determination of tissue-specific targeting (Aaron W. Michels & George S. Eisenbarth, 2010).

The Process of Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity is necessary for the body to maintain its health by countering effects of external virulent and organic attacks. It involves regulatory networks that provide the body with immunity against infection. It has not yet been determined why instances arise where autoimmunity…… [Read More]


Aaron W. Michels, & George S. Eisenbarth. (2010). Immunologic Endocrine Disorders. Journal of Allergy, Clinical Immunology, 225-237.

Aleksandra Krzewska, & Iwona Ben-Skowronek. (2016). Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents. Biomed Research International.

Heves Kirmizibekmez, Rahime Gul Yesiltepe Mutlu, Nafiye Demirkiran Urganci, & Ayse Oner. (2015). Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood. Kirmizibekmez H, Yesiltepe Mutlu RG, Demirkiran Urganci N, Oner A. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2015;7(1):80-82. doi:10.4274/jcrpe.1394., 80-82.

Kohei KAKU. (2010). Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and its Treatment Policy. Japan Medical Association Journal, 41-46.
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Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26433183

With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.… [Read More]


1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22

2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189

3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at,  http://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/pdf/oral_cavity.pdf 

4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
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Man Racism Isn't an Inborn

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98265806

There are costs to bearing and believing in such a secret.

These costs are manifested in many ways. There are the psychosomatic costs Jesse endures, his impotence, his weakness around the black boy in the jail, his tremors at the thought of Otis, "Now the thought of Otis made him sick. He began to shiver." There are also the psychological costs that Jesse is plagued by, the self-delusion associated with believing racism is moral, the mental anguish, and the constant struggle over whether he can trust his coconspirators, "They were forced to depend on each other more and, at the same time, to trust each other less" (Baldwin). What Baldwin is underscoring with these psychological and psychosomatic burdens is that the path Jesse has followed, a path of racism and discrimination, has led him to a very troubled existence.

Baldwin wants the reader to understand that proponents for a Jim…… [Read More]

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Human Development

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28903202


In The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal Rinpoche (2002) distills the essence of Tibetan Buddhist teachings into a format digestible for a modern Western audience. The central premise of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is that death can be a "teaching for us all," (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 3). The title of Rinpoche's book refers to the Tibetan Book of the Dead, which describes the bardo, of transition between this life and the next. Through a concerted practice of meditation and spiritual discipline cultivated in the person's current lifetime, a practitioner can remain conscious through the bardo and therefore die as a self-empowered and spiritually aware being. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is divided into three main parts: sections on living, dying, and on death and rebirth. There is also a conclusion and appendixes. Rinpoche opens his Tibetan Book of Living and Dying with…… [Read More]


Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying. New York: Scribner.

Rinpoche, S. (2002). The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying. New York: Rigpa/Harper-Collins.
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Human Development

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48680821


Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…… [Read More]


Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's

Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,

New York.