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Historic Preservation Essays (Examples)

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Preservation of Historic Sites and
Words: 2629 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24525360
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Instead, he chose to preserve the building's countless accretions so as to reflect the evolution of domestic life over three centuries. This approach, which can be seen at many of SPNEA's house museums today, has since become a distinguishing feature of SPNEA's preservation philosophy" (Redfern para. 2).

It was in 1915 that Appleton made his first visit to Newbury's fabled Spencer-Peirce-Little House, where he immediately recognized the importance of this imposing stone mansion. He recognized that the two-story brick porch was unique in New England. He kept in touch with the Little family with some regularity, hoping to secure the preservation of the property. Appleton died in 1947, but his thirty-year relationship with the Little family bore fruit in 1971 when Amelia and Agnes Little arranged for the land, buildings, and furnishings to come to SPNEA when they died (Redfern para. 2).

Norman Morrison Isham

Appleton learned much from Norman…

Works Cited

The Architectural Archives of the University of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania, 2003. .

The Clement Weaver Home" (2007). April 29, 2007. p://

Lindgren, James M. Preserving Historic New England: Preservation, Progressivism, and the Remaking of Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Mason, Randall and Max Page. Giving Preservation a History: Histories of Historic Preservation in the United States. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Preservation of Historical Buildings the Economic and
Words: 1155 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50849110
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Preservation of Historical uildings

The economic and political contexts that influenced the practice of heritage conservation of historical buildings

The prevalence of the practice of heritage conservation has been instigated with cultural concerns that arise from a developed human society, along with its gradual movement toward becoming a more technologically-advanced civilization. Primarily, heritage conservation, specifically of historical sites and buildings, was introduced as part of organizations' attempts to preserve humanity's cultural heritage. That is, the argument put forth in introducing heritage conservation is culture-based.

Stipe (2003) elucidates on this point, where he considers heritage conservation as initially introduced through an acknowledgment and implementation of cultural preservation. For the author, the conservation of historic buildings is essential because they are our "physical link to the past" (xiv). As such, historic buildings also serves as a reminder to and remembrance for people about the significant events in history that are considered important…


Klamer, A. And P. Zuidhof. (1999). "The values of cultural heritage: merging economic and cultural appraisals." CA: The J. Paul Getty Trust.

Klatt, M. (October 2004). "Car culture." Preservation Online. Available at:

Serageldin, I., E. Shluger, and J. Martin-Brown. (2001). Historic cities and sacred sites: cultural roots for urban futures. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Stipe, R. (2003). A richer heritage: historic preservation in the twenty-first century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Preservation of Historic Structures Versus New Development
Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87756327
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preservation of historic properties in urban centers and smaller communities alike has become a political issue. On the one hand, preservation potentially stymies new developments that might be beneficial to the future growth and health of the community. New development can offer greater diversity of housing options and possibly also enable urban growth by replacing older, smaller, and outmoded structures with larger, more efficient, and more flexible live/work spaces. On the other hand, demolishing historic structures frequently results in what Allen (2014) calls "Shanghaization," or the loss of valuable cultural material in favor of quick profit draws. Overly eager development that ignores any appeal to historicity destroys irreplaceable character, aesthetics, and culture. Ideally, cities strike balances between preservation and new development. The most successful cities are those that adapt to change while recognizing the of preservation. Selective preservation can take place when visionary teams replace tendentious bickering with progressive ideals…


Allen, M.R. (2014). No, historic preservation does not inhibit urban growth. Next City. Retrieved online:

Prior Learning US Historic Travel
Words: 1981 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21087310
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American History

Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.

In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…


Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.

Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.

Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.

Hudson Park Hudson River Park
Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 65343574
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Another highly pertinent grievance would be raised by the Executive Director, of the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, who complained that the park committees did a poor job of reaching out to community, environmental and preservation groups as the issue came onto the table. As the interviewee noted, he and his colleagues had no sense that this controversial plan was in the works. Moreover, even with knowledge of the plan, the director would observe that information was still scarce. Accordingly, the interviewer inquired "How many air rights will be sold? What's the process for them to be used? How much will it cost? I don't know for sure, but there may be up to 1.6 million square feet to sell. Based on my understanding, there are piers designated as 'commercial' and 'recreational'?, so we want to see in writing so it's not subject to different interpretations."

In spite of…

Projects With Historical Significance
Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20249305
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Managing a Preservation Project

• How would you preserve and maintain the historic structure in the twenty-first century?

In the late twentieth century there were major initiatives that set the stage for maintaining the historic structure in the twenty-first century. One of the most notable initiatives was the passage of the National Preservation Act of 1966 which ushered in a "New Preservation" philosophy (Glass, 2014). The paradigm shift in historical preservation consisted of a shift from individual sits of historic importance, to a more comprehensive strategy that includes preserving historical districts and architectural significance. The best way to get started is to contact the local State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and see what resources are available for the local community. It is important to preserve a sense of history in the U.S., which has been called a "disposable culture" that doesn't always appreciate the historical significance of the country's heritage…


Glass, J. (2014). History News: Fifty Years of the National Historic Preservation Act. History News, 13-17.

Oppenheim Associates. (2013, May 14). INSIGHT: Stephanie Meeks - President, National Trust for Historic Preservation. Retrieved from YouTube:

Architecture of Boston Is a
Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61756872
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com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." ( Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" ( The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…

Works Cited

The Old State House Museum." Boston History Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. 

Old State House." Story of Boston Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. 

Boston History and Architecture. Retrieved May 15, 2008. 

Historic Places." Catholic Historical Review. Gale Resource Database. Retrieved May 15, 2008.

British Heritage Conservation Principle an
Words: 4121 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91027711
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Then, it was especially attractive to the sorts of people who did not fit elsewhere: religious and political dissenters, or workers without guild membership. (p. 30).

In this regard, irmingham's goal to become the European Capital of Culture 2008 is a clear reflection of its newfound status (Plant, 2003).

The irmingham Jewellery Quarter. eginning in the mid-19th century, a number of Jewish communities began to spring up in the coastal towns as a direct result of the expansion of the royal navy; at the time, "Jewish watchmakers, jewelers, silversmiths, engravers, pawnbrokers, and purveyors of optical goods served both the civilian and naval populations in the ports.... They also exchanged foreign money for crews returning from abroad and sold inexpensive watches, rings, and other trinkets to ship bound sailors not permitted to go ashore for fear they might desert" (Endelman, 2002 pp. 50-1). The irmingham of the 1850s was not an…


Birmingham. 2005. In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Birmingham's Historic Jewellery Quarter." 2005. The Quarter: Birmingham UK. [Online]. Available:

Brady, E. 2005, February 21. "Designs on Jewellery Success." The Birmingham Post (England), 3.

1999a, September 5. "Money: Made in the Midlands." Sunday Mercury, 42.

United States Is the Diversity
Words: 5913 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 62722507
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Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it seemed, the more of a synergistic effect upon their funding and use (Jensen and Guthrie, 2006).

By the Johnson Administration in the 1960s, coupled with more media attention, there was increased public awareness of America's natural treasures. This was now that "Parks for People" Campaign. During this period there was also a fairly significant new awareness about ecology and the natural environment. The mission of the National Parks Service was called into question. eacting to this, Congress passed the General Authorities Acts of 1970, which became known as the "edwood Amendment," since a large part of the Act was devoted to conserving edwood National Park. Based on political pressure from citizens, Congress was also forced to provide a rather significant funding increase…


The National Park Service. (2002, March). Retrieved October 2010, from U.S. 

National Park Services Almanac. (2008). Washington, DC: National Parks Service, GPO.

Blackburn, S. (2007). Plato's Republic. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Brown and Pozner. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Develpment, 68(2), 274-80.

Collaboration Between the Hopi People
Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90694942
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They write, "Combining tribal narratives and interpretations with archeological data results in a more intimate rendering of history, and enables us to more easily imagine the vitality of life at these sites" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). This, the perspectives of the many participants helped create a larger picture of life and work at these sites.

The project seemed to work well because all the participants worked at getting along with each other, and were working together toward a common goal - preservation of ancient sites that had strong meaning in their cultures. The authors end their discussion with this comment, "We now see that tribes are and will continue to be proactive in directed research projects. [...] -- it is possible to set aside political and philosophical differences to address a common goal" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). The challenges included getting the many tribes and their representatives together,…


Lister, Florence C. 2000. Incidents in Southwestern Archaeology. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Swidler, Nina, David Eck, T.J. Ferguson and Leigh Kuwanwisiwma, Roger Anyon and Loren Panteah, and Klara Kelley and Harris Francis. 2000. Multiple Views of the Past. Cultural Resource Management. Vol. 23.

Armentrout Jeff Lincoln-Douglas Debates in 1858 Lecture
Words: 1265 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12396566
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Armentrout, Jeff. "Lincoln-Douglas Debates in 1858." lecture., Newton Local School, 2012. Newton Local School Debates PP.pdfPlugin=Loft.

he paper discusses the issues that were present in the U.S.A. At the time of the presidential elections in which Abraham Lincoln took part. It also describes the position of both the parties especially Douglas and Abraham. he paper then discusses the problems in the Democrat and the Republican parties. hen, after careful evaluation of all the contenders and their respective parties, the paper gives the results of the elections.

Chicago: Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, 2003. "MEE MARY LINCOLN BIOGRAPHICAL NARRAIVE & CHRONOLOGY." (accessed April 13, 2013).

his source contains complete information about Mary odd Lincoln. It discusses in detail, Mary's early life, her schooling, character and looks and features as well. It also puts light on how Mary met Abraham Lincoln and how they got married. he transition of…

The ancestry, family background, siblings, educational life, death and burial of Mary Todd Lincoln were presented in this paper. This paper analyses the shifts in the life style of Mary Todd Lincoln after her marriage to Abraham Lincoln. Her occupation before and after marriage, her political career and her life as a first lady are also discussed in this paper. This paper also demonstrates how Mary Todd Lincoln spent her post-presidential life.

Wildemuth, Susan. "Elizabeth Keckley and Mary Todd Lincoln Quilt." Quilter's World Magazine, February 2009.  (accessed April 14, 2013).

This paper is taken from the quilter's world magazine. It starts with the introduction of Elizabeth Keckley and her skills in making clothes. The paper also gives details about how she experienced an encounter with Mary and how they became friends. The paper ends with the description of the quilt Elizabeth made from the left over pieces of cloth from the gowns of Mary Lincoln.

Globalization Fostered by Free Flow of Information
Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35048602
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Globalization, fostered by free flow of information and rapid progress in technology, is a driving force that no country can turn back. It does impose market discipline on the participants which can be harsh, but is the mechanism that drives progress and prosperity. Globalization emerged as a buzzword in the 1990s but the phenomena it refers to are not entirely new. As a ubiquitous term, what does "globalization" mean? Some observers emphasize the rapid and free flow of capital as the essential element. Others emphasize labor-that capital flows to where labor is highly productive while relatively cheap, that different parts of the production process can be performed in various far flung places by multiple sources of labor, and that workers themselves move within and between nations often and more easily.

According to Micklethwait and Wooldridge there are "three engines" driving globalization today. The first of those three engines is technology.…


Bowring, Philip. Thinking at Cross-Purposes About Globalization., International Herald Tribune, 02-01-2001.

Godfrey, B.J. 1984. Inner-City Revitalization and Cultural Succession: The Evolution of San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury District. Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers 46: 79-91.

1985. Ethnic Identities and Ethnic Enclaves: The Morphogenesis of San Francisco's Hispanic Barrio. Yearbook of the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers 11: 45-53.

Godfrey, Brian J., Urban development and redevelopment in San Francisco. (California). Vol. 86, The Geographical Review, 07-01-1997, pp 309(25).

Brazil That Steven Dolman Vice
Words: 2182 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 20221678
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Time delays and cost would be an additional concern. I would, therefore, go for Brazilian-produced material and forego the glass.

In regards to the gold leaf, I would also go for the cheaper local material, but I may decide to conduct some impromptu surveys amongst potential businessmen of the market that I am seeking in order to identify their aesthetic opinions in regards to internal and external architectural decoration. I would use the results of these surveys to lead me in my final selection.

I would prefer to lease the building to multiple, rather than to one single tenant, particularly given Brazil's lack of foreclosure laws and its bungling leasing system. Multiple tenants would pose less of a risk and would also, simultaneously and hopefully, provide me with the desired publicity that I would like for this development to attract further lessees in the future. Multiple tenants may also induce…


Poorvu, W.J. (2003). Financial analysis of real property investments

Segal, A.J. & Reisne, R. (2004). Hines goes to Rio. 9-805-001.

Castelvecchio Mixing Old and New
Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32186187
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This specific example is also indicative of some of the general ways in which the building was modified and updated. In his restoration of Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa uses the basic geometric designs and patterns of the original medieval castle, but accentuates, develops, and emphasizes these geometric expressions in a very modern way. The concrete beam in the example above compliments the angularity of the room at large, but is almost an exaggeration of it. The beam itself s composed of three slabs of concrete at right angles to each other, forming three sides of a square or a sort of sideways "c," with the bottom open to the floor. Not only does the beams itself represent an intrusion of modern geometric appreciation into the castle, but even the construction of the beam itself reflects Scarpa's extreme devotion to geometry and geometric expression. This amplifies the geometry that is such an…

Strategic Planning of Singapore Zoo
Words: 3656 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41135905
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Strategic Planning- Tourism Strategic Plan Lewis-Clark Valley

Lewis-Clark Valley is the beautiful site of Lewiston, Idaho and Clarkston, Washington. The historical background of this valley is rich in cultural stories and its own heritage that dated back in some 18th century. The area has been land of Nez Perce Indians who had travelled to this valley and lived long in the land and rivers. The valley is so named because in the 1805, the Corps of discovery explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark visited this place and was welcomed by the native people. This meeting and warm welcome has developed good relations with the land and its people thus named it after their second names. Lewis-Clark Valley is the land of miners, merchants, railroaders, millworkers and farmers. Its geographical location is somewhere 465 miles from the Pacific Ocean at the convergence of the Snake and Clearwater ivers.

The cities of…


Aepel, T. (1997). Not All workers Find Idea of Empowerment as Neat as It Sounds. The Wall Street Journal, retrieved July 15, 2011 from

David, F. (1999). How Companies Define Their Mission, Long-Range Planning, 22 (3), 90 -- 97.

Langley, A. (1998). The Roles of Formal strategic Planning, Long-Range Planning, 21 (3), 40-50.

Markides, C. (1999). A dynamic view of strategy. Sloan Management Review, 40 (3), 5 -- 63.

Treating the Mentally Ill Over
Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58272445
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Freeman's work, however, advanced the understanding of the human brain in ways that probably helped pharmaceutical companies develop pharmacological interventions for people suffering from mental illness.

Long past its mythological place in the history of mankind and medicine, epilepsy continued to be perceived by many in very medieval terms; as the possession of a person by the devil, demonic possession, and, by some, as a form of mental illness (Szasz 117). Sir John Russell Reynolds (1828-196) was one of the earliest physicians to observe and conclude that people suffering from epilepsy were not necessarily suffering from a mental disorder or even possession by demonic monsters (117-118). Many psychiatrists and mental health experts, however, continued to look at epilepsy as a mental impairment (117-119). From 1890 to 1940 people suffering from epilepsy were "colonized" into institutional settings for the mentally ill, and treated for their seizures with a variety of drugs…

Works Cited

11 Most Endangered: St. Elizabeths Hospital, National Trust for Historic Preservation,

found online at , 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2010. Web.

Lawrence, Christopher and Weisz, George. Greater than the Parts: Holism in Biomedicine, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.

Pressman, Jack D. Last Resort: Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine, Cambridge,

Chief Financial Officers Comptrollers Treasurers
Words: 1387 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85916371
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The ABC system uses a much lage numbe and vaiety of cost dives than the one o two volume-based cost dives typical fo a taditional cost system. As a esult, the ABC method has inceased accuacy.

In contacts, it is explained that a taditional cost system uses only volume-based cost dives, such as diect labo and machine hous, and ignoes the key ole of suppot activities, such as numbe of setups and design changes, in poducing many moden poducts and sevices. Such volume-based cost dives often lead to one goup of poducts subsidizing anothe goup of poducts. These subsidies often ceate the appeaance that one goup of poducts is highly pofitable, advesely affecting the picing and competitiveness of anothe goup of poducts. In a highly competitive envionment with complex poducts and sevices, accuate cost infomation can be citical to sound planning and decision-making. (Cook, Gove & Cobun, 2000, p. 305)…

references to cash. The daily language of accounting contains expressions such as "liquid capital" or simply "liquidity," terms that simply refer to means of payment that are easily accessible. In practice, "liquid capital" and "liquidity" can have three and only three forms. The ability to pay can be demonstrated by the presence of means of payment in the form of: cash holdings, deposits in bank accounts of various kinds, and prearranged rights to draw on credits of various kinds.

The concept of illiquidity is simply the logical negation of the concept of liquidity. You are illiquid when you cannot pay your debts at a given moment or within a given period. The transition from a state of liquidity to a state of illiquidity that is more than just temporary is stated in the familiar (and for most interested parties unpleasant and fatal) expression "X has suspended payments." (Kirkegaard, 1997, pp. 41-43)


Bresnahan, K.M. (2000). Investments in Human Capital: A Crisis for Financial Managers. The Public Manager, 29(2), 9.

Cook, T.J., Grove, H.D., & Coburn, S. (2000). ABC Process-Based Capital Budgeting. Journal of Managerial Issues, 12(3), 305.

Government Budgeting for Kelsey Budget Changes Needed
Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83456162
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Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community

"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…


Budget of the United States Government. (2004). Budgets and taxes. Almanac of Policy Issues. Web.

City of Kelsey. (2006). Annual Budget for the Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of Phoenix. Web. 

City of Kelsey. (2009). Kelsey profile. City Government. University of Phoenix. Web. 

DeWeese, Adrianne. (2011). Police say safety tax is needed to help alleviate 'blackout.' The Examiner. Web.

Geographic Information System GIS and Client Server System and the US Government
Words: 3197 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 64769544
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Client server systems are a group of inter-related subsystems which collaborate together to provide a specific solution or service. This computing model structures diverse and distributed applications, which separates tasks between the providers (servers) and service seekers (clients). Keeping the purpose of this paper in view, the provider-server is the Geographical Informative System and the client is the U.S. government. This paper analyzes Geographical Informative System (GIS) as its client server system. GIS are quite pricey with respect to installation. The primary concern while setting up GIS is:

Attaining the data

Performing quality assurance tests

Quality checks on data

Syncing hardware and software

This case study will go through many GIS projects implemented over the years by various U.S. government agencies. It has tremendous benefits to U.S. organizations, which have gone ahead and implemented them successfully. There are tons of benefits can attained from GIS, by both public and private…


Freeman, M. (2008). Government Technology, available from 

Giglierano, J. (2009). Iowa Geographic Information Council, 20 May 2009, available from 

Leidner, A. (2007). American City & County: Payback Figures, available from 

Maguire D. et al., eds. (2008). The Business Benefits of GIS: An ROI Approach (Redlands, CA:ESRI Press), 3-10.

Advantage and Disadvantages of Grants
Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43360311
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Block grants

Block grants can be defined as a kind of grant-in-aid employed by the federal government to provide state governments, as well as local governments, a detailed and quantified amount of funding. The purposes of these grants are to address social services, community development, and public health. The advantages of block grants include enhancing government efficiency, redistribution of authority, and accountability by means of decentralization (Dilger and Boyd, 2009). The disadvantages of block grants include the notion that they can weaken the attainment of nationwide goals and can also be employed as a back door means to decrease government expenditure on domestic problems (Dilger and Boyd, 2009). Examples of block grants include the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Block Grant and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).

Employment grants

The purpose of employment grants is to come up with policies that effect change in employment terms, by…


Dilger, R. J., & Boyd, E. (2009). Block Grants: Perspectives and Controversies. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

Hall, J. L. (2010). Grant Management: Funding for Public and Nonprofit Programs. Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Florida Congressmen
Words: 693 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86192205
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Vote Spotter App Report: Palm Harbor, Florida

The "Vote Spotter" app provided the partisan affiliation and voting record on key legislation results for congressional members of the U.S. House and Senate for Palm Harbor, Florida shown in Tables 1 and 2 respectively below (the Vote Spotter app did not indicate that any of the Floridian congressmen sponsored or co-sponsored any legislation).

House of Representatives

Voting Record on Key Legislation

Gus Bilirakis


HB 5946 (exempts Olympic prizes from taxes)

HB 5931 (prohibits prisoner release payments to Iran)

HB 3438 (allows delay of expensive regulations)

HB 3590 (keep income tax deductions from medical expenses)

Yes: HB 5461 (requires report on Iranian officials' assets)

Table 2 -- U.S. Senate

Partisan Affiliation

Voting Record on Key Legislation

Bill Nelson


Yes: SB 2040 (override the veto of legislation allowing terrorism lawsuits)

Yes: U.S. Senate Joint resolution (support sale of military equipment to Saudi…

Municipal Budget
Words: 1550 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95401588
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Municipal Budget Analysis

The objective of this work in writing is to assess the budget of the Municipality of Chicago, Illinois in terms of how well budget documents and auxiliary information address each of these functions. The assessment will be substantiated with examples and information from documents studied. This work will examine a variety of sources including the most recent approved budget of Chicago, Illinois.

The City of Chicago 2011 budget includes provisions of no property tax increases and no new tax, fee, or fine increases to balance the budget. This is to effect that there will be no additional budget to residents already impacted by the recession. Secondly, included is the preservation of $576 million in asset lease funds to protect Chicago's future, which is inclusive of maintaining the entire $500 million Skyway long-term reserve. Third stated is the maintenance of the commitment to provide critical services to Chicago…


City of Chicago 2011 Budget. City of Chicago Organization Online Retrieved from: 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: 

Chicago Central Area Plan Foresees the Future (2002) Inside. 17-23 July 2002. Retrieved from: 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from:

Home Influence on Formal Landscape
Words: 1965 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24168197
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Vignola began his career as an architect in ologna and supported himself by painting and making perspective templates for inlay craftsmen, later traveling to Rome to work and study. His talent and skill was utilized by the papacy, including Pope Julius III and the papal family of the Farnese. He worked with Michelangelo and was deeply influenced by his style.

It is believed that Cardinal Gianfrancesco Gambara commissioned Vignola to design the Villa Lante in 1566. The first casino was completed immediately, but the second one was not finished until after 1587 when the Cardinal passed away. The two casini differ mainly in the style of frescoes. The first casino uses a riotous highlight of color used to highlight the architecture, while the second casino was done in a more classical style of fresco and plaster sculpture combination.

The gardens of the Villa Lante incorporate water features in "a visual…


Coffin, D.R. 2003. Pirro Ligorio: The Renaissance Artist, Architect, and Antiquarian. Pennsylvania: Penn State Press.

Lees, Frederick. 1997. The Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte. Architectural Record. pp. 413-433.

Pater, Peter. 1976. Renaissance Rome. California: University of California Press.

Rogers, Elizabeth Barlow. 2001. Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History. New York: Harry Abrams, Inc.

City of Norfolk VA 2008
Words: 4546 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 44210269
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1-15). One may note that this amount is offset by a reduction in Federal Aid of $-2,596,200, a 29.4% drop (p. 1-15_. Educational expenses and operating the cities' public schools is by far the costliest budgetary item. This is followed by provision of police and fire services.

Costliest Line Item per Department




Personnel Services


Personnel Services


Personnel Services

Personnel Services


Personnel Services

Office of Elections

Personnel Services

General Management

Personnel Services

Non-Departmental Appropriations

Employee Compensation Increases

Community Development

Personnel Services

Parks, ecreation, and Cultural

Personnel Services

Public Health and Assistance

Personnel Services

Public Safety

Personnel Services

Public Works

Personnel Services

Debt Service

Debt Principal

Source: All data was obtained from the Expenditure Summary of the appropriate department section of the budget report.

The biggest expense in every department listed in the report was personnel and/or personnel related expenditures. Personnel services are the largest portion…


City of Norfolk. FY 2008 Approved Departmental Budget. The Office of Budget and Management. Accessed August 24.

Transportation History of the Railroad
Words: 2332 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46931726
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All of the streets in elmar begin at the Ocean and ends at Shark River. The open trolley cars in summer ran the streets with people hanging from the cars clustered like grapes.

VI. The Train Station in elmar

The train station in elmar was the hub of the entire world one believes after having fully researched the history of elmar's square mile and the surrounding area on the Jersey Coast. Although the railways of New Jersey may not have survived for long in the humanity packed area that comprises New Jersey and the adjacent New York area the "complex social foci" Roper (1978) contained in the element of the railway station is one worth giving consideration to. During the 1920's the average individuals abandoned use of the railway for intercity transportation and this was after dependency on the railways for service for more than 75 years. Pictured below is…


Roper, Grace Trott (1978) "Belmar in Retrospect" [Online} available at,html

Wall Township History [Online] available at

Project Diana Site 1946 - Marconi Road, Wall, New Jersey [Online] available at 

Monmouth County and 40 Towns Embark on Smart Growth Regional Planning: Commissioner Levin Announces Smart Future Initiative Support for the Monmouth County Shore Regional Strategic Plan [Online] available at

Markeaton Park Is Derby's Most Heavily Used
Words: 3536 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 3585453
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Markeaton Park is Derby's most heavily used park and is indeed one of the most frequently visited of all East Midlands sites, two facts that would suggest that its upkeep is highly important (Turbutt 1999: 18-20). However, a combination of this high degree of use and a lack of consistent funding for upkeep and infrastructure improvement has left the park in a far-less-than-ideal state. While the park remains attractive to a range of visitors (including families with children), it has entered what the Derby City Council believes may be a cycle of decline in which poor upkeep and the failure to modernize lead to a decline in use and popularity, which in turn will lead to fewer visitors and less money (Derby City Council 2011).

Keenly aware of the fact that the park's future hangs in the balance depending on what decisions are made now, the Council has begun to…


Adams, W.H. (1991). Nature Perfected: Gardens Through History. New York: Abbeville Press.

Agranoff, R. (2008). Managing Within Networks: Adding Value to Public Organizations. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Agranoff, R. & McGuire, M. (2003). Collaborative Public Management: New Strategies for Local Governments. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Boyne, G. (2003). Sources of Public Service Improvement: A Critical Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 13/3, 367-394.

Funding or Defunding the Arts
Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 408152
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He also asserts that government participation in the arts beyond its role as a consumer can pose significant hindrances to the artistic processes. He claims that politics tends to "seek stability, compromise, and consensus," and as a result avoids supporting art that may "offend majority opinion or go over its head" (38). The market, on the other hand, has "liberated artists…from the potential tyranny of mainstream market taste" (23).

Is Government Funding Necessary or Appropriate?

There are many who disagree with Cowen, claiming that public funding for the arts is crucial to maintaining a vibrant, diverse, and forward-thinking creative community. These arguments are generally characterized by the theory that, while art as a market commodity is a healthy and valuable part of the artistic culture, there must also be a forum for art as a public good. This forum cannot be trusted to the market, which may or may not…


Becker, Howard. 1982. Art Worlds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Cowen, Tyler. 1998. In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.

McChesney, Robert. 2004. The Problem of the Media. New York" Monthly Review Press.

Suzhou Museum -- I M Pei
Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1219916
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Pei did not stop at this but went ahead to choose Jiang Nan residence primary color, white and grey, and in capturing this Pei used gray granite to replace whitewashed plaster wall dark gray clay tiles. If anyone thinks that these colors are not modern then Jodidio and Adams (2008, Inc. 311) think otherwise, they say that "The gray and white forms recall those of the region, but they remain resolutely modern."

Summary and conclusion

In any project that is undertaken by man there must be challenges and so did the design of Suzhou museum face challenges. The first challenge was on the location which was at the historic district of the city and this would necessitate the moving or destruction of some traditional houses, obviously the residents complained. Pei was lectured by government officials, despite the respect they had for him, he was instructed to make the museum modern…


Barboza, D. "I. M. Pei in China, revisiting roots," the New York Times, 2006,  (Accessed May 12, 2010).

Bryant, S. "I. M. Pei and the new Suzhou museum," Hub pages, 2009,  (Accessed May 12, 2010).

Theodore Roosevelt His Conservation Efforts
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Theodore oosevelt and His Conservation Efforts

In this paper, I have discussed the presidential efforts of Theodore oosevelt regarding the conservation of natural resources in the United States of America. I have included details of the works done under his presidency concerning the environment preservation. In the last, I have insisted readers to hold this American president in the highest regard for his conservation efforts.

In the American history, Theodore oosevelt is remembered as the first president of United States who made it the central governmental function to conserve the natural resources of the country. For the reason that he had an exceptional scientific understanding from an earlier age and latest knowledge of wildlife and history of nature, oosevelt turned out to be the father of the contemporary conservation movement (Gurney 59).

Immediately after taking the office as President of the United States, Theodore oosevelt made a start to encourage…


Gurney, S. "Theodore Roosevelt (1858 -- 1919)." Forest History Today Fall 2008: 58-61. Forest History. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. .

Leeman, W.P. "The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America." Parameters 42.2 (2012): 137+. Questa. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <  Http://Www.Questia.Com/Read/1G1-307918426/The-Wilderness-Warrior-Theodore-Roosevelt-And-The >.

Powell, J. "Theodore Roosevelt, Big-Government Man." Freeman Mar. 2010: 26+. Questia. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. .

Sheffield, J. "Theodore Roosevelt, "Conservation as a National Duty" (13 May 1908)." Voices of Democracy 5 (2010): 89-108. Voices of Democracy: The U.S. Oratory Project. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. .

War in Afghanistan Following the
Words: 3674 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30447159
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A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.

A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…

Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.

Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127

Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press

Resource the Everglades Subtropical Wetlands in Florida
Words: 1640 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29382359
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The Everglades subtropical wetlands in Florida are recognized for their unique features and for the fact that they are one of the most beautiful places in North America. The territory is also impressive for the fact that it is one of the largest wetlands in the world. ater and fire are two of the two main elements shaping the land, given that floods and draughts constantly affect it. In spite of the qualities that Florida Everglades has, the land is severely harmed by outside factors and it is essential for society to acknowledge the fact that urgent action needs to be taken in order for it to be brought back to its initial status.

The Everglades are full of sawgrass that moves as a result of the fact that water goes through the marshes. This is the reason for which the region came to be known as "The River…

Works cited:

Levin, Ted, "Listening to Wildlife in the Everglades," National Wildlife June-July 1998

Ridgley, Heidi, "Second Chance for a Dying Estuary - the Monumental Task of Restoring the Everglades Begins 100 Miles to the North," National Wildlife Aug.-Sept. 2002

Stoneman Douglas, Marjory, The Everglades: River of Grass (New York: Rinehart, 1947)

"Everglades: Overview," Retrieved May 20, 2011, from the Florida Everglades Website:

Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Words: 2664 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8454350
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Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.

The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).

There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…


Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.

Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.

Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.

Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed

Town Village Development in UK in the Medieval Ages
Words: 3089 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 21897883
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Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages

Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages

Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.

Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British

Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…

Works Cited

Artsin Leicester/shire. (n.d.). Historic buildings and monuments, from Roman times to 1800. Retrieved from Artsin Leicestershire Web site: 

Chaucer, G. (2007). Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from Electronic Lierature Foundation Web site:

Geolocation. (n.d.). The Free Grammar School in Leicester, England. Retrieved from Web site: 

Google, Inc. (2006, July 2). Leicester, UK. Google Earth (Version 5.1.3533.1731) [Software]. Mountain View, CA, USA: Google, Inc. Retrieved from Google Earth Web site.

Joshua's Goldstein Book 5th Edition
Words: 7033 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98881068
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history of events in the twentieth century, one might surmise that the twenty-first may not be all that different. Why? ecause human nature and the pursuit of self-interest has not changed from one century to the next. To explain what drives international relations, Joshua Goldstein provides a brief history of the world, in addition to information about the geographical features and the consequences of different nation's economies. (Goldstein, 2003) The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by relative peace in the world. The Franco-Prussian wars were at least three decades into the past. Nobody would envision that the worst horrors of a global scale wars were in the near future. In as much as Goldstein avers that the First World War was wholly unnecessary and it was, at least in its inception, a macho exercise (p. 37), one can believe that war is part of human nature.

After the…


Goldstein, J.S. International Relations. 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2003.

Tacitus, C., and Birley, A.R. Agricola; and Germany. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Altruism and Human Reciprocity the
Words: 4013 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85127295
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Unlike hadcoe altuism, no assumption of elatedness is necessay. Soft-coe altuism is diected beyond kin as a simple exchange of favos. (Gachte & Falk, 2002, pp1-25) Unlike hadcoe altuism, the soft-coe vaiety is less fimly tiggeed by the spontaneous calculus of the genes and moe "deeply influenced by the vagaies of cultual evolution. (Yamagishi, 1992, pp267-87) Unlike the hadcoe species in which the altuistic act is genuinely diected at othes even though one's own genes ae benefited, soft-coe altuism is ultimately moe selfish and dependent upon ecipocation as a condition fo its aousal. (Bingham, 1999, pp133-69) Unlike hadcoe altuism which is lagely "iational," soft-coe altuism equies calculation, "often in a wholly conscious way, to ensue one's needs ae seved, even though emotive mechanisms like deceit and petense may also infom this behavio. Wilson's tem "softcoe" app11es to the pinciple of ecipocal altuism fist outlined in a pape by R. Tives…

references. In S.N. Durlauf, & H.P. Young (Eds.), Social dynamics ( pp. 155 -- 190). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Falk, a., Fehr, E, & Fischbacher, U. (2002). Testing theories of fairness and reciprocity -- intentions matter. Zurich: University of Zurich.

Foster, K.R., Wenseleers, T., & Ratnieks, F.I.W. (2001). Spite: Hamilton's unproven theory. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 38, 229 -- 238.

Gachter, S., & Falk, a. (2002). Reputation or reciprocity? Consequences for labour relations. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 104, 1 -- 25.

Gachter, S., & Fehr, E. (1999). Collective action as a social exchange. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 39, 341 -- 369.

Neck Sits on the North Shore of
Words: 1139 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19679367
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Neck sits on the north shore of Long Island in Nassau County, and the name refers to both the village of Great Neck and the peninsula on which it sits. The Great Neck Park District, Great Neck Station on the Long Island Railroad, and the Great Neck School District make the village a premier residential community with a median home value of $466,800 dollars. This is largely due to the compactness of the community; at just .4 square miles, most of the city is within walking distance of the train station.

Great Neck station's express service on the Port Washington branch gets commuters to Pennsylvania Station in less than half an hour, allowing high-powered Manhattan executives to get to the city from suburbia and back without having to miss breakfast or dinner with their families. Although the average home value has increased significantly since 990, this can mostly be accounted…

1,334,544 people live in the county of Nassau, only slightly less than the population of Manhattan which totals approximately 1.5 million. The population of the county consists of 447,387 households comprised of 347,172 families. The population density is 4,655 per square mile. That of Great Neck is higher but the park system offsets the effects of this.

The racial makeup of Nassau county is 79.30% White, 10.09% African-American, 0.16% Native American, 4.73% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.57% from other races, and 2.12% from two or more races. Great Neck has 1/4th or less black people than the county it is in. 9.99% of the population is Hispanic; this is approximately the same as Great Neck. Of the 447,387 households in Long Island, 35.30% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.10% are married couples living together, 10.90% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 22.40% are non-families. The average household size is in the county is 2.93 and the average family size is 3.34. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 92.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 89.00 males.

Project Management Plan Xyz Curb Gutter &
Words: 1960 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26396674
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Project Management Plan



The proposed contract for this project management plan is repaving of all the city streets in the city of Huntsville, Alaama. The project will include rehailitation and preservation of the historic district in the area of the old Railroad Depot in Decatur, Alaama to include rick streets, and round-aouts in the area of downtown Huntsville, Alaama. This will e a large-scale cur, gutter, and road paving project with high costs in laor and materials. Included in this project are the following cur, gutter, and road paving as well as rehailitative street construction initiatives:

miles of cur, gutter and street paving in the City of Huntsville, Alaama

round-aouts near the Railroad Depot

miles of rehailitaiton of rick streets leaving streetcar rails in the rick paving…


Low Impact Development At the Local Level: Developers' Experiences and City County Support. (2009) Econwest. Retrieved from:

Bid/No-Bid Decision Process Flow (2015) The One Business Proposal. Retrieved from: 

Roadway/Transportation -- Capital Improvement Projects (CIP) (nd) Retrieved from:

Ghost Towns
Words: 3226 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30234978
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colorful period in America's remarkable early history is the gold rush era. In the late 1800's the discovery of gold triggered a flood of immigrants into the country, all intent on making their fortune. These miners shaped the early history of America, and created a great deal of the legend that surrounds the era of the "ild est." hile some of the legends of lawlessness and debauchery are clearly exaggerated, life in the mining towns of the gold rush era was clearly rough and ready.

This paper will examine life in the mining camps of the gold rush era. This will include a look at the people who made up the camps, the general atmosphere, as well as prostitution, gambling, general lawlessness, and the role of religion within the mining camps. The demise of the mining camps will be examined in the context of the development of the railroad and…

Works Cited

Arizona's Ghost Towns. 02 December 2003.

Baumgart, Don. Some Mining Camps Faded Others Grew To Be Cities. Nevada County Gold Online Magazine. 02 December 2003.

CmdrMark. Travels in the American Southwest. 02 December 2003. 

Koeppel, Elliot H. The California Gold Country: Highway 49 Revisited. Malakoff & Co.

Planning Having Grown From a
Words: 1847 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 50533543
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The Code also allows for one accessory building, a storage shed, fences, walls, and landscape screens. These screens are not to exceed seven feet in height. They should also be adjacent to the rear and side property lines. At the front, they should not exceed three feet in height. Private swimming pools are also subject to Code specifications.

The Code is aimed at the comfort and well-being of residents, in terms of which domestic animals are also taken into account. The Code does not require specific provisions for domestic animals such as dogs or cats, apart from the fact that they are required to remain inside the fenced area of their residence. If livestock were to be held on a property, the provision is one animal per ten thousand squire feet of the lot area. If these animals are held on a property, they are required to be in a…

The Culture of the Eastern Band Cherokee
Words: 3152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79674094
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The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…

Thames Tunnel Was Originally Created
Words: 6088 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48745324
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As such, the original construction for the building was completed between 1911 and 1913, after which point the factory underwent significant reconstruction resulting in an expansion that was largely different than its original design. The construction effort was largely financed by enscheidt, who worked in conjunction with foreign investors raise the necessary funding. The building's foundation was achieved by mixing compressed concrete and pebble dashing. While the majority of the rising structure was erected with brick, the floors were laid down with reinforced wood planks. The ceilings were constructed with a formwork shell (Gotz 138).

The glass windows that the Fagus Factory is noted for were erected upon steel frames and cover the building's entire exterior. What is of interest about this fact is that the corners of the building were constructed without supports, in much the same way that the Turbine factory was (Jaeggi 43-44). The glass was placed…


Driscoll, Molly. "Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: Father of 'less is more' architecture." The Christian Science Monitor. 2012. Web. 

Filler, Martin. "Mies and the Mastodon." The New Republic. 2001. Web. 

Harris, Neil. "Mies on Lake Shore Drive." Architecture Week. 2004. Web. 

Puente, Moises. Conversations with Mies van der Rohe. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 2008. Print.

Collaborative Consumption and Architecture
Words: 8536 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 88518479
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architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.

Yet the end of the 20th…


About SsD. (2016). SsDArchitecture. Retrieved from 

Botsman, R. (2010). What's Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption.

NY: HarperCollins.

Bovill, C. (2014). Sustainability in Architecture and Urban Design. NY: Routledge.

Battle of Monte Cassino During WWII With
Words: 1793 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55391320
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attle of Monte Cassino during WWII with focus on the Allied decision to bomb the ancient monastery at Monte Cassino

An Analysis of the Allied Decision to omb the Ancient Monastery at Monte Cassino

On this day... In 1944 the battle of Monte Cassino ended as Allied troops finally captured the old fortified abbey (Europe's oldest monastic house), after more than three months of bombardment by shell-fire and air attack. -- Cyril Leslie eeching, 1997

The brief epigraph above does not do justice to this historic World War II battle, since the stakes were high and the decision to attack the "oldest monastic house" in Europe could not be made lightly. In fact, the destruction of the monastery at Monte Cassino, more than any other episode from the Italian campaign of 1943-1945, remains a source of heated debate. This paper provides an overview and background of the events that took…


Beeching, Cyril Leslie. 1997. A Dictionary of Dates. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Colvin, David & Richard Hodges. 1994. Tempting Providence: The Bombing of Monte Cassino. History Today 44 (February):13.

Gyug, Richard. 2001. The Scriptorium and Library at Monte Cassino. Catholic Historical Review 87 (October):724.

Halecki, Oskar. 1983. A History of Poland. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Classic Antiquities Stopping Looting of Classic Greek
Words: 2413 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56775172
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Classic Antiquities

Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites

Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade is only recently being regulated and stopped. There are many problems with the methods used to stop the trade however and no one nation or regulatory body has been able to devise a solid means by which these treasures can be returned to the people who claim them as heritage. The heritage argument and the ability to return the artifacts becomes even more clouded when the items in question are found underwater. Although there has been a concerted…


AFP. "A Rich Greek Archeology Frontier Lying Underwater." Khaleej Times (2005, June 24).

Aiken, Jonathan. "Antiquities Diplomacy." The American Spectator 42.1 (2009): 58-60.

Akal, Tuncay. "Surveillance and Protection of Underwater Archaeological Sites: Sea Guard." (accessed November 2, 2012) 

Carver, Martin. "Editorial." Antiquity 82.315 (2008): 7-9.

Kimball Courthouse Settled Long Ago by Courageous
Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74918083
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Kimball Courthouse

Settled long ago by courageous pioneers, Kimball, Minnesota still maintains its small town feel. Today courageous pioneers are fighting to preserve a historic showpiece, the traditional City Hall. The 92-year-old City Hall stands proudly in the middle of downtown representing Kimball's heritage.

Many small towns are losing their historic buildings to age and lack of the building's ability to meet the community's needs. In fact, the Kimball building is starting to deteriorate and its fate lies in the hands of the people. Following is an analysis of the exterior and interior of the building.

The Village of Kimball Prairie broke ground on their new City Hall in 1908. It was a big decision to spend $6,490 for the building but they knew it would last at least a hundred years. They wanted the City Hall to become the town's historic anchor. Today the City Hall sits on top…


Brennan, Shari. "Kimball is ready to explode." Neighborhood America, March 2000.

City Council Meeting Notes from 1908 to 2002.

McDonald Jr., Travis C. "Preservation Briefs: 35." Architecture at, .

Minnesota Historical Society. .

Water Legislation Origins of Environmental
Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 87395038
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The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…

Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."

"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.

"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."

Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.

First Nations

Environmental Industrial Management
Words: 2089 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99308057
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Environmental Industrial Management

Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.

Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…


Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]

Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.

Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.

Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.

Pacifism Since Time Immemorial Nations
Words: 1928 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12771182
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ithin the realm of social contract theory, citizens within a given state consent, either tacitly or explicitly, to surrender various rights and freedoms to the authority of the state. In return, the state guarantees protection of citizen's rights and freedoms. The state also guarantees citizen's protection from external aggression and preservation of national security in return for citizens' sacrifice of certain rights. Citing national security protocol, safeguarding civilian life and forestall another terrorist strike in the wake of 9 / 11, Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the fight against terrorism waged by the Bush regime against the Middle Eastern perpetrators and their allies qualifies as just war. hile the claim that waging retaliatory war deterred recurrence is a reasonable one, the manner in which the U.S. went about it defied the Jus in bello principle of just war. The inhumane treatment of suspected terrorist in the Guantanamo Bay and the…

Works Cited

Benson, Richard. The Just War Theory: A Traditional Catholic Moral View, New York: The Tidings 2006.

Butler, Paul. By Any Means Necessary: Using Violence and Subversion to Change Unjust Law 50. UCLA L. Rev. 2003 p. 721

Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke Just War against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World New York: Basic Books, 2004

Royal Kraal Elephant Farm in
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 48636517
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" In addition, the increased popularity of cultural tourism may be related to the ability of this tourism model to preserve cultural practices rather than modifying and transforming them into so many tourism packages, essentially destroying their traditional qualities in many cases (Butcher, 2002). In this regard, Butcher (2002, p. 88) points out that, "Tourism is not always seen as destructive in relation to the host culture. It is sometimes seen as a positive factor when it reinforces a cultural practice."

Authors such as Smith (2003), Walle (1998) and Boniface (1995) have all studied how cultural tourism can be used to promote local economic development while preserving local cultures. Likewise, cultural tourism has been used to help preserve rather than change the cultures of the Masai peoples in Kenya and Tanzania in sustainable ways. For example, through cultural tourism, Butcher suggests that, "The assimilation of primitive elements into the modern…

Review of Existing Tourism Research ~ Cultural Heritage Tourism

Cultural heritage tourism has emerged as among the most visible and is widely regarded by the tourism industry as the most successful (Francis-Lindsay, 2009). As an example, the Swedish International Development Agency confirms that the tourism industry "has for some time been accepted as the biggest industry in the world" and has suggested that "cultural heritage provides much of its lifeblood" (quoted in Francis-Lindsay, 2009, p. 152).

Although every tourist is unique, cultural-heritage tourists are typically motivated by a keen interest in

Museum and Library Work the
Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19444207
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The Registrar is further responsible for the computerized collection management system, legal documents, and files associated with acquisitions, condition reports, accessioning, cataloguing, loans, packing, shipping, inventory, insurance and storage. (Patch, 2004)


Librarians generally focus on one of three aspects of work in the library, which include: (1) user services; (2) technical services; and (3) administrative services. Librarians utilize the most recent information technology for conducting research, classification of materials, and assisting students and patrons in their search for information. Librarians must have a broad range of knowledge relating to scholarly and public information sources and "must follow trends related to publishing, computers, and the media in order to oversee the selection and organization of library materials." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2008) Responsibilities of the librarian include management of staff and development and direction of "...information programs and system for the public" (U.S. Department…


Nich, C. (2008) Guide to College Majors in Museum Studies - Online Education Guide. WorldWideLearn Online available at 

Patch, Chuck (2004) a strategic Concern with Practical Solutions: What's the Difference Between a Registrar and a Cataloguer? MCN Minneapolis. 12 Nov 2004. Online available at 

Bishoff, Liz (2000) Interoperability and Standards in a Museum/Library Collaborative: The Colorado Digitization Project. First Monday Journal. Online available at 

Librarians (2008) U.S. Department of Labor - Bureau of Justice Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook. Online available at

Wes Sechrest and Thomas M Brooks and
Words: 3038 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18757870
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Wes Sechrest and Thomas M. rooks and published in the National Academy of Sciences reveals the results of a study they conducted investigating the varying levels of biodiversity distributed throughout the world. The authors employ a fairly novel approach in their measurements of biodiversity, specifically, relying upon two methods approximating the levels of evolutionary history endemic to twenty-five terrestrial "hotspots." The significance of evolutionary history as a measuring stick is that it is associated with the past importance of particular geographic locations, and implies that future evolution is threatened if these locations are threatened. Additionally, Sechrest and rooks find that their twenty-five defined hotspots house not only disproportionately large amounts of evolutionary history, but are also disproportionately threatened by the activities of man. The article stops short of attempting to identify any possible solutions to this impending problem, however, it does help to illuminate some of the shortcomings of our…


1. Allaby M. 1999. Biomes of the World. Danbury: Grolier Educational. 64

2. Dodson S, Allen T. 1998. Ecology. New York: Oxford University. 434

3. Gallant R. The Wonders of Biodiversity. 2003. New York: Benchmark. 80

4. Sechrest W, Brooks T. 2002. Hotspots and the Conservation of Evolutionary History. The National Academy of Sciences. 19; 99(4): 2067-2071.

Terrorism There Are a Number
Words: 9571 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28900701
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Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.

Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:

As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."

Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…

Works Cited

Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.

Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available:

Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.

Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.

Modern Middle East History
Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57126716
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"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…

Works Cited

"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012. 

"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.

Smart Growth
Words: 1502 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96691052
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Affordable Housing and Smart Growth

Smart Growth is an initiative started to increase the quality, distribution and supply of affordable housing for low-income earners.

It is recognized that the growth of cities has been mainly influenced by the public, private and non-profit sector, with the traditional methods of town development not providing adequate housing for low-income earners.

The impact of this has led to an "affordable housing crisis," with over 5.4 million United States households living in accommodation that is either severely inadequate or with payments over half their income.

Smart growth is aimed not just to serve affordable housing needs, but also to serve the needs of the economy, the environment and the community.

As the report says "smart growth in new developments is more town-centered, transit and pedestrian oriented, and has a greater mix of housing, commercial and retail uses...Smart growth ensures greater environmental protection, by preserving open…


Arigoni, D. Affordable Housing and Smart Growth: Making the Connection. Washington D.C: National Neighborhood Coalition, 2001.

Environmental Protection Agency. "Encouraging Smart Growth." EPA, March 2002, 

Smart Growth America. "Americans Want Growth and Green; Demand Solutions To Traffic, Haphazard Development." Smart Growth America Press Release, 

Arigoni, D. Affordable Housing and Smart Growth: Making the Connection. Washington D.C: National Neighborhood Coalition, 2001, p 8.

Suburban Cities
Words: 3200 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50779641
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old, my parents and I moved from the sprawling, suburban township of Hudson, Ohio to the village at its center, and I fell in love with small, walkable cities and towns that are built on grids. I believe that such environments promote socialization due to the activation energy involved in going out. If we accept that socialization is more comfortable for the majority in the traditional context of a high-density city, why do the majority of new home permits proclaim otherwise? Why don't people just don't pick up and move to places where people have traditionally conducted their daily affairs without the use of a car, like San Francisco and New York City?

The 1960's and 1970's in America saw an urban transition still unknown in most of the major cities of Europe. The Federal Housing Administration had precipitated the explosion in suburban development by offering 4% interest loans following…


Stephen Sobek. "A long, hard road to desegregation: New Castle County had significant role in national movement." Delaware News-Journal, 12/21/2000.

When life is more interesting than art." Economist, 3/23/2000.

Peter Gordon and Harry W. Richardson. "Critiquing Sprawl's Critics." Policy Analysis: The Cato Institute Press, January 24, 2000

Peter Samuel and Randal O'Toole. Smart Growth at the Federal Trough

Conservative Congress Takes America Down Ragged Path to Ruin
Words: 7502 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84712398
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U.S. Infrastructure Is in Jeopardy and Consequently So Are We

The federal highway trust fund is the fiscal foundation of the highway system in the United States. Without adequate funding, highway construction stalls and road construction workers are out of work. Congress has dallied with the economic future of America for years as it refused to pass a multiyear transportation bill. The reason for this is likely to be readily apparent to most people: the conservative Congress does not want to increase taxes, even to fund repairs and new roads to meet the infrastructure needs of the country.

A recent study from the White House reports that more than two-thirds of the nation's roadways need to be repaired and that the continued dilapidation results in higher eventual costs that run into the billions of dollars (unningen, 2014). The 27-page report released mid-July 2014 by the Council of Economic Advisers and…


Bennen, S. (2015, May 14). Boehner rejects Amtrak question as 'stupid.' The Rachel Maddow Show. MSNBC. Retreived from 

Buettner, R. And Fitzsimmons, E.G. (2015, February 12). In New York area, points where train and tragedy are likely to intersect. The New York Times. Retrieved from 

Caygle, J. (2015, May 13). House panel votes to cut Amtrak budget hours after deadly crash. Politico. Retreived from 

de Blaseo, B. And Cornett, M. (2015, May 13). Let our cities move. The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. Retrieved from