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Keeping people as hostages has happened all through history. In the recent years, political events in Algeria, Kenya and Vietnam show examples of such terrible acts. Criminals, mentally challenged, prisoners are usually the people involved in hostage taking. Hostage crises have prevailed due to escalations of family member-on-member, family member-on-employee, intoxicated colleague, household dispute situations, disturbed client-on-employee and disturbed employee-on-client violence at workplace. Those involved in hostage taking activities involved in either properly assessed or quick responses to a situation. Professional criminals might involve a hostage being taken accidentally or due to a fight or flight panic response when the criminal activity is understood and interrupted, involving the criminals without a pre-decided plan of activity. The hostages are then held as a method of barter for escape. Inadequate personalities are people who are emotionally challenged people who might keep a hostage to obtain and maintain continued attention to…
"Crisis Negotiation" (December, 2002) Retrieved from http://fbilibrary.fbiacademy.edu/Templates/B=crisisnegotiation.htm Accessed on 25 April, 2005
Duffy, James. E. (June, 1997) "Situation boards - hostage situations" The FBI Law Enfocement Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_n6_v66/ai_20213075/pg_2 Accessed on 25 April, 2005
"Hostage Negotiation Study Guide" (2003) Retrieved from http://www.learning-for-life.org/exploring/lawenforcement/study/hostage.pdf Accessed on 25 April, 2005
Moll, Rob. (14 March, 2005) "Weblog: Is Ashley Smith's Hostage Story a Testimonial? More than a story of faith and hope, this hostage practiced the Sermon on the Mount" Christianity Today. Retrieved from http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2005/111/31.0.html Accessed on 25 April, 2005
Following the deadly aftermath/fallout from the Attica prison riot in New York State in 1971 -- and from the bloody terrorist attack during the 1972 Olympic Games in Germany -- there have been attempts to change the way in which authorities go about crisis negotiation. This paper discusses the responses that authorities have had to these crisis situations and outlines the steps that have been taken to improve the strategies that are needed when there is a crisis.
Attica -- what changes (if any) have been made in crisis negotiation?
ithout going into great detail regarding the causes of the insurrection at Attica Prison in 1971, it should be noted that the living conditions for many inmates at Attica were deplorable. Attica was a place where 2,200 men were jammed into a facility that was built for 1,600, according to "the smart negotiator." In the end, after the…
Coutu, D.L. (2002). Negotiating Without a Net: A Conversation with the NYPD's Dominick J.
Misino. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved October 12, 2013, from http://hbr.org .
The Smart Negotiator. (2013). Tag Archives: Attica Prison Riot / Setting a Precedent:
Comfortable Excuse. Retrieved October 12, 2013, from http://thesmartnegotiator.wordpress.com .
Deception techniques & lying
There are situations in which lying or other deception techniques are used and are allowed as negotiation technique to save possible loss of life or to avert other such critical situations. Certain experts do not encourage the use of such techniques. Some say that lying or deception can only be used as last resort. The idea of using deception techniques if used regularly and randomly may damage the reputation of police and in case of future crisis, criminals would become wary of promises by the negotiators. "Psychologist Harvey Schlossberg warns: "Remember, tomorrow's hostage -taker is watching today's news report." Such a warning, especially from a prominent expert, reinforces the belief that maintaining credibility for future incidents is indeed of great importance" (urke, 1995). Therefore, it is suggested that the dealings and interaction of negotiators should be genuine and deception techniques should be avoided as much as…
Burke Jr. F. (1995). Lying during Crisis Negotiations: A Costly Means to Expedient Resolution. Vol. 14
Grabianowski, E. (n.d.). How Hostage Negotiation Works. Retrieved on Oct 3, 2005 at http://science.howstuffworks.com/hostage-negotiation.htm
Smith, A. (1993). Developing an Action Plan to Resolve Hostage Situations. Vol. 55, August
Zandt, C. (1993). Hostage Survival Strategies. Vol. 37. January
The 4th, 5th, and 6th amendments have had serious impacts on modern hostage negotiations and will be examined in this paper. Elements that are to be considered include promise making, incriminating statements, as well as the planting of listening devices. Graham vs. Connor, State vs. Sands, and Taylor vs. Watters, among others, are some of the court cases that will be used in this discussion. Again, the impact of these cases, as well as, three amendments on modern day hostage negotiations will be examined in this paper.
Impact of 4th, 5th, and 6th Amendments
Legal Issues Associated With Hostage Negotiations
The world of emergency mental health is full of crises, but few of these are ever as critical as hostage situations. In such occasions, lives are in danger and at risk of immediate death, and it is often at the hands of unstable, emotionally traumatized, and desperate individuals…
18 U.S. Code § 2511 - Interception and disclosure of wire, oral, or electronic communications prohibited. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/2511
Blume, J. (1984). Deadly Force in Memphis: Tennessee v. Garner. Cumberland Law Review, 5(1). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/facpub/273/
Chhablani, S. (2009). Disentangling the Sixth Amendment. Journal of Constitutional Law,11(3). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from https://www.law.upenn.edu/journals/conlaw/articles/volume11/issue3/Chhablani11U.Pa.J.Const.L.487(2009).pdf
CITY OF CANTON, OHIO V. HARRIS. (2010, October 7). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from http://nccr.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=466:city-of-canton-ohio-v-harris
The field of hostage negotiating did not develop on the front lines of police work, but, instead, in the broader political context, dealing specifically with the taking of hostages. In modern times, these events have been large-scale terrorist events, such as when terrorist took athletes hostage at the 1972 Munich Olympics. This helped hone the field of hostage negotiations, because of a belief that appropriate intervention and negotiation could yield results that save lives in the event of hostage scenarios. Of course, hostage taking, and, therefore, hostage negotiation is not a new phenomenon; people have been taking hostages for years. In fact, when one looks at how piracy worked, it becomes clear that in many instances pirates were taking and holding hostages in an effort to get ransom for them. Any kidnap-for-ransom scenario is a hostage scenario. This was so commonplace that different ranks of crewman had different…
McMains, M. & Mullins, W. (2014). Crisis Negotiations, 5th Ed.. Waltham, MA: Anderson
There are numerous stages in a crisis scenarios. Crises can be seen as happening in stages that have different characteristics and require different skills to manage" (McMains & Mullins, 2010, p.25). These stages are: pre-crisis, crisis/defusing, adaptation/negotiation, and resolution/surrender (McMains & Mullins, 2010, p.25). Pre-crisis does not refer to a specific event, but to an organization prior to a crisis. It is characterized by practice, planning, and prevention by the negotiators and their support teams (McMains & Mullins, 2010, p.25). The crisis/defusing stage involves the recognition that there is a crisis and the negotiators attempts to deescalate the situation into one where there can be negotiation. It is during this time period that negotiators often assess whether a crisis is negotiable. They also assess the nature of the crisis: it is not considered a hostage scenario unless human life is at stake, even if the taker is threatening…
McMains, M.J. & Mullins, W.C. (2010). Crisis negotiations (4th ed). New Providence, NJ:
The secondary negotiator is also responsible for maintaining a more detached perspective than the primary and helping the primary remain objective and uninvolved on a personal psychological level (Schmalleger, 2008; Wind, 1995).
One of the primary tools employed by hostage negotiators are information obtained about the underlying motives and psychological makeup of the hostage takers because that understanding enables them to structure their negotiating posture in the manner most conducive to achieving a positive outcome. Hostage negotiators also rely on the bidirectional effect of the Stockholm phenomenon, according to which a psychological connection develops between hostages and hostage takers. In the case of hostages, this is not particularly helpful to negotiators, but as it pertains to hostage takers, the Stockholm syndrome is very helpful because it often results in the development of empathy for the hostages which greatly facilitates a positive outcome (DeFabrique, omano, & VanHasselt, 2007).
Hostage negotiators also…
Butler, W.M., Leitenberg, H., and G.D. Fuselier. "The Use of Mental Health Professional
Consultants to Police Hostage Negotiation Teams," Behavioral Sciences and the Law 11 (1993): 213-221.
DeFabrique, N., Romano, S.J., and VanHasselt, V.B. "Understanding Stockholm
Syndrome," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2007, 10-15.
Negotiation Crisis Team
The process of hostage and crisis negotiation is an event that involves a team, it is not something that can be performed by an individual and cannot be considered as a secondary activity. Such negotiations are meant to help in the management and/or resolution of very risky situations, and in most cases the situations are very tricky to deal with. The manner in which these situations present themselves often make it necessary to have specialized, explicit and compound knowledge backgrounds to be effectively handled. The effectiveness of such a process is very significant since the measure is through the loss of life avoided. The success or failure of such a team in the management and resolution of the situation is measured in terms of human lives saved or lost, this is why the team must be well composed. The knowledge and experience of each and every member…
Bohl, N.K. (1992). Hostage negotiator stress, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 61(8):23-26
Butler, W.M. et al., (1993). The use of mental health professional consultants to police hostage negotiation teams. Behav Sci Law 11(2):213-221
Call, J. (2003). Negotiating crises: The evolution of hostage/barricade crisis negotiation. Journal of Threat Assessment, 2, 69-94.
Cooper, H. (1981). The hostage takers. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press.
Aspiring students wishing to learn the finer details of the art of negotiation would be well advised to investigate different negotiation situations that present different aspects of negotiation. These examples are even more relevant and beneficial when changing strategies occur during the negotiation, and, learning results with these experiences becomes evident and applicable to everyday situations. As an aspiring pharmaceutical sales representative, it is important for me to remember that this information demonstrated by those who have successfully negotiated through different and important experiences in their lifetime provide a useful and clear presentation of specific tactics and techniques that are important to employ during any particular negotiation or discussion in which I would be you are seeking to gain a competitive advantage.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze two different negotiations and their subsequent negotiation strategies and apply the learning points from these results to a…
Cantoria, C. (2011). Famous negotiaions: lessons for project managers. Retrieved http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/106943.aspx
Iran Hostage Crisis (n.d.). Retrieved April, 18, 2011, from website, http://www.u-s- history.com/pages/h2021.html
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…
1. "Exxon, Mobil in $80B deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 1 Dec. 1998.
2. Beaudin, Guy. "Kraft- Cadbury: Making Acquisitions Work." BusinessWeek. 9 Feb. 2010.
3. "Mannesmann seals deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 3 Feb. 2000.
4. "$58B bank deal set: J.P. Morgan agrees to buy Bank One in a deal that would combine two of the nation's biggest banks." CNN Money.com. 15 Jan 2004.
The Rock, a 1996 thrilling, high paced movie release, directed by Michael Bay and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, demonstrated a series of intense and riveting scenes in which negotiation, and the negotiation process with accompanying successful attitudes, are played out in a violent and thrilling tale. Luckily for us, these negotiation scenes not only highlight the necessary skills and mind frames for successful marketing and business skills, but are also highly entertaining and artistically relevant. This suspenseful movie delivered high paced action scenes starring superstars Sean Connery, Nicholas Cage and Ed Harris. This movie artfully and demonstrably examined the use of negotiation skills in a high-stakes environment while simultaneously providing us with an opportunity to learn and understand the graceful and sometimes confusing task of information-based bargaining.
In order to fully understand and learn the useful applications presented in this film dealing with the techniques of information-based bargaining…
The 'negotiation' process, entailing conflicting parties' deliberation over the problem and arrival at a conclusion that works to all parties' advantage, constitutes a highly effective means of preventing tension and disputes. Disagreeing persons sit together, engage in open-forum problem discussion, bargain or negotiate, and arrive at a result satisfactory to every party. Successful communication leads to successful negotiation. Negotiations should be free from yelling and brawling; parties ought to peacefully exchange beliefs, views and feelings. Nobody can know one's ideas and feelings if one doesn't express them effectively before others. People's manner of speaking and non-verbal cues (gestures, posture, facial expression, etc.) contributes significantly to successful negotiations (MSG, 2016).
The UPS (United Parcel Service) Strike of 1996 Win-Lose Negotiation
American courier/messenger service business established in the year 1907, the UPS, is now the world's biggest courier, specialized transport and logistics firm. Its key corporate strategy was: largely…
Ciel, s. c. (2011, July 4). Negotiation Tips for Project Managers: Learning From Historic Cases. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubpm.com/methods-strategies/106943-negotiation-tips-for-project-managers-learning-from-historic-cases/
Dolnik, A., & Pilch, R. (2003). The Moscow Theaterhostage Crisis: The Perpetrators, theirTactics, and the Russian Response. International Negotiation, 8, 577 -- 611.
Enock, K. (2006). Principles of negotiation and influencing. Retrieved from http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5a-understanding-itd/negotiating-influencing
Ionescu, R. (2011, December 7). Influencing for Results. Retrieved from http://www.negotiations.com/articles/negotiation-techniques/
Ebert (1986) believes "there is absolutely no justification for preventing mental health professionals from participating in virtually all facets of hostage negotiation," (p. 580). As Hatcher, Mohandie, Turner & Gelles (1998) point out, most mental health professionals that do participate in any aspect of hostage negotiation do so "by invitation only in police-established hostage negotiation schools," (p. 461). With this training, the mental health professional is thus theoretically prepared to engage the perpetrator directly. However, the mental health professional is only prepared when the training provided is thorough and consistent, and in accordance with the parameters and goals of each crisis situation.
The pros of employing a psychologist as a primary negotiator are clear. Most significantly, the psychologist has expertise in human behavior and cognition and can apply that knowledge to making quick decisions. The psychologist can also provide post-traumatic stress intervention services to the hostage victims and…
Ebert, B.W. (1986). The mental health response team: An expanding role for psychologists. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 17, 6, 580-585.
Hatcher, C., Mohandie, K., Turner, J. & Gelles, M.G. (1998). The role of psychologists in crisis/hostage negotiations.Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 455-472.
Crisis negotiation is a procedure used by law enforcement to communicate with individuals who are threatening violence. They include violence in the workplace, stalkers, barricaded subjects, individuals threatening suicide, and hostage takers. In the past several decades, the concept of crisis negotiations has been described as the most important development in police psychology and law enforcement. Actually, various law enforcement agencies have been using crisis negotiations techniques in response to kidnappings, critical incidents, hostage or barricade conditions, and personal crises. Based on recent trends, the use of crisis negotiations by law enforcement agencies have continued to grow since its inception in 1973. The main purpose of crisis negotiation is to develop rapport through establishing communication to gather intelligence regarding individuals' threat of violence.
Types of Situations that equire a Crisis Negotiator:
There are various types of situations that may require the use of crisis intervention procedures through a…
Grabianowski, E. (n.d.). How Hostage Negotiation Works. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from http://people.howstuffworks.com/hostage-negotiation2.htm
Miller, L. (2005). Hostage Negotiation: Psychological Principles and Practices. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 7(4), 277-298. Retrieved from http://www.psychceu.com/miller/Miller_Hostage_Neg.pdf
Vecchi, G.M, Van Hasselt, V. & Romano, S.J. (2005). Crisis (Hostage) Negotiation: Current
Strategies and Issues in High-risk Conflict Resolution. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 533-551. Retrieved from http://www.eisf.eu/resources/library/hostage_negotiation.pdf
Negotiation Process: How Attica and Lewis Changed the Nature of Negotiation
The historical events of the riot at Attica prison on Sept 9th, 1971 and the hostage situation in 2004 at Lewis State Prison (Arizona) led to a significant change in the application of crisis negotiation. The lessons learned from each event changed the art of crisis negotiation as a result. Understanding how this transformation came to be, it is essential to discuss the events that transpired.
The Attica prison revolt served as a "wake-up call" to administers of crisis negotiation (Strentz, 2012, p. 176). Lacking on this day were the necessary "experience" and "intelligence" of crisis negotiators, as well as the implementation of correct "command decisions," tactics, and techniques (Strentz, 2012, p. 176). The "art" of negotiation was unrefined, crude, "forceful," and disorganized (Brown, Campbell, 2010, p. 362). However, among the prisoners, there was the opposite: organization, rhetorical skill,…
Brown, J., Campbell, E. (2010). The Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology.
UK: Cambridge University Press.
McMains, M., Mullins, W. (2014). Crisis Negotiations. NY: Routledge.
Strentz, T. (2012). Psychological Aspects of Crisis Negotiation. FL: CRC Press.
Negotiation refers to the conversation between several parties with the aim of resolving their differences, reaching an understanding, gaining advantage, or designing outcomes that satisfy the interests of either party. Negotiation happens within government branches, businesses, and legal proceedings, non-profit organizations, and among nations. Drastic situations include personal situations like marriage, parenting, and divorce. The following study evaluates and describes the subject, theory and practice of negotiation (Fells, 2012). The essay takes considerable references to professional negotiators such as leverage buyout negotiators, union negotiators, hostage negotiators, peace negotiators, legislators, brokers, or diplomats.
Negotiation takes various forms including trained negotiators acting for certain organizations or positions within formal settings and in informal negotiations such as between friends. Negotiation is contrasted through mediation for illustrations where neutral third parties listen to the arguments of each side and help in designing agreements between such parties. The action is comparable to arbitration, as…
Benoliel, M. (2011). Negotiation Excellence: Successful Deal Making. New York: World Scientific.
Cleary, P.J. (2000). The Negotiation Handbook. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Cohen, H. (2007). You Can Negotiate Anything. New York: Jaico Publishing House.
Falcao, H. (2012). Value Negotiation: How to Finally Get the Win-Win Right. New York: FT Press.
Use sound reasoning to explain to Bradley how the situation will get better if he allows the hostages to go free. Perhaps the negotiator can call in a favor on Bradley's behalf if Bradley shows a sign of good faith and allows the hostages to go free.
Providing Bradley alcohol would be against protocol, but the food and the promise of aiding Bradley is getting the help he needs rather than going to jail may be of help. Bradley is looking for help right now and not to get drunk. He also may be looking to make a demand that the negotiator will say no to in order reiterate the fact that Bradley does not trust the police.
If the alcohol is a necessity to Bradley, the negotiator may try to pull some strings and allow it. Against protocol or not, if lives are in danger, providing the alcohol to…
ZAITSU, W. (2009). Bomb Threats and Offender Characteristics in Japan. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profi ling, 1(7). Retrieved November 17, 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jip.106/pdf
James, R.K., & Gilliland, B.E. (2001). Crisis intervention strategies (4th ed.). Belmont, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning.
Noesner, G. (1999, January 1). Negotiation concepts for commanders | FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, the | Find Articles at BNET. Find Articles at BNET | News Articles, Magazine Back Issues & Reference Articles on All Topics. Retrieved November 18, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_1_68/ai_54036504/
Crisis Negotiation Team
Our organization has been provided funding for a crisis negotiation team. There will be several roles within this team that will need to be filled. The team will be composed of three to five people; the FBI recommends two people as a bare minimum however generally there is a bare minimum of three people required (McMains & Mulins, 2010). The team members must be able to perform many roles within the team. Some of the tasks that will be required include (McMains & Mulins, 2010):
Gather intelligence about the incident, the hostage taker, the hostages, etc.
Develop tactics that will defuse the incident, influence the hostage taker, and reduce the risk of loss of life.
Establish communication with the hostage taker.
Record relevant intelligence information.
Keep a record of the negotiations, including demands and promises.
Coordinate and communicate with incident commander and tactical…
McMains, M., & Mulins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiations. New Providence: LexisNexis/Anderson.
Terestre, D. (2004, March 26). Talking him down: the crisis negotiator. Retrieved from Police One: http://www.policeone.com/columnists/PoliceMagazine/articles/82818-Talking-him-down-the-crisis-negotiator/
Morey Unit Hostage Crisis
The hostage crisis that occurred at the Morey Unit of the Arizona State Prison Lewis Complex lasted for fifteen days and represented a hostage standoff that was the longest in U.S. history. The crisis began in the early morning hours of January 18, 2004 in the kitchen area of the unit, when two inmates, Ricky Wassenaar and Steven Coy, subdued a correctional officer and a kitchen staff employee. They subsequently took two hostages and inflicted serious emotional and physical damage to multiple correctional officers and civilian employees prior to engaging in the fifteen-day standoff. The lengthy episode challenged the resources of the Arizona Department of Corrections and magnified substantial security lapses and errors in judgment used by Department of Corrections officials. An ultimate analysis of the episode finds major flaws in the supervision of inmates at the Morey Unit, which the two inmates were able to…
You are a police psychologist for a major metropolitan area. You are also a member of its hostage negotiation team. You have been called to a crisis incident at 3:15 P.M. On a Friday. It is in a residential area about three blocks from a middle school and a public library. The information you have at this time is that the subject is a 42-year-old male who is holed up in his house with his wife, son, and a family friend. He has murdered his next-door neighbor and is threatening to kill those in the house if his demands are not met. One of his demands is for immunity from the murder charge if he surrenders without harming any of the people in the house. His other demands are a case of beer and some fast food. He wants his demands met or "something will happen."u
Alaxander, D., & Klein, S. (2010). Hostage-taking: motives, resolution, coping and effects. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 176-183.
Cooper, H. (1981). Hostage-takers. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=75936
Goldaber, I. (1979). Typology of Hostage-Takers. Police Chief, 21-23. Retrieved from Hughes, J. (2009). A Pilot Study of Naturally Occuring High-Probability Request Sequences in Hostage Negotiations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 491-496.
McMains, M., & Mullins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiation (4th ed.). New Providence: Lexis/Nexis/Anderson.
And if that policy is already in effect, then further training in that area is necessary.
The kitchen is an obvious source of "weapons" (like the heavy soup ladle used). It should be guarded more heavily and made less easily accessible. Routine searches of that area should be as thorough as possible. There was no video surveillance of this area -- a significant oversight. That is part of the reason the escape attempt went undetected for so long after the two employees were overwhelmed by the convicts.
There is no question that, in this situation, the escape attempt could have been stopped before it became dangerous if only one or two of the above recommendations had been followed.
~There existed too much open access to the security tower, and procedures to enforce security became lax and ineffective. Again, there is no doubt that had proper procedures been in place or…
Associated Press. (2004, March 4). Arizona prison standoff probe blames past decisions in part. Retrieved May 30, 2009, from USAToday.com: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-03-04-prison-hostages_x.htm
Baker, J. (2004). Anatomy of a hostage negotiation: An interview with a primary negotiator. Retrieved May 31, 2009, from The Negotiator Magazine: http://www.negotiatormagazine.com/article211_1.html
Epler, P., & Rushton, B. (2004, February 19). Federal judge questions credibility of Arizona department of corrections director. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from Middlegroundprisonreform.org: http://www.middlegroundprisonreform.org/news/NewTimesDoraCredibility.2004.htm
NICIC. (2004). Preliminary finding and recommendations: The morey unit hostage incident. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from National Institute of Corrections Information Center (NICIC): http://www.nicic.org/Library/019617
police elements that respond to a crisis incident as well as an analysis concerning the emphasis that is placed on the negotiating and tactical team, and the necessity of the two groups to communicate and work together and the various positions that make up the negotiating team. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the paper's conclusion.
Law enforcement authorities have used various negotiation strategies in their response crisis incidents ever since these methods were originally used in 1973 by the New City Police Department (Vecchi, Hassel & omano, 2005). The composition of negotiation teams varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but the National Council of Negotiation Associations (NCNA) recommends at least three trained negotiators for responding to any type of crisis incident. According to the NCNA, "More complex or difficult incidents may require additional trained negotiators working in shifts and filling a variety…
Mijares, T.C., McCarthy, R.M., & Perkins, D.B. (2000). The management of police specialized tactical units. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Recommended negotiation guidelines and policies. (2014). National Council of Negotiation
Associations. Retrieved from http://www.ncna.us .
Vecchi, G.M., Hassel, V.B. & Romano, S.J. (2005). Crisis (hostage) negotiation: current strategies and issues in high-risk conflict resolution. Aggression and Violent Behavior,
Kidnapping, extortion and detention are real dangers for businesses that operate both overseas and in domestic markets. Top management of these firms often overlooks these things by saying that it will never happen to us. They seem to not understand how much damage it can do to a business. "With more than 1,000 annual kidnappings of business professionals and executives all around the world and number of terrorist's attacks, such policies is an absolute necessity in the eye of life and health insurance professionals who travels internationally" (Gordon, 2009). Kidnap and ansom insurance policies give a cushion to a business with regard to independent investigations, collaborations, arrangement and delivery of funds, and number of other services pivotal to a safe, speedy and satisfactory resolution. Any business of any size can be a target for extortion threats against them or their employees. People are inclined to think business extortion and kidnapping…
Eisenberg, Melvin a. (2002). Contracts. Chicago: Thompson.
Gilbert's Law Dictionary. (1997). Chicago: Harcourt Brace.
Gilroy, Tony and Hackford, Taylor. (2000). Proof of Life. United States: Castle Rock
Any potential barriers that might prevent agreement from occurring are discussed, such as strategic behavior that is displayed through hard bargaining. Wheeler defines bargaining power as the strength or weakness of one company's BATNA. He uses the example of Iranian hostage negotiations to describe how power could possibly be turned upside down in negotiations. In this example, bargaining power is the reflection of both knowledge and skill.
Finally, the article discusses the element of ethics, or what the right thing to do in each situation is. For example, candor, moral reasons and equity may be discussed in this aspect. For example, force with weapons is illegal, just as unethically tying a parties hands to something that is morally wrong should be done. Another issue that arises is the impact of the negotiation on bystanders, and how fair the negotiation process is to those directly affected by the potential agreement. One…
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
In this regard, the law enforcement community has begun implementing scenario-based strategic planning in the nature of that used by American military strategists since the Cold War. Interagency strategic planning now includes scenario-based training wherein the specific components of local, state, and federal agencies charged with responding to critical incidents participate in joint exercises simulating the foreseeable demands for their joint services (Koestner 2006).
Benefits and Potential Difficulties:
Scenario-based tactical training in law enforcement has undoubtedly improved the safety of officers, subjects, and victims at crime scenes by conditioning officers to respond reflexively after hours of repetitive simulated tactical exposure (Lynch 2005). In the case of strategic planning, operational synchronicity and resource implementation are the goals rather than reflexive individual responses, but, the benefit is analogous. In much the same way that scenario-based tactical training ensures the desired application of force on the force continuum authorized for use by police…
Carlson, Joel, a. Demands on Police Services in a WMD Incident; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77 No. 3, (Mar/08), pp. 1-6.
Lynch, Michael, D. Developing a Scenario-Based Training Programs: Giving Officers a Tactical Advantage; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 74 No. 10, (May/05), pp. 1-8.
Koestner, Lesley, G. Law Enforcement Online: Facing the Challenges of Katrina; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 75 No. 2, (Feb/06), pp. 1-6.
The lasting legacy of the Iran hostage crisis is that the American public and government developed an attitude that the Iran people and government were a group of evil and crazy individuals who lacked the capacity to negotiate. This attitude caused a breakdown in negotiations at the time of the hostage crisis and has continued to the present day. Americans, as a rule, still fail to recognize that the Iranian people have legitimate concerns and that these legitimate concerns have value. Over the decades since the hostage crisis there has been little movement forward in regard to how Americans view Iran and the level of animosity between the two nations remains high. Farber suggests that this level of animosity helped to ensure that America's relations with the Muslim world would remain contentious and that such contentiousness led to the attacks of September 11 that resulted in the escalation of the…
Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)
Iranian hostage and Jimmy Carter
Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)
This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)
Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…
Carter, Robert Melvin; Glaser, Daniel. (1977) "Correctional Institutions" Lippincott.
Corcoran, Michael H; Cawood, James S. (2003) "Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner's Handbook" CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
Garrett, Michael. (2004, Jun) "In Need of Correction: Arizona's prison system is overloaded and its staff is overwhelmed" Retrieved 4 April, 2008 at http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Currents/Content?oid=oid%3A57551
The presence of the web, which allows time-sensitive information to be blogged as it occurs, plus the dire nature of the threat tipped the scales in favor of not releasing the information. It was seen as akin to not releasing certain details about a victim, to enable the police to conduct a more effective investigation of what potential suspects did or did not know.
However, it must be remembered that the primary interest of the newspaper is to tell the truth, not to further a particular social objective, as defined by a government agency, whatever the agency's goals. In the case of the hostage-taking, individual officer's lives were at stake. However, it would not be ethical to refuse to release information about the treatment of inmates at the prison that lead to the riots, even if this information was inflammatory. The benefits of exposing such abuses are so great, when…
"FAQ about comments." The New York Times. December 13, 2009.
"What do you think of The New York Times' decision to withhold information regarding reporter
David Rohde's kidnapping?" Women on the Web. June 28, 2009. December 13, 2009.
Stress Among Police
Stress among the police
Stress among the police force
Police workforce remains an environment that is highly stressful being an occupation that a person has to deal with physical dangers and risking their lives any time they are working. esearch indicates that the prevalent stress warning signs that need to deal with immediately they appear are sudden behavior changes in behavior, erratic work behavior, increase of sick time because of minor problems, failure to preserve a train of thought, and extreme worrying. There are many ways, which departments in the police force can deal with stressing the police force. The first mechanism is provision of stress management initiatives to both offices and their spouses. There is a need for identification of officers under stress and offer them counseling to assist in alleviating their stress. Periodic screenings as well as training concentrating on stress management is necessary.
Territo, L., & Vetter, H.J. (2001). Stress and police personnel. Boston, Mass: Allyn and Bacon.
Toch, H., Bailey, F.Y., & Floss, M. (2002). Stress in policing. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
Global terrorism has changed the entire spectrum of tolerance in today's world. Highlighted by the events of 9/11 the facts that even the world's most powerful nation was not immune to the effects of terrorism brought home the fact that there was little defense to the acts of terrorists. The age of innocence in the United States had ended and the rest of the world waited to see how the United States would react (Schorow 2002).
Terrorism has been a part of the world framework for some time but in the United States it had been something that occurred somewhere else. It was not anything that those living within the borders of the United States had to be concerned with. Those types of problems existed elsewhere. In America everyone was safe: until 9/11. 9/11 forced Americans to look at terrorism in a different light and to examine the roots…
Blake, Michael. "Religion and Statecraft: Tolerance and Theocracy: How Liberal States Should Think of Religious States." Journal of International Affairs, Fall/Winter 2007: 1-17.
Stetson, Brad and Joseph G. Conti, The Truth about Tolerance: Pluralism, Diversity, and the Culture Wars. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2005.
Hinkson, John. "In the name of freedom: is the legacy of September 11 a global anti-liberal ascendancy?" Arena Magazine, February 1, 2002.
Hoodbhoy, Pervez. "The United States and Islam:toward perpetual war?(Views from Russia, Pakistan, Malaysia, and China." Social Research, December 22, 2005.
Planning and Preparing to Achieve Information Superiority
will be of paramount importance, using as much of friendly forces' technological superiority as possible to jam or impede the C3I of the enemy if it comes to a fight ("FM 3-0 Operations" 11-2-11-23). This will allow the town to be taken with a minimum of casualties, hopefully at night when the population is asleep and when superior U.S. night vision equipment and technology will give us the advantage, minimizing casualties. This will hopefully convince loyalists that U.S. forces were doing all in their power to minimize casualties and damage to property.
Since FM 3-90 provides specific guidance as to offensive encircling, FM 5-0 will be used because of its reference to a river crossing and crowd control procedures as part of an offensive operation. In the hours leading up to the movement to contact, it would be necessary for units unfamiliar with…
United States. Department of the Army. FM 3-0 Operations. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 2001. Print.
United States. Department of the Army. FM 5-0 the Operations Process. Washington, D.C.:
Department of the Army, 2001. Print.
United States. Department of the Army. FM 3-90 Tactics. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army,
Media on Terrorism
Acts of anti-American terrorism are becoming increasingly common, and more and more are occurring on American soil, according to Columbia political scientist rigitte L. Nacos (Nacos, 1995). According to Nacos, the rise in terrorism is not a matter of flawed national security. It has more to do with the success that terrorists have enjoyed in exploiting the relationships among the media, public opinion and political decision-making (Nacos, 1994).
Nacos believes that the media is "the crucial link in the terrorist's 'calculus of violence,' particularly terrorist spectaculars -- large actions aimed at Americans, like the Iran hostage crisis, the bombing of PanAm Flight 103, and the hanging of hostage Lt. Colonel William Higgins in Lebanon (Nacos, 1994)." In these cases, she says, the terrorists "exploited the free American media. They got an extraordinary amount of attention -- up to two-thirds of the network evening news devoted to the…
News Directors on the Defensive in Nashville." (September 16, 1985). Broadcasting, pp. 76-78.
Cohen, N. (1997). Lessons learned from providing disaster counseling after TWA flight 800. Psychiatric Services, 48, 461-462.
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). (2003). Terrorism and the Media. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.terrorismanswers.com/terrorism/media.html.
DeFleur, M. & Dennis, E. (2002). Understanding mass communication: A liberal arts perspective (7th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Clinton's Lewinsky Speech
Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…
Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.
Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.
English Right of Set-Off and Combination in the Circumstance of Insolvency
The right of combination and set-off, as developed under English law offer a number of safeguards to banks and creditors in general. These rights were expanded under the principles that they were necessary to effect substantial justice and that they would stimulate economic growth and trade. In the following paper, I suggest that the judicial application of these rights has tended to unfairly favor banks at the expense of the individual customer, which may initially stimulate growth by encouraging banks to provide loans, but in the long-term may serve to deteriorate trade, particularly at the international level. Customers in other countries, particularly civil law countries, experience much more risk when they do business with an English bank, and hence may be better off refraining from bringing their enterprises there, or at any rate must be extremely careful in drawing…
Aldrich, George. The jurisprudence of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal. New York: Oxford University Press (1996)
Collier, John & Lowe, Vaughn. The Settlement of Disputes in International Law: Institutions and Procedures. New York: Oxford University Press (1999)
Pritchard, Robert. ed. Economic Development, Foreign Investment and the Law: Issues of Private Sector Involvement, Foreign Investment and the Rule of Law in a New Era. Boston: Kluwer Law International, International Bar Association. (1996)
Jan Paulsson, Nigel Rawding, Lucy Reed, Eric Schwartz, The Freshfields Guide to Arbitration & ADR (2nd revised ed.), Boston: Kluwer Law International (1999)
Munich Massacre of 1972 was an organized terrorist attack on 11 Israeli Olympic athletes at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. By the end of day-long the conflict, 11 Israelis, five Arab terrorists, and a German policeman were dead.
On September 5, 1972 at 4:30 AM, Arab terrorists wearing tracksuits and carrying weapons in athletic bags scaled the fence of the Olympic Village in Munich. Security was lax or non-existent, enabling a quick and efficient entry. Upon breaching the Village, the terrorists rendezvoused with an under-cover terrorist, who had been working for the Village, and thus knew exactly where the future hostages were sleeping. At 5AM, the terrorists knocked on the door of Israeli wrestling coach Moshe Weinberg, who immediately recognized that something was awry. He shouted a warning to his players and, with wrestler Joseph omano, tried to keep the terrorists out while some of the players escaped out…
Palestine Facts 2010, Israeli 1972 Olympic Team Murdered in Munich, viewed 8 February,
2010, < http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to1991_munich.php>.
However, since its independence in 1905, Norway has worked towards building a strong economic base for its economy, although farmers and farming, too, continue to be strong identities in the nationalistic perception of Norwegians, its fishing industry, oil production and other natural resources. Norway's fishing industry is strong, although the country has some concerns about pollution and environmental issues, they're not strong or serious enough to adversely impact Norway's fishing economy.
First Attempts to Join the EC
At its inception, in 1948, the European Union was known as has the European Community, the EC; that a fully integrated Norway would mean economic enlargement for the EU. It offered attractive benefits to the European nations, and initially those benefits were comprised of a unified security system and economic incentives. One of the most appealing benefits for Norway, certainly appealing to Norway's farmers, is a subsidized farm plan that would generate income…
Burch, Stuart. "Norway and 1905: Stuart Burch Considers the Significance to Norway-Both in Terms of the Past and the Present-of the Anniversary of 1905, When the Country at Last Won Its Independence from Sweden." History Today, June 2005, 2+.
Carter had to deal with these powers and stand for what was right, for the future and the dignity of the common man. His stand on human rights is looked to as an example today.
In spite of all the controversy, Carter maintained a surprisingly successful foreign policy for someone who had so little experience. He had made a campaign pledge to make human rights a high priority, even though he found it difficult to put into practice. He accelerated the process of ending white colonial rule in Africa. He actually improved relations with Latin America by ending the treaty with Panama and handing over control of the Panama Canal. But his crowning achievement was at Camp David, September 1978, when he personally brought together the leaders of Israel and Egypt and signed a peace treaty between them, attempting to bring stability to the Middle East. He followed up by…
Carter, Jimmy. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, vol.1. 1977. http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/55.htm
Mickey Z. "Nobel Carter?" The Legacy of Jimmy Carter. 11 Oct 2002. http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?ItemID=2463.
Nobel Lecture by Jimmy Carter, Ozlo, December 10, 2002.Stockholm, Sweden: Pressens. 2002. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2002/carter-lecture.html
The Presidency. "Grolier's Encyclopedia. New York: Scholastic. 2000.
On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.
After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…
Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.
Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008. http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf
Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
Chechnya [...] Chechen conflict with ussia, including how it started and when, along with the causes, effects, main events and attacks, and a current perspective on events in Chechnya today. Chechnya has always desired independence from ussia, and continues to fight for its' freedom today. The tiny country has not been able to shed ussian influence and government, but it has evolved into a world political crisis that has effected thousands of Chechen civilians and continues to cause strife and violence today.
Chechnya is a Soviet epublic that declared independence from ussia in 1991. However, ussia's leaders refused to acknowledge Chechnya's independence, and instead sent in troops to subdue the Chechens. They withdrew when they met armed Chechens ready to defend their country, but the current conflict had its beginnings in these events in 1991, which escalated to full-scale war by 1994. However, the roots of the problems between Chechnya…
Author not Available. " The Situation in Chechnya and Ingushetia Deteriorates." HumanRightsWatch.org. 8 April 2004. 23 April 2004. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/04/07/russia8408.htm
Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Paige Sullivan, eds. Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Documents, Data, and Analysis. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
Editors. "Country Profiles: Chechnya." BBC. 2004. 23 April 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/2357267.stm
Shah, Anup. "Crisis in Chechnya." GlobalIssues.org. 2 April 2004. 23 April 2004. http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Chechnya.asp
Ethical and Legal Issues Depicted in the Movie, John Q?
From beginning to end, "John Q" is a movie full of moral and ethical quandaries. It offers viewers a clear glimpse at private and public entities' obligation to engage in ethically-right routine decision-making for their respective communities. John lacked the required health insurance to cover his son's cardiac surgery expenses. The Hope Memorial Hospital, electing not to play a "Good Samaritan," does not agree to perform the surgery without being assured payment. Thus, John is faced with the moral quandary of accepting fate and readying for the funeral of his son (as suggested by Rebecca Payne, the Hospital's administrator), or somehow procuring the money needed. Given the urgency of his son's case, the second option is rather daunting. Ultimately, John ends up holding emergency room patients and staff members hostage, to ensure his son is catered to (angura, 2011).
Bangura, G. B.-L. (2011, August 28). ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF "JOHN Q" MOVIE. Retrieved from Bailama Dynasty: http://bailamadynasty.blogspot.com/2011/08/ethical-analysis-of-john-q-movie.html
HubPages. (2015, December 26). John Q Analysis: Ethical & Moral Dilemmas. Retrieved from hubpages.com: http://hubpages.com/entertainment/Morality-and-Ethics-in-John-Q
Foreign Policy of President eagan
Before the disastrous Vietnam War, the U.S. held an undisputed dominant position worldwide, recognized locally as well as by other nations. The nation's historic actions towards defending freedom, by restraining the fascist faction during the Second World War, followed by organizing a large free-state coalition for combating communism, were supported by profound and sweeping domestic consensus. This consensus was destroyed by America's decision to wage war on Vietnam. Despite the rationale being the protection of free peoples battling communism, the Vietnam War resulted in caustic doubt and destabilizing discord among Americans. This suspicion and discord incited and guided by people opposed to the war, rather than the enemy's weaponry and zeal, explains America's failure, above every other factor. The U.S. had to battle internal resistance more than resistance from the Vietnamese adversary, and resulted in a self-inflicted defeat (Brenes 2015; LAISON 2013). Extremely serious repercussions…
Anderson, Martin. 1990. Revolution: The Reagan Legacy, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Armstrong, Scott and Peter Grier. 1986. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream, New York: Foreign Policy Association.
Arquilla, John. 2006. The Reagan Imprint: Ideas in American Foreign Policy from the Collapse of Communism to the War on Terror, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Baucom, Donald R. 1992. The Origins of SDI, 1944-1983, Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas.
Executive ranch Authority to Conduct Foreign Affairs
Executive Power is vested in the President of the United States by Article II of the Constitution. Article II, Section 1, Clause 1 of the American Constitution, called the 'Executive Vesting Clause' has been the constant focus of constitutional analysis, even at the time of its ratification. James Madison and Alexander Hamilton famously debated this clause in 1793, on the specific issue of residual authority given to the President above and beyond powers as enumerated in the Constitution. The power and authority of the President affects not only the President himself, and the two arms of the Congress, but also the freedoms and rights of U.S. citizens. The precise delineation of executive power has been the subject of notable Supreme Court cases particularly with respect to foreign affairs and war. In the United States now, due to the 'War on Terror', issues of…
Article II, Section 2 of the United States Constitution
Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution
Binder, Sarah A. ( Spring 2001).The Senate as a Black Hole: Lessons Learned from the Judicial Appointment Experience. The Booking Review 19.
Bliss, Howard and Johnson, M. Glen. (1975). Beyond the Water's Edge: America's Foreign Policies. (Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Company).
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at
2). It is clear that the United States looks on this pathetic situation as a place that needs assistance, and the U.S. has provided aid off and on to Sudan through the years of its independence. It may be, Lewis writes, that the U.S. actually did not intervene in any way in the carnage in Darfur until massive international publicity forced America's hand. The 22-year civil war that claimed 2 million lives and "displaced 4 million people" ended in 2005, Lewis explains, but was "scarcely noticed in the West" (Lewis, p. 1).
What has been the U.S. role in the peace accords and Security Council Resolutions?
The U.S. has had its hand in numerous attempts to end the Darfur and Sudan tragedies. Prior to 2005, the year in which the UN Security Council -- along with Sudan and other cooperating nations -- put together the "Comprehensive Peace Agreement" (CPA) the…
ABC News, 2006, 'George Clooney Speaks About Crisis in Darfur -- 4.30.06', Retrieved April 2, 2011, from http://abcnews.go.com .
CBC News, 2005, 'Sudan's mass killings not genocide: UN report'. Retrieved April 3, 2011,
From http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2005/02/01/newdarfur-report050201.html .
Enough Project, 2010, Sudan Peace Watch -- Nov. 4, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2011, from http://www.enoughproject.org .
It also points out the importance of private security in cases such as these, which could have prevented the situation from occurring in the first place. It is well written and researched, and the interviews all add depth and understanding to the article and its purpose.
In conclusion, the article makes it clear there are things anyone can do to avoid becoming a victim of kidnapping and most of them are common sense approaches. Hiring a private security firm will not guarantee an individual will not be kidnapped, but it does add another layer of protection around the family, and that is never a bad thing. It is also interesting that few foreigners are kidnapped, and Mexico could develop no-negotiation policies that might result in fewer kidnappings, even if they are so commonplace that they are accepted. Ultimately, it is up to the government to control crime, and when there…
Barham, J. (2008). Outwitting the outlaws. Retrieved 24 Jan. 2009 from the Security Management Web site: http://www.securitymanagement.com/article/outwitting-outlaws-004896 .
J. Barham. (2008). Outwitting the outlaws. Retrieved 24 Jan. 2009 from the Security Management Web site:
¶ … Terrorism Be Justified Is terrorism justified? A definition of terrorism is hard to put forth, mainly because it depends on which side the definition comes from. However, the UN definition could be successfully used. As such, terrorist acts are "criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act" (UN Security Council Resolution 1566) Arguments pro-terrorism lack Rhetorical Power because they involve the violence and death of innocent people. These people cannot be collectively guilty because (1) they are not making the contested decisions and (2) the scope of terrorism is usually to intimidate and not…
It was plainly obstruction of justice, and Al Haig knew it immediately.
It must also be noted, however, that, as the president tried to cover his tracks, Al Haig was given orders by Nixon to help him do it. In that capacity, for instance, Haig helped arrange the wiretaps of government officials and reporters (Gearan).
He played a key role in attempting to persuade Nixon to resign. Most believe it was Haig who first suggested to Gerald Ford that he pardon Nixon for his crimes while in office. It was this advice and Ford's acceptance of it that is believed to have cost Ford the presidency in 1976.
In "Nixon: An Oral history of His Presidency," (Strober & Strober, 2003), Haig says this:
"It is totally untrue that I raised the question of pardon with Ford...a series of options was given to him, including pardons...There were five options written by…
Answers Corp. "Biography: Alexander M. Haig, Jr. ." 2006. answers.com. 22 February 2010 .
Eyman, S. "Alexander Haig, former secretary of state, dies." 20 February 2010. palmbeachpost.com. 24 February 2010 .
Gearan, a. "Alexander Haig Dead: Former Secretary of State Dies." 10 February 2010. huffingtonpost.com. 23 February 2010 .
Jackson, H. "Alexander Haig." 20 February 2010. guardian.co.uk. 22 February 2010 .
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…
Felzenberg, Alvin S. "There You Go Again:" Liberal Historians and the 'New York Times' Deny Ronald Reagan His Due." Policy Review, no. 82 (1997): 51+.
McKenna, Marian C. Franklin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of 1937. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.
Reagan, Ronald. 2008. Inaugural Address. [Online] available from the Internet at http://www.americanpresidents.org/inaugural/39a.aspaccessed 3 May 2008.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran…
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
Lear and Comodore Barron, the commander of the American fleet in the Mediterranean agreed in 1805 that Ahmad was no longer useful to the American cause. As a result, Lear met with Muhammad D'Ghies, Tripoli's Minister for foreign affairs, and eventually reached an agreement. War prisoners would be mutually exchanged, and America had to pay a sum of $60, 000 to Tripoli. However, this sum was considerably smaller than what the Pasha had asked for in 1804. Legendary Commodore Charles Morris wrote, "On the 3rd of June, a peace was concluded with Tripoli by Colonel Lear, who had been authorized by the President to negotiate."
One of the most important consequences of the war was its power to produce some of the earliest American war heroes. In the absence of news correspondents, and the far-reaching means the press has today, the accounts of the war were given by the people…
arbary Pirates and U.S. Navy
As early as the American Revolution, the establishment of an official U.S. navy was a matter of debate for the newly formed Continental Congress. Supporters of the idea of a naval service argued that the United States needed sea power to defend the coast and make it easier to seek support from foreign countries by becoming part of the international seafaring group. Detractors pointed out that, at the time, Great ritain's Royal Navy was the preeminent naval power, and the new country had neither the funds nor expertise to match ritish naval might (Palmer 2004). Of course, once the war was over and the United States began to assert itself into world trade affairs the issue of protecting American merchant ships became an important part of international commerce. This actually came to a head in the area near present day Libya, the southwest Mediterranean with…
Clark, G.N. "The Barbary Corsairs in the Seventheenth Century." Cambridge Historical Journal 8, no. 1 (1944): 22-35.
Davis, R. "British Slaves on the Barbaray Coast." BBC- British History in Depth. October 15, 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/white_slaves_01.shtml#two (accessed November 2010).
Folayan, K. "Tripoli and the War with the U.S.A." The Journal of African History 13, no. 2 (1972): 261-70.
Fremont-Barnes, G. The Wrs of the Barbary Pirates. New York: Osprey Publications, 2006.
There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.
The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…
Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French
Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International
History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign
However in those days, the progress was even slower and there was deeper concern about the possibility of complete transition. Samuel Huntington's path-breaking book, Political Order in Changing Societies (1968) has been by far the most well received and comprehensive book on the subject of civilian military relations. Huntington studied the conditions in Latin America and found that in underdeveloped countries, militaries were usually more powerful because society cannot access the government and hence support military's interference. Middle classes then "compel the military to oppose the government" and restore the status quo ante. Military may be powerful but Huntington felt that it was the organizational structure that can be blamed for coups but instead the social structure and thus "Military explanations do not explain military intervention," he argued.
By the end of the 1970s, even more literature appeared on the scene to explain civil military relations and to study the…
The continued reunification of Sudan, remains to be fully realized, even some 7 years after the official end to the civil war. Oppression and lack of representation still occur as do more subtle marginalizing tactics on the part of the favored government. Secrecy and fear still abound in the nation, as do economic and social hardships that are difficult to overcome.
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95248133
Deng, Francis M. "Egypt's Dilemmas on the Sudan." Middle East Policy 4.1 & 2 (1995): 50-56. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95248133.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. "Solving the Crisis of Sudan: The Right of Self-Determination vs. State Torture." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 41. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036026.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. "The Sudan -- Contested National Identities." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 111. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036042.
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, and Richard Lobban. "The Sudan since 1989: National Islamic Front Rule."…
Judy Mayotte, "Civil War in Sudan: The Paradox of Human Rights and National Sovereignty," Journal of International Affairs 47.2 (1994), Questia, 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000189501 .
Richard Lobban, "Slavery in the Sudan since 1989," Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 31, Questia, 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036022 .
On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."
Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.
In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…
(2001). U.S. And Indonesia Pledge Cooperation, Joint Statement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Indonesia.
(2001, October 1). U.S. To Send Team to Indonesia To Discuss Combating Terrorism. Xinhua News Agency.
(2001, November 27). U.S. Admiral Urges Indonesian Military To Account for East Timor Mayhem. Agence France-Presse.
Baker, P. (1997, April 22). U.S. To Impose Sanctions on Burma for Repression. Washington Post.
This may be because of the fact that the author took it upon himself to reveal the names of the hostages who were killed and who were ultimately released. Since the main drama in the book is trying to imagine what will happen next, there is no fun in reading what has happened after knowing the ending of the book. (News of a Kidnapping) After reading the book, Villamizar had this to say: "It's unusual, but everything that happens in Columbia is unusual." (Gabriel Garcia Marquez: (www.levity.com)
Some of the other books authored by Gabriel Marcia Marquez are 'The Autumn of the Patriarch', which is a book based on the theme of decay, 'Leaf Storm', 'No one writes to the Colonel', 'Innocent Erendira ', 'In Evil Hour', "Chronicle of a death Foretold', and 'Love in the time of Cholera'. (Gabriel Garcia Marquez: (www.levity.com) Gabriel Garcia Marquez received a Nobel Prize…
Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Retrieved at http://www.themodernword.com/gabo/gabo_biography.html . Accessed on 1/13/2005
About 100 years of Solitude. Retrieved at http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/solitude/about.html . Accessed on 1/13/2005
Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Retrieved at http://www.levity.com/corduroy/marquez.htm . Accessed on 1/13/2005
News of a Kidnapping, an Introduction. Retrieved at http://www.enotes.com/news-kidnapping/ . Accessed on 1/13/2005
They were wrong about the Bolshevik's giving in to their demands, however.
The Bolshevik's attacked the city (located on an island), under cover of darkness. They wore white uniforms to blend in with the snow and ice surrounding the city. The workers tried to defend themselves and their families, but the Bolshevik's sent in 50,000 troops. They began their attack on March 7, and the sailors and workers defended the Kronstadt fortress for ten days before they fell. A diary entry from the time says, "17th March, 1921: Kronstadt has fallen today. Thousands of sailors and workers lie dead in its streets. Summary execution of prisoners and hostages continues" (Schoolnet). Thousands of people, both sailors and civilians were killed in the streets of the city. When the Bolshevik's took Kronstadt sailors as prisoners, they later took them into the forests and executed them.
Kronstadt was the last rebellion against the…
Berkman, Alexander. "The Paris Commune and Kronstadt." Pitzer College. 2009. 21 Oct. 2009. .
-- . The Kronstadt Rebellion. Pitzer College. 2009. 21 Oct. 2009. .
Boettke, Peter J. Calculation and Coordination: Essays on Socialism and Transitional Political Economy. London: Routledge, 2001.
Busky, Donald F. Communism in History and Theory: From Utopian Socialism to the Fall of the Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
In this regard, Osorio adds that, "The strike put deregulation on hold, giving the airlines a respite from intense competition and more time to plan for the post-deregulation era" (2000, p. 114). The PATCO strike also severely hampered further governmental employee unionizing activities for decades (Osorio, 2000).
The research showed that in 1981, the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization engaged in an illegal strike for more money, better working conditions and updated equipment that violated Title VII of the Civil Service eform Act of 1978. Notwithstanding the legitimacy of the union's demands, the manner in which they pursued them was violative of the law of the land and the President of the United States took matters into his own hands as chief executive officer and fired the lot of them in response, replacing them with supervisors, military air traffic controllers and newly hired controllers. The PATCO strike also had…
Grimes, P.W. (1999). The decline of strike activity and the post-PATCO era. Atlantic Economic
Journal, 32(2), 37.
Manheim, J.B. (2001). The death of a thousand cuts: Corporate campaigns and the tttack on the corporation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Minchin, T.J. (2000, Spring). Torn apart: Permanent replacements and the Crossett Strike of