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Human evolution is the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens as a species that can be distinguished from other hominids, great apes, and mammals. Neanderthals are a unique species as they can be either classified as a subspecies of Homo sapiens as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, or can be classified as a distinct and separate species as Homo neanderthalensis. Though Neanderthals are presently considered an extinct species, evidence indicates that H. sapiens and Neanderthals, at one point, mated with each other.
It is believed that Neanderthals inhabited Europe and parts of western and central Asia as far back as 230,000 to 300,000 years ago. Evidence that Neanderthals and H. sapiens coexisted was discovered in France and Israel. Further investigation and analysis of fossils found in these areas indicate that Neanderthals, as well as H. sapiens, were skilled hunters, used fire, cared for their sick and injured, and possibly communicated through a…
Bradt, Steve. "Analysis of Teeth Suggests Modern Humans Mature More Slowly Than
Neanderthals Did." Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Web. Accessed 4 May 2011. Retrieved from < http://www.fas.harvard.edu/home/content/analysis-teeth-suggests-modern-humans-mature-more-slowly-neanderthals-did >
Evans, Laurence. "Neanderthals (Homo sapiens neandertalensis)." Nature's Holism. 17 October
2009. Web. Accessed 4 May 2011. Retrieved from
Human Evolution in Africa
The human evolution in Africa is a drawn out process of transformation by which natives' originated from the apelike ancestors. Scientific study shows that behavioral traits and physical traits shared by the people came from the apelike ancestors over approximation of six million years ago. The earliest traits were the bipedalism is walking using the two rear limbs. Other human trait was the ability to make and use tools by using their own intelligence, and capacity for the language developed recently (Philip 2005). Human evolution has been used to show how humans originated and how they adapted to situations many years ago. It was argued that the human evolution stopped due to humans implications towards the environment. The adaptive responses were serious implications of infectious diseases.
The African continent is termed as the Cradle of human kind by many explorers, among the archeologists and…
Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03 . p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3.
Gould, S.J. 2002. The structure of evolutionary theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
Joan, B. 2003. How humans Evolved. New York: Norton.
McHenry, H.M. 2009. "Human Evolution." Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts
This postmodern view of culture is applicable in the 20th century analyses and discussions introduced by oyd and Richerson. In effect, the first assumption explicates how culture brings forth history, and in history, "qualitative different trajectories" occur: "...the dynamics of the system must be path dependent; isolated populations or societies must tend to diverge even when they start from the same initial condition and evolve in similar environments" (186).
After establishing the potential, crucial role that culture and generally, history, plays in the human evolution, oyd and Richerson then explicated on the interdependence of science and culture in the evolutionary process. The authors posited, as mentioned earlier in the introduction, that culture induces the evolutionary process in the same way science does.
According to the authors, evolutionary process is influenced by "cultural analogs," enumerated as random forces, natural selection, and decision-making forces. Random forces are considered "chance transmissions" that may…
Acerbi, a. (2006). "Cultural transmission between and within generations." Journal of Artificial Societies & Social Stimulation, Vol. 9, Issue 1.
Boyd, R. And P. Richerson. (1988). "How Microevolutionary Processes Give Rise to History." In Culture and the Evolutionary Process. In History and Evolution. M. Nitecki (Ed.). NY: University of New York Press.
Hanson, F. (2005). "Culture against society." Society, Vol. 42, Issue 5.
Walker, C.E. (2003). "Human aggression: theories, research, and implications for social policy." Journal of Psychiatry & Law, Vol. 31, Issue 3.
Human Evolution Heading?
The evolution of the human being has been the subject of constant research since technology has enabled scientists to have a more technical and elaborated approach on this theme. The results of such research are remarkable and at the same time contradictory.
Apparently, according to research conducted, although people have evolved in terms of eating habits, resources available, and living conditions, these evolutions enable them to sometimes use the results to change the human in itself, for instance through the choice of DNA and the desire for perfect traits to improve the next generations (Shute, 2008). At the same time though, the discovery and research of DNA has enabled human kind to avoid the reproduction of mutations and to overall provide a better quality of gens for people. Given the rapid growth of the population by comparison to 10,000 years ago, these changes are significant because they…
Africa" to "Out of Beringia": Can Population Genetics Explain the Mechanisms underlying the formation of Distinct Cultures and Linguistic Groups?
The "Out of Africa" Theory
The "Out of Africa" theory has played a major influential role in how other population genetics studies are approached, conducted, and interpreted (reviewed in: Campbell & Tishkoff, 2010). According to this theory populations of anatomically modern (H. sapiens) humans left the African Continent sporadically over a period of 10's of thousands of years and these outward migrations constitute the genetic origins of all non-Africans. The results from these studies in world population genetics paint a fascinating history of our species' gradual and sporadic entry into the rest of the world, a history that only a few decades ago was more theory than fact.
The "Out of Africa" theory gained support when researchers compared genetic markers in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Africans and non-Africans. The…
Campbell, M.C. & Tishkoff, S.A. (2010). The evolution of human genetic and phenotypic variation in Africa. Current Biology, 20, R166-R173
Sandoval, K., Buentello-Malo, L., Penaloza-Espinosa, R., Avelino, H., Salas, A., Calafell, F., & Comas, D. (2009). Linguistic and maternal genetic diversity are not correlated in Native Mexicans. Human Genetics, 126, 521-531
The term mosaic evolution is used to describe the different features of an organism evolve at different rates. The efficient bipedal movement is a peculiarity that appeared very early and perhaps is the single most significant development in the emergence of man. Since this information is available from New Haven Teachers Institute, Yale, the information is accurate and reliable.
Article-3. Skybreak, Ardea. Part 6D: The Two Biggest Leaps in Hominid Evolution: The Science of Evolution, the Evolution of Human Beings. evolutionary Worker #1182, January 12, 2003. Available at http://rwor.org/a/v24/1181-1190/1182/evol6d.htm
The process of evolution that links the modern human beings to the ancient ape ancestors revealed a number of key stages and milestones. The development of bipedalism in the line of apes is considered to the most important key stage in the evolutionary process. Secondly, the significant evolutionary modification apparently related to an overall 'slowing down' of hominid developmental rates that…
Broker, Stephen P. 'Hominid Evolution' Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Available at http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1979/6/79.06.02.x.html . Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Carrier, David R. The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution. Current Anthropology. 1984 Volume: 25; No: 4; pp: 483-495. Available at http://www.publicanthropology.org/Archive/Ca1984.htm. Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Farabee, M.J. Human Evolution. Available at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookHumEvol.html. Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Skybreak, Ardea. Part 6D: The Two Biggest Leaps in Hominid Evolution: The Science of Evolution, the Evolution of Human Beings. Revolutionary Worker. No: 1182, January 12, 2003. Available at http://rwor.org/a/v24/1181-1190/1182/evol6d.htm. Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Relics of Human Evolution
Vemeonasal organ. The vemeonasal organ is a little pit on each side of the septum that is lined with nonfunctioning chemoreceptors. It may have been used for pheromone-detecting ability.
Extrinsic ear muscles. These three muscles most likely made it possible for prehominids to move their ears independently, in the manner of many mammals, such as rabbits and dogs. Many people can learn to wiggle their ears because of these muscles.
Wisdom teeth. Early humans had to chew a lot of plants to get enough calories to survive, so another row of molars helpful. Today, only about five percent of the population has a functioning set of these third molars, which are often removed to avoid problems when they don't fully emerge or emerge sideways.
Neck rib. A set of cervical ribs appear in less than one percent of the population. They often contribute to nerve…
Cultural and Climate Effects on Human Evolution
Cultural group selection's contribution to the progression of cooperation among humans is intensely contested. A majority of human behavior impacted by culturally diffused philosophies (including religious views) does not seem adaptively sensible. hether or not strong socio-biological reasons are available for explaining such behavior marks the focal point of arguments between sociologists and critics of sociology. There are, in theory as well as (possibly) in fact, several instances, which combine aspects of both. Evolution in the cultural context, by adopting Darwin's model, is portrayed as a process of inheritance co-evolving with genes. Adaptive qualities as well as series processes are displayed, resulting in maladaptive deviation (Richerson and Robert 195). This paper's primary objective is employment of new analytical strategies that utilize the current scientific base, thus allowing rigorous testing of the manner in which mankind's evolution and species' adaptability is influenced by culture…
Alexander, Richard D. "Darwinism and human affairs." (1979).
Bruxelles, Laurent, and Marc Jarry. "Climatic conditions, settlement patterns and cultures in the Paleolithic: the example of the Garonne Valley (Southwest France)." Journal of human evolution 61.5 (2011): 538-548.
Facchini, Fiorenzo. "Culture, Speciation and the Genus Homo in Early Humans." Human Evolution 21.1 (2006): 51-57.
Flinn, Mark V. "Culture and the evolution of social learning." Evolution and human behavior 18.1 (1997): 23-67.
taxonomic status of Mystery Skull #1 is most likely Neanderthal.
The reasons for assigning the skull to this taxon are readily stated. Mystery Skull #1 looks morphologically similar to a modern human in many ways. The orbital sockets and zygomatic protrusions are similarly spaced, and the dentition is remarkably similar to that of a modern human. However there is a noticeably more pronounced brow ridge on the skull which is not reminiscent of Homo sapiens contemporary or archaic. Instead we should look at the overall shape of the skull, and we discover that it has a much flatter longer crown with less of a forehead, typical of Neanderthal skulls, rather than the higher dome of Homo sapiens. In addition to this longer and lower brain case, Mystery Skull #1 also exhibits a marked bulge at the very back, which is again typical of Neanderthals. Another tell-tale sign is the mid-facial…
It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate types of verbal communications compared to any other primates. Humans are the sole animal to make and apply symbols as a way to communicate with each other. Humans also have diverse as well as complex forms of social organizations compared to that of the other nonhuman primates. The most unique characteristic of humans lies in human mental capability to build novel ideas as well as intricate technologies. This has been considered to be important in the fight for endurance. (O'Neil 2007)
Further, the relatively negligible structural variations among humans and apes are generally an outcome of regular bipedalism observed in human beings. Quite a number of alterations in human bodies were linked to the growth of this type of locomotion. As opposed…
Berg, Kate; Bonham, Vence; Boyer, Joy; Brody, Larry; Brooks, Lisa; Collins, Francis;
Guttmacher, Alan; McEwen, Jean; Muenke, Max; Olson, Steve; Wang, Vivian Ota; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Warshauer-Baker, Esther. 2005, 'The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 77, no. 4, pp: 519-532.
Bethesda, MD. 2006, 'Present-Day Non-Human Primates May Be Linchpin in Evolution of Language' Terra Daily. 25 Jul., p. 4
British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, 2007, the Zero option, Available at http://www.buav.org/campaigns/primates/zerooption.html
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…
Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;
Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com .
The workforce is addressed on a personal level to ensure that each individual not only understands what the expectations are of him or her, but also to ensure that they will give only their best effort towards the organizational goal. In order to motivate employees in this way, it is necessary for each individual to understand the organizational goals and to care sufficiently about these. Employees therefore have to find meaning in their work. This can best be done by communication.
It is one fortunate feature of the current technological world that communication can occur both regularly and instantly. Instead of having to print out thousands of circulars, managers can write a single email and send it to thousands of employees simultaneously with a single click. This greatly facilitates the communication paradigm between management and employees, or indeed between the HR department and employees.
Various forms of communication are possible…
Business Wire (2008, Jan 31). Corporate Co-evolution Develops Broader Macroeconomic Principles that can be applied to today's International Corporate Environment. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_Jan_31/ai_n24241274
Carney, Michael. (2002, Jan-Feb). The co-evolution of institutional environments and organizational strategies. Organization Studies. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4339/is_1_23/ai_87782496
Christensen, C.M. (2006). The innovator's dilemma. New York: Harper Collins, Collins Business Essentials.
Cuddihey, Alden (2003, Fall). Aligning human resources and business: an overlooked formula for success. Canadian Manager. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6710/is_3_28/ai_n29036750
Human biological, social, and cognitive evolution has depended on food. That much seems obvious, but what is less obvious is the specific ways that first fire, and then agriculture, and then the combination of advanced cooking and food preservation methods have contributed to the quality of the human brain and the efficacy of the human body. Even at its most basic, cooking transforms the available nutrients in plants, and renders some otherwise inedible plants both edible/nonpoisonous or better able to provide bioavailable nutrients. Even just sticking plants and animal parts into a fire and waiting for a transformation to take place fueled human biological evolution because "cooking made available to our ancestors unprecedented nutrients that fueled brain growth over time, and reduced the need for energy-expensive chewing of tough foods," (King). Bioavailability increases from just 30 to 40% of nutrients in raw plants to a full hundred percent (Mott). Cooking…
Adler, J. (2013). Why fire makes us human. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved online: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-fire-makes-us-human-72989884/
King, Barbara. "Cooking Or Slicing Food: What Drove Early Human Evolution?" NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org /sections/13.7/2016/03/17/470784072/cooking-or-slicing-food-what-drove-early-human-evolution
Mott, Nicholas. "What Makes Us Human?" National Geographic. 26 Oct, 2012. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/10/121026-human-cooking-evolution-raw-food-health-science/
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
With the advancement in ICT, management of organizations has undergone changes in the period of the 21st century otherwise known as the digital era. The organization's function of Human esource (H) has also changed so fast resulting in a changing environment of social and organizational terms, while information technologies have rapidly evolved. H has grown to be an essential component in firm sustainability. This has resulted in the formation of new practices and processes in H. Some of the new practices include an E-selection, E-performance, E-recruitment, and E-learning. This study identifies how General Motors can utilize H Portals as new HIS technology to foster employee management. With H portals, the use of Employee Self-service and Manager Self-service will be essential to the company's processes of recruitment, employee performance and other human resource management activities within General Motors (Schwalbe, 2010).
E-ecruiting and E-Selection
With the advancement in technology in…
Harper, R. (2008). Inside the IMF: An ethnography of documents, technology and organizational action. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Pynes, J., & Lombardi, N. (2011). Human resources management for health care organizations: A strategic approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Schwalbe, K. (2010). Information Technology Project Management. Boston, MA: Course Technology/Cengage Learning.
Storey, J. (2007). Human resource management: A critical text. London: Thomson.
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…
Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.
Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.
Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
The Boeing Company (n.d.). Human factors. etrieved online: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_textonly.html
Hayhurst, K.J., Maddalon, J.M. Miner, P.S., DeWalt, M.P. & McCormick, G.F. (2006). Unmanned aircraft hazards and their implications for regulation. etrieved online: http://shemesh.larc.nasa.gov/people/jmm/5B1_201hayhu.pdf
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
NASA (2013). Unmanned Aircraft Systems Airspace Operations Challenge (UAS OC). etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_challenges/uas/index.html
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, 2013). NOAA Unmanned aircraft systems program. etrieved online: http://uas.noaa.gov/
Tvaryanas, a.P., Thompson, W.T. & Constable, S.H. (2006). Human Factors in emotely Piloted Aircraft Operations: HFACS Analysis of 221 Mishaps Over 10 Years. Aerospace Medical Association. etrieved online: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2006/00000077/00000007/art00008
United States Coast Guard (2013). Unmanned aircraft system. etrieved online: http://www.uscg.mil/acquisition/uas/
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
The Boeing Company (n.d.). Human factors. Retrieved online: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_textonly.html
Hayhurst, K.J., Maddalon, J.M. Miner, P.S., DeWalt, M.P. & McCormick, G.F. (2006). Unmanned aircraft hazards and their implications for regulation. Retrieved online: http://shemesh.larc.nasa.gov/people/jmm/5B1_201hayhu.pdf
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
He was endowed with the capacity to think and reason out and choose the right action. In genesis 2:7 there is an account that god created man out of dust and hence clearly rules out any theory which suggests that man is an evolutionary product. "God formed the man from the dust of the ground & breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being." [Dr. Robert D. Luginbill]. Genesis 1:26-27 also states that man is created in the image of god and also the only created being to have the capacity to feel the love, enjoy the kinship and the communion with god.
Nature of Man
Some theologians share a monistic philosophy of man and do not consider the presence of a soul as a separated part of his being. However the dualistic aspect of man is adopted by many Christian followers. The…
Greg Herrick, "Anthropology & Hamartiology: Man and Sin," Accessed on September 27th 2004, http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=728
Jay P. Taylor, "the Doctrine of man: Anthropology," Accessed on September 27th 2004, http://www.agts.edu/faculty/faculty_publications/class%20notes/taylor_jay/taylorj_4doctrine_man_2004.pdf
H.P. Blavatsky, "The Secret Doctrine: ARCHAIC, OR MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY," Accessed on September 26th 2004, http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/sd/sd2-3-01.htm
CARM, "Theistic Evolution," Accessed on September 26th 2004, http://www.carm.org/evolution/evtheistic.htm
More specifically, the growing ability of employees to share their opinions about their employers means that employers who fail to provide a uniformly consistent and positive vocational experience will have greater difficulty recruiting and retaining the best-qualified talent (Alessie, 2008). Three-quarters of contemporary business executives polled have expressed concern about their ability to recruit and retain good employees and as many as eighty percent have concerns that may not be able to maintain the enough talented employees to sustain their organizations (Alessie, 2008).
According to many contemporary business HM professionals, the role of Facebook has increased the pressure of ensuring employee satisfaction. In addition to having to compete for talent in an environment that makes job hunting easier, they also have to worry about the negative impact on recruitment of public opinions posted on Facebook about employees' experiences (Leader-Chivee, Hamilton, & Cowan, 2008). Similarly, as the competition for top talent…
Alessie, L. "Big Brother is watching: Lorenza Alessie, associate director at HVS
Executive Search, investigates how professional and social online networks such as Facebook and Linkedin are affecting the face of recruitment." Leisure Report, (August 2008).
Leader-Chivee, L., Hamilton, B.A., and Cowan, E. "Networking the way to success:
online social networks for workplace and competitive advantage." People & Strategy, (December 2008).
Human and Machine Intelligence
The similarities and differences between human and machine intelligence doesn't seem to be the most important issue. It seems clear that both have been shown to exist, though they have very fundamentally different characteristics. The issue now centers more on supremacy: Is one better, more authoritative than the other? And if so, does this influence whether a "superintelligence" (Bostrom, 2003) exists that takes us to the paradigm when words (Zadeh, 2009) and emotions are most important (Dennett, Chapter 16)?
The early writings about projects like the Turing test tried to explain intelligence as being some kind of understanding about knowledge and its function. They often used simple conceptualizations similar to the way computers use the characters of "1" and "0" as a mathematical language. Philosophers use this approach to speculate about how a logical person might be able to "see" one color by itself, independent of…
Block, N. (____). The mind as the software of the brain. Chapter 14.
Bostrom, N. (2003). Creating Superintelligence involves less risk than waiting. In S. Engdahl, Artificial Intelligence. Green Press: Detroit.
Can a Machine Think? Chapter 5.
Chatham, C. (2011). 10 important differences between brains and computers. Developing Intelligence [over time, across species, cross-platform]. Viewable at http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/why_the_brain_is_not_like_a_co.php .
I know that the case you cite, of Dr. Drake, has been a common one. The religion-builders have so distorted and deformed the doctrines of Jesus, so muffled them in mysticisms, fancies and falsehoods, have caricatured them into forms so monstrous and inconceivable, as to shock reasonable thinkers, to revolt them against the whole, and drive them rashly to pronounce its Founder an impostor. Had there never been a commentator, there never would have been an infidel.... I have little doubt that the whole of our country will soon be rallied to the unity of the Creator, and, I hope, to the pure doctrines of Jesus also (Jefferson, 1854).
American Transcendentalism -- the transcendentalist movement was a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century as a generalized protest against the general state of intellectualism and…
Benedict, Ruth. (2007). Zuni Mythology. Martino Publishing.
Coffey, J. And P. Lim. (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism.
Cowley, G. (Fall/Winter 1991). "The Great Disease Migration." Newsweek. Cited in:
725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave ackground radiation (CM) that pervades the observable universe. This is believed to be the remnant that scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for this discovery.
Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" hydrogen and helium found in the observable universe are believed to support the ig ang model of origins (the ig-ang Theory Web site, 2003).
In 2003, Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an alternative to the standard ig ang theory, an alternative that also accounts for the evidences listed above (Eastman and Missler, 1996). Gentry believes that the standard ig ang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm that he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data. Gentry bases his model on Einstein's static-spacetime paradigm that he claims is the "genuine cosmic Rosetta."
Gentry is not alone. Other high-profile dissenters include…
Eastman, Mark. Missler, Chuck. The Creator: Beyond Time and Space, (1996) p. 11.
W. Wayt Gibbs, "Profile: George F.R. Ellis," Scientific American, October 1995, Vol. 273, No.4, p. 55.
Big-Bang-Theory.com. (2002). Big Bang Theory. Retrieved from the Internet at: www. Big-Bang-Theory.com.
Gish, Duane. (June, 1991). The Big Bang Theory Collapses. Institute for Creation Research.
In an era where the issue of human and civil rights was considered an element that could not be addressed by law, the drafting of the U.S. constitution came as a result of a great democratic endeavor which tried to point out several aspects. On the one hand, it proved the fact that the people are the supreme judges of the way in which the country is developing through the fact that Thus, the most important line for the American democracy is part of the Declaration of Independence which underlines the fact "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" (the Declaration of Independence, n.d.). This aspect certifies the idea that according to the American documents, people have the right to be free in all their respects.
The Constitution comes…
Adams, John. "Novanglus, Febuary 6, 1775." From Revolution to Reconstruction. 2003. 5 May 2008 http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/P.ja2/writtings/novan1.htm
American Foreign Relations. Revolution: Impact on the Economy. 2007. 5 May 2008 http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/Re-Ro/Revolution-Impact-on-the-Economy.html
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Republicanism. 2006. 5 May 2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/republicanism/
Lauren Slater's (2005) article "Who holds the clicker?," Susan Blackmore's excerpt "Strange Creatures" -- taken from her book The Meme Machine, and Alain De Botton's chapter "On Habit" from his book The Art of Travel are very different pieces that all challenge the idea of the self in human kind. Is there a self? Or are we all controlled by things outside of our control? While science may be able to find ways of changing or enhancing our bodies, and though there may be some truth in the idea that our genes don't allow us to have complete free will over our selves, we cannot deny that most humans believe that there is something inside each and every one of us that gives us a purpose on this earth. Whether manipulated by a remote control clicker or partially-governed by memes, the fact that we are able to challenge…
Blackmore, S. (2003). Strange creatures. Extract from The meme machine. Accessed on 8
De Botton, A. (2004). On habit. From The art of travel. Vintage.
human resources management Conduct a series specific case studies companies, countries, approach issue human resource management development. Specific comparative analysis made practices U.S. countries.
Human resource management -- the case of McDonald's and Wal-Mart's HM practices in Europe, Asia and the United States of America
The role of human resources management has changed dramatically throughout the past recent decades. Once the people operating the machineries and blindly implementing the decisions made by the managers, the employees have gradually metamorphosed into the most valuable organizational assets. They are the ones who put together their knowledge to create intellectual capital and support the employers in attaining their objectives.
The modern day staff members create value for the organization and represent it in all aspects of the business dimensions and the interactions with other categories of stakeholders -- customers, business partners, the general public, governmental and non-governmental institutions and so on. And this…
Aras, G., Crowther, D., 2010, A handbook of corporate governance and social responsibility, Gower Publishing Ltd.
Berrone, P., Global compensation. Foundations and perspectives, IESE Business School, http://iese.academia.edu/berrone/Books/101418/Global_compensation._Foundations_and_perspectives last accessed on November 24, 2011
Dessler, G., Expanding into China? What foreign employers should know about human resource management in China today, All Business, http://www.allbusiness.com/management/3967622-1.html last accessed on November 24, 2011
Hawkins, G., 2004, How to find work that works for people with Asperger syndrome: the ultimate guide for getting people with Asperger syndrome into the workplace (and keeping them there!), Jessica Kingsley Publishers
This problem was solved in the following way: the program uuencode which is used by email-clients transforms its binary code (code of bits and bytes) into text code using ASCII table principle and it's send in the form of text character set in the following form (begin file name reports text translated binary body end). The recipient's email-client executes uudecode program and transforms it to binary primary code.
Telnet is a program for computer networks that use TCP/IP, for example Internet. It allows terminal emulation, as it connects user's computer to a networks' server. This program which works in console mode allows to manage the controll over server as if the commands were executed on the server computer initially, as well as it allows to control, communicate and do data exchange with other computers and servers. Telecom uses identification policies as username and password and allows control of web…
Hahn, Harley Hahn Teaches the Internet 2nd ed., Que 2002
Kasser, Barbara Using the Internet, Fourth Edition,
Gralla, Preston How the Internet Works, Fourth Edition, Que. 2001
An increase in employee-management teamwork and communication likewise reduced the need for labor union representation. Labor unions, thus, no longer play the critical role they once did in labor-management relations (Encyclopedia of Small usiness, Maxwell).
A New Global Labor Federation
Representatives from trade unions throughout the world organized a new global labor federation to insure that workers' rights are not overlooked in economic globalization (Associated Press, 2006). The new body, the International Trade Union Confederation, replaced the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. It would adapt itself to the fresh challenges to the rights of unionized workers. It would also take bolder steps against forced and child labor. Appointed head of the new federation was Guy Ryder, who assured everyone that "the strong tradition of solidarity" would continue. He emphasized the importance of trade union unity in the international level in insuring effective representation of workers rights and interests in…
Associated Press (2006). Delegates launch global labor union. Deseret News: Deseret
News Publishing Company. Retrieved on June 8, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20061102/ai_n16831637/?tag=content;col1
Encyclopedia of Small Business (2002). Labor unions. CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved
on June 8, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qx5201/is_2002/ai_n19121346/?tag=content;col1
Other specific branches of management study have been developed for multinational enterprises (MNEs) and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).
Strategic management incorporates much of the work of previous management theorists, in particular including elements of organizational structure, motivation, organizational behavior and the definition of roles. In some respects, strategic management's focus on the human side derives most substantially from the Drucker tradition. Production management, conversely, remains focused on task. Systems such as Six Sigma and TPS follow on Taylor's theories about task specificity and optimization. There remains at this point in management theory there is a disconnect between these two types of management theory. Perhaps the future direction of management theory is to bring the two concepts -- production management and people management together to form a holistic view of the organization.
Most of today's management theories derive from the influence of Taylor, Drucker and other management thinkers of…
Cliff Notes. (2010). Classical schools of management. Cliff Notes. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Classical-Schools-of-Management.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8851.html
NetMBA.com (2007). Frederick Taylor and scientific management. NetMBA.com. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/scientific/
McNamara, C. (no date). Brief overview of contemporary theories in management. Free Management Library. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/cntmpory.htm
HR will need to have better guidelines in place for individuals in this new atmosphere (Kahnweiler 25-26).
However, there are and will always be two main components that the HR department of any organization will cover. The first is comprised of management, leadership and employee motivation and the other is the traditional realm of HR practices which include performance appraisal, training, recruitment and selection, as well as compensation management (salry and bonuses). In this regard payroll is usually located within the HR department in some respect and there is a certain amount of crossover between HR and the Finance area of any company in this regard. (Lajara, Lillo, and Sempere 38)
However, fundamentally HR is concerned with the human element and the return on investment (ROI) regarding that element has become a primary concern of the business world. Measurement of that return is not as clear-cut as it is in…
Boudreau, John W., and Peter M. Ramstad. "Talentship and HR Measurement and Analysis: From ROI to Strategic Organizational Change." Human Resource Planning 29.1 (2006): 25-34
Boudreau, John W. "Talentship and the New Paradigm for Human Resource Management: From Professional Practices to Strategic Talent Decision Science." Human Resource Planning 28.2 (2005): 17-26
Cabrera, Angel, and Elizabeth F. Cabrera. "Strategic Human Resource Evaluation." Human Resource Planning 26.1 (2003): 41-52
Colbert, Barry a., and Elizabeth C. Kurucz. "Three Conceptions of Triple Bottom Line Business Sustainability and the Role for HRM." Human Resource Planning 30.1 (2007): 21-29
Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.
Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.
While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…
Consciousness: Section PS13D
Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology
Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.
Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.
Human esources Management - Maintaining a Competitive Edge in the Corporate Marketplace
Change continues to reshape the workplace. Today's H professional is called upon to help the organization retain its competitive edge in the marketplace. Along with representing the best interests of employees, H professionals assume the role of strategic partner, administrative expert, and change agent. H assumes a critical role in promoting the vision and shaping the focus of the company. H professionals must be skilled and knowledgeable business partners, able to wear many hats while demonstrating their own competencies in communication and decision-making skills. (Aghazadeh, 1999)
Today, H departments face many challenges. Some are conventional and continuing concerns.
Attract, retain and motivate employees;
Ensure legal and regulatory compliance;
Manage the human side of technological change.
Perhaps, most critically today however, progressive H departments are charged with adding value to the corporation as they seek to:
Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud (1999). Human Resource Management: Issues and challenges in the new millennium. Management Research News, 22(12) 19-32.
Ashbaugh, Sam and Rowan Miranda (2002). Technology for Human Resources Management: Seven Questions and Answers. Public Personnel Management, (31) 7.
Ball, Sarah (2002, Sept). How technology can make you look good. Employee Benefits, S9-11.
Barro, Tom. A Tangled Web of Partnerships. Retrieved Feb. 21, 2003 at http://www.astd.org/CMS/templates/index.html?template_id=1&articleid=23780
Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology
In Human Nature and Conduct, John Dewey propounds the theory that all human conduct is the outcome of an interaction between elements of human nature and the environment, both natural and social (Dewey, p. 10). Based on this premise, Dewey advocates that the study of morals or ethics shift its ground from a transcendental realm to one where the discipline of social psychology is used to intelligently reengineer the environment so that ethical behavior is habitually encouraged. Thus, Dewey defines the moral problem as that of "modifying the factors which now influence future results. To change the working character or will of another we have to alter objective conditions which enter into his habits." (p. 18) Personally, I agree with Dewey's philosophy because its construct makes the achievement of an ethical world seem more real and less utopian.
The subject of…
Dewey, J. "Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology." New York:
The Modern Library, 1930.
Frank and Taylor (2004) warn that motivating employees is highly dependent on their specific wants and needs. An accounting firm that mostly hires conservative, serious-minded employees who value efficiency above all else are not likely to be motivated by the offer of a life coach or a concierge. They would probably be much more motivated by a good 401k plan. However, that does not mean that all types of organizations cannot get creative with their benefits.
The key is to creating an effective and creative employee benefit strategy is talk to the employees and find out what they really want. According to Gajewski (2005) it is critically important to modify "the corporate culture to balance employee needs and desires with organizational objectives" (p. 4). Therefore, if companies can change the corporate culture in such as way that satisfies both management and employees, then they would be remiss not to do…
Alsop, R. (2008) The 'Trophy Kids' go to work. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122455219391652725.html
Are They Really Ready To Work? Employers Perspective On The Basic Knowledge And Applied Skills Of New Entrant To The 21st Century U.S. Workforce. 2006. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdf
Avery, D.R., & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice: An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personnel Psychology, 59, 157-187.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C.W., Patterson, M.A., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: A longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 61, 467-501.
Some writers have also reverberated the dread that human security could become a philosophical tool.
Does Respectable Conception it work? Altering Facets OF Human Safety.
Founded on this apparently un fluctuating contrast of opinions produced by procedural insufficiencies and possible incoherency, there is other approaches that can be proposed. In an appreciation, to some it seems to have come full circle: there are important resemblances concerning the impression of human security as stated from the expansion reports / UN angle, on the one hand, and on the other, Galtung's theory of structural violence and human psychosomatic potential (Roberts). Certainly, Sabine Alkire describes the goal of human security as "being to defend the vigorous center of all human lives in methods that progress individual liberties and human contentment," a description that replicates Galtungian measurements of human growth. ut in spite of the likelihood of uncertainty and haziness natural in such a…
Roberts, D. (2005). Empowering the Human Security Debate: Making it Coherent and Meaningful. International Journal of WorldPiece, 3.
Snedeker, Laura. (2010) "Wolf Blitzer: "Is Human Rights More Important than American National Security?" 16 November, 2007. 18 April, 2010. .
Suhrke, A. (1999). Human Security and the interests of States. Sage Publications, 265-276.
Kumar, C. Raj. (2005). "Human rights implications of national security laws in India: combating terrorism while preserving civil liberties." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 22 March, 2005. 18 April, 2010. .
Human resource management, whether specifically titled or not, has been a part of any organization's management since groups banded together for specific tasks. Ancient armies, projects, and even educational and religious institutions all had concerns about their ability to bring in the appropriate person for the positions at hand. Formally, Human esource Management in the contemporary world is both the tactical and strategic manner in which an organization manages the human portion of its resources, both collectively and individually, and how management of those individual resources contributes to the overall positive objects of the business. Over the past few decades, though, and with the advent of increasingly sophisticated technology, Human esource management has changed from using people to employ people, develop people, and track the utilization and compensation of their services. Instead, a newer system has evolved using computers, database management, and data mining to provide more optimal ways in…
Introduction to the Human Resources Discipline of Workplace Safety and Security. (2010, March). Retrieved from Society for Human Resource Management: http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/safetysecurity/Pages/SafetyIntro.aspx
Armstrong, M. (2008). Strategic Human Resource Management (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Kogan.
Budd, J. (2007). Labor Relations: Striking a Balance. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Effron, M., & Goldsmith, M. (2008). Human Resources in the 21st Century. New York: Wiley.
Human esource Information System
The introduction of information technology has changed how business is conducted and management of various departments within the organizations. The human resource department has undergone through computerization with some organization adjusting to the latest application in the market. Therefore, human resource information system (HIS) can be defined as a system used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve and distribute information regarding an organization's human resource. This information is usually done in a database or more often in serious of inter-related databases (Susan Heathfield, 2009). The information contained in human resource information system normally serves as a guide to recruiters, trainers, careers planner and other human resource specialists (CP Team, 2011).
However, the system allows companies to cut down costs and provides more productive information to employees in faster and very convenient manner. This therefore is more important during hard economic times; because a company needs to…
John W. Boudreau (2008). Cost-Benefit" Analysis Applied to Personnel, Cornell University
Human Resource Management Decisions
Mohan Thite, Michael Kavanagh. Richard D. Johnson (2009).Evolution of Human Resource
Management and Human Resource Information Systems
Human Resources - Critically appraise the historical development and future direction of Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry
Personnel Management & Human Resource Management
Links of Corporate Strategy and Human Resource Management -- An Analysis
Trends in Hospitality Management
Human Resourcing strategies in Hospitality Industry
Personnel Management & Human Resource Management
The practices of people management have received additional importance due to the present emphasis on the renewed interest in human resources. Traditionally, there has always been a dividing line between operational managers and personnel managers who are now called human resource managers. In the United States the function of personnel management has been a recognized function since the National Cash Register Company had opened their personnel office in the 1890s. The American personnel managers have always closely identified themselves with the objectives of the organization and this may be considered as a unitary tradition.…
Rowland, K. And Summers, S. (1981). Human resource planning: A second look. Personnel Administrator, December, 73-80.
Lorange, P. And Murphy, D.C. (1984). Bring human resources into strategic planning: Systems design considerations. In: Fombrun, C., Tichy, N. And Devanna, M. (eds.), Strategic human resource management. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 275-296
Nkomo, S.M. (1984). Prescription vs. practice: the state of human resource planning in large U.S. organizations. Paper presented at the Southern Management Association meeting, 14-17, November, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Golden, K.A. And Ramanujam, V. (1985). Between a dream and a nightmare: On the integration of the human resource management and strategic business planning processes. Human Resource Management, vol. 24, no. 4, 429-452.
This virtually means that the international community could soon observe mutations in the type and nature of the outsourced processes.
In general terms, companies are looking to outsource growing numbers of more complex operations as they are not willing to assume the risks and make the necessary investments. In this order of ideas, they outsource the operations to firms which have already made the investments and assumed the risks. "Organizations are reluctant to invest in and maintain cutting-edge technology and technical specialists internally, when they know that similar assets exist externally, and were developed with others' investment and risk" (Greaver).
While the companies recognized and capitalized on the benefits of outsourcing, the communities identified the limitations of the processes. The most common dissatisfaction was linked to the fact that outsourcing took jobs away from national workers and gave them to foreigners. In 2003, over 300,000 jobs within the United States…
2009, International Association of Outsourcing Professionals Predicts Top 10 Outsourcing Trends to Watch for in 2010, International Association of Outsourcing Professionals, http://www.outsourcingprofessional.org/content/23/196/1967 / last accessed on March 15, 2010
2009, the benefits of outsourcing, Outsource2India, http://www.outsource2india.com/why_outsource/articles/benefit_outsourcing.asp last accessed on March 15, 2010
Benaud, C.L., Bordeianu, S., 1998, Outsourcing library operations in academic libraries: an overview of issues and outcomes, Libraries Unlimited, ISBN 1563085097
Bucki, J., 2010, Top 6 outsourcing disadvantages, About.com, http://operationstech.about.com/od/outsourcing/tp/OutSrcDisadv.htm last accessed on March 15, 2010
In the realm of aviation safety, human factors in design relate primarily to purposeful redundancy in accordance with accurately anticipated component or system failures
Human Factors in Pilot Performance and Equipment Maintenance:
Two specific pilot performance issues developed as modern aviation technology increased aircraft performance and computers automated components of in-flight pilot responsibilities. Jet power quickly enabled military aircraft to exceed the natural human limits of g-force tolerance and computerization in civilian aviation presented potential pilot performance issues ranging from the need for problem solving through complex check lists to pilot complacency and inattention resulting from excessive reliance on instruments (APA, 2004). Military flight training addressed g-force tolerance, and as civilian flight operations became less physically strenuous and more automatic, much of human factor pilot training shifted from actual flight hour experience to emphasizing check list protocols, trouble shooting, crew communications and cooperation, and attentiveness skills practiced in simulators (Barron,…
Resources (GOFIR) Web site, at: http://www.gofir.com/general/crm/
Jackson, R. (2006) the Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft. Bath, U.K.: Paragon
Symbols, the Mind, and the Animal State
In Chapter 7 of Maps of Time, David Christian (2011) discusses how human language is built not only of "icons" and "indices," which are types of recognition, correlation, and communication that many organisms from bacteria to dogs can use, but primarily of symbols -- a more complex and higher-order level of communication (p. 172). This is only part of a larger discussion on the development of human history, however it is worthy of consideration simply as its own advancement and unique feature. An understanding of how language is a definitive feature of humanity, and of the implications of a division between man and nature, creates valuable insights for understanding human development.
As explained by Christian (2011), certain associations can be made by many organisms between similar or concurrent experiences in a way that might appear to be symbolic learning or communication,…
Christian, D. (2011). Maps of Time. Berkley: University of California Press.
Emmerich, R. (2004). The Day After Tomorrow. Twentieth Century Fox Films.
Levi, P. (1975). Carbon. Accessed 4 March 2012. www.pems.adfa.edu.au/~s9471553/level1/Teaching/Health02/CarbonStory.pdf
It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.
Rethinking the Concept
Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.
General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…
Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:
Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009
Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,
Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…
Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4
Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4
Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
Through this, the owner of Ford Motors Corporation was able to increase production levels and to reduce costs. "Even then when the lean manufacturing concept was years away, Ford had a focus on reducing time and material waste, increasing quality, and lowering cycle times, in order to achieve a lower cost vehicle which was reflected in the price reduction of the model T. year on year. This focus allowed him to reduce costs, even though he payed his workers well, and provide a great value product to the customer" (Lean Manufacture Website, 2009).
The editors at the Lean Manufacturing Guide online implement an approach similar to the editors at the Lean Manufacture Website. From their standpoint, lean manufacturing is an organizational effort by which waste is being reduced with the purpose of creating more value to the final product. In their own words, lean manufacturing is a "systematic approach to…
Blacharski, D., 2010, What is lean manufacturing, Wise Geek, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-lean-manufacturing.htm last accessed on September 29, 2010
Deming, W.E., 2000, Out of the crisis, MIT Press, ISBN 0262541157
Hoobs, D.P., 2004, Lean manufacturing implementation: a complete execution manual for any size manufacturer, J. Ross Publishing, ISBN 1932159142
Nilson, K., 2010, Lean manufacturing: adapting as important as adopting, Six Sigma, http://www.isixsigma.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=241:lean-manufacturing-adapting-as-important-as-adopting&Itemid=156 last accessed on September 29, 2010
We have never prescribed a "let-it-blow policy for tornadoes and hurricanes, a "let-it-erupt" policy for volcanoes or a "let-it-grind" policy for glaciers. Why, then, did we need a "let-it-burn" policy for fires, or surrogate strategies like prescribed fire? Humans and fire have an inseparable history." (p.5) Agee states that the classical view of the succession of plants "...persisted much of the 20th century: the Clementsian view of regional convergence towards a vegetation life-form created by autogenic succession in the presence of stable climate." (p.6)
Agee relates that the primary obstacle to conducting an "appropriate economic analysis of fire in wilderness as understanding "the natural state" was defined by Mills in 1985 who held that the objective of wilderness policy then would be to "allow resource change to be viewed as cost or benefit." (p. 14) Agee reports that in 1983 the Wilderness Fire workshop was held in Missoula in which…
Aplet, Gregory H. (2006) Evolution of Wilderness Fire Policy. International Journal of Wilderness APRIL 2006 • VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1-9.
Agee, J.K. (2000) Wilderness Fire Science: A State-of-Knowledge Review. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. 2000.
Leong, J.C. (nd) Evolution of Fire Science. Online available at: http://220.127.116.11/mainpages/teacher/J_C_Leong/updata/lab/syllbi/fires/Lesson%20a1%20-The%20Evolution%20of%20Fire%20Science.pdf
During the period from April to June2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak had a negative impact on Thai economies. The total revenue from tourism was 10% lower than expected.
However many studies of the tourist industry in the country point out that it is extremely resilient and " in the tsunami disaster, a quick recovery process began after a deep sentiment of sadness. Investment recovered very quickly with a view to cleaning up the destruction left behind. Following recent years of strong growth, the economy of Thailand should be in a strong position to recover from this tragedy." (Seenprachawong U.)
There is little doubt that the Thai tourist industry is one that is extremely dependent on changes in the natural environment and influences on the culture from the outside. While the resilience of this industry have be shown in the face of natural disasters,…
Asia Market Research. March 16, 2007. http://www.asiamarketresearch.com/
Continued unrest, travel warnings hit Thai tourism. March 16, 2007. http://www.dancewithshadows.com/travel/thai-tourism.asp
Community-Based Tourism in Doi Inthanon National Park:Case Study of Ban
Mae Klang Luang Tourism Alliance, Chiangmai, Thailand. March 16, 2007. http://www.iges.or.jp/APEIS/RISPO/inventory/db/pdf/0006.pdf
Evolution of Transportation
Transportation is one of the tools obligatory by civilized man to get order out of disorder. It arrives into each segment and facet of our continuation. Considered as of every point-of-view, economic, political and military, it is indisputably the most significant industry in the world.
You can no more function a grocery store or a brewery than you can win a war devoid of transportation. The more multifaceted life turns out to be, the more essential are the effects that make up our transportation systems (Moulton, 1949).
History Of Transportations
In the sixty years as of the 1790s to the 1840s, the United States acknowledged what has been appropriately phrased a 'transportation revolution'. Revolutionary it in fact was, for the social, economic, as well as political consequences of the alterations in transportation were extensive and transformative.
More often than not historians recognize actions such as the enlargement…
H.G. Moulton, Controlling Factors in Economic Development. The Brookings Institution, 1949, esp. Chapter VIII.
Stanley I. Fischler, Moving Millions. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
William D. Middleton. The Time of the Trolley. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Press, 1967.
Solomon et al. History of Transit and Innovative Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1971.
The second phase would include using these metrics in order to gather the appropriate results. Finally, the third phase implies interpreting those results and using them to gain a competitive strategic advantage on the market.
The phase dealing with the development of qualitative and quantitative metrics brings about some of the usual challenges in terms of measuring things: what metrics best reflect the performance of a certain activity? In the case of human capital, quantitative metrics can sometimes be a simple as sales growth per employee or changes in financial performance and productivity.
There are several problems, however, with this type of approach. The direct link between the changes in financial performance and human capital results is difficult to prove and, quite often, a negative change in financial performance is not necessarily caused by negative performances of human capital. For example, external factors, such as the current economic crisis, could…
1. Armstrong, Michael (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed.). London: Kogan Page
2. Fitz-enz, Jac. February 2009. The ROI of Human Capital: Measuring the Economic Value of Employee Performance. AMACOM; Second Edition.
3. GAO 2004. A Guide For Assessing Strategic Training and Development Efforts in the Federal Government. On the Internet at http://books.google.com/books?id=MvBOBDmbOrYC&pg=PA1&dq=human+capital+management#v=onepage&q=human%20capital%20management&f=false . Last retrieved on August 1, 2009
4. Ingham, Jon. 2006. Strategic Human Capital Management: Creating Value Through People. Butterworth-Heinemann; 1 edition
On the other hand however, it gives rise to an exclusive attitude and a multiple layer style of development and economic evolution because there will always be countries that fail to keep up with innovative technology, high tech research and revolutionary concepts which stand at the basis of today's creative industries. This is why the population in least developed countries does not consider globalization as being benefic for the improvement in their standard of living.
All in all, it can be said that the success and nature of a process is totally dependent of the perspective which is under analysis. Concerning stem cell research, arguments coming from the medical point-of-view favor the continuing of the research while those embracing the religious and ethical perspective strongly disagree. Similarly, depending on the point-of-view, globalization can be seen as both an inclusive and an exclusive process.
Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie…
Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie Zoloth (Editor). The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy (Basic Bioethics). Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.
IMF. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? 2000. 17 September 2006. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm#II
National Academy of Sciences. Potential U.S. Patient Populations for Stem Cell-Based Therapies. 2000. 17 September 2006. http://www4.nationalacademies.org/onpi/webextra.nsf/44bf87db309563a0852566f2006d63bb/e5d8fdf14955556185256ac3000711c6?OpenDocument
Reaves, Jessica. "The Great Debate over Stem Cell Research." July 11, 2001. TIME. 2001. 17 September 2006. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,167245,00.html
This transformation of the user experience is critical for the cognitive value of all these attributes together to make the contribution they are capable of (Mirel, Olsen, 1998).
Finally the contextual aspects of ergonomics and usability need to be addressed in any new product, software or website development. The contextual role of design puts information into a meaningful framework for the immediate and active use of those it was designed for (Massey, Khatri, Montoya-Weiss, 2007). Contextual ergonomics includes an awareness of the needs of those using the product, experiencing its information and seeking to make the most of it via a universal design structure. Attractiveness and the ability to define customization is critical, as is the need for ensuring transparency of how the elements are integrated together to deliver a consistent user experience.
Cappel, J.J., & Huang, Z. (2007). A usability analysis of company websites. The Journal of Computer…
Cappel, J.J., & Huang, Z. (2007). A usability analysis of company websites. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 48(1), 117-123.
Georgievski, M., & Sharda, N. (2006). Re-engineering the usability-testing process for live multimedia systems. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 19(1), 223-233.
Massey, a.P., Khatri, V., & Montoya-Weiss, M. (2007). Usability of online services: The role of technology readiness and context*. Decision Sciences, 38(2), 277-308.
Mirel, B., & Olsen, L.A. (1998). Social and cognitive effects of professional communication on software usability. Technical Communication Quarterly, 7(2),
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
However, on a subconscious level, he may be drawn specifically to the types of personalities in women who display every indication that they are highly judgmental and critical and rigid in their expectations, and who represent all of the same problems that he resents consciously in his mother. In both cases, the individual associates love with aspects of earlier foundational relationships.
In principle, psychologists refer to this phenomenon as re-enactment of foundational conflicts in the family of origin that have never been properly resolved in the psyche of the individual. As a result, many people end up choosing life partners who allow them to recreate or re-enact precisely the same psychological and interpersonal dynamics as those they experienced within their own families. Naturally, where the family of origin was healthy and loving, that tendency is beneficial because it motivates the individual to seek out and form bonds with others who…
The issue involves one institution awarding PLA credits, and when a student then transfers to a similar program at another institution or applies to a higher level program after graduating, the second institution may not recognize the PLA credits. The concern exists predominantly in the gap between program levels, for example a diploma graduate applying to a baccalaureate program, a baccalaureate graduate applying to a master's program. It is thought that if this is left unaddressed, increasing PLA practices may well lower a barrier at one educational level, while raising a barrier at the next (Advancing PLA in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009).
Another problem that has been associated with PLA is institutional funding for both human resources and operations. There is a concern among institutions about being required to implement or increase their PLA practices without additional government funding to support it. Most institutions currently do not have…
Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan. (2009). Retrieved July 22, 2010, from Web site:
Applying education and skills to real employment opportunities. (n.d). Retrieved July 22, 2010,
from State of Washington Web site:
THE ROLE OF CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE EVOLUTION OF HUMANITY
Undestanding the evolution of humanity has been one of the most citical quests fo most individuals in the cuent society. The intesection between envionmental influences and cultue ceates an aea of social inteest with a focus on human evolution. Empiical eseach shows that the society plays a significant ole in shaping the evolution of human beings as evidenced by psychological analysis of human evolution. The extaodinay coopeative natue of human beings aises moe questions on the peceived changes of human behavio and inteaction ove time (Hawkes, Paine, & School, 2006). Among the factos that dive human beings to stive to undestand thei evolution, include paleoanthopology esults that povide unique infomation that povides significant evidence to the aspects of human evolution postulated to have occued millions of yeas ago. Results fom fossil studies such as inceasing bain size and…
references: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1 -- 14.
Croll, E., & Parkin, D. (2002). Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment, and Development. Routledge.
Darlington, P.J. (1978). Altruism: Its characteristics and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 75(1), 385 -- 389.
Eagly, A.H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions vs. social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408 -- 423.
Foley, R. (1995). The adaptive legacy of human evolution: A search for the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 4(6), 194 -- 203
The most arrangement of these hominids is as shown in the table above (antala, 2007, p.17).
Humans have undergone a series of evolution from the most primitive hominids to the modern man. The development in the structure of the hominids was gradual; with almost half being upright and the rest being bent creatures. Evolution is expected to continue and man is expected to evolve into a different creature depending on the use and disuse of his limbs.
Macroevolution gives finer details about the origin of humans and tries to bring out substantive information from carbon dating that indicate that for real man is a product of a continuous evolution and thus is thus not the final product of evolution. However, the theory of evolution has faced a lot of criticism especially from the Theologians whose views about the origin of humans are contrary to those of macroevolution. The theory…
Barsh, G. (2003). What controls variation in human skin colour? Journal on Biological
Principles. 11(7), 19-22.
Fleagle, J. (1998). Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Second Edition. New York: Academic
As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.
Chapter 6: The orld That Knew e ere Coming
Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in…
Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).
Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.
A 1400-year-old volcanic or other induced "winter" likely spurred the divergence possibly even later than 150,000 years ago, brought about by an explosion of Toba in Sumatra. The elimination of this bottleneck 10, 000 years later allowed another wave of emigration from Africa. Volcanic winter may have succeeded in the reductions of populations to levels low enough for founder effects, genetic drift and local adaptations to produce rapid population differentiation (Ambrose 623 -- 651) .
This new research posits new assumptions about evolutionary rates, anagenesis, gene flow and population stability. Most biological evolution consists of the following two processes: anagenesis and cladogenesis. Anagenesis describes the transformations that occur within a single lineage, that is, as a population develops new characteristics. Cladogenesis, describes the splitting of a single species into two or more groups that later subsequently diverge in their individual traits through the anagenetic process. Gene flow and population stability…
Ambrose, Stephen H. "Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans." Journal of Human Evolution. 34. (1998): 623 -- 651. Print.
Johanson, Donald. "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?" Action
Bioscience.org. 2011. Web. 6 May 2011.
Rather, he advances a notion, equally integral to his theology as his understanding of evolution that the creation of humankind in God's own image is unique, and created a new level of complexity on the earth when it was interjected into the world. Human thought and thus human existence is parallel but somehow more complex than the evolution of the biological, material world.
What about his thought may be most helpful?
Tielhard's reconciliation of evolution and theology is valuable to Catholics who seek to balance their understanding of their place in the world with the hard, scientific evidence that suggests humans have evolved from other organism. It also imbues the idea of evolution with a moral responsibility that Darwin's theory lacks -- as more complex organisms, capable of higher consciousness, we have an added obligation to understand the world, spiritually as well as scientifically, to understand that world and to…
Evolution Is True
What Is Evolution?
This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…
Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin
Neuner, K. (2012). Why Evolution Is True - Notes & Review. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from https://vialogue.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/why-evolution-is-true-notes-review/
Vecchi, D. (2009). Review - Why Evolution is True. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=4953
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…
AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human
Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"
Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
Environmental Influences, Domain Specificity, and Heterozygous Potential:
Environmental influences have also contributed profoundly to human sexual behavior, which becomes particularly evident when one examines certain statistical tendencies pertaining to both conscious and unconscious choices in female mate selection (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). As is the case with many sexually reproducing organisms, human females have evolved a marked preference for both physical and behavioral male traits consistent with the ability to provide physical protection and to garner both natural and social resources. Females of many species prefer male suitors who display characteristics such as large relative body size, robustness, good health, and those suggesting physical strength, aggressiveness, and leadership (Margulis & Sagan 1999).
Whereas some of those traits are observable externally (such as relative size), others are imperceptible on any conscious level. This is particularly true as regards heterozygous potential conducive to healthy offspring, such as the marked unconscious preference demonstrated…
Ackerman, D. (1995) a Natural History of Love.
New York: Vintage
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy.
New York: Henry Holt.