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Historic Preservation and the Imagined West
In many of the American cities, historic preservation evolved differently, as have the destinies of the historical neighborhood in these cities. Denver, Seattle and Albuquerque are three such examples where the interests of different groups and the integration of the historical neighborhoods in the life of the city affected their overall development.
In Denver, the historical neighborhood is considered to be the area containing the Larimer Square and Lower Downtown. The respective area marked its transformation from the old warehouse district into a "mixed-use neighborhood" (Morley, 2006). The initial objective for saving and preserving the historical neighborhood in Denver was that of "revitalizing the central business district" (Morley, 2006). With such an objective in mind, there was a mixture of groups that fought to put that in practice and that included the city council and NGOs, as well as part of the business community.…… [Read More]
Although the program is still relatively small it has developed into a well respected method of preserving important American landmarks. The program works at the federal, state and local level to guarantee the protection and preservation of these designated sites. Now that we have a greater understanding of Historic preservation and landmarks, let us discuss the constitutional issues that arise as a result of historic preservation.
Constitutionality of Historic Preservation
Although the federal government has established laws that provide guidelines to states as it relates to the preservation of historic sites, there have still been some challenges to such preservation as it relates to the constitutionality of the laws. According to oss (2005) the constitutionality of historic preservation ordinances can be challenged under the First Amendment when a plaintiff asserts that a governmental endeavor infringed upon Free Exercise rights or debased the Establishment Clause.
An article found in William and…… [Read More]
More bad luck happened when there was an earthquake in 1948 that caused a lot of structural damage to buildings in Pioneer Square. Then in the late 1950s the Central Association of Seattle was created to upgrade the city's image and infrastructure, and the Seattle Center was built in 1962 for the orld's Fair. In the late 1960s, the clean-up of Pioneer Square began, as buildings were renovated and artists, architects, interior designers who "liked the aesthetics of the old buildings" (Morley, 75) - along with young professionals who prized the proximity to downtown - began moving in.
By 1975, about $10 million ($8 million from private investors) had gone into Pioneer Square's redevelopment, but prior to that, there had been a political battle overcome before Pioneer Square could become the wonderful venue it is now; urban sprawl and shopping centers had taken precedence over historic preservation and the King…… [Read More]
Government in the Historic Preservation Process
The paper foregrounds the role of national, state and local government in the historic preservation process. It has 12 sources.
Historic preservation is taken up by smart governments in order to revitalize not only the structures but also the economy. The structures that assume historical value may bear more than just economic importance as they are also a form of national heritage. Therefore governments have the responsibility of taking measures to preserve the historic structures. To fulfill this responsibility, the government is given the authority to devise legislation for preservation. Further, the state governments should allow the local governments to participate in preservation efforts and build on these legislations.
This paper studies the role of the government on a state and local level. The state government of Florida and the local government of Tallahassee (Florida) are specified for the study by the…… [Read More]
Instead, he chose to preserve the building's countless accretions so as to reflect the evolution of domestic life over three centuries. This approach, which can be seen at many of SPNEA's house museums today, has since become a distinguishing feature of SPNEA's preservation philosophy" (Redfern para. 2).
It was in 1915 that Appleton made his first visit to Newbury's fabled Spencer-Peirce-Little House, where he immediately recognized the importance of this imposing stone mansion. He recognized that the two-story brick porch was unique in New England. He kept in touch with the Little family with some regularity, hoping to secure the preservation of the property. Appleton died in 1947, but his thirty-year relationship with the Little family bore fruit in 1971 when Amelia and Agnes Little arranged for the land, buildings, and furnishings to come to SPNEA when they died (Redfern para. 2).
Norman Morrison Isham
Appleton learned much from Norman…… [Read More]
Preservation of Historical uildings
The economic and political contexts that influenced the practice of heritage conservation of historical buildings
The prevalence of the practice of heritage conservation has been instigated with cultural concerns that arise from a developed human society, along with its gradual movement toward becoming a more technologically-advanced civilization. Primarily, heritage conservation, specifically of historical sites and buildings, was introduced as part of organizations' attempts to preserve humanity's cultural heritage. That is, the argument put forth in introducing heritage conservation is culture-based.
Stipe (2003) elucidates on this point, where he considers heritage conservation as initially introduced through an acknowledgment and implementation of cultural preservation. For the author, the conservation of historic buildings is essential because they are our "physical link to the past" (xiv). As such, historic buildings also serves as a reminder to and remembrance for people about the significant events in history that are considered important…… [Read More]
preservation of historic properties in urban centers and smaller communities alike has become a political issue. On the one hand, preservation potentially stymies new developments that might be beneficial to the future growth and health of the community. New development can offer greater diversity of housing options and possibly also enable urban growth by replacing older, smaller, and outmoded structures with larger, more efficient, and more flexible live/work spaces. On the other hand, demolishing historic structures frequently results in what Allen (2014) calls "Shanghaization," or the loss of valuable cultural material in favor of quick profit draws. Overly eager development that ignores any appeal to historicity destroys irreplaceable character, aesthetics, and culture. Ideally, cities strike balances between preservation and new development. The most successful cities are those that adapt to change while recognizing the of preservation. Selective preservation can take place when visionary teams replace tendentious bickering with progressive ideals…… [Read More]
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…… [Read More]
Another highly pertinent grievance would be raised by the Executive Director, of the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, who complained that the park committees did a poor job of reaching out to community, environmental and preservation groups as the issue came onto the table. As the interviewee noted, he and his colleagues had no sense that this controversial plan was in the works. Moreover, even with knowledge of the plan, the director would observe that information was still scarce. Accordingly, the interviewer inquired "How many air rights will be sold? What's the process for them to be used? How much will it cost? I don't know for sure, but there may be up to 1.6 million square feet to sell. Based on my understanding, there are piers designated as 'commercial' and 'recreational'?, so we want to see in writing so it's not subject to different interpretations."
In spite of…… [Read More]
Managing a Preservation Project
• How would you preserve and maintain the historic structure in the twenty-first century?
In the late twentieth century there were major initiatives that set the stage for maintaining the historic structure in the twenty-first century. One of the most notable initiatives was the passage of the National Preservation Act of 1966 which ushered in a "New Preservation" philosophy (Glass, 2014). The paradigm shift in historical preservation consisted of a shift from individual sits of historic importance, to a more comprehensive strategy that includes preserving historical districts and architectural significance. The best way to get started is to contact the local State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and see what resources are available for the local community. It is important to preserve a sense of history in the U.S., which has been called a "disposable culture" that doesn't always appreciate the historical significance of the country's heritage…… [Read More]
com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…… [Read More]
Then, it was especially attractive to the sorts of people who did not fit elsewhere: religious and political dissenters, or workers without guild membership. (p. 30).
In this regard, irmingham's goal to become the European Capital of Culture 2008 is a clear reflection of its newfound status (Plant, 2003).
The irmingham Jewellery Quarter. eginning in the mid-19th century, a number of Jewish communities began to spring up in the coastal towns as a direct result of the expansion of the royal navy; at the time, "Jewish watchmakers, jewelers, silversmiths, engravers, pawnbrokers, and purveyors of optical goods served both the civilian and naval populations in the ports.... They also exchanged foreign money for crews returning from abroad and sold inexpensive watches, rings, and other trinkets to ship bound sailors not permitted to go ashore for fear they might desert" (Endelman, 2002 pp. 50-1). The irmingham of the 1850s was not an…… [Read More]
Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it seemed, the more of a synergistic effect upon their funding and use (Jensen and Guthrie, 2006).
By the Johnson Administration in the 1960s, coupled with more media attention, there was increased public awareness of America's natural treasures. This was now that "Parks for People" Campaign. During this period there was also a fairly significant new awareness about ecology and the natural environment. The mission of the National Parks Service was called into question. eacting to this, Congress passed the General Authorities Acts of 1970, which became known as the "edwood Amendment," since a large part of the Act was devoted to conserving edwood National Park. Based on political pressure from citizens, Congress was also forced to provide a rather significant funding increase…… [Read More]
They write, "Combining tribal narratives and interpretations with archeological data results in a more intimate rendering of history, and enables us to more easily imagine the vitality of life at these sites" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). This, the perspectives of the many participants helped create a larger picture of life and work at these sites.
The project seemed to work well because all the participants worked at getting along with each other, and were working together toward a common goal - preservation of ancient sites that had strong meaning in their cultures. The authors end their discussion with this comment, "We now see that tribes are and will continue to be proactive in directed research projects. [...] -- it is possible to set aside political and philosophical differences to address a common goal" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). The challenges included getting the many tribes and their representatives together,…… [Read More]
Armentrout, Jeff. "Lincoln-Douglas Debates in 1858." lecture., Newton Local School, 2012. Newton Local School http://newton.k12.oh.us/~jeff_armentrout/FOV2-001026E5/FOV2-001026E7/Lincoln-Douglas Debates PP.pdfPlugin=Loft.
he paper discusses the issues that were present in the U.S.A. At the time of the presidential elections in which Abraham Lincoln took part. It also describes the position of both the parties especially Douglas and Abraham. he paper then discusses the problems in the Democrat and the Republican parties. hen, after careful evaluation of all the contenders and their respective parties, the paper gives the results of the elections.
Chicago: Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, 2003. "MEE MARY LINCOLN BIOGRAPHICAL NARRAIVE & CHRONOLOGY." http://www.lincolnlogcabin.org/education-kits/Mary-Lincoln-Lesson-Plans/Mary-Lincoln-Narrative-and-Chronology.pdf (accessed April 13, 2013).
his source contains complete information about Mary odd Lincoln. It discusses in detail, Mary's early life, her schooling, character and looks and features as well. It also puts light on how Mary met Abraham Lincoln and how they got married. he transition of…… [Read More]
Globalization, fostered by free flow of information and rapid progress in technology, is a driving force that no country can turn back. It does impose market discipline on the participants which can be harsh, but is the mechanism that drives progress and prosperity. Globalization emerged as a buzzword in the 1990s but the phenomena it refers to are not entirely new. As a ubiquitous term, what does "globalization" mean? Some observers emphasize the rapid and free flow of capital as the essential element. Others emphasize labor-that capital flows to where labor is highly productive while relatively cheap, that different parts of the production process can be performed in various far flung places by multiple sources of labor, and that workers themselves move within and between nations often and more easily.
According to Micklethwait and Wooldridge there are "three engines" driving globalization today. The first of those three engines is technology.…… [Read More]
Time delays and cost would be an additional concern. I would, therefore, go for Brazilian-produced material and forego the glass.
In regards to the gold leaf, I would also go for the cheaper local material, but I may decide to conduct some impromptu surveys amongst potential businessmen of the market that I am seeking in order to identify their aesthetic opinions in regards to internal and external architectural decoration. I would use the results of these surveys to lead me in my final selection.
I would prefer to lease the building to multiple, rather than to one single tenant, particularly given Brazil's lack of foreclosure laws and its bungling leasing system. Multiple tenants would pose less of a risk and would also, simultaneously and hopefully, provide me with the desired publicity that I would like for this development to attract further lessees in the future. Multiple tenants may also induce…… [Read More]
This specific example is also indicative of some of the general ways in which the building was modified and updated. In his restoration of Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa uses the basic geometric designs and patterns of the original medieval castle, but accentuates, develops, and emphasizes these geometric expressions in a very modern way. The concrete beam in the example above compliments the angularity of the room at large, but is almost an exaggeration of it. The beam itself s composed of three slabs of concrete at right angles to each other, forming three sides of a square or a sort of sideways "c," with the bottom open to the floor. Not only does the beams itself represent an intrusion of modern geometric appreciation into the castle, but even the construction of the beam itself reflects Scarpa's extreme devotion to geometry and geometric expression. This amplifies the geometry that is such an…… [Read More]
Strategic Planning- Tourism Strategic Plan Lewis-Clark Valley
Lewis-Clark Valley is the beautiful site of Lewiston, Idaho and Clarkston, Washington. The historical background of this valley is rich in cultural stories and its own heritage that dated back in some 18th century. The area has been land of Nez Perce Indians who had travelled to this valley and lived long in the land and rivers. The valley is so named because in the 1805, the Corps of discovery explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark visited this place and was welcomed by the native people. This meeting and warm welcome has developed good relations with the land and its people thus named it after their second names. Lewis-Clark Valley is the land of miners, merchants, railroaders, millworkers and farmers. Its geographical location is somewhere 465 miles from the Pacific Ocean at the convergence of the Snake and Clearwater ivers.
The cities of…… [Read More]
Freeman's work, however, advanced the understanding of the human brain in ways that probably helped pharmaceutical companies develop pharmacological interventions for people suffering from mental illness.
Long past its mythological place in the history of mankind and medicine, epilepsy continued to be perceived by many in very medieval terms; as the possession of a person by the devil, demonic possession, and, by some, as a form of mental illness (Szasz 117). Sir John Russell Reynolds (1828-196) was one of the earliest physicians to observe and conclude that people suffering from epilepsy were not necessarily suffering from a mental disorder or even possession by demonic monsters (117-118). Many psychiatrists and mental health experts, however, continued to look at epilepsy as a mental impairment (117-119). From 1890 to 1940 people suffering from epilepsy were "colonized" into institutional settings for the mentally ill, and treated for their seizures with a variety of drugs…… [Read More]
The ABC system uses a much lage numbe and vaiety of cost dives than the one o two volume-based cost dives typical fo a taditional cost system. As a esult, the ABC method has inceased accuacy.
In contacts, it is explained that a taditional cost system uses only volume-based cost dives, such as diect labo and machine hous, and ignoes the key ole of suppot activities, such as numbe of setups and design changes, in poducing many moden poducts and sevices. Such volume-based cost dives often lead to one goup of poducts subsidizing anothe goup of poducts. These subsidies often ceate the appeaance that one goup of poducts is highly pofitable, advesely affecting the picing and competitiveness of anothe goup of poducts. In a highly competitive envionment with complex poducts and sevices, accuate cost infomation can be citical to sound planning and decision-making. (Cook, Gove & Cobun, 2000, p. 305)…… [Read More]
Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community
"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…… [Read More]
Economic Impact of Gambling
Along with "Wine, Women and Song," gambling was often considered a vice. Indeed, gambling has been a part of human civilization and culture since times immemorial. Gambling has paralleled human evolution. One can easily find instances of gambling in the ible and other historical references. Gambling can be defined as staking ones material possession for profit. In a broader definition, gambling can also be considered a pact where material profit is the ulterior motive. In modern times, perhaps incorrectly, gambling can be taken to mean any risk. As in "I 'gambled' on him (or her) doing this (or that)." For the purpose of this work, let's consider gambling in the narrow definition. Staking material possessions for profit. There are consequences to gambling. It can take forms of mild amusement. Or it can be a pathological condition. Indeed, gambling can result in injury to physical and emotional…… [Read More]
Client server systems are a group of inter-related subsystems which collaborate together to provide a specific solution or service. This computing model structures diverse and distributed applications, which separates tasks between the providers (servers) and service seekers (clients). Keeping the purpose of this paper in view, the provider-server is the Geographical Informative System and the client is the U.S. government. This paper analyzes Geographical Informative System (GIS) as its client server system. GIS are quite pricey with respect to installation. The primary concern while setting up GIS is:
Attaining the data
Performing quality assurance tests
Quality checks on data
Syncing hardware and software
This case study will go through many GIS projects implemented over the years by various U.S. government agencies. It has tremendous benefits to U.S. organizations, which have gone ahead and implemented them successfully. There are tons of benefits can attained from GIS, by both public and private…… [Read More]
Block grants can be defined as a kind of grant-in-aid employed by the federal government to provide state governments, as well as local governments, a detailed and quantified amount of funding. The purposes of these grants are to address social services, community development, and public health. The advantages of block grants include enhancing government efficiency, redistribution of authority, and accountability by means of decentralization (Dilger and Boyd, 2009). The disadvantages of block grants include the notion that they can weaken the attainment of nationwide goals and can also be employed as a back door means to decrease government expenditure on domestic problems (Dilger and Boyd, 2009). Examples of block grants include the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Block Grant and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).
The purpose of employment grants is to come up with policies that effect change in employment terms, by…… [Read More]
Vote Spotter App Report: Palm Harbor, Florida
The "Vote Spotter" app provided the partisan affiliation and voting record on key legislation results for congressional members of the U.S. House and Senate for Palm Harbor, Florida shown in Tables 1 and 2 respectively below (the Vote Spotter app did not indicate that any of the Floridian congressmen sponsored or co-sponsored any legislation).
House of Representatives
Voting Record on Key Legislation
HB 5946 (exempts Olympic prizes from taxes)
HB 5931 (prohibits prisoner release payments to Iran)
HB 3438 (allows delay of expensive regulations)
HB 3590 (keep income tax deductions from medical expenses)
Yes: HB 5461 (requires report on Iranian officials' assets)
Table 2 -- U.S. Senate
Voting Record on Key Legislation
Yes: SB 2040 (override the veto of legislation allowing terrorism lawsuits)
Yes: U.S. Senate Joint resolution (support sale of military equipment to Saudi…… [Read More]
Municipal Budget Analysis
The objective of this work in writing is to assess the budget of the Municipality of Chicago, Illinois in terms of how well budget documents and auxiliary information address each of these functions. The assessment will be substantiated with examples and information from documents studied. This work will examine a variety of sources including the most recent approved budget of Chicago, Illinois.
The City of Chicago 2011 budget includes provisions of no property tax increases and no new tax, fee, or fine increases to balance the budget. This is to effect that there will be no additional budget to residents already impacted by the recession. Secondly, included is the preservation of $576 million in asset lease funds to protect Chicago's future, which is inclusive of maintaining the entire $500 million Skyway long-term reserve. Third stated is the maintenance of the commitment to provide critical services to Chicago…… [Read More]
Vignola began his career as an architect in ologna and supported himself by painting and making perspective templates for inlay craftsmen, later traveling to Rome to work and study. His talent and skill was utilized by the papacy, including Pope Julius III and the papal family of the Farnese. He worked with Michelangelo and was deeply influenced by his style.
It is believed that Cardinal Gianfrancesco Gambara commissioned Vignola to design the Villa Lante in 1566. The first casino was completed immediately, but the second one was not finished until after 1587 when the Cardinal passed away. The two casini differ mainly in the style of frescoes. The first casino uses a riotous highlight of color used to highlight the architecture, while the second casino was done in a more classical style of fresco and plaster sculpture combination.
The gardens of the Villa Lante incorporate water features in "a visual…… [Read More]
1-15). One may note that this amount is offset by a reduction in Federal Aid of $-2,596,200, a 29.4% drop (p. 1-15_. Educational expenses and operating the cities' public schools is by far the costliest budgetary item. This is followed by provision of police and fire services.
Costliest Line Item per Department
Office of Elections
Employee Compensation Increases
Parks, ecreation, and Cultural
Public Health and Assistance
Source: All data was obtained from the Expenditure Summary of the appropriate department section of the budget report.
The biggest expense in every department listed in the report was personnel and/or personnel related expenditures. Personnel services are the largest portion…… [Read More]
All of the streets in elmar begin at the Ocean and ends at Shark River. The open trolley cars in summer ran the streets with people hanging from the cars clustered like grapes.
VI. The Train Station in elmar
The train station in elmar was the hub of the entire world one believes after having fully researched the history of elmar's square mile and the surrounding area on the Jersey Coast. Although the railways of New Jersey may not have survived for long in the humanity packed area that comprises New Jersey and the adjacent New York area the "complex social foci" Roper (1978) contained in the element of the railway station is one worth giving consideration to. During the 1920's the average individuals abandoned use of the railway for intercity transportation and this was after dependency on the railways for service for more than 75 years. Pictured below is…… [Read More]
Markeaton Park is Derby's most heavily used park and is indeed one of the most frequently visited of all East Midlands sites, two facts that would suggest that its upkeep is highly important (Turbutt 1999: 18-20). However, a combination of this high degree of use and a lack of consistent funding for upkeep and infrastructure improvement has left the park in a far-less-than-ideal state. While the park remains attractive to a range of visitors (including families with children), it has entered what the Derby City Council believes may be a cycle of decline in which poor upkeep and the failure to modernize lead to a decline in use and popularity, which in turn will lead to fewer visitors and less money (Derby City Council 2011).
Keenly aware of the fact that the park's future hangs in the balance depending on what decisions are made now, the Council has begun to…… [Read More]
He also asserts that government participation in the arts beyond its role as a consumer can pose significant hindrances to the artistic processes. He claims that politics tends to "seek stability, compromise, and consensus," and as a result avoids supporting art that may "offend majority opinion or go over its head" (38). The market, on the other hand, has "liberated artists…from the potential tyranny of mainstream market taste" (23).
Is Government Funding Necessary or Appropriate?
There are many who disagree with Cowen, claiming that public funding for the arts is crucial to maintaining a vibrant, diverse, and forward-thinking creative community. These arguments are generally characterized by the theory that, while art as a market commodity is a healthy and valuable part of the artistic culture, there must also be a forum for art as a public good. This forum cannot be trusted to the market, which may or may not…… [Read More]
Pei did not stop at this but went ahead to choose Jiang Nan residence primary color, white and grey, and in capturing this Pei used gray granite to replace whitewashed plaster wall dark gray clay tiles. If anyone thinks that these colors are not modern then Jodidio and Adams (2008, Inc. 311) think otherwise, they say that "The gray and white forms recall those of the region, but they remain resolutely modern."
Summary and conclusion
In any project that is undertaken by man there must be challenges and so did the design of Suzhou museum face challenges. The first challenge was on the location which was at the historic district of the city and this would necessitate the moving or destruction of some traditional houses, obviously the residents complained. Pei was lectured by government officials, despite the respect they had for him, he was instructed to make the museum modern…… [Read More]
Theodore oosevelt and His Conservation Efforts
In this paper, I have discussed the presidential efforts of Theodore oosevelt regarding the conservation of natural resources in the United States of America. I have included details of the works done under his presidency concerning the environment preservation. In the last, I have insisted readers to hold this American president in the highest regard for his conservation efforts.
In the American history, Theodore oosevelt is remembered as the first president of United States who made it the central governmental function to conserve the natural resources of the country. For the reason that he had an exceptional scientific understanding from an earlier age and latest knowledge of wildlife and history of nature, oosevelt turned out to be the father of the contemporary conservation movement (Gurney 59).
Immediately after taking the office as President of the United States, Theodore oosevelt made a start to encourage…… [Read More]
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…… [Read More]
The Everglades subtropical wetlands in Florida are recognized for their unique features and for the fact that they are one of the most beautiful places in North America. The territory is also impressive for the fact that it is one of the largest wetlands in the world. ater and fire are two of the two main elements shaping the land, given that floods and draughts constantly affect it. In spite of the qualities that Florida Everglades has, the land is severely harmed by outside factors and it is essential for society to acknowledge the fact that urgent action needs to be taken in order for it to be brought back to its initial status.
The Everglades are full of sawgrass that moves as a result of the fact that water goes through the marshes. This is the reason for which the region came to be known as "The River…… [Read More]
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…… [Read More]
Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages
Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages
Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.
Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British
Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]
history of events in the twentieth century, one might surmise that the twenty-first may not be all that different. Why? ecause human nature and the pursuit of self-interest has not changed from one century to the next. To explain what drives international relations, Joshua Goldstein provides a brief history of the world, in addition to information about the geographical features and the consequences of different nation's economies. (Goldstein, 2003) The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by relative peace in the world. The Franco-Prussian wars were at least three decades into the past. Nobody would envision that the worst horrors of a global scale wars were in the near future. In as much as Goldstein avers that the First World War was wholly unnecessary and it was, at least in its inception, a macho exercise (p. 37), one can believe that war is part of human nature.
After the…… [Read More]
Unlike hadcoe altuism, no assumption of elatedness is necessay. Soft-coe altuism is diected beyond kin as a simple exchange of favos. (Gachte & Falk, 2002, pp1-25) Unlike hadcoe altuism, the soft-coe vaiety is less fimly tiggeed by the spontaneous calculus of the genes and moe "deeply influenced by the vagaies of cultual evolution. (Yamagishi, 1992, pp267-87) Unlike the hadcoe species in which the altuistic act is genuinely diected at othes even though one's own genes ae benefited, soft-coe altuism is ultimately moe selfish and dependent upon ecipocation as a condition fo its aousal. (Bingham, 1999, pp133-69) Unlike hadcoe altuism which is lagely "iational," soft-coe altuism equies calculation, "often in a wholly conscious way, to ensue one's needs ae seved, even though emotive mechanisms like deceit and petense may also infom this behavio. Wilson's tem "softcoe" app11es to the pinciple of ecipocal altuism fist outlined in a pape by R. Tives…… [Read More]
Neck sits on the north shore of Long Island in Nassau County, and the name refers to both the village of Great Neck and the peninsula on which it sits. The Great Neck Park District, Great Neck Station on the Long Island Railroad, and the Great Neck School District make the village a premier residential community with a median home value of $466,800 dollars. This is largely due to the compactness of the community; at just .4 square miles, most of the city is within walking distance of the train station.
Great Neck station's express service on the Port Washington branch gets commuters to Pennsylvania Station in less than half an hour, allowing high-powered Manhattan executives to get to the city from suburbia and back without having to miss breakfast or dinner with their families. Although the average home value has increased significantly since 990, this can mostly be accounted…… [Read More]
Project Management Plan
xyz cur, gutter & ROAD PAVING FOR CITY OF HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA INCLUDING RESTORATION WORK OF HISTORIC DISTRICT NEAR OLD RAILROAD DEPOT
The proposed contract for this project management plan is repaving of all the city streets in the city of Huntsville, Alaama. The project will include rehailitation and preservation of the historic district in the area of the old Railroad Depot in Decatur, Alaama to include rick streets, and round-aouts in the area of downtown Huntsville, Alaama. This will e a large-scale cur, gutter, and road paving project with high costs in laor and materials. Included in this project are the following cur, gutter, and road paving as well as rehailitative street construction initiatives:
miles of cur, gutter and street paving in the City of Huntsville, Alaama
round-aouts near the Railroad Depot
miles of rehailitaiton of rick streets leaving streetcar rails in the rick paving…… [Read More]
colorful period in America's remarkable early history is the gold rush era. In the late 1800's the discovery of gold triggered a flood of immigrants into the country, all intent on making their fortune. These miners shaped the early history of America, and created a great deal of the legend that surrounds the era of the "ild est." hile some of the legends of lawlessness and debauchery are clearly exaggerated, life in the mining towns of the gold rush era was clearly rough and ready.
This paper will examine life in the mining camps of the gold rush era. This will include a look at the people who made up the camps, the general atmosphere, as well as prostitution, gambling, general lawlessness, and the role of religion within the mining camps. The demise of the mining camps will be examined in the context of the development of the railroad and…… [Read More]
The Code also allows for one accessory building, a storage shed, fences, walls, and landscape screens. These screens are not to exceed seven feet in height. They should also be adjacent to the rear and side property lines. At the front, they should not exceed three feet in height. Private swimming pools are also subject to Code specifications.
The Code is aimed at the comfort and well-being of residents, in terms of which domestic animals are also taken into account. The Code does not require specific provisions for domestic animals such as dogs or cats, apart from the fact that they are required to remain inside the fenced area of their residence. If livestock were to be held on a property, the provision is one animal per ten thousand squire feet of the lot area. If these animals are held on a property, they are required to be in a…… [Read More]
The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…… [Read More]
As such, the original construction for the building was completed between 1911 and 1913, after which point the factory underwent significant reconstruction resulting in an expansion that was largely different than its original design. The construction effort was largely financed by enscheidt, who worked in conjunction with foreign investors raise the necessary funding. The building's foundation was achieved by mixing compressed concrete and pebble dashing. While the majority of the rising structure was erected with brick, the floors were laid down with reinforced wood planks. The ceilings were constructed with a formwork shell (Gotz 138).
The glass windows that the Fagus Factory is noted for were erected upon steel frames and cover the building's entire exterior. What is of interest about this fact is that the corners of the building were constructed without supports, in much the same way that the Turbine factory was (Jaeggi 43-44). The glass was placed…… [Read More]
architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.
Yet the end of the 20th…… [Read More]
attle of Monte Cassino during WWII with focus on the Allied decision to bomb the ancient monastery at Monte Cassino
An Analysis of the Allied Decision to omb the Ancient Monastery at Monte Cassino
On this day... In 1944 the battle of Monte Cassino ended as Allied troops finally captured the old fortified abbey (Europe's oldest monastic house), after more than three months of bombardment by shell-fire and air attack. -- Cyril Leslie eeching, 1997
The brief epigraph above does not do justice to this historic World War II battle, since the stakes were high and the decision to attack the "oldest monastic house" in Europe could not be made lightly. In fact, the destruction of the monastery at Monte Cassino, more than any other episode from the Italian campaign of 1943-1945, remains a source of heated debate. This paper provides an overview and background of the events that took…… [Read More]
Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites
Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade is only recently being regulated and stopped. There are many problems with the methods used to stop the trade however and no one nation or regulatory body has been able to devise a solid means by which these treasures can be returned to the people who claim them as heritage. The heritage argument and the ability to return the artifacts becomes even more clouded when the items in question are found underwater. Although there has been a concerted…… [Read More]
Settled long ago by courageous pioneers, Kimball, Minnesota still maintains its small town feel. Today courageous pioneers are fighting to preserve a historic showpiece, the traditional City Hall. The 92-year-old City Hall stands proudly in the middle of downtown representing Kimball's heritage.
Many small towns are losing their historic buildings to age and lack of the building's ability to meet the community's needs. In fact, the Kimball building is starting to deteriorate and its fate lies in the hands of the people. Following is an analysis of the exterior and interior of the building.
The Village of Kimball Prairie broke ground on their new City Hall in 1908. It was a big decision to spend $6,490 for the building but they knew it would last at least a hundred years. They wanted the City Hall to become the town's historic anchor. Today the City Hall sits on top…… [Read More]
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…… [Read More]
Environmental Industrial Management
Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.
Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…… [Read More]
ithin the realm of social contract theory, citizens within a given state consent, either tacitly or explicitly, to surrender various rights and freedoms to the authority of the state. In return, the state guarantees protection of citizen's rights and freedoms. The state also guarantees citizen's protection from external aggression and preservation of national security in return for citizens' sacrifice of certain rights. Citing national security protocol, safeguarding civilian life and forestall another terrorist strike in the wake of 9 / 11, Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the fight against terrorism waged by the Bush regime against the Middle Eastern perpetrators and their allies qualifies as just war. hile the claim that waging retaliatory war deterred recurrence is a reasonable one, the manner in which the U.S. went about it defied the Jus in bello principle of just war. The inhumane treatment of suspected terrorist in the Guantanamo Bay and the…… [Read More]
" In addition, the increased popularity of cultural tourism may be related to the ability of this tourism model to preserve cultural practices rather than modifying and transforming them into so many tourism packages, essentially destroying their traditional qualities in many cases (Butcher, 2002). In this regard, Butcher (2002, p. 88) points out that, "Tourism is not always seen as destructive in relation to the host culture. It is sometimes seen as a positive factor when it reinforces a cultural practice."
Authors such as Smith (2003), Walle (1998) and Boniface (1995) have all studied how cultural tourism can be used to promote local economic development while preserving local cultures. Likewise, cultural tourism has been used to help preserve rather than change the cultures of the Masai peoples in Kenya and Tanzania in sustainable ways. For example, through cultural tourism, Butcher suggests that, "The assimilation of primitive elements into the modern…… [Read More]
The Registrar is further responsible for the computerized collection management system, legal documents, and files associated with acquisitions, condition reports, accessioning, cataloguing, loans, packing, shipping, inventory, insurance and storage. (Patch, 2004)
III. The LIRARY
Librarians generally focus on one of three aspects of work in the library, which include: (1) user services; (2) technical services; and (3) administrative services. Librarians utilize the most recent information technology for conducting research, classification of materials, and assisting students and patrons in their search for information. Librarians must have a broad range of knowledge relating to scholarly and public information sources and "must follow trends related to publishing, computers, and the media in order to oversee the selection and organization of library materials." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2008) Responsibilities of the librarian include management of staff and development and direction of "...information programs and system for the public" (U.S. Department…… [Read More]
Wes Sechrest and Thomas M. rooks and published in the National Academy of Sciences reveals the results of a study they conducted investigating the varying levels of biodiversity distributed throughout the world. The authors employ a fairly novel approach in their measurements of biodiversity, specifically, relying upon two methods approximating the levels of evolutionary history endemic to twenty-five terrestrial "hotspots." The significance of evolutionary history as a measuring stick is that it is associated with the past importance of particular geographic locations, and implies that future evolution is threatened if these locations are threatened. Additionally, Sechrest and rooks find that their twenty-five defined hotspots house not only disproportionately large amounts of evolutionary history, but are also disproportionately threatened by the activities of man. The article stops short of attempting to identify any possible solutions to this impending problem, however, it does help to illuminate some of the shortcomings of our…… [Read More]
Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.
Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:
As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."
Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…… [Read More]
"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…… [Read More]
Affordable Housing and Smart Growth
Smart Growth is an initiative started to increase the quality, distribution and supply of affordable housing for low-income earners.
It is recognized that the growth of cities has been mainly influenced by the public, private and non-profit sector, with the traditional methods of town development not providing adequate housing for low-income earners.
The impact of this has led to an "affordable housing crisis," with over 5.4 million United States households living in accommodation that is either severely inadequate or with payments over half their income.
Smart growth is aimed not just to serve affordable housing needs, but also to serve the needs of the economy, the environment and the community.
As the report says "smart growth in new developments is more town-centered, transit and pedestrian oriented, and has a greater mix of housing, commercial and retail uses...Smart growth ensures greater environmental protection, by preserving open…… [Read More]
old, my parents and I moved from the sprawling, suburban township of Hudson, Ohio to the village at its center, and I fell in love with small, walkable cities and towns that are built on grids. I believe that such environments promote socialization due to the activation energy involved in going out. If we accept that socialization is more comfortable for the majority in the traditional context of a high-density city, why do the majority of new home permits proclaim otherwise? Why don't people just don't pick up and move to places where people have traditionally conducted their daily affairs without the use of a car, like San Francisco and New York City?
The 1960's and 1970's in America saw an urban transition still unknown in most of the major cities of Europe. The Federal Housing Administration had precipitated the explosion in suburban development by offering 4% interest loans following…… [Read More]