Human Development and Drug Addiction Term Paper

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Human Development and Drug Addiction

People's response to drugs varies as some may have the advantage of using drugs without any side effects while others become addicted after the first intake. The impacts of substance abuse are different depending on the person using them. If the use is continued for a long time, addiction will be inevitable. Addiction and substance abuse are bound to turn one's life upside down in a short time. In course of addiction, one's mental and physical abilities will highly rely on the drug and they will need the drug as a basic need. The intensity with which the drug will dictate the person depends on many aspects. These aspects include genes of the person, environment, physical health, and mental health. Drug addiction has its consequences; users may be eventually addicted making it hard for them to stop the use (Abramson & Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 2008).

The body can be under the spell of the drug and the drug might disguise the mind. Why are the changes brought by drugs occurring in the form they do in the brain? Why do the effects of drugs vary? This article is meant to answer such questions. New researches are being done every day and scientists are seeking to find out how the brain takes effect to the various drugs. More than a thousand nerve cells with four pounds administer movement, sensation, emotion, and thoughts. Different varieties of neurons, regulations agents, and spinal cord are affected, as well. The front lobe is where the drug causes many effects (Newcomb & Bentler, 2008). The front lobe is part of the brain of those vertebrates and from all the cerebral corners. These frontal lobes have their position right in front of the parietal lobes. They perform a very critical task in spontaneity, socialization, sexual behavior, problem solving, motor function, memory, language, and judgment and impulse control. They also act an important role in execution, coordination, and planning. Cognitive maturity of the elders is identified by the aging of the cerebral fibers existing in the frontal lobes between late years of teenager and the early years of adulthood. This is the reason as to why when teenagers abuse substance; it may lead to alter the frontal lobe from maturing. This part of the brain is mostly attacked because this is the same storage place for the dopamine (Bernstein, 2007).

Impacts of drugs on body and brain

Various drugs will have their different effects to the body they meet into contact with, but all these drugs interfere with as they were expected to be different also. The impacts of the drugs are dependent on the level of the drug in the brain. One's perception is affected by the use of drug considering that it is the brain that controls perception. All the senses of a normal person depend on the brain for interpretation. The body and the brain perform their duties in frequencies and the frequency changes in case the person does not take the drug. The moment the chemicals go into the brain, it interferes with the messengers in the brain, which causes the brain to send different signals than the ones it is supposed to. The chemicals that get into the brain may result in someone seeing their own things, saying and even acting in their own way (Galicia & Maisto, 2010). They write,

"… their drinking patterns, and 15% of those who were 21 to 25 years old reported that they abstained from alcohol, whereas 6% of them said that they consumed more than 60 drinks a month…. Age and sex also differentiated frequency of alcohol-related negative social consequences." (p.4).

Long-term and short-term effects

Alcohol is considered to a drug. When one consumes alcohol, they are bound to have an effect in their normal function in the system. These effects take course exactly when the alcohol joins the bloodstream. The duration taken for the alcohol to enter into the bloodstream varies with different brands of alcohol. Food is also a factor. The amount of food one has taken also has an effect on the rate at which alcohol takes to get into the bloodstream. Many of those who are addicted became so because they felt good experiencing the effects of alcohol in their bodies. The reactions that alcohol causes, may lead someone into addiction (Bernstein, 2007).

When one consumes alcohol and it enters into the bloodstream, their rate of breathing and slow down the heart beat. The person experiences drowsiness and mental confusion. If a person drinks more and more alcohol, they are set to reach the intoxication level within ten minutes of the alcohol intake. Those who only drink a little will not be exposed to such conditions but if they drink continuously, they are bound to get to the same level. The aftermath of this is the person falling asleep or engaging in unusual behaviors. Hanson, Venturelli, and Fleckenstein, (2012) wrote

"Even strong psychological dependence on some psychoactive substances does not necessarily result in injury or social harm…. Typical dosages of mild stimulants….effects on CNS are barely detectable…" (p.156).

The person is craving for alcohol will increase and they may try to drink more alcohol. When the alcohol starts to go away, the individual will automatically have feelings of nausea, being easily irritated and often shaky. Those who drink a lot of alcohol may experience feelings of vomiting even if they did not eat while drinking (Newcomb & Bentler, 2008).

Large amounts of alcohol are bound to cause a disease in the body leading to poor health. The feeling of vomiting will persist and the individual is likely to develop fever or a rush. The person is very likely to feel headache and the body of the individual remains sore until the individual wears off the alcohol. The long-term use of alcohol is accompanied with psychological, emotional and relationship effects. Many of those victims of alcohol addiction have traumatic effects related to alcohol (Hill & Hill, 2009).

Impacts of Drug Abuse on social development

Any analysis of the social consequences of dependence, as they relate to public safety, health and welfare depend on both the degree of dependence and the characteristics of the drug, rather than on the fact of dependence itself. Apart from the physical effects, drug abuse also has social effects. Use of drugs may lead one to living a decertified life that is an automatic cause for depression. Alcohol abuse is a disaster to relationship with loved ones who include children and parents. Abuse of the substance may result in some individuals missing work without relevant reasons. Drug addicts are also very aggressive and this makes it impossible for them to make new friends or maintain the old ones. Those who are addicted to drugs are never in a position to make the objectives and goals in their lives (Hales, 2006). The following effects may also come as an outcome of continued drug abuse:

I. Experimental desire with other drugs

II. Emotional instability

III. Not willing to resolve personal issues and worsening them further

IV. Drastic changes in habits of eating and sleeping

V. Being angry and resentful towards others

Altered Perceptions

Perception is the process in which man is able to gain information on the environment via sensory apparatus that include visual and audio. Drugs can cause an effect to these sensory systems and interfering with the normal functioning of perception (Galizio & Maisto, 2010). The changes in perception that are due to substance abuse may create long-term complications for the development of adolescents. This is the case because the perceptive abilities of adolescents are not mature. For instance, studies from MRI shows that adults usually use the method of solving problems logically or frontal lobes, for determining the facial expressions but adolescents use their amygdala. This is the area responsible for processing emotions for example worry and fear. It has been researched that while adults use areas of problem solving in their brain to have a perception of the world, adolescents use their most vulnerable areas i.e. areas of self-preservation and emotions. For this reason, the perception of an adult is believed to be more accurate (Bernstein, 2007).

Bhang just like any other drug alters with perception. It also motivates perceptions that are in most cases inaccurate, defensive, emotional, and fearful. Although the potential of short-term addiction for bhang might be very little compared to the others, its effect of long-term use may be very deep. Being in full knowledge of the motives and feelings of others is very essential to act as an adult in the society. If bhang can persistently cause obstruction of perceptual maturation, adolescent users will have poor understanding in relationships, work, and school. This drives them to use the drug repeatedly (Hanson, Venturelli & Fleckenstein, 2012).

Relationships of time and space are good examples of the perceptions that face the wrath of drug addiction. Hallucinogens, alcohol, bhang and other drugs have been seen to increase…

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