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A psychologist should never solicit demands from the hostage-taker as this will give the hostage-taker an increased sense of power -- something that should be avoided at all costs (Hatcher etal, 1998, p. 460). ather a psychologist should wait for the hostage-taker to make demands. Once demands are made, the psychologist (or anyone else talking with the hostage-taker) should never dismiss the demands as unreasonable, impossible, or trivial. These demands are important to the hostage-taker and to dismiss his or her demands will in all likelihood be seen as a dismissal of the person and so cause the situation to escalate. The process of meeting a hostage-taker's demands is also one that can allow for an alliance to be built up over time between a psychologist and the hostage-taker, especially if the psychologist can break down negotiations into their component parts -- such as first negotiating that food will be…
Borum, W.R. (October 1988). A comparative study of negotiator effectiveness with "Mentally disturbed hostage taker scenarios." Journal of police and criminal psychology4(2): 17-20.
Hatcher, C. etal. (December 1998). The role of the psychologist in crisis/hostage negotiations. Behavioral sciences and the law 16(4): 455-472.
Lipsedge, M. (2004). Hostage-taking and domestic sieges. Psychiatry 3 (8): 24-26.
McMains, M. & Mullins, W. (2006). Crisis Negotiations: Managing Critical Incidents and Hostage Situations in Law Enforcement and Corrections. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Co.
The main difference between a hostage situation and a non-hostage situation is the threat to human life. "In most hostage incidents, the explicit threat is to the hostage's life. It is not the loss of property, status, or belonging to a community that is at stake. Life itself is at stake" (McMains & Mullins, 2010, p.12). The threat to human life gives the hostage-taker an advantage in the bargaining process, because it increases the press associated with an incident and increases the stakes of the negotiation.
A bank robber goes into the bank, but the police are alerted before he can leave. The bank robber takes one of the bank's customers and holds her at gunpoint, until the robber can reach the getaway vehicle. This is a hostage situation. The life of the teller has been threatened by the bank robber. The bank robber does not have to…
McMains, M.J. & Mullins, W.C. (2010). Crises negotiations (4th ed.). New Providence, NJ:
Negotiation Crisis Team
The process of hostage and crisis negotiation is an event that involves a team, it is not something that can be performed by an individual and cannot be considered as a secondary activity. Such negotiations are meant to help in the management and/or resolution of very risky situations, and in most cases the situations are very tricky to deal with. The manner in which these situations present themselves often make it necessary to have specialized, explicit and compound knowledge backgrounds to be effectively handled. The effectiveness of such a process is very significant since the measure is through the loss of life avoided. The success or failure of such a team in the management and resolution of the situation is measured in terms of human lives saved or lost, this is why the team must be well composed. The knowledge and experience of each and every member…
Bohl, N.K. (1992). Hostage negotiator stress, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 61(8):23-26
Butler, W.M. et al., (1993). The use of mental health professional consultants to police hostage negotiation teams. Behav Sci Law 11(2):213-221
Call, J. (2003). Negotiating crises: The evolution of hostage/barricade crisis negotiation. Journal of Threat Assessment, 2, 69-94.
Cooper, H. (1981). The hostage takers. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press.
Morey Unit Hostage Crisis
The hostage crisis that occurred at the Morey Unit of the Arizona State Prison Lewis Complex lasted for fifteen days and represented a hostage standoff that was the longest in U.S. history. The crisis began in the early morning hours of January 18, 2004 in the kitchen area of the unit, when two inmates, Ricky Wassenaar and Steven Coy, subdued a correctional officer and a kitchen staff employee. They subsequently took two hostages and inflicted serious emotional and physical damage to multiple correctional officers and civilian employees prior to engaging in the fifteen-day standoff. The lengthy episode challenged the resources of the Arizona Department of Corrections and magnified substantial security lapses and errors in judgment used by Department of Corrections officials. An ultimate analysis of the episode finds major flaws in the supervision of inmates at the Morey Unit, which the two inmates were able to…
The lasting legacy of the Iran hostage crisis is that the American public and government developed an attitude that the Iran people and government were a group of evil and crazy individuals who lacked the capacity to negotiate. This attitude caused a breakdown in negotiations at the time of the hostage crisis and has continued to the present day. Americans, as a rule, still fail to recognize that the Iranian people have legitimate concerns and that these legitimate concerns have value. Over the decades since the hostage crisis there has been little movement forward in regard to how Americans view Iran and the level of animosity between the two nations remains high. Farber suggests that this level of animosity helped to ensure that America's relations with the Muslim world would remain contentious and that such contentiousness led to the attacks of September 11 that resulted in the escalation of the…
Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)
Iranian hostage and Jimmy Carter
Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)
You are a police psychologist for a major metropolitan area. You are also a member of its hostage negotiation team. You have been called to a crisis incident at 3:15 P.M. On a Friday. It is in a residential area about three blocks from a middle school and a public library. The information you have at this time is that the subject is a 42-year-old male who is holed up in his house with his wife, son, and a family friend. He has murdered his next-door neighbor and is threatening to kill those in the house if his demands are not met. One of his demands is for immunity from the murder charge if he surrenders without harming any of the people in the house. His other demands are a case of beer and some fast food. He wants his demands met or "something will happen."u
Alaxander, D., & Klein, S. (2010). Hostage-taking: motives, resolution, coping and effects. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 176-183.
Cooper, H. (1981). Hostage-takers. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=75936
Goldaber, I. (1979). Typology of Hostage-Takers. Police Chief, 21-23. Retrieved from Hughes, J. (2009). A Pilot Study of Naturally Occuring High-Probability Request Sequences in Hostage Negotiations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 491-496.
McMains, M., & Mullins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiation (4th ed.). New Providence: Lexis/Nexis/Anderson.
Ode noted a change in food provisions at this time. The restrictions on the hostages communicating with one another seemed to loosen as well, and Ode describes socializing with fellow hostages by playing chess. However, he also describes escalating brutality towards hostages who are not compliant, especially a hostage named done.
In fact, during the third phase of captivity, some of the students began to treat Ode in a different manner. They complained that he was opinionated and that he was always complaining. Actually, it was surprising to see how vocal Ode had remained throughout his ordeal, and how few repercussions he received for that vocal behavior. Carter was able to secure the safe return of the hostages, without the loss of a single hostage life, though American military men did die in a rescue attempt. However, the hostage crises probably tipped the 1980 election in favor of eagan, which…
Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. (2006). The hostage crisis in Iran. Retrieved February 22,
2010 from Jimmy Carter Library and Museum.
Ode, R. (1981). Iran hostage's diary. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from Jimmy Carter Library & Museum.
And if that policy is already in effect, then further training in that area is necessary.
The kitchen is an obvious source of "weapons" (like the heavy soup ladle used). It should be guarded more heavily and made less easily accessible. Routine searches of that area should be as thorough as possible. There was no video surveillance of this area -- a significant oversight. That is part of the reason the escape attempt went undetected for so long after the two employees were overwhelmed by the convicts.
There is no question that, in this situation, the escape attempt could have been stopped before it became dangerous if only one or two of the above recommendations had been followed.
~There existed too much open access to the security tower, and procedures to enforce security became lax and ineffective. Again, there is no doubt that had proper procedures been in place or…
Associated Press. (2004, March 4). Arizona prison standoff probe blames past decisions in part. Retrieved May 30, 2009, from USAToday.com: http://www.usatoday.com /news/nation/2004-03-04-prison-hostages_x.htm
Baker, J. (2004). Anatomy of a hostage negotiation: An interview with a primary negotiator. Retrieved May 31, 2009, from The Negotiator Magazine: http://www.negotiatormagazine.com/article211_1.html
Epler, P., & Rushton, B. (2004, February 19). Federal judge questions credibility of Arizona department of corrections director. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from Middlegroundprisonreform.org: http://www.middlegroundprisonreform.org/news/NewTimesDoraCredibility.2004.htm
NICIC. (2004). Preliminary finding and recommendations: The morey unit hostage incident. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from National Institute of Corrections Information Center (NICIC): http://www.nicic.org/Library/019617
This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)
Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…
Carter, Robert Melvin; Glaser, Daniel. (1977) "Correctional Institutions" Lippincott.
Corcoran, Michael H; Cawood, James S. (2003) "Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner's Handbook" CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
Garrett, Michael. (2004, Jun) "In Need of Correction: Arizona's prison system is overloaded and its staff is overwhelmed" Retrieved 4 April, 2008 at http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Currents/Content?oid=oid%3A57551
Use sound reasoning to explain to Bradley how the situation will get better if he allows the hostages to go free. Perhaps the negotiator can call in a favor on Bradley's behalf if Bradley shows a sign of good faith and allows the hostages to go free.
Providing Bradley alcohol would be against protocol, but the food and the promise of aiding Bradley is getting the help he needs rather than going to jail may be of help. Bradley is looking for help right now and not to get drunk. He also may be looking to make a demand that the negotiator will say no to in order reiterate the fact that Bradley does not trust the police.
If the alcohol is a necessity to Bradley, the negotiator may try to pull some strings and allow it. Against protocol or not, if lives are in danger, providing the alcohol to…
ZAITSU, W. (2009). Bomb Threats and Offender Characteristics in Japan. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profi ling, 1(7). Retrieved November 17, 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jip.106/pdf
James, R.K., & Gilliland, B.E. (2001). Crisis intervention strategies (4th ed.). Belmont, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning.
Noesner, G. (1999, January 1). Negotiation concepts for commanders | FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, the | Find Articles at BNET. Find Articles at BNET | News Articles, Magazine Back Issues & Reference Articles on All Topics. Retrieved November 18, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_1_68/ai_54036504/
Ultimately, most people recognized Hearst underwent intense brainwashing, and her prison sentence was eventually reduced. In fact, "she later had her sentence commuted by President Carter, after psychiatrists determined that she had developed a pseudo-identity as a survival strategy" (Card 214). Thus, the Stockholm Syndrome played a huge part in her support of her SLA captors and her eventual pardon.
The Stockholm Syndrome makes absolute sense in that hostages are at the will of their captors, and to live, they must quickly adapt. An expert said of Heart's situation, "If the pressure is strong enough, people exposed to new environments and beliefs can actually change their entire perspective" (amsland 5). While some people do not believe the syndrome exists, it simply makes sense from many perspectives that it does. According to Aristotle's definition of free will, some people will sometimes do what they desire because they want to, rather than…
Campbell, James F., and Paul Pederson. Hostage: Terror and Triumph. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Card, Claudia. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Ramsland, Katherine. "The Claiming of Patty Hearst." Crimelibrary.com. 2005. 14 Nov. 2006. http://www.crimelibrary.com/classics4/hearst/
Ebert (1986) believes "there is absolutely no justification for preventing mental health professionals from participating in virtually all facets of hostage negotiation," (p. 580). As Hatcher, Mohandie, Turner & Gelles (1998) point out, most mental health professionals that do participate in any aspect of hostage negotiation do so "by invitation only in police-established hostage negotiation schools," (p. 461). With this training, the mental health professional is thus theoretically prepared to engage the perpetrator directly. However, the mental health professional is only prepared when the training provided is thorough and consistent, and in accordance with the parameters and goals of each crisis situation.
The pros of employing a psychologist as a primary negotiator are clear. Most significantly, the psychologist has expertise in human behavior and cognition and can apply that knowledge to making quick decisions. The psychologist can also provide post-traumatic stress intervention services to the hostage victims and…
Ebert, B.W. (1986). The mental health response team: An expanding role for psychologists. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 17, 6, 580-585.
Hatcher, C., Mohandie, K., Turner, J. & Gelles, M.G. (1998). The role of psychologists in crisis/hostage negotiations.Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 455-472.
Kidnapping, extortion and detention are real dangers for businesses that operate both overseas and in domestic markets. Top management of these firms often overlooks these things by saying that it will never happen to us. They seem to not understand how much damage it can do to a business. "With more than 1,000 annual kidnappings of business professionals and executives all around the world and number of terrorist's attacks, such policies is an absolute necessity in the eye of life and health insurance professionals who travels internationally" (Gordon, 2009). Kidnap and ansom insurance policies give a cushion to a business with regard to independent investigations, collaborations, arrangement and delivery of funds, and number of other services pivotal to a safe, speedy and satisfactory resolution. Any business of any size can be a target for extortion threats against them or their employees. People are inclined to think business extortion and kidnapping…
Eisenberg, Melvin a. (2002). Contracts. Chicago: Thompson.
Gilbert's Law Dictionary. (1997). Chicago: Harcourt Brace.
Gilroy, Tony and Hackford, Taylor. (2000). Proof of Life. United States: Castle Rock
The presence of the web, which allows time-sensitive information to be blogged as it occurs, plus the dire nature of the threat tipped the scales in favor of not releasing the information. It was seen as akin to not releasing certain details about a victim, to enable the police to conduct a more effective investigation of what potential suspects did or did not know.
However, it must be remembered that the primary interest of the newspaper is to tell the truth, not to further a particular social objective, as defined by a government agency, whatever the agency's goals. In the case of the hostage-taking, individual officer's lives were at stake. However, it would not be ethical to refuse to release information about the treatment of inmates at the prison that lead to the riots, even if this information was inflammatory. The benefits of exposing such abuses are so great, when…
"FAQ about comments." The New York Times. December 13, 2009.
http://www.nytimes.com /ref/membercenter/faq/comments.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Traits That Define a Leader
Stunning: Strength in Patchett's Works
Upon initial examination, the worlds and lives inhabited by Roxanne Coss, a glamorous opera singer who finds herself trapped by terrorists in Latin America for month on end in Bel Canto, and by Rose, who abruptly moves to a remote location in Kentucky to give birth to a daughter at a home for unwed mothers in The Patron Saint of Liars, appear to be decidedly different. However, due in no small part to the fact that each of these works of literature is authored by Ann Patchett, there is an abundance of similarities between the constitution and the manifestation of fortitude that both of these women summon in situations that unquestioningly call for their respective assertion. The common theme in each book is that the female protagonist in both tales draws upon reserves of strength to allow her to surmount…
Guests of the Nation
Frank O'Connor's writing frequently deals with the issues of everyday violence which people have to engage in, whether they want to or not. Some people commit crimes because they believe that they have no choice. Other people kill in the name of religion. One of the most universally acceptable reasons for widespread acts of murder is nationalism. Two political factions, if not more, fight against one another in order that their perspective becomes accepted by the other population. For soldiers, particularly those who are members of the lower infantry ranks, they are given orders which must be carried out. If a soldier is told to kill, then he must continue killing until he is given an order to stop. It is a fact that soldiers are ordered to kill other human beings for reasons which may not be clear to them, which they may not even…
Korner, S. (2008). Frank O'Connor's 'Guests of the Nation.' 21st Century Socialism.
O'Brien, E. (2007). Guests of a nation; geists of a nation. New Hibernia Review. 11(3). 114-30.
O'Connor, F. (1987). Guests of the nation. Poolbeg Press: Dublin, Ireland.
Renner, S. (1990). The theme of hidden powers: fate vs. human responsibility. Studies in Short
President Obama's remarkable ability to combine his liberal inclinations on humanitarian issues with expertly wielded applications of America's economic and military superiority was presaged in an article published by Harvard Magazine before ballots had been cast in the 2008 election. When professor of international relations Joseph S. Nye Jr. boldly declared that "the old distinction between realists and liberals needs to give way to a new synthesis that you might choose to call 'liberal realism'"4, (2008, pg. 36), he
3 Douthat, oss. "Obama the ealist." The New York Times, February 07, 2011.
4 Nye, Joseph S. "Toward a Liberal ealist Foreign Policy: A memo for the next president." Harvard Magazine 110 (2008): 36-38.
provided a startlingly accurate prediction of President Obama's methodically effective strategy of relying on liberalist motivations to enact firmly realist foreign policy directives in relation to Iran.
Other commentaries on American public opinion towards Iran have focused…
Cohen, Warren I. "The Dispensable Nation: American Foreign Policy in Retreat' by Vali Nasr." The Washington Post, May 03, 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-dispensable-nation-american-foreign - policy-in-retreat-by-vali-nasr/2013/05/03/b7b01178-ac14-11e2-a198- 99893f10d6dd_story.html (Accessed May 4, 2013).
Douthat, Ross. "Obama the Realist." The New York Times, February 07, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com /2011/02/07/opinion/07douthat.html?_r=0' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Moreover, there are a number of people who are not able to even sustain a lasting marriage, nor produce and nurture a pair of twins the way Seth, who has been plagued with disassociation all his life, has. Julia is able to continue through her mentally demanding job while disassociating for days at a time. Neither of these two examples of Stout's patients engages in behavior that is deemed an act of lunacy while disassociating, which proves that they are very much sane and have reasons for being unable to perceive reality the way they usually can during these periods. Additionally, we can attempt to stabilize the unreliability of our memories by choosing to confront those issues, however dark and scary they may be, that our minds choose to disassociate from in that respect there is no wishful thinking involved in the adage "Know Thyself," because with will, desire, and…
Molnar feels that the president of the United States is using his son's life, and the lives of many other soldiers, as a tool to further his own political career. He feels that the United States had a shoddy foreign policy for more than a decade and, just as the pressure cooker began to explode, began to try to remedy the situation with a bandage. Molnar contends that the United States is not behaving in the best interest of the people, but is only acting to secure cheap oil and continue using 25 to 30% of this natural resource. The alternative view is that the president had the welfare of the people in mind when he sent soldiers off to the Persian Gulf, and that it was necessary to send troops to the Gulf in order to avoid the possibility of an oil shortage in the United States. In his…
Security during a large political setting is paramount to establishing a safe forum in which opinions can be expressed. As evidenced by the case, security, particularly during election years can become a very contentious issue. This is particularly true during the DNC as the current political environment is notoriously quarrelsome. Aspects such as unprecedented government shutdowns, looming budget debates, rising inequality, and other issues are all very combative subjects. As such, individual groups or factions tend to be very aggressive in these views or opinions. These groups often resort to violence in order to gain momentum, media attention, or other means to gaining a desired outcome. Security is therefore needed to help prevent, detail, and otherwise curtail acts of violence. The drone proposal therefore within the context given in the case, seems as a viable option in protecting the well-being of participants of the DNC and the surrounding community.…
1) Gal-Or, Benjamin (May 1990). Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability & Robot Aircraft. Retrieved from Springer Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97161-0
2) Owens, Hudson L.; Flannes, M. ( Feb 2011). "Drone Warfare: Blowback from the New American Way of War." Retrieved from Middle East Policy 18: 122 -- 132.
3) Martin, Rachel (Dec 19, 2011). "Report: High Levels Of 'Burnout' In U.S. Drone Pilots." Retrieved from NPR
Interlocked doors which should be monitored at the courthouse's controlled center should be used to monitor and secure all points of entry and exit through this perimeter.
4. In order to meet the current design standards for short-term detention areas, all ceiling systems, floors, walls, and so on should be designed to reflect this standard.
Interface Zone Security
The meeting place for the attorneys, judges, court staff, jurors, the public and those in custody, is the courtroom, otherwise known as the interface zone. Thorough staff training, sound operational procedures, and proper designs are some of the strategies for securing the courtroom. Other measures for securing the interface zone (that is, the courtroom) include:
1. Provision of appropriate separation and unobstructed view between the public, witnesses, parties, and the judge;
2. The distance between the defendants and other courtroom participants should be appropriate;
3. Provision of bullet-resistant liners within the witness…
Hardenbergh, Gabriel et al., The Courthouse: Planning and Design Guidelines, (Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State Courts, 2001).
2 Neighborhood Information, "Towson Neighborhood Profile"(Yahoo Real Estate, 2011), http://realestate.yahoo.com/Maryland/Towson/neighborhoods (accessed May 20, 2011).
Discover Baltimore, "Baltimore Neighborhoods," (Discover Baltimore,2011), http://www.baltimore-maryland.org/Towson-neighborhood.html (accessed May 20, 2011).
Homefacts, "Local Crimes and Statistics," (Homefacts, 2011), http://www.homefacts.com/crime/Maryland/Baltimore-County/Towson.html
Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of terrorist actions such as suicide bombings and other clandestine attacks on peacekeeping or other troops is more than enough to define the organization as one which supports terrorist actions and condones their use against innocent soldiers, peacekeeping troops, and civilians.
After this condoned attack, Hizbollah terror has not achieved such a marked event in one act of terrorism; however, they have supported terrorist actions that have grown in number each year since the Israeli pullout of Lebanon and which have, as…
Diaz, T., and Newman, B., 2005. Lightning out of Lebanon: Hezbollah Terrorists on American Soil, Presidio Press.
Y., 1989. Israel's Fateful Hour. New York, NY: Harper & Row
Information Division article of Israel Foreign Ministry, published online at http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=15#documentsand accessed 10/29/05.
Kramer, M., 1990."The Moral Logic of Hizballah." In Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, ed. W. Reich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 131-57.
Negotiation refers to the conversation between several parties with the aim of resolving their differences, reaching an understanding, gaining advantage, or designing outcomes that satisfy the interests of either party. Negotiation happens within government branches, businesses, and legal proceedings, non-profit organizations, and among nations. Drastic situations include personal situations like marriage, parenting, and divorce. The following study evaluates and describes the subject, theory and practice of negotiation (Fells, 2012). The essay takes considerable references to professional negotiators such as leverage buyout negotiators, union negotiators, hostage negotiators, peace negotiators, legislators, brokers, or diplomats.
Negotiation takes various forms including trained negotiators acting for certain organizations or positions within formal settings and in informal negotiations such as between friends. Negotiation is contrasted through mediation for illustrations where neutral third parties listen to the arguments of each side and help in designing agreements between such parties. The action is comparable to arbitration, as…
Benoliel, M. (2011). Negotiation Excellence: Successful Deal Making. New York: World Scientific.
Cleary, P.J. (2000). The Negotiation Handbook. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Cohen, H. (2007). You Can Negotiate Anything. New York: Jaico Publishing House.
Falcao, H. (2012). Value Negotiation: How to Finally Get the Win-Win Right. New York: FT Press.
Media on Terrorism
Acts of anti-American terrorism are becoming increasingly common, and more and more are occurring on American soil, according to Columbia political scientist rigitte L. Nacos (Nacos, 1995). According to Nacos, the rise in terrorism is not a matter of flawed national security. It has more to do with the success that terrorists have enjoyed in exploiting the relationships among the media, public opinion and political decision-making (Nacos, 1994).
Nacos believes that the media is "the crucial link in the terrorist's 'calculus of violence,' particularly terrorist spectaculars -- large actions aimed at Americans, like the Iran hostage crisis, the bombing of PanAm Flight 103, and the hanging of hostage Lt. Colonel William Higgins in Lebanon (Nacos, 1994)." In these cases, she says, the terrorists "exploited the free American media. They got an extraordinary amount of attention -- up to two-thirds of the network evening news devoted to the…
News Directors on the Defensive in Nashville." (September 16, 1985). Broadcasting, pp. 76-78.
Cohen, N. (1997). Lessons learned from providing disaster counseling after TWA flight 800. Psychiatric Services, 48, 461-462.
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). (2003). Terrorism and the Media. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.terrorismanswers.com/terrorism/media.html.
DeFleur, M. & Dennis, E. (2002). Understanding mass communication: A liberal arts perspective (7th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Crisis negotiation is a procedure used by law enforcement to communicate with individuals who are threatening violence. They include violence in the workplace, stalkers, barricaded subjects, individuals threatening suicide, and hostage takers. In the past several decades, the concept of crisis negotiations has been described as the most important development in police psychology and law enforcement. Actually, various law enforcement agencies have been using crisis negotiations techniques in response to kidnappings, critical incidents, hostage or barricade conditions, and personal crises. Based on recent trends, the use of crisis negotiations by law enforcement agencies have continued to grow since its inception in 1973. The main purpose of crisis negotiation is to develop rapport through establishing communication to gather intelligence regarding individuals' threat of violence.
Types of Situations that equire a Crisis Negotiator:
There are various types of situations that may require the use of crisis intervention procedures through a…
Grabianowski, E. (n.d.). How Hostage Negotiation Works. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from http://people.howstuffworks.com/hostage-negotiation2.htm
Miller, L. (2005). Hostage Negotiation: Psychological Principles and Practices. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 7(4), 277-298. Retrieved from http://www.psychceu.com/miller/Miller_Hostage_Neg.pdf
Vecchi, G.M, Van Hasselt, V. & Romano, S.J. (2005). Crisis (Hostage) Negotiation: Current
Strategies and Issues in High-risk Conflict Resolution. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 533-551. Retrieved from http://www.eisf.eu/resources/library/hostage_negotiation.pdf
Legality of Prison iots
Once a riot is quelled in the situation that is described in this particular assignment, there are a couple of different charges that the state can bring against the prisoners. The most salient of these charges is hostage taking. It is unlawful for individuals to take another as a hostage, in much the same way that it is unlawful for those individuals to take a group of individuals as hostages. Thus, the inmates that participate in taking the hostage and in maintaining the hostage are certainly liable to be charged with hostage taking. It is critical to note, however, that the individuals who participate in the riot and who do not directly partake in the actions of taking or maintaining the hostages cannot be charged for this particular crime.
Still, there are other charges that can be brought against these inmates -- whether or not they…
Massachusetts Lawyer Weekly. (2013). Commonwealth v. Spearin. http://masslawyersweekly.com / Retrieved from
"Men, when they receive good from whence they expect evil, feel the more indebted to their benefactor." ~ Niccolo Machiavelli
Stockholm syndrome is a psychological condition in which those who are held captive learn to sympathize with their captors. Instead of trying to escape the conditions that they are in, they become a part of the twisted psychology of those in control (Kocsis 266). It was named for the first reported incidence of the phenomena after a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden. Captives were held for six days, during which time they became emotionally attached to their captors, even defending them after the ordeal was over. It is a very serious condition affecting approximately 25-30% of all hostage situation victims. People affected by Stockholm syndrome can have serious psychological repercussions for years to come, even affecting the individual for the rest of their life if not properly treated.…
Bejerot, Nils. "The Six Day War in Stockholm." New Scientist. 61: 886. 1974. 486-487. Print.
Doctor, Ronald M., and Frank N. Shiromoto. The Encyclopedia of Trauma and Traumatic Stress
Disorders. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2010. Print.
Fabrique, Nathalie. "FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin." 76:7. 2007. 10-17. Print.
Negotiation Process: How Attica and Lewis Changed the Nature of Negotiation
The historical events of the riot at Attica prison on Sept 9th, 1971 and the hostage situation in 2004 at Lewis State Prison (Arizona) led to a significant change in the application of crisis negotiation. The lessons learned from each event changed the art of crisis negotiation as a result. Understanding how this transformation came to be, it is essential to discuss the events that transpired.
The Attica prison revolt served as a "wake-up call" to administers of crisis negotiation (Strentz, 2012, p. 176). Lacking on this day were the necessary "experience" and "intelligence" of crisis negotiators, as well as the implementation of correct "command decisions," tactics, and techniques (Strentz, 2012, p. 176). The "art" of negotiation was unrefined, crude, "forceful," and disorganized (Brown, Campbell, 2010, p. 362). However, among the prisoners, there was the opposite: organization, rhetorical skill,…
Brown, J., Campbell, E. (2010). The Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology.
UK: Cambridge University Press.
McMains, M., Mullins, W. (2014). Crisis Negotiations. NY: Routledge.
Strentz, T. (2012). Psychological Aspects of Crisis Negotiation. FL: CRC Press.
The 'negotiation' process, entailing conflicting parties' deliberation over the problem and arrival at a conclusion that works to all parties' advantage, constitutes a highly effective means of preventing tension and disputes. Disagreeing persons sit together, engage in open-forum problem discussion, bargain or negotiate, and arrive at a result satisfactory to every party. Successful communication leads to successful negotiation. Negotiations should be free from yelling and brawling; parties ought to peacefully exchange beliefs, views and feelings. Nobody can know one's ideas and feelings if one doesn't express them effectively before others. People's manner of speaking and non-verbal cues (gestures, posture, facial expression, etc.) contributes significantly to successful negotiations (MSG, 2016).
The UPS (United Parcel Service) Strike of 1996 Win-Lose Negotiation
American courier/messenger service business established in the year 1907, the UPS, is now the world's biggest courier, specialized transport and logistics firm. Its key corporate strategy was: largely…
Ciel, s. c. (2011, July 4). Negotiation Tips for Project Managers: Learning From Historic Cases. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubpm.com/methods-strategies/106943-negotiation-tips-for-project-managers-learning-from-historic-cases/
Dolnik, A., & Pilch, R. (2003). The Moscow Theaterhostage Crisis: The Perpetrators, theirTactics, and the Russian Response. International Negotiation, 8, 577 -- 611.
Enock, K. (2006). Principles of negotiation and influencing. Retrieved from http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5a-understanding-itd/negotiating-influencing
Ionescu, R. (2011, December 7). Influencing for Results. Retrieved from http://www.negotiations.com/articles/negotiation-techniques/
Aspiring students wishing to learn the finer details of the art of negotiation would be well advised to investigate different negotiation situations that present different aspects of negotiation. These examples are even more relevant and beneficial when changing strategies occur during the negotiation, and, learning results with these experiences becomes evident and applicable to everyday situations. As an aspiring pharmaceutical sales representative, it is important for me to remember that this information demonstrated by those who have successfully negotiated through different and important experiences in their lifetime provide a useful and clear presentation of specific tactics and techniques that are important to employ during any particular negotiation or discussion in which I would be you are seeking to gain a competitive advantage.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze two different negotiations and their subsequent negotiation strategies and apply the learning points from these results to a…
Cantoria, C. (2011). Famous negotiaions: lessons for project managers. Retrieved http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/106943.aspx
Iran Hostage Crisis (n.d.). Retrieved April, 18, 2011, from website, http://www.u-s- history.com/pages/h2021.html
The Nordic Apollo vessel radioed for help on Monday, December 19, indicating that it was being fired on by pirates in a small skiff, according to Philip Ewing, writing in www.military.com. The U.S.S. Pinckney responded with a helicopter (an MH-60R Seahawk), saw the pirates' skiff, and hovered over them. The pirates threw their weapons into the sea, along with their ladders. Soon the Pinckney arrived, launched a small boat and basically disarmed the pirates and threw one of their outboard motors overboard, leaving them just enough power and enough gasoline to get back to Somalia (Ewing).
Should the Navy have shot the pirates dead on the spot, sunk their boat and sent a message to other pirates? Probably their orders are not to kill unless the pirates are threatening the lives of innocent civilians. But the point is, the Navy is doing a wonderful job against this threat and it…
Ewing, Philip. 2011. U.S. Navy Stops Somali Pirate Attack. Retrieved December
23, 2011, from http://www.military.com/news/article/2011/us-navy-stops-somali-pirate-attack.html .
Ooko, Daniel, and Mutai, Peter. 2011. Somali pirates still hold 200 hostages: EU mission.
Retrieved December 23, 2011, from http://www.coastweek.com/3451_piracy_03.htm.
Bel Canto by Ann Patchett is a novel that is interesting and intriguing. It tells the story of a group of party-goers in a Latin American country who are being entertained by a famous opera singer named oxane Coss. The party is in the honor of a Japanese businessman named Mr. Hosokawa. The party is an attempt to lure Mr. Hosokawa to do business in the country, but he really only came because he wanted to meet oxane. During the party, terrorists come into the building and take everyone hostage. The terrorists let all the women except oxanne go, and then keep the rest of the hostages in the building for months, waiting for their demands to be met. During this time, oxane helps keep the hostages sane by singing every day, and surprising friendships grow between the hostages, and even the terrorists. oxane and Mr. Hosokawa become romantic, and…
Patchett, Ann. Bel Canto. New York: Perennial, 2002.
Munich Massacre of 1972 was an organized terrorist attack on 11 Israeli Olympic athletes at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. By the end of day-long the conflict, 11 Israelis, five Arab terrorists, and a German policeman were dead.
On September 5, 1972 at 4:30 AM, Arab terrorists wearing tracksuits and carrying weapons in athletic bags scaled the fence of the Olympic Village in Munich. Security was lax or non-existent, enabling a quick and efficient entry. Upon breaching the Village, the terrorists rendezvoused with an under-cover terrorist, who had been working for the Village, and thus knew exactly where the future hostages were sleeping. At 5AM, the terrorists knocked on the door of Israeli wrestling coach Moshe Weinberg, who immediately recognized that something was awry. He shouted a warning to his players and, with wrestler Joseph omano, tried to keep the terrorists out while some of the players escaped out…
Palestine Facts 2010, Israeli 1972 Olympic Team Murdered in Munich, viewed 8 February,
2010, < http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to1991_munich.php>.
While the other SWAT operations we have discussed, are critical to the public's safety and protection, it is the training that is crucial to the SWAT team's safety.
The more "real" the training is and the more it is based on real-time skills, the more valuable it is to the team. SWAT trains almost constantly. And most don't let up. As an example, like the U.S. Army and its training for Iraq and Afghanistan, SWAT training involves a physical, intense, real-life scenario to the point that, sometime, team members can suffer minor injuries. Unlike, other agencies that might want to back off if that occurs, SWAT, normally does not, because injuries -- or worse -- in a real-time operation are entirely possible.
The effective SWAT team trains "force-on-force" and hand-to-hand with other SWAT teams and individuals on a regular basis. And they run practice shooting drills often using various scenarios,…
Critchfield, S. (n.d.). The United States S.W.A.T. program: A history and overview. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from helium.com: http://www.helium.com/items/101114-the-united-states-swat-program-a-history-and-overview
Davis, K. (2007, March 22). Learning from S.W.A.T. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/web/online/Operations-and-Tactics/Learning-From-SWAT/3$35,346
Goranson, C. (2003). Police SWAT teams: Life on high alert. New York: The Rosen Publishing Company.
O'Brien, R. (2007, June 20). It's our duty to study and preserve SWAT history. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from policemag.com: http://www.policemag.com/Blog/SWAT/Story/2007/06/It-s-Our-Duty-to-Study-and-Preserve-SWAT-History.aspx
Still, embassy targeting is a very common practice used by terrorists as well. Despite the fact that they should be considered one of the most important institutions of a state abroad they are not exempted from threats such as terrorist acts. Moreover, the security level such a facility would imply does not detract terrorists and does not limit their actions.
Thirdly, it must be taken into account the fact that bombings are not the only means used by terrorists in their activities. Also, apart from attacking targets through bombs, they also use fire attacks, arms, and even kidnapping techniques to follow their goals. However, apart from these physical techniques, terrorists also use advanced technology to communicate and even inflict harm. They use different internet websites, such as various fundamentalist Islamic sites where proponents of terrorist action try to rally support for their cause against western civil and military targets. Also,…
American Memorial site. Two Days of Infamy - We Must Never Forget. 2008. Accessed 11 January 2008, available from http://americanmemorialsite.com/beirutembassy.html
American National Security Policy. Terrorism, threats and trends. N.d. Accessed 11 January 2008, available at http://myoops.org/twocw/mit/NR/rdonlyres/Political-Science/17-471American-National-Security-PolicyFall2002/B8E0BAB9-0DEA-42D1-8E95-076CB37E65FF/0/1747102InternationalTerrorism.ppt
BBC, Toll climbs in Egyptian attacks. 23 July 2005. Accessed 11 January 2008, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4709491.stm
Department of State. Bombings in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bureau of Public Affairs August 7, 1998.
Battle of Mogadishu, October 1993
According to Alex De aal (1998), U.S. helicopters fired at least 50,000 Alpha 165 and 63 rockets on 3 October 1993 during the course of the battle near the Olympic Hotel in Mogadishu, in which eighteen U.S. soldiers died and one was captured. "The importance of this inglorious episode in American military history lies not only in the as-yet-undocumented carnage among the residents of Somalia's capital city," he says, "but in what it tells us about U.S. military doctrine" (131). To better understand what exactly went wrong and if, indeed, anything went right, this briefing paper will provide the background and an analysis of the Battle of Mogadishu in general, and the 10th Mountain Division's involvement during the actual major conflict in particular. A summary of the research, doctrinal implications and relevant recommendations will be provided in the conclusion.
Background and Overview
The analysts at…
Atkinson, Rick. (1994, January 31). "Night of a Thousand Casualties; Battle Triggered U.S.
Decision to Withdraw from Somalia." Washington Post A11. In Edwards 15.
De Waal, Alex. (1998). "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia." New Left Review a (230):132.
Edwards, Sean J.A. Mars Unmasked: The Changing Face of Urban Operations. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
" In fact that showdown with labor "produced a cultural shift, a new sense of what can be appropriate in business management." The entire Reagan era, according to ill, a well-known conservative commentator - who wrote this piece at the time of Reagan's passing - is remembered "more for the tax-cutting and deregulating that helped, with the information technologies, to shift the economy into a hitherto unknown overdrive."
Another event that made Reagan a hero at a time when America needed heroes occurred in the spring of 1981, when Reagan was shot in an attempted assassination. The New York Times (Silk, 1981) reported that Reagan's "unruffled demeanor" immediately after being seriously wounded, along with his "jokes to his wife and the medics" all helped to "turn fear into rising respect for Mr. Reagan himself," journalist Leonard Silk reports. A "growing number of Americans decided that they had elected themselves a…
Arnett, Robert. (2007). Eighties Noir: The Dissenting Voice in Reagan's America. Journal of Popular Film & Television, 34(3), 123-129.
Brant, John. (1983). Duel in the Sun. Runner's World.
Clines, Francis X. (1982). White House Winces at Economist's Words. The New York Times.
Retrieved May 9, 2007, at http://query.nytimes.com.gst/fullpage.html.
Kennedy Hickman (n.d.) the Entebbe raid codenamed "operation thunderbolt" started when, on the 27th of June in 1976, a French aircraft left Tel Aviv for Paris. The craft was hijacked at Athens allegedly by the two members of Popular Front for liberation of Palestine and two others from German's evolutionary cells. It was flown to Uganda where they were welcomed by Idi Amin. Most of the hostages were released but the Israelis, Jews and the crews were kept. The terrorists wanted all the Palestinians held in Israeli and other parts of the world released by the 1st of July. On the night of 3rd July, a rescue mission under the command of Colonel Yoni Netanyahu arrived in Entebbe rescuing more than one hundred hostages. In the process, three hostages, forty five Ugandan soldiers and Netanyahu were killed.
International coordination in counterterrorism operation
Bruce Newsome (2003) says that international coordination requires…
Anonymous. (2001). Jerusalem post retrieved on 24th October 2012 from http://www.jpost.com/Headlines/Home.aspx
Bruce, N. (2003). Expatriate Games: Interorganizational Coordination and International Counterterrorism Studies in Conflict & Terrorism retrived on October, 24th, 2012 from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu
Eileen, S. (2004). Counter-Terrorism Measures and the Impact on International Human Rights Standards in the Field of Criminal Justice: Unpublished manuscript
Kennedy, H. (n.d.), retrieved on October, 23rd, 2012 from www.about.com
In Iran, the American-backed Shah had become increasingly unpopular throughout the 1970s. The Shah fled Iran in 1979, finding temporary refuge in the United States. Religious extremist Ayatollah Khomeni easily filled Iran's political and social need for a backlash against American interventionism.
Iran's 1979 Revolution had a major impact on its relationship with the United States and with the rest of the world. hereas the Shah had guaranteed a steady supply of oil to the United States in exchange for "economic and military aid," the Ayatollah Khomeni did not ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The situation created a second oil crisis and subsequent inflation. Moreover, the Iranian Revolution soured American relations with the nation when on November of 1979, Iranian militants "stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive," ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The hostage scenario symbolized the rise of terrorism and specifically, anti-American…
The 1964 Civil Rights Act to the Present." Infoplease.com. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858852.html
Aberman, Samara. "The War on Drugs." PBS NewsHourExtra. 2001. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.pbs.org /newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drug_war.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
The Shiites saw themselves as reformers, eradicating Iran of estern influence and civic corruption as embodied by the Shah, but the U.S. did not understand this worldview, and could only see the violence the overthrow of the Shah had caused.
Since the Iranian hostage crisis, relations between the U.S. And Islamic-affiliated regimes have steadily deteriorated. Most Islamic fundamentalist nations and groups are committed to the destruction of Israel, and the U.S. is one of Israel's most loyal allies in the region. The attacks upon the orld Trade Center are the most obvious, although certainly not the only provoking acts upon U.S. soil by groups who claim to speak in the name of Mohammed. The civil war in Lebanon, which was essentially a terrorist or guerrilla struggle between competing religious and ethnic factions, not all of whom were Muslim, further contributed to the common portrait of Islamic radicalism as inevitably associated…
Iran hostage crisis." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. 2000-2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.
14 Apr. 2007 http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0825448.html .
Clinton's Lewinsky Speech
Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…
Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.
Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.
Brendan Behan contributed much to the literary genre, though his literary achievements often are subordinate to his public recognition as a drunk, disorderly and often amusing or entertaining member of society. Many literary critics fail to recognize Behan for the serious contributions he made to writing, instead choosing to focus on the controversy that exists regarding his work ethic and personal habits.
This paper asserts however that Behan used his writing to voice his disagreement with the notion of cultural nationalism that existed during the time he lived in Ireland. Brannigan (2002) supports this notion claiming that Behan's writing in fact allowed him to "articulate dissident" and contributed to the emergence of revisionist and other critiques of nationalism (Brannigan, 2002).
This paper will also delve into the idea that Behan wrote from a strictly humanistic point, attempting to enlighten his audience with amusing anecdotes about human nature, sharing the notion…
Jasto, K. (2000). "Brendan Behan." [online] October 10, 2004, at http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/behan.htm
Silltoe, A. (1959, August). "Proletarian novelists. Books and Bookmen, 13; from Brannigan, J. (2002). "Belated Behan: Brendan Behan and the cultural politics of memory" Eire-Ireland: A Journal of Irish Studies.
The Irish soldiers are uncomfortable with the news they now share with each other.
The day after that, they are playing cards when Donovan comes back and speaks with onaparte outside. He tells him that he has come to execute Hawkins and elcher because the ritish have shot several Irish prisoners of war. Donovan warns them not to alarm the ritish but to tell them they are being transferred. Noble cannot stomach the thought and wants nothing to do with it, so Donovan sends him ahead to dig the graves.
The Englishmen don't really want to leave their friends, but are persuaded by Donovan and onaparte to go with them. As they are walking into a bog, Donovan tells the ritish what is about to happen. They are unbelieving that this could happen and argue, but to no avail. onaparte says that he is having a hard time with this…
O'Connor, F. (1987). Guests of the nation. Dublin: Poolbeg Press.
Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.
The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…
Alderman, Sidney. 1945. Address to the Tribunal: November 23, 1945.
Chang, Iris. 1997. The Rape of Nanking. Penguin Books.
Marrus, Michael R. 2006. The Nuremburg war Crimes Trial. Bedford Press.
Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. 2008. Global Justice. Stanford University Press
S. But this incident was a turning point in the history of Iran and many believe that this conflict was staged to prove that Iran was not afraid of any country. The conflict played a huge role in exposing Carter's foreign policy. The book's weaknesses lie in its overemphasis on few successes of Carter's Presidency era and its failure to dwell on his numerous failures including inflation, poor international relations and unemployment. The book wants to show that it was President Carter who earned the release of hostages but the fact remains that these hostages were released the very day, he left the office and Reagan took over.
Carter, Jimmy. Sources of Strength: Meditations on Scripture for Daily
iving. New York: Random House, 1997
This book contains 52 lessons from the Bible that President Carter cherishes. Each lesson is meant for each week of the year. The book provides an…
Lieutenant James Earle Carter, Jr., USN." Department of the Navy.
Naval Historical Center. October 19, 1997. Retrieved February 16, 2007, at http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq60-14.htm .
This site can be treated as a primary source since it only gives factual information about President's time in Navy. The site explains how the ex-president joined Naval Academy and chronicles his rise to the rank of lieutenant. There are no major achievements mentioned during his service time in Navy except some academic achievements during wartime program. The site only informs about the various periods and stages in ex-president's service time. From this site, one can learn about Carter's interested in atomic and nuclear programs. He was interested in joining nuclear program with Admiral Rickover and was found capable enough to be a part of this project. He also received training as engineering officer to work at the nuclear power plant in 1950s.
Crisis Negotiation Team
Our organization has been provided funding for a crisis negotiation team. There will be several roles within this team that will need to be filled. The team will be composed of three to five people; the FBI recommends two people as a bare minimum however generally there is a bare minimum of three people required (McMains & Mulins, 2010). The team members must be able to perform many roles within the team. Some of the tasks that will be required include (McMains & Mulins, 2010):
Gather intelligence about the incident, the hostage taker, the hostages, etc.
Develop tactics that will defuse the incident, influence the hostage taker, and reduce the risk of loss of life.
Establish communication with the hostage taker.
Record relevant intelligence information.
Keep a record of the negotiations, including demands and promises.
Coordinate and communicate with incident commander and tactical…
McMains, M., & Mulins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiations. New Providence: LexisNexis/Anderson.
Terestre, D. (2004, March 26). Talking him down: the crisis negotiator. Retrieved from Police One: http://www.policeone.com/columnists/PoliceMagazine/articles/82818-Talking-him-down-the-crisis-negotiator/
Dawson College shooting occurred on September 13, 2006 at Dawson College located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was reported that the shooter was Kimveer Gill and he shot a total of nineteen people. Out of a total of nineteen people, one person died whereas others were injured. Out of the injuries, a total of eight students were critical and six of the people required surgery. Subsequent to the shootings, the shooter shot him in the head and committed suicide. It was reported that the gunman also had a bullet in the arm which was due to the police when the person was shot. (CBS) The victims that were hurt were treated at the Montreal General Hospital when the shooting occurred.
Pathway to Violence explained.
Before we get in the details of how the shooting unfolded, it is crucial to explain the path to violence as presented by Calhoun and Weston…
Buncombe, A. (2006) College Gunman Revealed Obsession with Columbine Killings on Internet . The Independent (London, England), [online] September 15. Available at: http://www.questia.com/library/1P2-2057765/college-gunman-revealed-obsession-with-columbine-killings [Accessed: 8th January 2013].
Canada.com (2012) Who Was Kimveer Gill? (Part 2). [online] Available at: http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/story.html?id=d1933b65-8a0c-454f-bff0-9e072f8918b5 [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Cbc.ca (2006) Montreal gunman called himself 'angel of death' - Canada - CBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2006/09/14/gunman-shooting.html [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Cbc.ca (2006) Montreal gunman killed himself: autopsy - Canada - CBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2006/09/14/qc-dawsoninvestigation.html [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Sanctions in the OPEC World
What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…
Aghazadeh, Mahdieh. 'A Historical Overview of Sanctions on Iran and Iran's Nuclear Program. Journal of Academic Studies. Vol. 56, 137-160, 2013.
Berliner, Uri. 'Crippled By Sanctions, Iran's Economy Key In Nuclear Deal." NPR. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.npr.org . 2013.
Byman, Daniel L. 'Iran's Support for Terrorism in the Middle East.' Brookings. Recovered November 25, 2015, from http://www.brookings.edu . 2013.
Farshneshani, Beheshteh. 'In Iran, Sanctions Hurt the Wrong People.' The New York Times. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2014.
Incident Response to the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings
Although named for its venue, the Boston Marathon is sponsored by a number of different cities in the greater Boston area and is held annually on Patriot’s Day which is the third Monday in April (About the Boston Marathon, 2018). First run as an all-male event in 1897, the Boston Marathon has since become an international event that draws both male and female contestants from around the world with a global audience. On April 15, 2013, two Kyrgyz-American brothers detonated two homemade bombs near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, causing hundreds of casualties – many of them severe and involving the loss of limbs – a well as three fatalities. The purpose of this case study is to provide an analysis of the effectiveness of the incident response to these bombings, including the role of first responders and the law…
The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.
After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."
This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…
Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.
Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html?wlc=1243220640
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=
Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
But Pa Chin never takes only one side, and his portrayals are always slightly ambiguous. While Chueh-hui is admirable at times, however, there are also disturbing signs of Maoist censorship in his action. When his grandfather gives him a book he disagrees with called on Filial Piety and the Shunning of Lewdness, he destroys it, censoring it as his own magazine is censored, confident that destroying a book is good, because it will prevent other minds from being corrupted by its ideals. his suggests that he wishes to be in control of the ideas of others.
o give added political resonance to Family, Chin sets the book during the May 4th movement of 1919. his nationalist movement was a reaction to the Chinese government of the time and to Confucian hierarchies of authority in general. he new flame of populism is embodied into the younger generation, across China and also…
The three brothers symbolize different ways of coping with Chinese tradition. The eldest tries to bow to Confucian morality, and loses his individual soul in the process. The middle brother seeks a personalized, romantic Western-style method of escape. The youngest takes refuge in politics, and rejects all tradition, even refusing to ride in a sedan-chair as a protest to the status of his family, which he sees as stolen. Instead of merely talking about change, he lives change, and this seems to be the course of action favored by the author. But Pa Chin never takes only one side, and his portrayals are always slightly ambiguous. While Chueh-hui is admirable at times, however, there are also disturbing signs of Maoist censorship in his action. When his grandfather gives him a book he disagrees with called on Filial Piety and the Shunning of Lewdness, he destroys it, censoring it as his own magazine is censored, confident that destroying a book is good, because it will prevent other minds from being corrupted by its ideals. This suggests that he wishes to be in control of the ideas of others.
To give added political resonance to Family, Chin sets the book during the May 4th movement of 1919. This nationalist movement was a reaction to the Chinese government of the time and to Confucian hierarchies of authority in general. The new flame of populism is embodied into the younger generation, across China and also within the Kao family. But as the book is written from a distance from this era of history, Chin is not intent upon offering a literal depiction of the May 4th Movement, rather it adds atmosphere to the book and underlines the need to rebel against tradition in a coherent and meaningful way.
Rebellion is necessary, otherwise one falls into the trap of the first brother. But rebellion cannot be purely personal, along the lines of the second brother, otherwise things will never change. And even the political solution of the third brother, while it is validated more by the narrative than the neo-Confucian or quasi-Western paths of the first and second brother, is lacking in humanity. Chin advocates a balance, a balance that is often difficult to find in any society, but particularly in China -- whether the prerevolutionary traditional China infused with the memory of Confucius or the China Chin himself lived in, the China of Mao.
Who is Al-Zarqawi, and why is he today one of the world's most hated terrorists? What are his activities and why is he wanted by the various Intelligence Agencies not only of the U.S.A., but also of the world? Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi is today one of the world's most wanted terrorists, said to be capable of overshadowing even the 'Enemy Number 1', as he is referred to in the United States of America, Osama bin Laden, and whose value, for capture, offered by the U.S. State Department, is said to be at par with that of Osama bin Laden, that is, an astronomical amount of $25 million. However, Al-Zarqawi has not been put on the 'Most Wanted' list of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. This terrorist has been at times described as an 'Osama Associate', and also, at times, an individual who is capable…
Chossudovsky, Michel. Who is Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi? 11 June, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO405B.html Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Mackay, Neil. A Prince of Terror's Deadly Game, the Hostage Takers, Al-Zarqawi. The Sunday Herald. September, 2004. pp: 4-5
Piszkiewicz, Dennis. Terrorism's War with America: A History. Praeger, 2003. p 168.
Moral Minima" by Lenn E. Goodman. (2010) The Good Society 19(1): 87-94
Discussion of morality is almost always contentious. Who defines morality? Whose morality is it? Can one culture's morality be imposed on another's? Can the Westerners judge non-Westerns based on Western understandings of morality and vice versa? These are obviously legitimate questions. Philosophers, social scientists, human rights activists, politicians, and even criminals engage in this debate. In the last sixty years, advocates of diversity and respect for all cultures have condemned old colonial and racial classifications of the world, arguing that cultural practices of different nations must be analyzed and understood within the context of these specific nations. These people are generally called "moral relativists," especially by critics of such a view. Critics argue that moral relativism is morally bankrupt and that it ends up justifying abhorrent practices around the world. They argue that there are certain practices that…
Images of the Middle East in American popular culture and mass media are generally shape the ideas that most people in the United States ever get to this region, nor do they have specialized training and education that would provide them with more factual information. This influences include movies, novels, television broadcasts and news programs, especially those that dramatize terrorist incidents like the Iran Hostage Crisis, the bombing of the Marine barracks in Lebanon, the wars with Iraq and of course September 11, 2001. Among the most important influences are the ideas of white evangelicals and fundamentalists about the key role that Israel will play in the End Times and the Second Coming of Christ, and the imperative to support it against the Muslims. This particular group has had a disproportionate influence on politics, especially in the Republican Party, and on the election of hawkish presidents like Ronald…
McAlister, Melani. Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East, 1945-2000. University of California Press, 2001.
The land occupied by the fledgling state of Chechnya is strategically, and somewhat remotely located between the Black and Caspian seas. Lying in a natural land corridor which is a land bridge between the northern ussian and ussian federation nations, and the countries of Iraq and Turkey, although the terrain is hilly with little to offer in the way of natural resources, Chechnya holds a strategic position for travel to or from ussia, Turkey, and Iraq. As for the peoples groups in this part of the world, freedom has been only a fleeting experience. When the Tzars of ussia weren't conquering the land, the Soviet epublic was. The area has tried to put together a stable existence while living on the boarder of two world wars, so the concept of self rule, and the responsibilities which come with it have only been ideas in the minds of generations…
Chechnya," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003
http://encarta.msn.com. Accessed 1 Dec 2003.
Charlton, A. Putin hopes for end to Chechnya war, probes launched into troop abuses
AP Worldstream. 04/17/2002.
Chechnya [...] Chechen conflict with ussia, including how it started and when, along with the causes, effects, main events and attacks, and a current perspective on events in Chechnya today. Chechnya has always desired independence from ussia, and continues to fight for its' freedom today. The tiny country has not been able to shed ussian influence and government, but it has evolved into a world political crisis that has effected thousands of Chechen civilians and continues to cause strife and violence today.
Chechnya is a Soviet epublic that declared independence from ussia in 1991. However, ussia's leaders refused to acknowledge Chechnya's independence, and instead sent in troops to subdue the Chechens. They withdrew when they met armed Chechens ready to defend their country, but the current conflict had its beginnings in these events in 1991, which escalated to full-scale war by 1994. However, the roots of the problems between Chechnya…
Author not Available. " The Situation in Chechnya and Ingushetia Deteriorates." HumanRightsWatch.org. 8 April 2004. 23 April 2004. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/04/07/russia8408.htm
Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Paige Sullivan, eds. Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Documents, Data, and Analysis. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
Editors. "Country Profiles: Chechnya." BBC. 2004. 23 April 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/2357267.stm
Shah, Anup. "Crisis in Chechnya." GlobalIssues.org. 2 April 2004. 23 April 2004. http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Chechnya.asp
Terrorism in ussia on an International Level
[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]
Terrorism in ussia has existed since the ussian Empire. Its long history has brought violence against countless civilians in order to accomplish ideological or political objectives through the generation of fear and panic. Tactics so often seen in terrorism such as hostage taking saw extensive use in Soviet secret agencies. The greatest example of this was during the Great and ed Terror campaigns against their own countrymen as stated by historians like Karl Kautsky. As the end of the 20th century approached, major terrorist activity took place in the capital of ussia, Moscow. These events involved the Moscow theater hostage crisis as well as apartment bombings. Aside from Moscow, Dagestan, Chechnya, and other areas of the nation experienced terrorism. The worst part of it all is that scholars and journalists believe some of these…
Cavaliero,, C. (2011). PROTECTING ITS OWN: SUPPORT FOR RUSSIA'S FEDERAL LAW ON THE COUNTERACTION OF TERRORISM. George Washington International Law Review, 43(4), 663. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/77480580/protecting-own-support-russias-federal-law-counteraction-terrorism
Cohen, A. (2002). Russia, Islam, and the War on Terrorism: An Uneasy Future.Demokratizatsiya, 10(4), 556.
Cross, S. (2006). Russia's Relationship with the United States/NATO in the U.S.-led Global War on Terrorism. The Journal Of Slavic Military Studies, 19(2), 175-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13518040600697738
Omelicheva, M. (2010). Russia's Counterterrorism Policy: Variations on an Imperial Theme. Perspectives On Terrorism, 3(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/61/html
Ethical and Legal Issues Depicted in the Movie, John Q?
From beginning to end, "John Q" is a movie full of moral and ethical quandaries. It offers viewers a clear glimpse at private and public entities' obligation to engage in ethically-right routine decision-making for their respective communities. John lacked the required health insurance to cover his son's cardiac surgery expenses. The Hope Memorial Hospital, electing not to play a "Good Samaritan," does not agree to perform the surgery without being assured payment. Thus, John is faced with the moral quandary of accepting fate and readying for the funeral of his son (as suggested by Rebecca Payne, the Hospital's administrator), or somehow procuring the money needed. Given the urgency of his son's case, the second option is rather daunting. Ultimately, John ends up holding emergency room patients and staff members hostage, to ensure his son is catered to (angura, 2011).
Bangura, G. B.-L. (2011, August 28). ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF "JOHN Q" MOVIE. Retrieved from Bailama Dynasty: http://bailamadynasty.blogspot.com/2011/08/ethical-analysis-of-john-q-movie.html
HubPages. (2015, December 26). John Q Analysis: Ethical & Moral Dilemmas. Retrieved from hubpages.com: http://hubpages.com/entertainment/Morality-and-Ethics-in-John-Q
Foreign Policy of President eagan
Before the disastrous Vietnam War, the U.S. held an undisputed dominant position worldwide, recognized locally as well as by other nations. The nation's historic actions towards defending freedom, by restraining the fascist faction during the Second World War, followed by organizing a large free-state coalition for combating communism, were supported by profound and sweeping domestic consensus. This consensus was destroyed by America's decision to wage war on Vietnam. Despite the rationale being the protection of free peoples battling communism, the Vietnam War resulted in caustic doubt and destabilizing discord among Americans. This suspicion and discord incited and guided by people opposed to the war, rather than the enemy's weaponry and zeal, explains America's failure, above every other factor. The U.S. had to battle internal resistance more than resistance from the Vietnamese adversary, and resulted in a self-inflicted defeat (Brenes 2015; LAISON 2013). Extremely serious repercussions…
Anderson, Martin. 1990. Revolution: The Reagan Legacy, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Armstrong, Scott and Peter Grier. 1986. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream, New York: Foreign Policy Association.
Arquilla, John. 2006. The Reagan Imprint: Ideas in American Foreign Policy from the Collapse of Communism to the War on Terror, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Baucom, Donald R. 1992. The Origins of SDI, 1944-1983, Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas.