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In order to learn about the development of males in their late teenage stage, between the ages seventeen and twenty, an eighteen-year-old male was interviewed. An individual of this age was chosen since it is believed as the age that acts as a transitory period between teenage and adulthood thus the developmental features are explicitly displayed at this age within the period targeted. The individual interviewed was a student undertaking his A-level studies in a public university. A student at this age was appropriate since common teenagers are still at this level of education apart from a few who could have got a chance in full employment or probably dropped at some level for various reasons. The individual has an African origin but has been brought up in a western culture and he totally adapted to the culture.
In the current society there are a number of emerging…
Alderfer, C. (1969). An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 4, pp. 142 -- 175
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row
Porter, L. & Lawler, E. (1968). Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey Press
Human beings develop from childhood into adulthood not only through the natural aging process, but equally important by an education process that extends right through their lifetime. Memorization forms an integral part of education as memory functioning determines our ability to receive, process, store and recall information for relevant use. The information processing approach includes the input processes concerned with stimuli analysis, the storage processes which entail all internal handling of the stimuli information within the brain, including any coding or manipulation of the stimuli and the output processes responsible for preparing the appropriate response to a stimulus (McLeod, 2008).
Several assumptions are made when it comes to explaining the influence on memory by the information processing approach. First, all information received from our environment is handled by processing systems including perception, short-term memory, and attention. Secondly, such information is systematically altered and transformed by these information processing…
Gilmore, R.O. (2005, February 14). Probing Questions -- Do Children Have Better Memories
than Adults Do? Retrieved from The Pennsylvania State University website: http://www.rps.psu.edu/probing/memory.html
"Information Processing." (n.d.). School of Education. Retrieved from Purdue University
Calumet website: http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy6/edpsy6_info.htm
Human Development: Hypothetical Case Study of Angela Wu
Angela Wu, age sixteen, was referred to the guidance department of the high school after several of her teachers noted that she had seemed unusually "stressed out, even for Angela," after mid-term exam week. Later, it was noted that her academic performance on her midterms was notably weaker than it had been over the past several semesters at the high school. After mid-term grade reports were sent, Angela's parents called and expressed concern, asking if it was possible if she could retake several of the tests.
Angela is a junior at the high school, and her parents noted that junior year is particularly crucial in terms of assembling a strong college transcript of grades when considering competitive universities. They said Angela has expressed her intention to apply for a scholarship to the state university and to several Ivy League schools. Angela is…
Erikson's "Eight Stages of Man"
Erik Erikson was a student of Sigmund Freud's who developed a theory of personality development. According to Erikson, there are eight psychosocial stages in which the individual faces a crisis or developmental task (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). If the individual successfully completes the developmental task, there is a positive outcome; if not, there is a negative outcome. The first stage, which is called trust vs. mistrust, occurs from birth to age 1 year. During this stage as a result of sensitive caregiving, the child develops a sense that the world is a safe and reliable place. The positive outcome of this stage is hope, while the negative outcomes are fear and mistrust of others. The second stage is autonomy vs. shame and doubt, which occurs from age 1 to 3. During this stage, the child uses his new mental and motor skills to…
Broderick, P.C. & Blewitt, P. (2010). The life span: Human development for helping professionals. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.
Hernandez, C. (2008). Lifespan perspective on human development. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/950617/lifespan_perspective_on_human_development.html
Lazinski, M.J., Shea, A.K., & Steiner, M. (2008). Effects of maternal prenatal stress on offspring development: A commentary Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s00737-008-0035-4
This is expected in American culture, indeed, the fact that we speak of generations, as in Generation Y or Generation X, the Greatest Generation, indicates how it is normalized for children to ally with their peers in their social habits and attitudes. Perhaps the most profound difference between this generation and the past generation is the influence of new media upon children's development. The impact of high levels of violence and sexuality on television and how this affects children's attention spans, sense of self, propensity towards shows of aggression, and other aspects of development is still quite contentious. However, there is agreement that more than television or music, the Internet has had the most profound influence upon the current generation of teens.
The new media, as well as exposing teens to new information, music, and influences, also provides a potent source of social connectivity. "Between 75 and 90% of teenagers…
Asher, S.R. & Williams, G.A. "Children without friends: The reasons for peer rejection." In Todd, C.M. (Ed.). Day care center connections. 3(1): 3-5. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service, 2003. 3 Dec 2007. http://www.nncc.org/Guidance/dc31_wo.friends2.html
Developmental psychology: The peer context." The PSI Cafe. Page Updated 10 Apr 2003. 3 Dec 2007. http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/Areas/Developmental/PeerContext/index.htm
Sleek, Scott. "Blame your peers, not your parents." APA Monitor. 28. Oct 1998.
Dec 2007. http://www.apa.org/monitor/oct98/peers.html
As for supernatural acts, the primary sources of these are God and Satan. Satan or the Devil constantly urges the individual to adopt sinful ways, to behave contrary to God's directives. To combat Satan's influence, God is always available as a guide and supporter for people in moments of indecision, of spiritual weakness, and of temptation. God's guidance and strength may be sought directly through prayer and through reading passages of Holy Scripture, or sought indirectly through consulting a priest or pastor. Not only do Christians believe God serves as adviser and spiritual supporter, but also that he can intervene to change either the individual or the environment so as to cause an event to turn out as the individual has hoped it would. This conviction that God at any moment can manipulate events to affect a particular outcome is suggested in many passages of the Bible.
A familiar example…
Derezotes, D.S. (1995). Spirituality and religiosity: Neglected factors in social work practice. Arete, 20(1), 1-15.
Dunstan JL (1961) Protestantism. Braziller, New York
Gruber, H. And Voneche, J. eds., (1977) the Essential Piaget. New York: Basic Books.
Nee, W. (1968). The spiritual man (Vols. 1 -- 3). New York: Christian Fellowship Publishers.
None of these countries are at the top or bottom of the scale of human development in the world today, though. Topping the list is Norway, which has a life expectancy of 81.1 years, 17.3 years of expected schooling for each individual, and an annual per-capita income of $47,557 (UNDP, 2012). The United States is ranked fourth in human development, with a per-capita income of $43,017 and a life expectancy of 78.5 years, with each citizen of the United States receiving an expected 16 years of formal education in their lives (UNDP, 2012). Comparing these numbers to those of Latin America truly puts the world's issues into perspectives, and a comparison with a country at the bottom of the index makes the realities of global human development and its imbalance all the more palpable. Much of Africa occupies the lowest ranks on the Human Development Index, and citizens of Niger…
Arab Human Development Report. (2009). Accessed 7 December 2012. http://www.arab-hdr.org/contents/index.aspx
UNDP. (2012). Human Development Index. Accessed 7 December 2012. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf
This is often considered a highly impersonal and therefore largely imprecise and impractical framework for viewing development, especially since the purported events which have supposedly shaped the brain through evolution can never be observed. A more popular type of theory is cognitive development. Jean Piaget is considered the founder of this school of thought; after noticing that responses from children of different ages were qualitatively different, he identified several distinct stages of cognitive development and saw cognition as the primary facet of development, affecting the other areas more than vice versa (Newman 2007).
There are, of course, some serious ethical considerations when engaging in experiments with human beings, especially children who are not able to provide informed consent. Most scientific experiments require as many variables as possible to be controlled, so that a singular aspect of a phenomenon can be observed. This is usually ethically impossible when dealing with human…
Clifton, A. (1995) Psychological Theory: Erikson. Accessed 9 July 2009. http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Newman, B. (2007). Theories of Human Development. New York: Routledge.
Papalia, D.; Olds, S. & Feldman, R. (2004). Human Development, 9th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.
Human Development and Drug Addiction
People's response to drugs varies as some may have the advantage of using drugs without any side effects while others become addicted after the first intake. The impacts of substance abuse are different depending on the person using them. If the use is continued for a long time, addiction will be inevitable. Addiction and substance abuse are bound to turn one's life upside down in a short time. In course of addiction, one's mental and physical abilities will highly rely on the drug and they will need the drug as a basic need. The intensity with which the drug will dictate the person depends on many aspects. These aspects include genes of the person, environment, physical health, and mental health. Drug addiction has its consequences; users may be eventually addicted making it hard for them to stop the use (Abramson & Assembly of Behavioral and…
Abramson, M.A., & Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences (U.S.). (2008). The funding of social knowledge production and application: A survey of Federal agencies. Washington: National Academy of Sciences.
Bernstein, D.A. (2007). Psychology. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.
Galizio, M., & Maisto, S.A. (2010). Determinants of substance abuse: Biological, psychological, and environmental factors. New York: Plenum Press.
Hales, D.R. (2006). Invitation to wellness: Making healthy choices. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth.
Human Development -- the Elderly
The purpose of this paper is to examine human development from the perspective of sociocultural concepts regarding the elderly as well as from the healthcare provider's view and heatlh care services delivery in the elderly population.
Generally, in terms of the elderly and the cognitive aging which is experienced one assumes that is purely a time of decline in the areas of memory, linguistics and processes of attention as well as the problem-solving skills. The decline is believed, and studies support the idea as well, that the cognitive decline begins sometime during the years of the person having reached the age of sixty. However, according to Schaie, 1993, while it is true that a few of the individuals mental abilities experience declines that most cognitive abilities experience only small declines. However, this small declines are sure to occur.
The Aging Process:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HCUPnet [Online] available at: http://hcup.ahrq.gove/hcupnet.asp.
A Profile of Older American's (2003) Administration on Aging 2004 [Online] available at: http://research.AAARP.org/general/profiles.html. Kanapaux, William (2004) Palliative Care Seeks Structure for Growth. Geriatric Times: A Interdisciplinary Approach to Healthy Aging Sep/Oct 2004 Vol.V Issue.5 [Online] avialable at: http://www.geriatrictimes.com/g041003.html
Kagan, Sara H. (2004) Delirium doulas: An Innovative Approach to Enhance Care for Critically Ill Older Adults (Clinical Article) Critical Care Nurse 2004 Aug 1 [Online] available at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3 .asp?ctrl Info=Rou nd9a%3APro d%3ADOC%3APrint& DOCID=1G1:120773318& print=yes
Vladeck, Bruce C. (2000) Health Care Financing Review; 6/22/2000; [Online] available at: ttp://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:71060806 & num=1& ctrlInfo=Round9a%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult& ao=
Philanthropy is at least as old as recorded human history and most likely began near the same time that humans began to organize into social groups. There are many charitable aspects to most organized religion. For example, Christ was recorded to have cured the ill and fed the hungry. However, philanthropy and charitable giving are not universally global phenomena across all countries and cultures and there are many factors that must be considered; in the U.S., they have origins in religion, in the idea of mutual assistance, in democratic principles of civic participation, in the acceptance of decentralized and varied approaches to problem solving, in individualism, and in limited government (Billiteri, N.d.).
As a result of the culmination of factors that can be used to underpin the historical foundations of philanthropy, each culture and civilization must be considered independently. In most cases there are cultural influences that affect how people…
Alexander, D. (2011, May 16). Understanding How Money Works in Different Cultures. Retrieved from The Chronicle of Philanthropy: https://philanthropy.com/article/Understanding-How-Money-Works/196039
Bernholz, L. (2012). Public Good Politics. Retrieved from Stanford Social Innovation Review: http://www.ssireview.org/book_reviews/entry/philanthropy_in_america_a_history_olivier_zunz
Billiteri, T. (N.d.). A Brief History of Philanthropy in the United States. Retrieved from The East Bay Community Foundation: http://www.ebcf.org/brief-history-of-researching-philanthropy/
CDC. (2015, February 4). 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. Retrieved from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/
human development. Address items: Explain
Human development is a particularly fascinating area of study, for the simple fact that it cross references and influences a variety of disciplines such as psychology, biology, sociology, and many others. One of the most interesting aspects of this area of study is the lifespan perspective, which deals with the continuing growth and changes that a person experiences from the time of earliest childhood to the old age. There are several theories of life span development that are instrumental in correctly interpreting the overall journey that is human development. Two of the more salient of these are known as plasticity and contextual theory. Both individually and collectively, these two theories help to explain how diverse factors such as heredity and environment are able to account for profound changes in individuals, which helps to form the very notion of individualism itself. All of these facets of…
Belsky, J., Pluess, M. (2009). "The nature (and nurture?) of plasticity in Early Human Development." Perspectives on Psychological Science. 4 (4): 345-351.
Boyd, D., Bee, H. (2006). Lifespan Development, Fourth Edition. Boston: Pearson Education.
Davis, D., Clifton, A. (1995). "Psychosocial theory: Erikson." www.haverford.edu. Retrieved from http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Hence, this has influenced her behaviour and coping mechanisms. Although there is considerable disagreement about the verifiability of behaviourism and external influence as the exclusive determiner of human development, Lilly's case should, at least initially, be regarded with this approach in mind.
The main reason for this is Lilly's drastic behaviour change since the hospitalization of her mother. Clearly, external influences have caused her to form coping mechanisms such as family loyalty and an over-developed sense of care for her younger sister, along with a sense of responsibility when it comes to attempting to dress herself and attend school. This then leads to the assertion by Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer (6), that individual behaviours and experiences do not occur without the influence of environmental factors. oth social and structural processes influence the way in which individuals behave.
This is also true for Lilly. Her immediate environment, which is her family…
Cunningham, J. And Cunningham, S. 2008. Sociology and Social Work. Sage.
Green, L. 2010. Understanding the Life Course: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Howe, D. 2011. Attachment Across the Life course: A brief introduction. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hutchison, E.D. And Charlesworth, L.W. Theoretical Perspectives on Human Behavior. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36524_PE_Chapter2.pdf
Human Development in Classroom
We all started in school having no knowledge at all about the learning that we obtained throughout our years of attending educational institutions. However, after finishing our studies, all of us are able to acquire knowledge at different levels. Such differences in level at which how much we are able to attain knowledge is dependent, according to researches and studies, on two major factors. These are the ability of an individual to grasp knowledge and the ability of a learning instructor to deliver knowledge to his students. In view of this, in the part of the teachers, delivering an effective process of teaching depends on many strategies and methods. One of which is the understanding of the stages of human development in a classroom.
According to the College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University (Online, 2005),
In order to make effective classroom decisions, teachers must…
Bergen, D. (1993). Facilitating Friendship Development in Inclusion Classrooms.
Childhood Education, Vol. 69, N4, pp 234-235.
Program Goal II: Student Learning
Retrieved on October 27, 2005, from Online.
Human Development, story Heinz explain reasoning process underlying decisions made stages Kohlberg's continuum moral development. Based, develop a case study a moral dilemma faced individual stage middle childhood.
ackie is ten years old. She recently discovered that life is not as beautiful as people might think it is when considering the condition of other children in her classroom. She has two friends (Sarah and Tim) in her group who have abusive parents and who are often left to starve by their unsympathetic tutors. She knows her mother and father are unwilling to allow her to befriend poor children and that it is impossible for her to influence them in intervening and helping her two friends. All that she can do is to try to sneak out small amounts of food out of the house when no one is looking. However, the food that she takes is barely enough to feed…
Jean Piaget's studies in the field of moral development point toward the belief that Jackie was not in a position where she could understand the best solution to Sarah and Tim's problem. In spite of the fact that she had the tendency to help these two individuals, she was in a stage of early moral reasoning and did not have the ability to correctly tackle such situations. Jackie had just found out that other children in her classroom came from a different world and that she could do something to help them. She was in a Concrete operational stage and she was barely aware of what was happening around her. She had not reached the Formal operational stage, where she would be better prepared to deal with situations involving morality. Jackie appears to be particularly intelligent and caring for her age, but her thinking is still guided by social conventions and she considers that it would be impossible for her to express indifference regarding the rules that she has been taught ever since her early childhood. She knows that she does good by helping others, but she is unable to fully understand the concept of moral assistance as she only focuses on helping Sarah. She basically considers Sarah to be better prepared to enter her world because they are both girls.
"KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT," Retrieved December 26, 2011, from the Pegasus Website: http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~ncoverst/Kohlberg's%20Stages%20of%20Moral%20Development.htm
"Piaget," Retrieved December 26, 2011, from the Learning and Teaching Website: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm
human Development Canadian edition spencer a.athus Shauna longmuir
Society has changed dramatically in the last decades and has enabled some of the core principles to suffer modifications. These include nowadays discussions about same sex marriages, allowance or banning of physical expression of religious beliefs in schools, debates on the actual purity of ministers and people of the Church, among other things. Another issue under debate and acceptance is the "cohabitation" as an alternative to marriage. There are views that consider the choice of cohabitation to be more suitable for today's type of society, whereas other view it as a dilution of family values where the family is the cornerstone of the society.
In the United States, there is no unitary approach on the term cohabitation together with its implications. In this sense in some states the term means "regularly residing with an adult of the same or opposite sex,…
Copen et al. (2013) "First Premarital Cohabitation in the United States: 2006 -- 2010 National Survey of Family Growth" in National Health Statistics Report U.S. Dept. Of Health and Human Services, available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr064.pdf
Law Commission (n.d) "Cohabitation: the financial consequences of relationship breakdown -- a consultation paper," available on Google Books.
Rathus, S and Shauna Longmuir, (2012) "HDEV." Nelson Education Ltd., Canadian Edition.
Thornton et al., (2007) "Marriage and cohabitation," University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
(Bouman; Castaneda; Bhuiyan, 2002)
Likewise another research by Berg, Tran et al. (2001) has shown that there is arsenic contamination of the ed iver alluvial tract in the city of Hanoi and this happens owing to the nature of the subsoil that contains iron. There was observed about average concentration of 430 ?g/L. Analysis of raw groundwater pumped from the lower aquifer for the 'Hanoi water supply yielded arsenic levels of 240-320 ?g/L in three of eight treatment plants and 37-82 ?g/L in another five plants.' (Berg; Tran, et al., 2001)
As a solution to this some government-based researches have given the opinion that though the states and USGS have contributed state funds toward the effort, more funds will have to be added both for the maintain ace of the ground water, regulating it and conducting further research. Mapping the entire ground water resources is not a small project and…
Alley, W. M; Reilly, T.E; Franke, O.L. (n. d.) "Ground-Water Development, Sustainability,
and Water Budgets Sustainability of Ground-Water Resources" Circular 1186 U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1186, Retrieved 7 April, 2013 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1186/html/gw_dev.html
Shah T. (2005) "Groundwater and human development: challenges and opportunities in livelihoods and environment" Water Sci Technol, vol. 51, no. 8, pp: 27-37.
Berg, Michael; Tran, Hong Con; et al. (2001) "Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater and Drinking Water in Vietnam: A Human Health Threat" Environ. Sci. Technol, vol. 35, no. 13, pp: 2621 -- 2626.
family functional and productive vs. dysfunctional and psychologically disruptive? esearchers in the fields of life span and family development have found a number of factors that can enhance the stability of the family and, therefore the secure and sound upbringing of the children. When some of these factors are missing or not handled correctly, the youth can develop low self-esteem. This can lead to a wide range of personal and social problems. I am a 27-year-old male with an 18-year-old brother. Despite the fact that there was a great deal of time between our births, our parents provided us with a strong, healthy and loving childhood by providing the support needed to personally succeed.
One of the earliest family developmental professionals was Urie Bronfenbrenner. Three decades ago, he stated: "The human family is the most powerful, the most humane, and by far the most economical system known for making and…
Coles, Robert. (1970) Eric Erikson: The Growth of his Work. Boston: Little Brown & Co.
Duvall, E. & Hill, R. (1945) When You Marry, Boston D.C. Heath and Co.
Galvin, K.M. & Brommel, B.J. (1996). Family communication: Cohesion and change. New York: Harper Collins.
Haimowitz, Morris. (1973). Human Development. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.
human development that you selected. Then, compare the major components of the two theories. Finally, describe which theory best explains the influence of culture on human development and why. Support your responses using the resources attached and current literature.
Theories of human development:
Indigenous psychology vs. transactional models
The field of psychology has grown increasingly sensitive to the need to take into consideration cultural differences when evaluating theories of human development. Previously, theories such as Piaget's concept of cognitive stages and Terman's conception of intelligence tended to view development as a universal trajectory, applicable to all cultures. In contrast, "Indigenous psychology advocates examining knowledge, skills, and beliefs that people have about themselves, and studying them in their natural contexts" (Kim & Park 2006: 289).
Theories of indigenous psychology can help explain seemingly inexplicable statistical trends within non-Western cultures in comparison to our own. Self-efficacy theory has long linked high self-esteem…
Another theory, that of transactional or dynamic systems models helps explain why certain individuals living within the same cultural context may respond better or worse to certain types of education. " Transactional models emphasize the bidirectional effects between individuals and cultural contexts and underscore the impact of accumulated exposure to physical and social environments on development" (Tsethlikai 2011: 194). Individuals consciously or unconsciously select what cultural influences to which they will respond.
Transactional models help explain why children of indigenous parents, even though they are technically immersed in American as well as native culture, perform considerably worse than their Caucasian counterparts on certain components of intelligence tests. Despite evidence to eradicate bias, there is still often a strong priority given to crystallized intelligence, which favors children of higher socio-economic backgrounds. This leaves "American Indian and Alaska Native children typically doing well on performance test items and performing poorly on verbal items" (Tsethlikai 2011: 194). For example, the components of intelligence tests designed to measure working memory capacity use reading span tests although native children perform much better on memory tests which were less verbally oriented (Tsethlikai 2011: 200).
Like the indigenous model, transactional models stress the culturally-bound nature of constructions such as intelligence. Transactional models focus more on technical aspects of how different components of the development of 'intelligence' evolve differently within cultures vs. The broader-based assessment of values in indigenous models. Indigenous models question whether there is something like 'intelligence' that can be understood cross-culturally at all, given the fact different societies
human development, particularly in the development of the individual's social, emotional, and psychological needs, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives/Needs is considered the best model that illustrates the development of an individual. Along with his/her development, an individual may go through several stages of life wherein the following elements are present and can potentially be experienced (arranged from bottom to top of Maslow's hierarchy): physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow developed this model to illustrate how individuals "satisfy certain basic needs before we can satisfy higher needs" (Santrock, 2001:371). Among these needs, Maslow considers self-actualization as the ultimate end of human development, wherein it is considered as "the highest and most elusive human need," since this is the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being. Applied in the human setting, Maslow's self-actualization element in his hierarchy may be comparatively illustrated by Ronald Reagan and Bill…
Bill Clinton." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library. Microsoft Inc.
Ronald Reagan." Encarta Reference Library. Microsoft Inc.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
In order for me to provide my own personal view on human development and aging over the life span, I have provided a review of several key research theories pertaining to human development. My own personal model of human development is a hybrid of other prominent sociological theorists. Because it is important to consider the theoretical underpinnings of human development, I will incorporate a review of the scholarly research pertaining to theories of life stage development and psycho-social development theories, then, I will include my own perspective pertaining to each theory.
Sigelman and ider (2006, pg. 2) define development as the entire set of "systematic changes and continuities" that occur in the individual from birth to death. These systematic changes and continuities occur in three broad domains: physical development, cognitive development and psychosocial development (Sigelman and ider, 2006). Physical development, of course, include normative physical attributes during the…
Anderson, R., Carter, I., & Lowe, G. (2006). Human behavior in the social environment: A social systems approach. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
Cavanaugh, John C., Blanchard-Fields. (2005). Adult Development and Aging, 5th ed. United States: Wadsworth-Thomson Learning Press.
Erikson, Erik. (1968). Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Harari, E. (2001). Whose evidence? Lessons from the philosophy of science and the epistemology of medicine. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 724 -- 730.
There are a number of different concepts that form the foundations of human development in the social environment. One of these is the bio-psycho-social dimensions of development. Essentially, this concept holds that there are biological, psychological and social factors that all contribute to human development. Hoermann, Zupanick and Dombeck (2013) note that there are complex linkages between nature (biology, psychology) and nurture (social factors) that contribute to the formation of personality. Each person is born with a set of traits, including biological ones and will develop psychologically with the influence of these traits. These traits present constraints on the individual's development potential, and guide the individual to develop in particular ways. Social factors in the environment then contribute to the growth of the human development, bringing out some traits more than others. The biology comes embedded with specific potential, the psychology influences how the biology is used, and…
Hoermann, S., Zupanick, C. & Dombeck, M. (2013). The bio-psycho-social model of human behavior. CentreSite LLC Retrieved October 21, 2013 from http://www.sevencounties.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=41559&cn=8
NASW. (2013). Diversity and cultural competence. National Association of Social Workers Retrieved October 21, 2013 from http://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/features/issue/diversity.asp
Childhood and adulthood are distinct stages of life, characterized by distinct physiological and psychological features and characteristics. However, there is no absolute demarcation between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence represents a sort of transitional phase, but each of these phases of development may be further broken down into different stages of emotional, biological, and personal development. The social role and function of the child or adolescent also differs dramatically from that of the adult. Legally and normatively in most cultures, children are exempt from the responsibilities adults bear. The greatest differences between childhood and adulthood include the biological, neurobiological, and physiological differences in human development across the lifespan. However, the psychological differences between childhood and adulthood are also striking. Some of the differences between child and adult psychology include issues related to self-concept, identity, ethics, coping, and emotional maturity. The most notable similarities between childhood and adulthood include the ongoing…
Armstrong, T. (2019). The twelve stages of the human life cycle. American Institute for Learning and Human Development. Retrieved from: http://www.institute4learning.com/resources/articles/the-12-stages-of-life/
Beck, J. (2016). When are you really an adult? The Atlantic. Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/01/when-are-you-really-an-adult/422487/
Kohlberg, L. (1971). Stages of moral development. Retrieved from: http://ericmazur.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Kohlberg-Moral-Development.pdf
“Periods of Development,” (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/lifespandevelopment2/chapter/periods-of-development/
Picicone, M. (2016). The difficult transition from childhood to adulthood. The Odyssey. Retrieved from: https://www.theodysseyonline.com/transition-from-childhood-adulthood
Human development refers to the psychological and biological growth of a human being throughout life. It starts from infancy all the way to adulthood. The scientific study of the development of a human being, psychologically, is referred to as Developmental psychology. According to Erik Erikson, there are eight critical stages in the development of a human being in order to become socially and psychologically well adjusted. This renowned psychologist is also credited with the expression identity crisis used to refer, not to the possibility of a catastrophic occurrence but to a critical turning point. Erikson points out that a person is confronted with challenges and experiences at each stage. One has to master all the dynamics at every stage in order to grow to the next one and each stage is successive and based on the completion of the earlier one (Sokol, 2009). This paper focuses on the adolescence and…
Human Development and Disabilities
Developmental stages are categorized into six phases, which include pregnancy and infancy, toddlerhood and early childhood, school age, adolescence, adulthood and midlife and the young elderly and the elderly. There are various ways in which these stages of development are impacted by disability. The stage of development of a person at the time of inception or identification of a disability has a significant impact on the person's response to the disability. When a person acquires a disability, it can have a dominant impact on the person's negotiation of developmental phases. It can give rise to a person missing out on significant developmental learning and completion of tasks (Smart, 2011). There are three distinguishing elements that will bring people with disabilities into the American culture. First, there is the populace explosion of people with disabilities. Secondly, there is the element of people with disabilities shifting away from…
Smart, J. (2011). Disability across the developmental life span: For the rehabilitation counselor. Springer publishing company.
In this particular article, this conversion of data helped distinguish some important factors that contributed to establishing relationships that the researchers were looking for.
The study itself interviewed 411 adolescent mothers to gather the specific data they needed to make their case. In each interview various questions about relationships, sexual practices, quality of relationships and other important deductive inquiries. The article resulted in having chi-square analyses to assess the association between relationship type and relationship dissolution. Also, in another comparison, to gain possible insight into the relationship dissolution by relationship type interaction for STDs, a factorial ANOVA was conducted with relationship dissolution and relationship type as independent variables and average percentage condom use as a dependent variable.
The Article's elation to My esearch
Ultimately, this article is somewhat helpful in indentifying some important factors within my own research on the topic. esearch questions are often like puzzles, requiring many varying…
Kershaw et al. (2010). Let's stay together: a relationship dissolution and sexually transmitted diseases among parenting and non-parenting adolescents. Journal of Behavior Medicine, Dec 2010, 33(6),454-465. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3085168/
The anthropologist, Ashley Montagu, developed quite a diverse and versatile number of theories ranging from views on the concept of race, social factors that contribute to crime, the measurement of internal anatomical markers found of the heads of humans, cooperative behavior as it relates to evolution, and understanding biological and cultural dynamics of sex roles and aggression. Montagu stressed gene-environment interactionism which is the notion that heredity is not merely driven by biological factors in humans but represents a dynamic interactive process between one's experiential history and one's genetic potential (Montagu, 1961). One of Montagu's most interesting ideas is that of the need for contact, especially human infants. Montagu designated the typical nine-month pregnancy as uterogestation: the period when the fetus develops within its mother's uterus so that it will be capable of surviving outside its mother's womb (Montagu, 1986). However, Montagu believed that the human infant emerged only…
Harlow, H. F & Harlow, M. (1962). Social deprivation in monkeys. Scientific American, 207,
Montagu, A. (1961). Man in process. Cleveland: World Publishing.
Montagu, A. 1986. Touching: The human significance of the skin. New York: Harper & Row.
In The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal inpoche (2002) distills the essence of Tibetan Buddhist teachings into a format digestible for a modern Western audience. The central premise of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is that death can be a "teaching for us all," (inpoche, 2002, p. 3). The title of inpoche's book refers to the Tibetan Book of the Dead, which describes the bardo, of transition between this life and the next. Through a concerted practice of meditation and spiritual discipline cultivated in the person's current lifetime, a practitioner can remain conscious through the bardo and therefore die as a self-empowered and spiritually aware being. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is divided into three main parts: sections on living, dying, and on death and rebirth. There is also a conclusion and appendixes. inpoche opens his Tibetan Book of Living and Dying with…
Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying. New York: Scribner.
Rinpoche, S. (2002). The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying. New York: Rigpa/Harper-Collins.
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…
Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's
Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,
A person's development includes the changes that continue throughout one's life. Development is usually described in periods of time, so there is consistency among different theories that describe the stages that people go through in their learning process. The most widely used way of classifying developmental periods consists of the following order: the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence.
Healthy brain development during the pre-birth period is best when the mother has a nutritionally balanced diet, takes needed vitamins and does not abuse substances. When this is not followed, there is the possibility of brain development and behavior/learning problems such as learning disabilities. My mother is a Cherokee Indian who, like many Native Americans, was raised in a terrible physical and emotional situation. She was only 15 years old when she became pregnant with me. Because she was young, poor and basically alone…
Hospitalism is essentially the condition of infants becoming attached more to the routine of the hospital and its caregiving medical staff rather than to their mothers. As we now know, children subjected to this kind of a condition (intentionally or even through abuse or neglect) fare much worse than normal children who are tended to by their mothers. In Attachment Theory -- Why NOT to Baby Train (Steph, nd), the works of Spitz and others were recounted, showing how severely improper behaviors can hurt real babies. Spitz's documented how 91 babies in the Foundling Home were first given a taste of love and affection from their mothers. They were then effectively taken away from their mothers and put under the direction of nurses, whose focus was on meeting their medical needs alone. As we now might expect, the children soon deteriorated significantly, showing severe impediments to normal growth…
American Pregnancy (2011). First Year Development: Infant Development. American Pregnancy Association. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/firstyearoflife/firstyeardevelopment.html .
Lubit, R. et al., (2009). Child Abuse and Neglect: Reactive Attachment Disorder. Medscape Refernces. WebMD. Viewable at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/915447-overview .
Steph (n.d). Attachment Theory -- Why NOT to Baby Train.
I have chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which too many conflicting and ambiguous statements are brought to bear. This may be due to the fact that the middle years contains too little regularity and too much diversity therefore many of the models that I have seen differ too in the age range given to the mid life years. To elaborate: Whilst most models define midlife as beginning at 40 and ending at 60, a ten-year range exists at either end with some theorists actually considering midlife as beginning at 30 and ending at 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, magnified by socio-historical and geographical elements, people are bound to indicate differences in their mid -- life period. It is for this reason possibly that Erickson's findings sound so quaint to many western ears,…
Caspi A. (1987). Personality in the life course. J.Personal. Soc. Psychol. 5, 31203 -- 13
Erikson E. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.
Jung C.G. (1971). The Portable Jung. New York: Viking.
Lachman, M.E. (2004). Development in Midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 305-331.
Significance of cultural diversity
Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…
Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .
Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenstadt, S.N. (1986). The axial age breakthroughs. In S.N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The origins and diversity of axial age civilizations. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 1 -- 28.
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of the world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
UNDP Report Study
Human Development Report 2011:
A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations
Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…
From the data presented above, it is clear to see that, indeed, the studies mentioned in this paper correlate with the status of the countries at present and that Estonia and India seem to be faring a lot better than the DRC and Mexico. For example, it is clear that the DRC has gone down considerably in all four areas. Mexico, however, is a different story. It seems that it has gone up in all facets, which is does not correlates with research on Mexico that shows fluctuation in progress. It is a pity that the 2010 report does not yet have all the facts on Mexico, because they could, again, fluctuate due to the drug wars. The statistics for Mexico might look so great, despite the problems the country faces, due to Mexico's proximity to the U.S. And the help it receives from this country. Lastly, it is evident, especially from the GDP growth, that both India and Estonia have been growing steadily, as has Mexico, which is great news. Though this is in stark contrast to the DRC, which is at a pitiable $291 in GDP for 2010, according to the UNDP data in the table above.
This paper has presented a multitude of facts to examine what makes a country progress, while others stagnate. With the help of a comprehensive literature review and UNDP reports, the essay has concluded the two of the examined countries, Estonia and India, are faring better economically and political (and thus from health and education perspectives) than the DRC and Mexico. This has been due to the fact, as read in the literature review, that the first two countries have either international support in terms of trade and/or manpower and organization. The latter two, as seen above, are either torn apart by violence, or have a history of ineffectual political organization, and thus cannot fully prosper financially. Furthermore, their literacy rates, survival rates and GDP are substantially lower. In order to rise, Mexico and the DRC, and the latter especially, must find a way to put violence aside, so that the country may join in the progress of the modern world.
Though this research seems comprehensive, it has only analyzed other studies and the UNDP reports. Thus, a shortcoming is the inability of the researcher to be on the ground, or at least speak to experts on the issue, both inside the specific country and outside of it to obtain opinions on whether the poorer countries of the world can ever reach the kind of development that they should. Thus, the study presented here must be continued so that we may find future patters for development and help countries such as the DRC and Mexico advance in the world economy.
While the primary cause of stuttering may be related to physiological disposition of the brain (the way it handles language skills and speech patterns), environmental factors may affect the physical condition or may even play a decisive role in triggering its activation. Psychoanalytical therapies may also help stuttering children "re-teach" the behavior of brain -- in other words, adapt to its different functioning -- and help overcome it before reaching adulthood.
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. etrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. etrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing esearch, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186…
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. Retrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. Retrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186
..attachment theory....human babies, notoriously helpless creatures that they are, need mother love or something much like it in order to thrive and develop emotionally and cognitively" (27). This statement is applied in the context of Bowlby's thesis that it is the attachment between the child and the caregiver that ultimately determines the level of emotional and cognitive development of the individual. Thus, greater and more positive attachment leads to healthy development among children; the opposite happens when, as in the case of orphaned babies, lack of attachment can lead to an abnormal development of the child, both emotionally and cognitively.
A similar thesis is subsisted to by Mary Ainsworth, whose concepts of secure and insecure attachment demonstrates that the level of security of attachment of the child with his/her caregiver "provides an important foundation for psychological development later in life." She identifies babies as either having a secure or insecure…
Faxed material on attachment.
Talbot, M. (1998). "Attachment Theory: the ultimate experiment." The New York Times Magazine.
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…
Human Development in ehabilitation Counseling
ehabilitation counseling is a profession that focuses on using a counseling process to assist disabled individuals to achieve their individual, career, and autonomous life goals. As a result, professional in this field work in various settings including healthcare facilities, rehabilitation centers, governmental agencies, learning institutions, and insurance companies. Given their role in helping people living with disabilities, rehabilitation counselors need to acquire necessary competencies and skills for effective practice. One of the most crucial elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development, a suitable age range or group to counsel, and applying relevant theories during practice. These three factors help in enhancing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation counselor in his/her setting.
Significance of Human Development to a ehabilitation Counselor
As previously indicated, one of the important elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development. Generally, understanding lifespan…
Good Therapy. (2017, January 30). Child and Adolescent Issues. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/child-and-adolescent-issues
Sales, A. & Brodwin, M.G. (2015). Human growth and development considerations in rehabilitation counseling (2nd ed.). Linn Creek, MO: Aspen Professional Services.
e., physically), socially, and morally. In cognitive development, the individual learns how to think for himself/herself, and create decisions, judgments, and thoughts that are uniquely his/hers. Social development, meanwhile, is reinforced through one's recognition of gender identity. Through gender identity, the individual is able to determine and reinforce the role and status that society has given him or her as a man or woman. In effect, the individual becomes part of the society's institutions and structure because of the reinforcement of one's gender identity. Lastly, moral development takes place when the individual, based on his own cognitive and social experiences, is able to formulate his/her "personal philosophy," value judgment that s/he uses to create his/her beliefs, opinions, and feelings about life in general.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill ook Co.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Theory Methodology and Human Development
Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following
Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis.
The impact that video games, as a form of media entertainment, have been a matter of concern for politicians, parents, and legislators. However, the results generated from the scholarly literature are not in agreement; researchers continue to disagree about the impact that video games have on people.
Analyze three research problems (i.e., subordinate questions) that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated.
For purposes of this research, a quantitative research design is utilized.
What is the relationship of playing video games to increased levels of obesity?
Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & Bennett (2006, p. 2) found that "children who spend more time playing video games are heavier, and are more likely…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: People, places and environment (4th ed.)
Brown RIF. (1991) Gaming, gambling and other addictive play. In Kerr JH, Apter MJ, eds. Adult play: a reversal theory approach. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 101 -- 18.
Brown RIF. (1993) Some contributions of the study of gambling to the study of other addictions. In Eadington WR, Cornelius JA, eds. Gambling behavior and problem gambling. Reno: University of Nevada, pp. 241 -- 72.
Perry, J.A., & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: An introduction to social science (12th ed.)
Some writers have also reverberated the dread that human security could become a philosophical tool.
Does Respectable Conception it work? Altering Facets OF Human Safety.
Founded on this apparently un fluctuating contrast of opinions produced by procedural insufficiencies and possible incoherency, there is other approaches that can be proposed. In an appreciation, to some it seems to have come full circle: there are important resemblances concerning the impression of human security as stated from the expansion reports / UN angle, on the one hand, and on the other, Galtung's theory of structural violence and human psychosomatic potential (Roberts). Certainly, Sabine Alkire describes the goal of human security as "being to defend the vigorous center of all human lives in methods that progress individual liberties and human contentment," a description that replicates Galtungian measurements of human growth. ut in spite of the likelihood of uncertainty and haziness natural in such a…
Roberts, D. (2005). Empowering the Human Security Debate: Making it Coherent and Meaningful. International Journal of WorldPiece, 3.
Snedeker, Laura. (2010) "Wolf Blitzer: "Is Human Rights More Important than American National Security?" 16 November, 2007. 18 April, 2010. .
Suhrke, A. (1999). Human Security and the interests of States. Sage Publications, 265-276.
Kumar, C. Raj. (2005). "Human rights implications of national security laws in India: combating terrorism while preserving civil liberties." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 22 March, 2005. 18 April, 2010. .
Symbols, the Mind, and the Animal State
In Chapter 7 of Maps of Time, David Christian (2011) discusses how human language is built not only of "icons" and "indices," which are types of recognition, correlation, and communication that many organisms from bacteria to dogs can use, but primarily of symbols -- a more complex and higher-order level of communication (p. 172). This is only part of a larger discussion on the development of human history, however it is worthy of consideration simply as its own advancement and unique feature. An understanding of how language is a definitive feature of humanity, and of the implications of a division between man and nature, creates valuable insights for understanding human development.
As explained by Christian (2011), certain associations can be made by many organisms between similar or concurrent experiences in a way that might appear to be symbolic learning or communication,…
Christian, D. (2011). Maps of Time. Berkley: University of California Press.
Emmerich, R. (2004). The Day After Tomorrow. Twentieth Century Fox Films.
Levi, P. (1975). Carbon. Accessed 4 March 2012. www.pems.adfa.edu.au/~s9471553/level1/Teaching/Health02/CarbonStory.pdf
Denmark is a relatively easy country in which to do business. This paper will analyze the ease of doing business in Denmark from two different perspectives. The first factor to be analyzed is health. The United Nations Human Development Index evaluates nations based on a number of different categories, health being one of them. Denmark scores very highly for the state of its health care provision and outcomes.
Denmark's overall health score is 0.928. The overall score is comprised of a number of different metrics. These include expenditure on public health, which was given a value of 8.2; under-five mortality per 1000 live births, which was 4; and life expectancy at birth, which was 78.8. These scores contributed to a standing on health that put Denmark 37th. This score is below the cutoff for "High Human Development," and puts the country below Costa Rica, Cuba and Chile, but…
It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.
Rethinking the Concept
Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.
General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…
Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:
Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009
Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,
Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system." -- Anwar 2003,
With the international attention given to "military aggression," especially external military aggression, in recent years, it is easy to allow one's idea of was security means to become clouded with Hobbesian and Machiavellian notions of armed conflict, with "war on terror" images of military and intelligence operations hunting down terrorists, and with the debate on nuclear proliferation in developing (or underdeveloped) nations like Iran and North Korea. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.
Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance, 1991. Common Responsibility in the 1990s. Stockholm: Prime Minister's Office.
Timothy, K., 2004. "Human Security Discourse at the United Nations," in Peace Review, 16(1), pp. 19-24.
United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report, 1994. http://hrd.undp.org/reports/global/1994/en/.
Interviewing a Human Services Worker
Interviewing a client to gain a clear picture of a story or an event may be a difficult and complex when conducting an interview. There are a multitude of skills and micro-skills needed to be able to identify the relevant issues, make the interviewee feel comfortable enough to share the needed information, and to correctly perceive and record the key issues. Interviewing a human services worker may carry an additional layer of complexity because these individuals work with humans who are certainly complex in nature as well as deal with complex situations. This analysis will consider some of the key areas of concern that are present in human service work and well as some of the ethical barriers one might face during an interview.
Human Services Work
Human services is a broadly defined line of work that focuses on a worker who is…
Hlavka, H., Kruttschnitt, C., & Carbone-Lopez, K. (2007). Revictimizing the Victims? Interviewing Women about Interpersonal Violence. Interpersonal Violence, 894-921.
Ivey, A., Ivey, M., Zalaquett, C., & Quirk, K. (2011). Essentials of Intentional Interviewing: Counseling in a Multicultural World. Cengage Learning.
NOHS. (N.d.). What is Human Services? Retrieved from National Organization for Human Services: http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/what-is-human-services
Olafson, E. (2012). A Call for Field-Relevant Research about Child Forensic Interviewing for Child Protection. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 109-131.
Unrecognized Genius of Jean Piaget
Kegan reflects on the work of Jean Piaget, emphasizing the importance of his work. He first looks at Kegan's most famous study, in which he fills two identically shaped beakers with equal amounts of water. He then asks the child whether or not they are of equal volume, and when the child agrees, he pours the contents into a thinner beaker. The child then has to decide which has more, and usually opts for the taller and thinner beaker. Kegan is pointing out the relative adaptive balance that is being made by the child. Children have their own perceptions of the physical world, and often have difficulty discerning relative differences in shapes and forms, among other things. Kegan purports that, "For the preoperational child, it is never just one's perceptions that change; rather, the world itself, as a consequence, changes" (29).
Kegan then goes on…
Kegan, Arthur. The Evolving Self. Massachusetts: Harvard UP. 1982.
child abuse and considers it as the cause for people developing differential perceptions in life and elevating crime rates. It has 15 sources.
Although caregivers give their undivided attention to children, there is always a chance that a child might be exposed to danger. This danger can be in any form, such as a fire in the house, falling and injuring one's self or child abuse. Child abuse may be the unsuitable actions of an adult towards a child that leads the child to develop distorted perceptions of life. These actions by adults may cause a child to grow up and do the same thing to other children or it may simply result in a child lacking trust in people no matter how kind they are or even over trusting people, hoping to let out the emotions held back. (Fergusson et al., 1996)
Child abuse causes instability in the…
Eshtain, J. (1993): "Family Matters: The Plight of America's Children." The Christian Century. 14-21.
McMillan, B. (2000) Transcript Conference with: Holli Marshall & Niki Delson on "Survivors of Sexual Abuse"
Fergusson, D.M., Lynskey M.T., and Horwood, L.J. (1996), 'Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood: Part I: The prevalence of sexual abuse and the factors associated with sexual abuse,' Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 35, pp. 1355-1365.
Child Abuse and Neglect -- A Tragic Trend Continues. Children's Voice. Child Welfare League of America, (1995) Washington, D.C.,Volume #17, Summer, p. 11
Developing Human Potential
When an organization makes the decision to take an individual on as a part of staff, effectively they are making a human capital investment in that individual (Lepak & Snell, 1999). Where the organization pays for the training of, insuring of, and salary to that individual they in turn are expected to perform the tasks within their job description efficiently and accurately thus allowing the organization to function successfully and more importantly profitably. However, when a human element is involved, there is always a degree of risk present. In the case of developing the potential of employees to maximize their value within the company there are many factors which must be addressed in the overall assessment of their potential and potential value relative to the risk at which they place the company (Abowd, & Kramarz, 2003).
The factors influencing employee performance and there by the…
1. Patterson, M., West, M., Lawthom, R., & Nickell, S. 1997. Impact of people management practices on business performance. Institute of Personnel and Development, 1- 39.
2. Bretz, R., Read, W., & Milkovich, G. 1992. The current state of performance appraisal research and practice: Concerns, directions, and implications. Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, 1- 59.
3. Holzer, H., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. 2002. Percieved criminality, criminal background checks, and the racial hiring practices of employers. Institute for Research on Poverty, 1- 45.
4. Abowd, J., & Kramarz, F. 2003. The costs of hiring and separations. U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1- 45.
Operant conditioning could be used to get my roommate to make his bed by providing negative reinforcement every time he fails to make his bed. I could tell him that he is not allowed to use the TV. This should reinforce the idea that he must not fail to make his bed. Classical conditioning could be used to get my roommate to make his bed by providing an unconditioned stimulus -- telling him our neighbor is coming by to use the computer in the mornings from now on. He will naturally react by wanting to tidy the room including his bed.
The hypothesis I would use for testing the effect of Baby Einstein videos on cognitive development would be: Baby Einstein has a positive effect on the cognitive development of toddlers between the ages of 1-3. This would be a longitudinal study, using a randomized sample. A control…
Human esource Management in International Business
Impact of Cultural Differences, Socioeconomic or Political Factors on international HM
Challenges to HM posed by growth in International Business
By looking at the changing trends of the world of commerce in recent times, one can significantly notice the fact that this business community is becoming more and more competitive. This clearly signifies the truth that the elevating competition within the community has given rise to international business where enterprises regardless of their size are expanding their operations within the global market. As an outcome of it, an efficient and effective work environment has become the fundamental necessity that can facilitate the organizations in maintaining strong holds in the market place as well as generate profits (Daly, 2011).
Considering the challenge of maintaining an effectual organizational culture, businesses need the asset of human resources, hence, they are considered as the foundation stone for any…
Briscoe, D., Schuler, R., & Tarique, I. (2012). International Human Resource Management, 4E. 4th Edition. USA: CRC Press.
Briscoe, D.R., & Schuler, R.S. (2004). International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for the Global Enterprise. 2nd Edition. USA: Routledge.
Cooke, W.N. (2003). Multinational Companies and Global Human Resource Strategies. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Daly, J.L. (2011). Human Resource Management in the Public Sector: Policies and Practices. USA: M.E. Sharpe.
Over the last several years, the issue of employee compensation has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because globalization is requiring firms to have employees with specialized skills. In the case of the mid-level manager position, the ideal candidate must be able to meet the basic qualifications to include: a good communicator / listener, leadership, someone who can work well with others, a minimum of a four-year Bachelor's degree, at least three years business experiences, the ability to utilize technology, a quick learner and a person with a willingness to continually adjust.
At the same time, they must be flexible enough to deal with a host of challenges. To fully understand how this is occurring we will focus on: the job description, developing a recruiting plan, the selection strategy, job performance evaluation, compensation and possible training / development issues that need to be addressed. Once this…
Average Mid Level Manager's Salary. (2012). Simply Hired. Retrieved from: http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q-mid+level+manager
Employee Compensation and Benefits. (2011). Management Help. Retrieved from: http://managementhelp.org/payandbenefits/index.htm
Understand the Reality of Your Job. (2012). Mind Tools. Retrieved from: http://www.mindtools.com/stress/WorkOverload/JobAnalysis.htm
Volunteer Recruitment. (2011). FAVRM. Retrieved from: http://www.favrm.org/documents/SHINERecruitmentGuidewith_toolkit.pdf
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…
Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.
Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.
Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Analyze the appropriateness of HM technologies and best practices to recommend applications and strategies for your selected organization, in order to improve organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration
HM technologies are essential towards reduction of the cost of operations as well as an increment in the level of consumer satisfaction hence effective management of the resources and available opportunities. Wal-Mart should focus on the quality and efficient automation of the processes and departments for the purposes of eliminating errors and overhead costs. This is essential through management of the HM technologies such as CM, FID, and EP with the aim of achieving maximum profit levels and revenues at the end of the fiscal year.
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an EP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production esearch, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The ole of Information Systems
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an ERP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The Role of Information Systems
Resources in ERP Capability Building and Business Process Outcomes. Journal Of
Human esources & Change: The Internal evenue Service
Tax season is upon Americans. Every working American knows that when dealing with tax issues, which at some point, every working American does, interactions with the Internal evenue Service are inevitable and often profoundly displeasing. Citizens make feel powerless against the institution of the IS because it is a part of the federal government. Citizens may feel they have to put up with the treatment and negligence of the IS and that organization will not be held accountable. It is untrue. In 1998, a piece of legislation was passed as response to charges brought upon the IS by a Senate Finance Committee. Therefore, the paper finds the IS an organization ripe for change in regards to Human esources. The paper will propose a change in the IS and hypothesize the implications as well as the implementation of such a change.…
Henning, B. (1999) Reforming the IRS: The Effectiveness of the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998. Marquette Law Review, 82(405), 405 -- 427.
Thompson, J.R. (2006) The Federal Civil Service: The Demise of an Institution. Public Administration Review, 66(4), 496 -- 503.
Human esource Management • evaluate selection practices procedures organisations comparing ' practice' • compare structured process recruitment organisations evaluate methods media •
Human esources Management
Selection processes and practices are vast theoretical concepts, which can be implemented using a wide series of theoretical models. While the availability of scholarly resources cannot be denied, the practical implementation of selection processes and practices within firms is often undisclosed to the public. It is subjected to internal regulations and not communicated to the public. At the Prairie View A&M University for instance (a member of the Texas A&M university system), selection is simply stated to be conducted "by an ad hoc committee made up of faculty within the department of Agriculture, Nutrition and Human Ecology" (Website of Prairie View A&M University). As a comparison to the best practices, a statement can be made in the meaning that the selection process would have to…
Armstrong, M., Baron, A., 2002, Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance, CIPD Publishing
2003, Recruitment and retention key to Wal-Mart's future, Retail Merchandiser, http://www.allbusiness.com/retail-trade/4301304-1.html last accessed on December 15, 2010
2005, Google's approach to employee selection, The Rain Maker Group, http://www.therainmakergroupinc.com/add.asp?ID=85 last accessed on December 15, 2010
2010, The role of front line managers in HR, CIPD, http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/maneco/general/rolefrntlinemngers.htm last accessed on December 15, 2010
With the advancement in ICT, management of organizations has undergone changes in the period of the 21st century otherwise known as the digital era. The organization's function of Human esource (H) has also changed so fast resulting in a changing environment of social and organizational terms, while information technologies have rapidly evolved. H has grown to be an essential component in firm sustainability. This has resulted in the formation of new practices and processes in H. Some of the new practices include an E-selection, E-performance, E-recruitment, and E-learning. This study identifies how General Motors can utilize H Portals as new HIS technology to foster employee management. With H portals, the use of Employee Self-service and Manager Self-service will be essential to the company's processes of recruitment, employee performance and other human resource management activities within General Motors (Schwalbe, 2010).
E-ecruiting and E-Selection
With the advancement in technology in…
Harper, R. (2008). Inside the IMF: An ethnography of documents, technology and organizational action. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Pynes, J., & Lombardi, N. (2011). Human resources management for health care organizations: A strategic approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Schwalbe, K. (2010). Information Technology Project Management. Boston, MA: Course Technology/Cengage Learning.
Storey, J. (2007). Human resource management: A critical text. London: Thomson.
Human esource Issues in Health Field
The field of health human resources in the health field deals with issues such as planning, performance, management, development, information, retention, and research on human resources in the health sector Successful realization the mission and goals in this field is determined by the dedication and skills that the specialists possess. This study identifies various issues that often arise and bedevils this field. Current trends relating to technological advancements affecting the success and performance of employees in this field are also identified (Fried, & Johnson, 2002). Therefore, in order to improve service delivery in the health sector and consequently promote a healthy society, it is critical to identify and analyze the various challenges facing human resources in the health sector. This will provide a basis for developing various interventions aimed at dealing with the identified challenges and consequently improving the quality of service delivery in…
American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration. (2012). American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration ... membership directory. Gainesville FL: Naylor.
Fried, B., & Fottler, M.D. (2011). Fundamentals of human resources in healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
Fried, B., & Johnson, J.A. (2002). Human resources in healthcare: Managing for success. Washington, DC: AUPHA Press.
Kabene, S.M. (2011). Human resources in healthcare, health informatics and healthcare systems. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.