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A good example of this can be seen with the fact that she has limited intimate relationships with men. This can be linked directly to her relationship with her father. As she would be close with him and then when she was arguing with her mother, he would become withdrawn. This is important, because the disconnection with her father, when she was having these issues would cause her to feel abandoned. When combine this with the feelings she would have at early age in school, this event would help Julie to view men from a distance. As she wanted to be close to them, yet because of her relationship with her father she would often become withdrawn.
To create change, the trained mental health professional must encourage Julie to overcome these emotions, by discussing the underlying meaning of what is taking place. At which point, they would begin to talk…… [Read More]
Humanistic Theory and Its Position Among Other Counseling Theories
The obvious limitations associated with the Psychodynamic theories led to the adoption of the humanistic approach as a response to these limitations, especially in Psychoanalysis. People like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers felt that the psychodynamic theories that were still in existence were unable to address certain important issues such as the nature of healthy growth and the meaning of behavior adequately. Nevertheless, the outcome was not just a new variation in the theory of psychodynamic, but rather, a new approach.
The Founders of the Accepted Theories
Carl Rogers wasn't just one of the several theorists who founded the Humanistic Approach, but possibly the most important therapist that lived in the 20th century. Several surveys, which include a number of surveys carried out after the death of Carl Rogers, discovered that several other therapists named Rogers as…… [Read More]
Humanistic learning theory as explained by Lipscomb, & Ishmael (2009 p. 174) emphasizes feeling, experience, self-awareness, personal growth, and individual / psychic optimization. Learning, from this perspective, is positioned as both social process and psychological/intellectual endeavor. Humanism aspires to place lecturers alongside students in mutually constituted, cooperative enquiry, variously described, this form of 'peer learning community 'situates the lecturer as an authority rather than in authority. It is a form of education that, by traditional or historical standards, places novel demands upon students who are now expected to act intentionally in pursuit of learning and understanding. Humanist principles require students to join with lecturers in this endeavor, and they are implicitly expected to develop and share values concerning the importance of scholarship.
Humanistic and experiential psychotherapies coalesced around the humanistic movement that emerged in the United States and Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of…… [Read More]
Elucidating Abraham Maslow and His Theory
Learning theories influence today's instructional systems. Emerging studies point towards a dearth of efficiency in the educational systems. Apparently, humanistic psychology is a third force in most fields among them educational psychology (Gonzalez-DeHass & Willems, 2013). However, while the root of most pioneer and most recent approaches in education is humanistic psychology, there is a lack of a comprehensive humanistic learning theory. Therefore, numerous theorists have tried to explain how people learn, for instance, constructivists, humanists, cognitivists, and behavioralists. The following study focuses on Maslow's concept of humanism learning theory which holds that learning is intrinsic and its goal is to generate some aspect of self-actualization.
Humanistic learning theory is a concept popularized by Abraham Maslow and Carl ogers, which highlights the human capacity for growth and choice (Poetter et al. 2004). Here, the basic assumption is that human beings possess free will and…… [Read More]
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of self-actualization needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that basic needs must be satisfied before secondary/higher level needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is evolution.
The ideal self according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered undifferentiated.
Rogers believed that counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
Intentionality is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
May proposed that existential freedom is the freedom of action, whereas essential freedom is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…… [Read More]
psychology, theories of personality abound. Two of the most significant theories of personality include psychodynamic and humanistic/existential theories. Although these two theories share some features in common, they are based on widely different assumptions about human nature and human behavior. Each describes the way personality impacts human behavior under certain situations. However, psychodynamic theory presumes that human personality is static and less likely to change. Humanistic and existential theories are built on the assumption that human personality is dynamic. The differences between psychodynamic and humanistic theories of personality also have an impact on their approaches to treatment interventions and therapy.
Psychodynamic theories of personality are based on the theories of Sigmund Freud, who believed that human personality is determined by subconscious factors and the person's psycho-sexual nature. The personality is divided into three main and immutable components according to the psychodynamic worldview. Those three components include the id, ego, and…… [Read More]
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
Integrity and…… [Read More]
Both Existential and Transpersonal psychologies have this in common, a respect for and utilization of Eastern techniques to reach a state of stress-free maintenance of human psychological health.
But the differences lie in their origins. While Transpersonal psychologies are related to the Eastern or Western indigenous epistemologies, Existential-Humanistic psychologies have a Freudian origin, coming through Freud and his descendents. While Transpersonal psychology is considered to be a "fourth force" in psychology, psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanistic psychologies are outside of the "transegoic" elements, ignoring insights from the world's contemplative traditions in both Eastern and Western religions. Labeled "Western," Existential and Humanistic psychologies are focused mainly on prepersonal and personal aspects of the psyche.
Existential and humanistic psychologies are based on the writings not only of Freud, but Kierkegaard, Nietzche, Heidigger, Sartre, Camus and other European intellectuals who had experienced European wars and chaos during the twentieth century. Important to them were…… [Read More]
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…… [Read More]
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the _humanistic__ theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of _self-actualization____ needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that _lower____ needs must be satisfied before ____higher____ needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is formative tendency.
The _actualizing tendency, according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered _shattered self-concept__.
7. Rogers believed that ____empathy____, ____unconditional positive regard____, and ____congruence____ are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
8. ____Intentionality____ is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
9. May proposed that __self-awareness____ is the freedom of action, whereas _essential freedom____ is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…… [Read More]
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…… [Read More]
Theory Management Organization Development
Theory and Management of Organization Development
I work for a medium-sized company that provides services to more than 500 clients. The company was founded by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company and has been in operation for more than a decade now. In particular, I work for the IT department of my organization as an IT/network administrator. In essence, my main task is to ensure that different devices across different departments in the organization are connected together to create networks that are not only fast, but also efficient. More so, I am accountable for maintaining the links and solving any issues that might come about with regard to computer networks.
One of the issues perceived within the job realm is compensation handed towards the employees within the IT department. It is imperative to point out that the IT department is well structured and fitted…… [Read More]
biological humanistic approaches personality. The paper cover areas. *Use Maslow's hierarchy discuss extent growth influence personality formation. *Describe biological factors influence formation personality.
Biological and humanistic approaches to personality:
An overview of the debate
Biological theories have become increasingly popular in the field of psychology, as scientists seek to understand the roots of human behavior. Several reasons are at the heart of this shift in emphasis from 'nurture' to 'nature': the first is our expanding knowledge of neuropsychology and how different components of the brain affect behavior. A change in the physical matter or the environment of the brain can result in a change in personality. The second is the expansion of psychopharmacology, whereby aspects of the human character once thought beyond conscious control, such as hyperactivity or a tendency towards melancholy, can be shifted when medications change the individual's brain chemistry. Finally, changes in behavior are evident at different…… [Read More]
Biological & Humanistic Approach to Personality
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs follows two distinct categories: deficiency motive, which include needs that must be fulfilled in order to move a person towards self-actualization (Burger, 2008). An example of deficiency needs would be basic needs like hunger or being safe. The second category is growth needs, which include a person progressing towards their unique potential, as well as giving love in an unselfish manner (Burger, 2008). For the purposes of this essay, growth needs will be discussed at length. The official hierarchy of needs follows a pyramid, with the bottom need being physiological needs like hunger and thirst; and up the pyramid with safety needs like protection or structure; belongingness and love needs like finding a mate or being close to someone; esteem needs like finding respect in ones work; and, lastly, the need for self-actualization, where a person fulfills their true…… [Read More]
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…… [Read More]
Dominant Learning Theories
Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.
Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…… [Read More]
media equation theory and its applications. The author of this paper uses the movie The Truman Show to develop an understanding for the reader of what the Media Equation Theory is and how it can be applied to media examples such as the movie. There were six sources used to complete this paper. The paper is in MLA format.
MEDIA THEORY IN PRACTICE
The technological explosion of the last three decades has taken us to places we never dreamed before were possible. ith each passing year, the technology becomes more linked to human thought and emotions than ever before. Today, there are studies being conducted worldwide to understand the phenomena of people treating their media tools in the same manner that their human interactions are treated. For several years, the habits and protocol of people who work with these questions have been narrowly defined by the rigid demands of research…… [Read More]
Imogene King's Attainment Theory
King's Attainment Theory
The thrust of Imogene King's theory of goal attainment is a loosely-coupled partnership between the nurse and the patient that enables communication about the patient's condition, their health goals, and a plan of action to achieve the patient's goals. The conceptual framework is based on systems theory -- and King employs the three classic systems in her representation of her theory: (1) the personal system, (2) the interpersonal, and (3) the social system. As the conceptual framework takes shape for the personal system of the individuals in the schema (Yonge, 2007), several constructs emerge: Body image, self, growth & development, perception, space, and time. As the conceptual framework moves to the interpersonal systems, the constructs take on a more integrated form: communication, interaction, transaction, time, and space. In the last component of the conceptual framework, the constructs of authority, status, power, decision-making, and…… [Read More]
Freud's Theory Of Repression
Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…… [Read More]
This is a more behavioral and associative concept, as it is believed that individuals work toward a certain goal for external rewards. This can be seen in every single job. People go to work because they get paid on a regular basis. Nothing is more motivational than knowing that after hours of work during a given period of time, one will receive a paycheck proving that everything was worth it. It is this that this theory says is the key motivator in a person. Another theory of motivation is the Humanistic Theory of Motivation. This theory goes hand in hand with Maslow's hierarchy of needs as it states that people are motivated based on the fact that people have strong cognitive reasons to do so (Latham 2006). In order to provide food and shelter, one needs to be motivated enough to go and seek it. These are biological necessities that…… [Read More]
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…… [Read More]
The Rogerian Model
This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).
This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…… [Read More]
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…… [Read More]
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…… [Read More]
The crime rates in the western countries started when the Europe experienced a growth rate, which was the time of the 19th century industrial era. During the period, there was an influx of immigration from different part of the world that led to the urbanization and growth of the cities. Moreover, different thoughts were emanated during the period such as romanticism, modern western industrialization, rationalization of enlightenment, and Darwin theory of evolution. The book, "The Humanistic Tradition," (Fiero, 2010 p 1) illustrates the emergence of different thoughts that include realism and romanticism of the 19th century (Fiero, 2010). However, different thoughts in the books are reflected in the film titled the Seven (1995). The chapter 27 of the books reveals the industrial progress of the 19th century, the idealistic thought, nature of European literature, and Asian literature. However, the crime rates was part of the major characteristics of…… [Read More]
Humanistic vs. Social-Cognitive Perspectives
This paper compares and contrasts the main themes of the social-cognitive perspective with the themes of the humanistic perspective. Both perspectives are reviewed and presented and the differences are made clear as well. The limitations of each perspective will also be presented.
The Humanistic Perspective
The authors of Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Counseling Issues (a book with no page numbers) explain that humanistic approaches to mental health used to dominate the profession of counseling -- and that humanism should not be "placed on a shelf in the intellectual museum of the profession" nor should it be seen as a "bygone trend" (Scholl, et al., 2013). And rather than putting humanism on the list of perspectives that have been "eclipsed" by newer trends in the field of psychology, the authors believe that humanism is "not just a theory or treatment orientation, but also a 'moral imperative'" (Scholl).…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches
Personality can be defined as the unique characteristics that various individuals possess. These characteristics differentiate individuals from others. In other words, personality can also be defined as a unique system of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that prevail over time and that is evident in various situations. Different psychologists have determined different approaches to study personality. Some psychologists try to examine various aspects of personality that an individual possesses, whereas, others try to understand why there are differences in the personalities of various individuals. (Morris et al., 2010)
Listed below are the two different approaches to personality;
Psychodynamic theories establish the thought that our personality is an outcome of inner psychological forces which are not under the control of our conscious mind. Psychodynamic approach basically studies the energy of our unconscious mind and it also explores how this energy…… [Read More]
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…… [Read More]
His assistance and support was both scientifically sound and, more importantly, spiritually supportive and extremely respectful of and responsive to my philosophical beliefs and my personal psychological orientation and inclination.
Based substantially on his valuable input, I made the decision to transfer my father to hospice. The hospice doctor also demonstrated carative nursing in his sensitive response to my sister's concerns that placing our father in hospice and directing that medical intervention efforts be withheld was tantamount to just allowing him to die prematurely. He explained to her the clinical significant objective scientific basis upon which it was clear that even the most aggressive medical intervention would be unable to prolong his life for more than a few weeks and that the relative value of those extra three weeks from his perspective were just not worth the amount of discomfort and confusion just to slightly prolong the same inevitable end…… [Read More]
The causes of human actions and behavior are generally sought for in the psyche of the individual or in the social environment.
Ewen obert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boeree C. ABAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. etrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. etrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html
Jantzen, Grace M.(2004) Death and the Displacement of Beauty. New York: outledge.
McKeachie W. And Doyle C. ( 1971) Psychology. New York: Addison-Wesley.
athna I. Ethics in the practice of clinical psychology. etrieved from http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/172ar69.html
oth. M. Conflict and Culture. etrieved from http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9810/freud.html
Strachey, James, ed. (1961) Civilization and Its Discontents. 1st ed. New York W.W. Norton.
The Final Struggle and Victory of Science - Pinel and Tuke. etrieved from http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/White/insanity/pinel.html
The Genetic Self. etrieved from http://www.trans4mind.com/transformation/transform7.1.htm
The Scope Of Psychology.…… [Read More]
Theories of Personality
This paper analyses the process of personality development in detail. It discusses how various genetic, environmental, cognitive, unconscious and socioculture factors affect the process of personality development in different individuals.
Theory of Personality
Personality can be defined as the sum total of all the characteristics that make an individual unique and different from other individuals. In order to analyze one's personality you do not necessarily need a psychologist to speculate and observe it. In our day-to-day dealings we refer to a large number of personality traits that various individuals possess. Different authors and playwrights usually use key figures and role models in their novels and plays to attract people. The word 'personality' is frequently used in day-to-day conversations nowadays. All of us develop our own theories of personality, each and every time we answer the question ' how is he or she like?'. There are five…… [Read More]
Humanistic and Technological Issues in Education
In education today, there are many humanistic and technological issues that must be addressed in order or students to receive the best possible education. Humanistic issues are concerned with educational opportunities that help students to better understand their personal development, to learn and use human relations skills, to assess humanistic issues in both personal and societal terms, and to establish goals for the future. Technological issues are concerned with students' evolution towards a knowledge society
Humanistic issues are best described as various educational theories and challenges that are committed to the humanism, human development, well-being, and dignity as the ultimate end of all human thought and action (orton, 1970). Many experts feel that education today can be a disrespectful and alienating experience for students and teachers.
Some of the most important humanistic issues in education are concerned with curriculum. Often, states ask educators…… [Read More]
PERSONALITY VS SITUATION
Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).
Existentialism vs. Humanism
Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…… [Read More]
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…… [Read More]
It may even be impossible to retroactively identify every influence on the development of personality. However, contemporary psychologists already understand the general patterns in which major areas of psychological influence exert themselves on the individual.
More often than not, more than one avenue of psychological inquiry is helpful. Personality development in the typical patient may have been primarily influenced by Freudian issues in infancy and subsequent specific experiences in middle childhood, and secondarily by a particular negative experience or period of conflict in the nuclear family. Therefore, in the practical sense, measuring personality development means retroactively identifying the conceptually recognized potential influences along the full spectrum of psychological approaches. y matching behavioral (and other outwardly observable) manifestations of personality formation to the identifiable potential influences, it is often possible to pinpoint the most likely route of origin for major observable elements of personality.
Toward a Cross-Culturally Appropriate Theory of Personality…… [Read More]
Carl Roger's Theory Of Personality Development
In Rogerian therapy the therapist enters into the client's "phenomenological world" and in mirroring this world the therapist does not disagree nor point out contradictions, nor delve into the unconscious (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).Therapy focuses on immediate conscious experience, a process of freeing a person by removing obstacles thus allowing normal growth and development to take place and thereby the client becomes independent and self-directed (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The therapist must be "congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding...and to be completely genuine," by communicating back to the client an understanding of feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The core tendency is to actualize one's inherent potentialities, although this potential exists in all living organisms, humans possess the additional form of self-actualization (http://oldsci.eiu.edu/psychology/Spencer/Rogers.html).According to Rogers, "of basic importance is the fact that one's inherent potentialities are genetically determined, while the self-concept…… [Read More]
But did she mean well sometimes? Or is she always so rude towards you?
Analysis: This example illustrates a long process in a short amount of space, but it helps to point out some aspects of oger's theory. According to ogers, such dialogue can be observed with nearly every client as generalizations are broken down to acute experiences (ogers, 1951). Such breakthroughs in the origins of the problem rely on a patient's freedom to fully express the self while the therapist provides guidance and acceptance (ogers, 1951). The therapist guides the client as the client comes to understand the reasons for his or her thoughts.
Client: I feel like I can't talk to you, that you have judged me guilty. This feeling sticks with me, I don't know what to do, but I don't like you.
Therapist: So you think I have put you up for trial and…… [Read More]
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…… [Read More]
This is the essence of Knowles' self-directed learning.
The last sentence of Stephen Brookfield's Chapter on "Adult Learning: An Overview" states "To understand adult learning we need to know it's connections of learning in childhood and adolescence and to the formation during these periods of interpretive filters, cognitive frames and cultural values."
Brookfield's assertion is somewhat at odds with Knowles concept of the difference between child and adult learning, although it is developmental in nature. One possible way of reconciling the difference between Brookfield and Knowles is to propose a stage theory of learning that shows progression from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, incorporating different theorist's ideas about the relationship between learner and teacher at different developmental, emotional, and experiential stages.
Stage 1: Childhood. Child is eager to learn but not certain of how to go about it. Learns to please self 'in the moment' of experience, but without…… [Read More]
psychological theories. It uses 3 sources and is in MLA format.
Psychologists have researched personality disorders and have formulated different theories presenting their own reasoning established via comprehensive research over a lifetime. I have attempted to draw similarities and contrasts between the psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud and social cognition theory of Carl ogers. They are both known figures in the field of psychoanalysis. Both the theories are logical and applicable in varied circumstances.
Personality disorders stem from the fact that personal satisfaction is not achieved due to the societal norms that humans have entrapped themselves in. Dissatisfaction creates conflicts and thus anxieties occur which cause personality disorders.
Sigmund Freud was a one of the most eminent psychologists of all times. Freud is termed as the father of psychoanalysis. His theory of psychoanalysis entails the conscious and the unconscious. The conscious is what we are aware of like one's…… [Read More]
Organizational Psychology - Motivation
Landy and Conte (2013) define industrial-organizational psychology as "the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting" (p. 7). A prominent line of research in industrial-organizational psychology is the study of worker motivation. Over many decades, as management theory has developed, several philosophical and psychological strands have emerged, and are often referred to as: 1) Person as machine; 2) person as scientist, and 3) person as intentional.
Person as Machine
Theory X managers are known to take "the carrot and the stick" approach to supervision since they believe that people work only for the monetary compensation, which means that coercion, threat, and punitive measures must be used to extract efficient workplace effort from employees. Manifestations of Theory X management include high levels of mistrust between employees and employers, and a tendency of management to blame workers for inefficiencies or mistakes rather than looking…… [Read More]
Nursing Concept Analysis: Caring
Caring is a concept central to nursing theory. Indeed, an esteemed constellation of nurses throughout history, including Nightingale, Watson, Henderson, and Benner, have integrated the concept of care into their theory and praxis. Caring has been considered a foundational element of nursing such that "compassion and therapeutic relationships" are viewed as essential "underpinnings" of nursing (Skillings, 2008). As with most disciplines, the complexities that accompany professional practice in contemporary settings can pose unanticipated challenges. The ethic of caring that is fundamental to nursing endures an onslaught of competing priorities, barriers to compassionate practice, and adaptations inherent to modern healthcare institutions (Skillings, 2008).
Most behaviors that the nursing discipline considers caring are readily recognized, such as "attentive listening, comforting, honest, patient, responsibility, providing information to the patient can make an informed decision, touch, sensitivity, respect, calling the patient by name" (Vance, 2003). Categorically, many nurse practitioners…… [Read More]
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]
Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.
Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…… [Read More]
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…… [Read More]
personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…… [Read More]
It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered…… [Read More]
Economics: Neoclassical, Keynesian, And Marxian Theories
Social theories attempt to explain how people interact with each other, and with their surroundings. For this reason, it is believed that social theories shape society, so much so that people will theorize elements in their surroundings based on their life situations and what they experience in their interactions. Towards this end, what one person thinks or believes about a certain aspect may not necessarily be what another person thinks; people hold different theories about how the economy works, and how it influences human interactions - and this is particularly why we have multiple economic theories today. Social theories are broadly categorized into three -- humanism, structuralism, and dialectics. These three have been applied to economic theory to explain how the various elements of the economy interact to realize maximum outcomes. This text demonstrates how the aforementioned social theories have been used to shape…… [Read More]
Maslow's work, specifically his hierarchy of needs theory that provided insight into basic human needs and a potential hierarchical structure of said needs. This is a great way to introduce Maslow's concept of self-actualization and helps the reader gain insight into the nature of the concept by addressing the background and theoretical framework. "The five needs that were originally enlisted were physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem and self-actualization. Maslow further expanded self-actualization into four needs, namely cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization, and self-transcendence" (D'Souza & Gurin, 2016, p. 210). Although the information is a great addition to the introduction, there is no real development of thesis.
Literally for the entire paragraph, it is more of a regurgitation of information on Maslow's humanistic approach to development. Some of the lines even sound very similar from textbook descriptions of his work. The authors only begin to lean more towards their own examination of…… [Read More]
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…… [Read More]
Nursing theory, research, and practice
Scenario in which theory, research, and practice interact to create good patient outcomes
Imogene King’s theory
Using the Imogene King’s theory to enhance Nurse-Patient Relationship
Enhanced Patient care
narrative explanation of your visual representation following the diagram.
Nursing theories have been developed as a way of trying to explain the fundamental importance of clinical practice (INSCOL, 2014). Even though these theories are used to guide practice, it is true to claim that most of them have not been put to the test as a way of determining whether the proposed nursing actions produce the claimed effects. If nursing asserts itself as the professional practice it is a professional practice environment must be supported and practiced. In order to enhance the outcome of patients and nursing staff then the professional nursing practice must be supported (INSCOL, 2014). There exist several nursing theories…… [Read More]
borrowed theory can be useful in understanding nursing problems and trials. This essay will broach the problem listed in previous submissions by applying a new theoretical model to the problem. This essay will use a borrowed theory from another discipline in order to measure its effectiveness and importance within the nursing and medical professions.
Problem Summary With Middle Theory
The original problem identified at my hospital saw the patient satisfaction scores becoming more and more poor, as the nursing and caring aspects of this practice on my ward has been in bad shape. A useful middle theory was applied to help understand this problem. Benner's learning theory was applied in this case to help understand how nurses may or may not learn new behaviors. These behaviors would take shape in new practices that would be enforced by new learning and new rules.
Benner's theory explained how professionals, such as nursing…… [Read More]
It is the desire of all managers to create an enabling workplace environment where employees are comfortable when completing the assigned tasks. This is possible with the use of various managerial theories like the integral and the organization theories. In management, integral theory as shown in this study promotes the establishment of an inclusive, embracing and non-marginalizing environment through social empowerment of employees. Ideally, it incorporates many perspectives and strategies within a coherent outlook on a certain topic. It is pertinent to affirm that the integral theory includes mechanisms that draw together existing paradigms in a network and strategies for empowering employees. Significantly, the theory joins insights from different human disciplines of knowledge like sociology, natural sciences, and arts and humanities. Moreover, the integral theory is very comprehensive because it includes all human disciplines (Shafritz, Ott, & Jang, 2015).
The frequent use and application of the integral theory…… [Read More]
graduate students in counseling programs to learn theories? Graduate students in counseling programs are required to learn counseling theories because of their significance in the profession. It's important for graduate students in such programs to learn counseling theories for a variety of reasons. First, theory is the essential framework and building block for counselors in training (Lofrisco, 2013). Without having a solid foundation and understanding of theory, students in counseling programs cannot succeed as effective counselors. Secondly, theory helps inexperienced counselors get understanding of the concepts they need to put into action by serving as a road map for the career. When a counselor sets goals for a client, he/she needs to have a justification for setting those goals. Third, counseling theories not only help novice counselors to become knowledgeable but also make professional counselors look impressive while carrying out their work.
2) What do you know about counseling and…… [Read More]
Multicultural Theories of Psychology
Multicultural Theories of Psychotherapy
Diagnosis, treatment and care of patient and their conditions are greatly influenced by cultural considerations. These actors determine beliefs and values related to health. Yet, these widespread claims about the real value of cultural role in healthcare do not come with sufficient research basis. Psychotherapists have, for a long time emphasized the need to provide multicultural psychotherapy so as to manage and reduce the ethnic and racial disparities in dealing with mental health issues. How multicultural competencies relate with other clinical process measures and treatment results has demonstrated heterogeneity it effect, though (Karen W. Tao & Jesse Owen, 2015). A famous quote by Slavoj Zizek on multi-culturalism deserves a mention here. "For the multiculturalist, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are prohibited, Italians and Irish get a little respect, blacks are good, native Americans are even better. The further away we go, the more they…… [Read More]
Certainly, rhetoric lends itself to the discovery of truth, as truth (Aristotle suggests) always makes more intuitive and intellectual sense compared to falsehood, and so equally talented rhetoricians will be more convincing sharing the truth than sharing falsehood. However, critics have pointed out that there is so "tension between Aristotle's epistemological optimism and his attempt to come to terms with rhetoric as a culturally and contextually specific social institution.... [as Aristotle says] scientific discourse is concerned with instruction, but in the case of [certain audiences] instruction is impossible; our proofs and arguments must rest on generally accepted principles... rhetoric [is] something separate from and inferior to scientific and ethical deliberation." (Haskins, 2004, 13-14)
Aristotle's historical effect on rhetoric and its continued fallout
It may seem self-evident that arguments today would be based as much on logic and the greater good than on past authority and religious dogma. However, such an…… [Read More]
Personal Theory Paper
Since mid-1970s, a serious matter for integration between Christianity and psychology developed among Christian counsellors. The integration movement developed as a result of reaction to psychology being accepted in the sector dealing with pastoral counseling where it did not face any criticism from the Christians’ point of view. The efforts for integrating psychology with Christianity developed more energy in the last twenty years since the time when Jay Adams refused to have psychology included in the pastoral care sector (Kim, 2004). Attempting to create an integration in psychology with Christian faith is a tedious experience as a result of the different approaches of the two academic disciplines.
According to Alan C. Tjeltveit (2012), the daunting questions that come as a result of taking psychology as well as Christian faith in a serious manner have to be dealt with. The queries that come from the sectors in…… [Read More]
Teaching Philosophy, Teaching Style
I teach in such a way that students can gain the tools and experience to help them successfully contribute to the world today. In that respect, my teaching philosophy is based on empowering students so that they are equipped to both have aspirations and fulfill them in a way that is socially productive. Subsequently, one of the fundamental characteristics of my teaching philosophy is to encourage students, and provide the sort of nurturing and positive reinforcement that fosters confidence and enables them to firstly believe in themselves and in their own abilities. Thus, there is a definite aspect of care and care ethics that actuates the way I teach. This principle is well aligned with my belief in positive reinforcement as one of the fundamental ways of bolstering the learning prowess of students through techniques such as constructive criticism. Additionally, I also attempt to teach in…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory
Psychodynamic & Humanistic Theory
A seminal study on the personality trait differences of therapists practicing with different theoretical orientations is an interesting place to begin this compare and contrast discussion. Tremblay, et al. (1986) administered the Personality Orientation Inventory to 90 male and 90 female psychotherapists who self-designated and were equally distributed in groups designated as behavioral (BEH), psychodynamic (PSY), and humanistic (HUM). Interestingly, the study suggested that a core therapist personality exists and that further distinction can be achieved through consideration of the patterns of personality that were associated with theoretical orientation. The caveat was that the patterns associated with theoretical orientations were characterized more by overlapping traits than unique traits. Of the three theoretical categories, the HUM group exhibited the most unique traits: they were more flexible, more accepting of personal aggression and expressing feelings in action, and differed in their development of intimate…… [Read More]
Person: Single mom, who lost custody over her children, has sex with multiple male partners, asks for money afterwards, and denies that she is prostitute because she doesn't charge money up front. The mother is hypercritical and unloving and her father has been an absent figure in her life. Her stepfather abused her.
Cognitive self-regulation theory, fashioned by Bandura, believes that human behavior is motivated and regulated by the influence that one has over the self. This self-influence works through three key mechanisms: monitoring one's behavior, causes of one's behavior, and the effects of that behavior; judging one's behavior in contrast to personal standards; and regulating the feelings / moods (affect) of one's conduct / behavior. Higher goals lead to enhanced behavior and this results in a certain mindset. Self-regulation is continuous and never-ending. And is also effectuated by self-reinforcement that result in self-efficacy. It is intentional and…… [Read More]