1000+ documents containing “human evolution”.
Human evolution is the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens as a species that can be distinguished from other hominids, great apes, and mammals. Neanderthals are a unique species as they can be either classified as a subspecies of Homo sapiens as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, or can be classified as a distinct and separate species as Homo neanderthalensis. Though Neanderthals are presently considered an extinct species, evidence indicates that H. sapiens and Neanderthals, at one point, mated with each other.
It is believed that Neanderthals inhabited Europe and parts of western and central Asia as far back as 230,000 to 300,000 years ago. Evidence that Neanderthals and H. sapiens coexisted was discovered in France and Israel. Further investigation and analysis of fossils found in these areas indicate that Neanderthals, as well as H. sapiens, were skilled hunters, used fire, cared for their sick and injured, and possibly communicated through a unique….
Bradt, Steve. "Analysis of Teeth Suggests Modern Humans Mature More Slowly Than
Neanderthals Did." Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Web. Accessed 4 May 2011. Retrieved from < http://www.fas.harvard.edu/home/content/analysis-teeth-suggests-modern-humans-mature-more-slowly-neanderthals-did >
Evans, Laurence. "Neanderthals (Homo sapiens neandertalensis)." Nature's Holism. 17 October
2009. Web. Accessed 4 May 2011. Retrieved from
Human Evolution in Africa
The human evolution in Africa is a drawn out process of transformation by which natives' originated from the apelike ancestors. Scientific study shows that behavioral traits and physical traits shared by the people came from the apelike ancestors over approximation of six million years ago. The earliest traits were the bipedalism is walking using the two rear limbs. Other human trait was the ability to make and use tools by using their own intelligence, and capacity for the language developed recently (Philip 2005). Human evolution has been used to show how humans originated and how they adapted to situations many years ago. It was argued that the human evolution stopped due to humans implications towards the environment. The adaptive responses were serious implications of infectious diseases.
The African continent is termed as the Cradle of human kind by many explorers, among the archeologists and historians (Wade 2007).….
Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03 . p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3.
Gould, S.J. 2002. The structure of evolutionary theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
Joan, B. 2003. How humans Evolved. New York: Norton.
McHenry, H.M. 2009. "Human Evolution." Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts
This postmodern view of culture is applicable in the 20th century analyses and discussions introduced by oyd and Richerson. In effect, the first assumption explicates how culture brings forth history, and in history, "qualitative different trajectories" occur: "...the dynamics of the system must be path dependent; isolated populations or societies must tend to diverge even when they start from the same initial condition and evolve in similar environments" (186).
After establishing the potential, crucial role that culture and generally, history, plays in the human evolution, oyd and Richerson then explicated on the interdependence of science and culture in the evolutionary process. The authors posited, as mentioned earlier in the introduction, that culture induces the evolutionary process in the same way science does.
According to the authors, evolutionary process is influenced by "cultural analogs," enumerated as random forces, natural selection, and decision-making forces. Random forces are considered "chance transmissions" that may have….
Acerbi, a. (2006). "Cultural transmission between and within generations." Journal of Artificial Societies & Social Stimulation, Vol. 9, Issue 1.
Boyd, R. And P. Richerson. (1988). "How Microevolutionary Processes Give Rise to History." In Culture and the Evolutionary Process. In History and Evolution. M. Nitecki (Ed.). NY: University of New York Press.
Hanson, F. (2005). "Culture against society." Society, Vol. 42, Issue 5.
Walker, C.E. (2003). "Human aggression: theories, research, and implications for social policy." Journal of Psychiatry & Law, Vol. 31, Issue 3.
Human Evolution Heading?
The evolution of the human being has been the subject of constant research since technology has enabled scientists to have a more technical and elaborated approach on this theme. The results of such research are remarkable and at the same time contradictory.
Apparently, according to research conducted, although people have evolved in terms of eating habits, resources available, and living conditions, these evolutions enable them to sometimes use the results to change the human in itself, for instance through the choice of DNA and the desire for perfect traits to improve the next generations (Shute, 2008). At the same time though, the discovery and research of DNA has enabled human kind to avoid the reproduction of mutations and to overall provide a better quality of gens for people. Given the rapid growth of the population by comparison to 10,000 years ago, these changes are significant because they reduce….
Africa" to "Out of Beringia": Can Population Genetics Explain the Mechanisms underlying the formation of Distinct Cultures and Linguistic Groups?
The "Out of Africa" Theory
The "Out of Africa" theory has played a major influential role in how other population genetics studies are approached, conducted, and interpreted (reviewed in: Campbell & Tishkoff, 2010). According to this theory populations of anatomically modern (H. sapiens) humans left the African Continent sporadically over a period of 10's of thousands of years and these outward migrations constitute the genetic origins of all non-Africans. The results from these studies in world population genetics paint a fascinating history of our species' gradual and sporadic entry into the rest of the world, a history that only a few decades ago was more theory than fact.
The "Out of Africa" theory gained support when researchers compared genetic markers in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Africans and non-Africans. The mtDNA is….
Campbell, M.C. & Tishkoff, S.A. (2010). The evolution of human genetic and phenotypic variation in Africa. Current Biology, 20, R166-R173
Sandoval, K., Buentello-Malo, L., Penaloza-Espinosa, R., Avelino, H., Salas, A., Calafell, F., & Comas, D. (2009). Linguistic and maternal genetic diversity are not correlated in Native Mexicans. Human Genetics, 126, 521-531
The term mosaic evolution is used to describe the different features of an organism evolve at different rates. The efficient bipedal movement is a peculiarity that appeared very early and perhaps is the single most significant development in the emergence of man. Since this information is available from New Haven Teachers Institute, Yale, the information is accurate and reliable.
Article-3. Skybreak, Ardea. Part 6D: The Two Biggest Leaps in Hominid Evolution: The Science of Evolution, the Evolution of Human Beings. evolutionary Worker #1182, January 12, 2003. Available at http://rwor.org/a/v24/1181-1190/1182/evol6d.htm
The process of evolution that links the modern human beings to the ancient ape ancestors revealed a number of key stages and milestones. The development of bipedalism in the line of apes is considered to the most important key stage in the evolutionary process. Secondly, the significant evolutionary modification apparently related to an overall 'slowing down' of hominid developmental rates that took….
Broker, Stephen P. 'Hominid Evolution' Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Available at http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1979/6/79.06.02.x.html . Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Carrier, David R. The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution. Current Anthropology. 1984 Volume: 25; No: 4; pp: 483-495. Available at http://www.publicanthropology.org/Archive/Ca1984.htm. Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Farabee, M.J. Human Evolution. Available at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookHumEvol.html. Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Skybreak, Ardea. Part 6D: The Two Biggest Leaps in Hominid Evolution: The Science of Evolution, the Evolution of Human Beings. Revolutionary Worker. No: 1182, January 12, 2003. Available at http://rwor.org/a/v24/1181-1190/1182/evol6d.htm. Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Relics of Human Evolution
Vemeonasal organ. The vemeonasal organ is a little pit on each side of the septum that is lined with nonfunctioning chemoreceptors. It may have been used for pheromone-detecting ability.
Extrinsic ear muscles. These three muscles most likely made it possible for prehominids to move their ears independently, in the manner of many mammals, such as rabbits and dogs. Many people can learn to wiggle their ears because of these muscles.
Wisdom teeth. Early humans had to chew a lot of plants to get enough calories to survive, so another row of molars helpful. Today, only about five percent of the population has a functioning set of these third molars, which are often removed to avoid problems when they don't fully emerge or emerge sideways.
Neck rib. A set of cervical ribs appear in less than one percent of the population. They often contribute to nerve and artery problems, and these….
Cultural and Climate Effects on Human Evolution
Cultural group selection's contribution to the progression of cooperation among humans is intensely contested. A majority of human behavior impacted by culturally diffused philosophies (including religious views) does not seem adaptively sensible. hether or not strong socio-biological reasons are available for explaining such behavior marks the focal point of arguments between sociologists and critics of sociology. There are, in theory as well as (possibly) in fact, several instances, which combine aspects of both. Evolution in the cultural context, by adopting Darwin's model, is portrayed as a process of inheritance co-evolving with genes. Adaptive qualities as well as series processes are displayed, resulting in maladaptive deviation (Richerson and Robert 195). This paper's primary objective is employment of new analytical strategies that utilize the current scientific base, thus allowing rigorous testing of the manner in which mankind's evolution and species' adaptability is influenced by culture and….
Alexander, Richard D. "Darwinism and human affairs." (1979).
Bruxelles, Laurent, and Marc Jarry. "Climatic conditions, settlement patterns and cultures in the Paleolithic: the example of the Garonne Valley (Southwest France)." Journal of human evolution 61.5 (2011): 538-548.
Facchini, Fiorenzo. "Culture, Speciation and the Genus Homo in Early Humans." Human Evolution 21.1 (2006): 51-57.
Flinn, Mark V. "Culture and the evolution of social learning." Evolution and human behavior 18.1 (1997): 23-67.
taxonomic status of Mystery Skull #1 is most likely Neanderthal.
The reasons for assigning the skull to this taxon are readily stated. Mystery Skull #1 looks morphologically similar to a modern human in many ways. The orbital sockets and zygomatic protrusions are similarly spaced, and the dentition is remarkably similar to that of a modern human. However there is a noticeably more pronounced brow ridge on the skull which is not reminiscent of Homo sapiens contemporary or archaic. Instead we should look at the overall shape of the skull, and we discover that it has a much flatter longer crown with less of a forehead, typical of Neanderthal skulls, rather than the higher dome of Homo sapiens. In addition to this longer and lower brain case, Mystery Skull #1 also exhibits a marked bulge at the very back, which is again typical of Neanderthals. Another tell-tale sign is the mid-facial….
It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate types of verbal communications compared to any other primates. Humans are the sole animal to make and apply symbols as a way to communicate with each other. Humans also have diverse as well as complex forms of social organizations compared to that of the other nonhuman primates. The most unique characteristic of humans lies in human mental capability to build novel ideas as well as intricate technologies. This has been considered to be important in the fight for endurance. (O'Neil 2007)
Further, the relatively negligible structural variations among humans and apes are generally an outcome of regular bipedalism observed in human beings. Quite a number of alterations in human bodies were linked to the growth of this type of locomotion. As opposed….
Berg, Kate; Bonham, Vence; Boyer, Joy; Brody, Larry; Brooks, Lisa; Collins, Francis;
Guttmacher, Alan; McEwen, Jean; Muenke, Max; Olson, Steve; Wang, Vivian Ota; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Warshauer-Baker, Esther. 2005, 'The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 77, no. 4, pp: 519-532.
Bethesda, MD. 2006, 'Present-Day Non-Human Primates May Be Linchpin in Evolution of Language' Terra Daily. 25 Jul., p. 4
British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, 2007, the Zero option, Available at http://www.buav.org/campaigns/primates/zerooption.html
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least….
Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;
Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com .
The workforce is addressed on a personal level to ensure that each individual not only understands what the expectations are of him or her, but also to ensure that they will give only their best effort towards the organizational goal. In order to motivate employees in this way, it is necessary for each individual to understand the organizational goals and to care sufficiently about these. Employees therefore have to find meaning in their work. This can best be done by communication.
It is one fortunate feature of the current technological world that communication can occur both regularly and instantly. Instead of having to print out thousands of circulars, managers can write a single email and send it to thousands of employees simultaneously with a single click. This greatly facilitates the communication paradigm between management and employees, or indeed between the HR department and employees.
Various forms of communication are possible -….
Business Wire (2008, Jan 31). Corporate Co-evolution Develops Broader Macroeconomic Principles that can be applied to today's International Corporate Environment. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_Jan_31/ai_n24241274
Carney, Michael. (2002, Jan-Feb). The co-evolution of institutional environments and organizational strategies. Organization Studies. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4339/is_1_23/ai_87782496
Christensen, C.M. (2006). The innovator's dilemma. New York: Harper Collins, Collins Business Essentials.
Cuddihey, Alden (2003, Fall). Aligning human resources and business: an overlooked formula for success. Canadian Manager. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6710/is_3_28/ai_n29036750
Human biological, social, and cognitive evolution has depended on food. That much seems obvious, but what is less obvious is the specific ways that first fire, and then agriculture, and then the combination of advanced cooking and food preservation methods have contributed to the quality of the human brain and the efficacy of the human body. Even at its most basic, cooking transforms the available nutrients in plants, and renders some otherwise inedible plants both edible/nonpoisonous or better able to provide bioavailable nutrients. Even just sticking plants and animal parts into a fire and waiting for a transformation to take place fueled human biological evolution because "cooking made available to our ancestors unprecedented nutrients that fueled brain growth over time, and reduced the need for energy-expensive chewing of tough foods," (King). Bioavailability increases from just 30 to 40% of nutrients in raw plants to a full hundred percent (Mott). Cooking….
Adler, J. (2013). Why fire makes us human. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved online: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-fire-makes-us-human-72989884/
King, Barbara. "Cooking Or Slicing Food: What Drove Early Human Evolution?" NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org /sections/13.7/2016/03/17/470784072/cooking-or-slicing-food-what-drove-early-human-evolution
Mott, Nicholas. "What Makes Us Human?" National Geographic. 26 Oct, 2012. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/10/121026-human-cooking-evolution-raw-food-health-science/
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example of….
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
With the advancement in ICT, management of organizations has undergone changes in the period of the 21st century otherwise known as the digital era. The organization's function of Human esource (H) has also changed so fast resulting in a changing environment of social and organizational terms, while information technologies have rapidly evolved. H has grown to be an essential component in firm sustainability. This has resulted in the formation of new practices and processes in H. Some of the new practices include an E-selection, E-performance, E-recruitment, and E-learning. This study identifies how General Motors can utilize H Portals as new HIS technology to foster employee management. With H portals, the use of Employee Self-service and Manager Self-service will be essential to the company's processes of recruitment, employee performance and other human resource management activities within General Motors (Schwalbe, 2010).
E-ecruiting and E-Selection
With the advancement in technology in areas of selection….
Harper, R. (2008). Inside the IMF: An ethnography of documents, technology and organizational action. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Pynes, J., & Lombardi, N. (2011). Human resources management for health care organizations: A strategic approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Schwalbe, K. (2010). Information Technology Project Management. Boston, MA: Course Technology/Cengage Learning.
Storey, J. (2007). Human resource management: A critical text. London: Thomson.
Human evolution is the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens as a species that can be distinguished from other hominids, great apes, and mammals. Neanderthals are a unique species…Read Full Paper ❯
Human Biology Human Evolution in Africa The human evolution in Africa is a drawn out process of transformation by which natives' originated from the apelike ancestors. Scientific study shows that behavioral…Read Full Paper ❯
This postmodern view of culture is applicable in the 20th century analyses and discussions introduced by oyd and Richerson. In effect, the first assumption explicates how culture brings…Read Full Paper ❯
Human Evolution Heading? The evolution of the human being has been the subject of constant research since technology has enabled scientists to have a more technical and elaborated approach…Read Full Paper ❯
Africa" to "Out of Beringia": Can Population Genetics Explain the Mechanisms underlying the formation of Distinct Cultures and Linguistic Groups? The "Out of Africa" Theory The "Out of Africa" theory…Read Full Paper ❯
The term mosaic evolution is used to describe the different features of an organism evolve at different rates. The efficient bipedal movement is a peculiarity that appeared very…Read Full Paper ❯
Zoology Relics of Human Evolution Vemeonasal organ. The vemeonasal organ is a little pit on each side of the septum that is lined with nonfunctioning chemoreceptors. It may have been used…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Cultural and Climate Effects on Human Evolution Cultural group selection's contribution to the progression of cooperation among humans is intensely contested. A majority of human behavior impacted by culturally diffused…Read Full Paper ❯
taxonomic status of Mystery Skull #1 is most likely Neanderthal. The reasons for assigning the skull to this taxon are readily stated. Mystery Skull #1 looks morphologically similar to…Read Full Paper ❯
It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what…Read Full Paper ❯
The workforce is addressed on a personal level to ensure that each individual not only understands what the expectations are of him or her, but also to ensure…Read Full Paper ❯
Human biological, social, and cognitive evolution has depended on food. That much seems obvious, but what is less obvious is the specific ways that first fire, and then agriculture,…Read Full Paper ❯
Evolution be Taught in Schools? Introduction / Thesis (Part One) The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory --…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
Human esources With the advancement in ICT, management of organizations has undergone changes in the period of the 21st century otherwise known as the digital era. The organization's function of…Read Full Paper ❯