History Of The Modern Middle Term Paper

Some may be educated and economically well off, within particular fundamentalist sects, but use an idealistic vision of the past to provide a solution to what they see is lacking in the contemporary world. This was true of the Muslim Brotherhood of 1929, which used religion as part of its ideology of colonial resistance -- and is also true of many of the terrorist leaders of the modern groups threatening America today. (Gelvin, 2004, p.295) An advocacy of a return to origins has provided a powerful way for Muslims to advocate regional solidarity, national resistance to a hated leader or colonial power, or simply for a cause that is supposed to remedy the present. The difficulty of articulating a liberating ideology within a fundamentalist mindset, however, should not be dismissed. Even the contemporary Egyptian author of The Committee, which portrays an Middle Eastern government secretly dominated by oppressive blond Westerners, provokes a comparison in the reader's mind with similar autocratic and oppressive Arab leaders in Iran. Fundamentalism may provide a source of self-definition, but it offers a means of ideologically justifying autocratic and oppressive control.


American Civil War: Finally established America as a unified nation and world actor, under a central, federal authority, and brought the South into the modern, industrial world.

Article 22 of the Charter of the League of Nations: Gave freedom to former colonies of the Ottoman Empire to exist as independent nations but with administrative advice and assistance by outside powers.

Balfour Declaration (1918): This partitioned British-controlled Palestine into two territories, one dominated by Jewish residents, the others by Arab Palestinians.

Bretton Woods System: The Bretton Woods System established the need for all nations to abide by a single, unified monetary system, which was first tied to the price of gold.

Cairo Conference of 1921: A March 1921 a conference presided over by Winston Churchill held in Cairo to settle postwar Middle Eastern affairs. At the Cairo Conference the British decided to name one of Sharif Husayn's sons as the leader of Iraq, a territory then under British control.This established a pattern of installing British favored rulers as a means of controlling Middle Eastern territories from within, Britain later did in Egypt until the rule of Anwar Sadat.

Capitulations: The policy of conceding territory to an aggressor, as the European Allies did to Hitler, before Hitler's invasion of Poland.

Commercial Revolution: In Europe, the creation of private banking and more secure national monarchies. This international trade and a money economy to take hold within the region. It also stimulated trade and exploration overseas, and an increased interest in navigation. As a result of this revolution, the world grew more internationally focused. Improved seafaring led to increased trade between nations -- and to colonial expansion.

William Knox d'Arcy: an Englishman who was one of the first founders of the modern oil industry of


It was intended to make the Ottoman nations more economically competitive with Europe.
Islamo-nationalism/Islamo-anarchism: The advocacy of unity based upon shared a shared Islam past, or an Islamic, anarchist denial of western systems of government, with Islam instead offered as the guiding political light for the region.

Mustafa Kemal: leader of the post-World War I Turkish nationalism movement and the first president of the independent, modern Turkey

Rentierism: This suggests that countries with economies largely dependent upon exporting oil tend to become autocratic and economically underdeveloped in other areas and thus fail to flourish as modern nation-states.

Reza Shah: The last Shah of Iran. His corruption and authoritarian rule allowed the Ayatollah Khomeni to encourage lower-class Iranians to support a fundamentalist Iranian revolution. His rule also encouraged anti-American sentiment in Iran, given that the hated Shah was backed by America.

Salafism: a fundamentalist, purist school of modern Islam popular in Saudi Arabia

Seven Years' War (1756-1763) Conflict between Frederick the Great of Prussia and the other major European powers, including France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. England allied itself with Prussia. Frederick the Great established the foundation for a unified Germany as a result of this war, and laid the seeds for the creation of the map of modern nation states in the European community.

Third Worldism: The proclamation of the unity of all so-called developing nations, or formerly colonized nations, regardless of former animosity or region, because of their common economic struggles and political legacy of colonialism

U.N. Resolution 242: the 1967 UN Resolutions 242 and 338 stipulated that Israel must withdraw completely from these territories acquired during the 1967 War, when the Arab states recognized Israel's right to exist.

World Systems Theory: theory of social change with a focus on role and relationships between societies rather than individuals.

Vilayet-e faqih: part of the Shiite Islamic faith holds that all Muslims should eventually strive to be under one leader

Works Cited

Friedman, Thomas L. "Cursed by Oil." The New York Times. Op-ed. 9 May 2004.

Gelvin, James. The Modern Middle East: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Ibrahim, A. The Committee. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2001.

Cite this Document:

"History Of The Modern Middle" (2006, June 05) Retrieved April 14, 2024, from

"History Of The Modern Middle" 05 June 2006. Web.14 April. 2024. <

"History Of The Modern Middle", 05 June 2006, Accessed.14 April. 2024,

Related Documents

Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East Lawrence never received formal military training, but he achieved the rank of Colonel in the British Army. Discuss how he achieved the rank and compare his training to yours. Lawrence initially studied archeology and architecture at Oxford; these pursuits first drew him to the Middle East. The knowledge he gained was instrumental in his securing a military

By the middle of the nineteenth century, the balance of economic strength had shifted entirely to western Europe and especially to Britain and France, which were then passing into the second stage of the industrial revolution that Turkey had hardly begun. The European powers would use their political and economic power to force the empire to allow its economy to be incorporated into the nineteenth-century liberal capitalist system. Free

Modern Middle East

Middle East/Gulf region has a complex history and has experienced a series of important events both during and in the years following Muhammad's influence in the territory. While Muhammad's ruling played an important role in shaping thinking in the region, his legacy was actually more important, taking into account that it practically influenced people in taking on certain attitudes and in expressing great interest in wanting to promote Islamic

Modern Middle East History

Zionism "Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and

At the beginning of the book, the young man is humiliated and tortured by the Western appearing and speaking judicial committee. Then, further demonstrating the levels of control and command over their citizens, the committee attempt to impinge upon the ways that young man thinks. He is told that he must write about the 20th century's most important achievement and the greatest Arab figure, to demonstrate his loyalty to

As evidence, one need look no further than contemporary political battles over certain medical procedures and, more generally, over the relationships among and between government, society, and medicine. Conclusion The history of modern medicine is not one that traveled linearly; it is a history that represents overlapping stages of earlier influences and more modern approaches. Nor did medicine evolve uniformly in the entire human community. In most cases, even the best