Illegal Drugs Essays Examples

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Illegal Drug Use Implications

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72701892

Drugs and Behavior

What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage?

Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition as stated in the session II review is as follows: "any substance taken into the body that alters the function or structure of the body organs ... that changes body state or mental function." But this definition might not only apply to the substances that we would normally consider to be a "drug," but also to substances like chocolate. For example, chocolate has properties that have been shown to change body state and mental function by making a user feel happier for example. Furthermore, drugs can also be naturally occurring substances such as marijuana or mushrooms and thus cannot be further classified in regards to being synthetic substances. There are also countless useful drugs that significantly improve an individual's well-being. Thus the divisions between food and drugs, or good and bad drugs, are not as obvious as one might initially suspect.

The primary factors that make a drug a "bad" drug generally involve problematic behaviors and/or damages to the body that can result from their use. Many drugs are only illegal…… [Read More]

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Illegal Drug Use Among Military

Words: 1051 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50241765



The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a higher priority than is currently the case. With stronger prevention programs, and if commanding officers are more willing to put troops who have failed drug tests into those programs, more soldiers can see their drug use curtailed.

The second method is related to the first -- prevention programs. If stress in its various forms is a major cause of illegal drug use among soldiers, then there needs to be more awareness of the issue in the military community, and more help available to soldiers before they start using. Training for all members of the military community would allow for the creation of an informal support grid for soldiers experiencing stress. Programs that give soldiers a place to turn to when they feel like using will also help them to deal with their issues in a more effective manner.

The third method is punishment. In the Army, even soldiers who have failed numerous drug tests are not processed for possible discharge. This creates a cultural climate where drug use is effectively permitted.…… [Read More]

Sources:
Gilmore, G. (2011). DoD urinalysis test (drug test). About.com. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from  http://usmilitary.about.com/od/theorderlyroom/l/bldrugtests2.htm 

Jacobson, I.; Ryan, M.; Hooper, T.; Smith, T.; Amoroso, P.; Boyko, E.; Gackstetter, G.; Wells, T. & Bell, N. (2008). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 300 (6) 663-675.
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Drug Legalization as the Country

Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89122943



"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()

Socio-economic effects

Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other minority drugs Debusmann ()

Many drug cartels have taken advantage of the limited resources of the nations in terms of having low taxation levels in the Central American countries which had been credited with weakening the response of the region towards drug traffickers. 2010 tax revenue statistics show that El…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.

Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
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Drug Abuse Individuals Who Use Drugs Have

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50946773

Drug Abuse

Individuals who use drugs have difficulties defeating their addiction and often are pulled back into a reoccurring cycle. The euphoria a person experiences through the use of certain drugs causes the individual to continue their use in order to maintain their excited state. Eventually through continued use a person can develop a tolerance, which can cause increase use to substitute the effect.

Illegal Drugs

The most common illegal drugs on the market include marihuana, heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine. They are considered illegal due to the fact that they are acquired through illegal practices by drug dealers and sold at highly expensive rates. Due to the high cost to obtain these drugs, many addicts go to grave lengths to get their daily dose. Individuals will engage in sexual activity and even steal from family members in order to purchase these highly addicted drugs. People high on meth or heroins loose their sense of judgment and can act in a way not recognizable to their family and friends, they also tend to make irrational decisions that can haunt them forever. Increased sexual activity among addicts can lead to many sexual related diseases, such as AIDS and HIV. According to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Drug Abuse is Costly . (n.d.). National Insitute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 15, 2012, from archives.drugabuse.gov/about/welcome/aboutdrugabuse/magnitude/

Drug Addiction Treatment. (n.d.). How Does Addiction Affect the Family. Retrieved April 15,
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Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, Rodriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and its psychological and physiological effects mirror the drug's inherent properties.

To understand the physiology of drug addiction, one must first recognize that all drugs are chemical compounds. Each drug is composed of various chemical properties that react to receptors within the brain, stimulate biochemical processes, and the individual then experiences…… [Read More]

References:
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Drug Tests and Government Benefits Recently There

Words: 1556 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29027268

Drug Tests and Government Benefits

Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as welfare: drug testing. People who are applying for benefits like welfare or unemployment would have to be tested for illegal drugs (Alcindor, 2012). If they were found to use drugs, they could be denied benefits. This would seen to make sense, because those who are out of work and needing government assistance should not be spending the money they do receive on illegal drugs or other nefarious activities. However, the American taxpayers are concerned about where the money for the drug tests will come from, and the federal government is already stating that states which pass this drug testing law for benefits will be in violation of federal law. That means these states could lose out on millions of dollars of benefits. Would that be more harmful than the idea that some government benefit recipients may be using drugs instead of spending their benefit money wisely? That is a question that can be difficult to answer and can vary between states.

There are two main issues at stake here. These…… [Read More]

Sources:
Adams, Brooke. (26 March 2012). Guv signs off on welfare recipient drug-screening program. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved from  http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/politics/53795131-90/cash-continue-drug-guv.html.csp 

Alcindor, Yamiche (29 February 2012). States consider drug testing welfare recipients. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012-02-17/welfare-food-stamps-drug-testing-laws/53306804/1
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Drug Law Reform Pro According to the

Words: 402 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26420633

Drug Law Reform (Pro)

According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.

Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:

C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites. However, indicators suggest that crack use has decreased as powder cocaine has become more available in [certain areas].

So what has this policy really accomplished if drug use is both up and down, depending on the type of drug, the area in question, the help available to addicts seeking treatment,…… [Read More]

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Drug Wars a Thin Bloody Line Borders

Words: 2167 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41282951

Drug Wars

A Thin, Bloody Line

Borders are artificial lines. Even when they follow natural divisions such as rivers or mountain ranges, borders are still artificial. They are imaginary lines that different governments (or other official groups of people) have decided marks the place on the earth where the authority and power of one group ends and the power and authority of the next group begins.

Borders are in general a good idea because they tend to reduce the overall amount of violence in the world by dividing potential combatants into different regions. The fact that wars are a constant in human society demonstrates that borders are too porous to stop all violence. But borders that were absolutely closed would prevent all trade, which would be catastrophic. The United States and Mexico do not want an end to trade. The governments want an end to trade in illegal drugs (or at least a dramatic reduction in this trade) and thus a dramatic reduction in terms of the accompanying violence.

While it is also the case that while borders tend to separate people who might otherwise take up arms against each other, it is also the case that those who live…… [Read More]

Resources:
Aguilar, Gardenia. El narco se expande en Mexico. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=937be705b8bb9a53102ce6df63c36ec1. 2007, May 10.

Associated Press. A Look at Major Drug-Producing Countries.  http://www.newsvine.com/_news/2008/02/29/1335526-a-look-at-major-drug-producing-countries . 2008, Feb. 29.
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Drug Crime Does Research Evidence Suggest That

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45481255

Drug Crime

Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?

While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).

Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent shift in public policy. There has been a pattern of "normalization" associated with illicit drug use of most types (South 2007, p. 815). The normalization of drug use suggests that a criminological policy is failing to inject the type of normative change needed to prevent drug problems. Instead, criminological policies…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Drug Trafficking in the United States

Words: 2465 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76747395

Drug Trafficking

In The United States

drug trafficking in the united states

"Drag trafficking is an activity that involves the importation, manufacturing, cultivation, distribution, and/or sale of illicit drags.

In this hierarchical system, narcotics are moved from smugglers, growers, or manufacturers to wholesalers who pass the product down through the chain of distribution to retailers and eventually to the consumer or drug user"

(Desroches, 2007, ¶ 1).

Despite the problems inherent in drug abuse promoted by drug trafficking from Mexico and other countries as well as by individuals living in America, United States (U.S.) consumers continue to spend billions of dollars each year on illegal drugs. Producing and supplying illegal drugs currently comprises a massive global business venture expected to continue to grow; negatively impacting the way a person's mind and body works. Drug trafficking portrays the supply side of the drug trade. In the book, Drug trafficking. What if we do nothing?, Harris (2009) explains that in the U.S., drug trafficking constitutes illegal trading of drugs, while on an international scale; it simultaneously depicts a criminal activity. Drug traffickers cater to, albeit, at the same time exploit problem drug users. The United Nations defined drug users as "people who…… [Read More]

Sources:
Cooke, M. (2010). Tales from the DEA: Project deliverance or project folly?

The American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.aclu-wa.org/blog/tales-dea-project-deliverance-or-project-folly
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Drug Legalization of Drugs Legalization

Words: 3087 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44577201

Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.

From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are for nonviolent drug offences with forty percent being for marijuana related possession and use (Millhorn et al., 2009). The United States rate of imprisonment for drug related offenses exceeds the rates of the majority or Western European nations for all crimes. This is of significant concern since most drug related…… [Read More]

References:
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.

Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
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Drug Alcohol Abuse Drug and Alcohol

Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76887406

Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)

Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the problem through imbibing a value system within the students and motivating them to be noble citizens and make contribution to the society by engagement in better careers. The role of mass media is also important for abstinence of drug and alcohol abuse through awareness generation regarding its evil effects. (the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.

Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
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Drug Addiction and Crime Over

Words: 2728 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12717062

(Cussen, 2006, pp. 39 -- 48)

The Role of the Church, Family, Community and Nonprofits

Like what was stated previously, our focus will be on those organizations that are through: the church, family, community and various nonprofits. The basic idea here is to have each one of these groups effectively reach out to various addicts and offer them a way of effectively dealing with their addiction. This is significant because, this kind of basic approach has been used consistently throughout the course of human history to address these kinds of problems. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than a direct reference from 1 Corinthians 10:13 with it saying, "No temptation has overtaken you that is not common to man. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tempted beyond your ability, but with the temptation he will also provide the way of escape, that you may be able to endure it." ("The Holy Bible," 2007) As a result, the change in policy that we are advocating is intelligently dealing with these issues, while remaining in line with some of the basic ideas of the Judeo Christian philosophy. This giving these organizations the chance to…… [Read More]

References:
About Us. (2011). West Care. Retrieved from: http://www.westcare.com/

Drug and Alcohol Addiction. (2011). Live Baptist Church. Retrieved from: http://olivebaptist.org/Addiction/
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Drug Education

Words: 3833 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1213854

Drug Education

The DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on T-shirts and bumper stickers (1).

Is D.A.R.E. Effective?

If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any other solitary drug education program. In addition to that, D.A.R.E. is even increasing a compelling existence on the Internet, as more and more individuals and D.A.R.E. executives and officials are putting up web pages, encouraging and advancing their local agendas (2).

On the other hand, if the evaluation and measurement…… [Read More]

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Drug Laws Changes in Drug

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42977176

Therefore, a closer look at what is needed is in order.

Needed Changes, Stakeholders and Barriers to Change

The decades that followed Rockefeller and Felony Offender made it clear that these laws were in dire need of change for a variety of reasons. Perhaps most importantly among the reasons for a need for change was the fact that many of those in need of recovery from drug addiction were instead being locked away in prison, burdening the justice system, breaking up families and torturing people with a definite disease. On the other side of the argument, however, barriers to change in these policies was led by staunch conservatives who, not realizing the many facets of drug addiction, were too fast to dismiss addicts as criminals who were only getting what some felt they deserved (nysda.org). In reality, however, there are effective solutions to the debate.

Effective Solutions to the Debate simple relaxation of drug laws and lighter sentences for minor drug offenses is not the only part of the solution equation. In addition, drug abusers need to receive rehabilitation services to help them to free themselves from the prison of drug abuse, and therefore the literal prison that previously awaited…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Current Developments in the Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nysda.org/Hot_Topics/Rockefeller_Drug_Laws/rockefeller_drug_laws.html

The Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.drugpolicy.org/statebystate/newyork/rockefellerd/index.cfm
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Drug Enforcement Administration DEA in

Words: 1132 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94911591

The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).

As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a competent jurisdiction. The organizations and the members are also involved in the growth, manufacturing or distribution of the illicit substances which are destined to be trafficked in United States ("DEA Mission Statement").

DEA investigates and prepares the prosecution of violators of controlled substances laws that might be operating interstate or…… [Read More]

Resources:
DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml

DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml
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Drug Free Workplace in Favor

Words: 2623 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15910707

What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.

Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to the reliability and validity of testing technologies. Specific testing technologies are more adept at capturing the traces of different drugs relative to others yet all abide by the requirements of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) according to document published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998) which…… [Read More]

References:
Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.

Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
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Drug Usage the Use Drugs

Words: 4084 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41436016

Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).

Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).

In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the risk of an individual vulnerability of addiction to the Class A drug (James 2006). Researchers tested 700 cocaine users and 850 non-users in Brazil, where use of crack and cocaine is widespread, and found that individuals (some 30%) who had a particular variant of a gene called the Dopamine Transporter…… [Read More]

Sources:
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Drug Enforcement Strategies There Are

Words: 2653 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22350168

In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.

The efforts to target youth with drug education in the War on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning to allocate between 1998 and 2003 for reducing youth drug use. (McCaffrey 1998)

In some cities, such as Syracuse, New York, the proportion of resources dedicated to drug enforcement has been criticized by the city's auditor, who noted in his report to the mayor that drug-related arrests "exceeded arrests for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm

Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006  http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content 
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Drug Culture and Horror

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81557495

Drug culture at Temple U

Transitioning from high school to college may be shocking to some individuals, but as they begin to get more comfortable with their environment, classes, and fellow students, one may realize that there are many similarities that carry over from their previous academic environment. One social structure that carries over from high school to college are the formation of social groups and cliques. The groups are usually formed because the individuals have common interests -- curricular or extracurricular -- or they are in the same academic program or share classes. Some social groups are also formed based on a shared interest in drugs. While drug use is not something that is openly discussed on campus, nor are drugs consumed openly, there is still evidence that supports the argument that students sometimes engage in recreational drug use.

One of the more widely accepted illegal drugs is marijuana. While the drug is not consumed publically, there are signs that allow individuals to pick out who smokes and who does not. While it is difficult to pinpoint drug use on campus during school hours, there is evidence that suggests individuals support the drug's use and the culture that surrounds…… [Read More]

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Drug Testing in High School

Words: 1700 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57471040

Drug-testing in schools has been shown to reduce the use of drugs as well as reduce other negative activities and occurrences known to be associated with drug use among students. There are critical components of a drug testing program and this study has related those components and the appropriateness of their use in a school drug testing program.

Bibliography

Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D. And O'Malley, Patrick M. (2003) Relationships Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies. J. Sch Health, 2003;73(4): 159-164.

Judy Kreamer, Gary M. Fields, Ph.D., et al., titled "The Overlooked Cause of Children Being Left Behind: Drug Use Compromising Academic Success," published by Educating Voices, Inc., 2008

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, "Academic Performance and Substance Use among Students Aged 12 to 17: 2002, 2003, and 2004." The NSDUH Report, Issue 18, May 2006

Student Drug Testing Coalition (2008) Reports and Resources. Online available at http://www.studentdrugtesting.org.

Klauke, Amy and Hadderman, Margaret (1990) Drug Testing. ERIC Digest Series Number…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D. And O'Malley, Patrick M. (2003) Relationships Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies. J. Sch Health, 2003;73(4): 159-164.

Judy Kreamer, Gary M. Fields, Ph.D., et al., titled "The Overlooked Cause of Children Being Left Behind: Drug Use Compromising Academic Success," published by Educating Voices, Inc., 2008
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Drug Abuse and Prostitution Researchers

Words: 2001 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64002153

This despite how much money is being wasted on "the war on drugs." Making "war" militarily on a medical/social problem makes no sense. In addition to the psychological problems of individuals, social conditions contribute greatly to the problem. People who are alienated from society become addicted to drugs, as Sen. Robert Kennedy pointed out back in 1965. Solving the drug problem means "solving poverty and broken homes, racial discrimination and inadequate education, slums and unemployment" (cited in Goldberg, 2005 p. 11), not to mention child abuse. Instead, we treat prostitutes as though they were scum. A New York study has shown that the police, the courts, and their clients (johns) routinely mistreat them in a manner that violates civil liberties and human rights. This is "mirrored at the judicial level, where sex workers bear the brunt of the criminal justice system while johns usually get off relatively lightly" (Facts about prostitution web site).

Until the complex, hard-core social problems are addressed in a meaningful way, drug use will continue to be a problem. Drug use is a symptom of societal sickness, and making "war" on a symptom without addressing the disease itself is useless, expensive, and makes everything worse. Sanho…… [Read More]

Sources:
America's drug abuse profile web site. Retrieved 23 April 2007 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/htm/chapter2.htm.

Facts about prostution web site. Sex Workers and Civil Rights. Retrieved 22 April 2007 from  http://www.rapeis.org/activism/prostitution/sexworkerscivilrights.htm 
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Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51559037

Drug and alcohol abuse is a serious problem among many young people for a variety of reasons. First, statistics show that drugs and alcohol are being abused by a large segment of the teen and young adult population, which can greatly increase their likelihood of a premature death. Secondly, many things can happen to young adults that do not lead to death, but can ruin their lives. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse can have a serious impact on relationships with friends and family.

According to the National Drug Statistics Summary, approximately 14 million Americans used illegal drugs in 2000. Among the teenagers interviewed for the survey, nearly ten percent had used drugs in the month before the interview. The findings for alcohol abuse were even higher. Nearly half of Americans over the age of twelve reported that they drank alcoholic beverages. This is a serious issue. First, the drugs in themselves can cause serious ill effects to the body. For example, Amphetamines increase the heart rate and can cause hallucinations and paranoia after extended usage. Cocaine can cause a person to stop breathing or experience heart failure Marijuana is as hard on the lungs as cigarettes and can cause paranoia…… [Read More]

References:
Hafetz, David. Jacqueline and Amadeo: Chasing Hope. Austin American Statesman. 2002 May. February 13, 2010. < http://www.helpjacqui.com/pdf/jacqui.pdf>

National Drug Statistics Summary. Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base. 2007. February 13, 2010.
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Drug Policies Major Policies History

Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8012701

14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).

By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).

Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). The Manufacturing Act created a system of licensing manufacturers and quotas for classes of drugs. In 1961, the United States became one of fifty-four nations to participate in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which aimed to modernize and coordinate global narcotic control.

In the 1970s two more laws were…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
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Drug Screening Is Used More

Words: 3363 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39455260



In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.

Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use drugs. Drug testing is only one part of this effort as employers want to know more about the people they hire, including using background checks, fitness checks, and drug screening. This can be onerous for employees, or potential employees, when the different services are offered by a number of vendors…… [Read More]

References:
Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.

Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.
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Drug Information Consult Is Adderall

Words: 938 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84049801

"The increased dopamine flow in the frontal cortex then allows the brain to carry on its executive functions as a normal brain would, thus counteracting the effects of ADHD" (3).

Treatment of ADHD: Even for individuals with the illness for whom Adderall is most commonly prescribed,

"The effectiveness of ADDERALL® for long-term use has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials," in a longitudinal fashion and is usually a part of a holistic treatment for the child or adult, combining behavior management and counseling as well as drug therapy (6). Adderall is not prescribed to individuals who merely wish to use it to get an 'edge' on studying. "The use of Adderall by those who are not prescribed is illegal across the United States. The Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances said that it is regulated under federal laws and the possession of non-prescribed Adderall can result in imprisonment and fines. Those convicted for selling or giving away Adderall can also face imprisonment and fines up to $2 million." (7).

CONCLUSION: "Once you study with Adderall, studying under normal circumstances by comparison (is harder to do)," said one user (8). The drug is classified as a Schedule II drug according…… [Read More]

Sources:
6. Adderall. RX list. http://www.rxlist.com/adderall-drug.htm Accessed on December 11, 2010.

7. Gallagher, K. Adderall abuse rises nationally as study tool: Illicit use reaches crammers at GU. The Hoya. http://www.thehoya.com/news/adderall-abuse-rises-nationally-as-study-tool / December 11, 2010.

8. Nurko, Andrea. Students turn to study drugs to improve grades, concentration. The Hatchet. April 19, 2004. http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2004/04/19/Style/Students.Turn.To.Study.Drugs.To.Improve.Grades.Concentration-664366.shtml Accessed on December 11, 2010.
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Drug and Alcohol the Effects

Words: 2365 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79848069

And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).

One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).

The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and drug addiction treatment and rehabilitation over a period of time.

Figure 3.

(Source: http://www.nida.nih.gov/EconomicCosts/Chapter1a.gif)

Figure 4.

( Source: http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/ndcs00/chap2_10.html)

It is clear from the above graphs and charts that billions of dollars are lost every year because of absenteeism and lost earning from both drug and alcohol addiction.

4. Conclusion…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Allen J. ( 2006) Drugs a Factor in Many Sexual Assaults, Study Says. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/501383/drugs_a_factor_in_many_sexual_assaults_study_says/ 

Bennet W. (1999) the Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York: Broadway
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Drug Trafficking & Insurgent Terrorists

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89207413

" Drug trafficking began to finance and impact the politics in Colombia during the time to an unprecedented degree. (Schmid, 2005) as a way to stifle their political adversaries' revenue stream and fight against them, the FARC began trafficking drugs as well. Researchers see the increase of laboratories in the country as evidence to the link between FARC and drug trafficking. The FARC claims publically to not be involved in the drug trade. Any information or physical evidence that could be used to prove their direct involvement is lacking and circumstantial, in the opinions of those who both support and fight against the FARC. (Schmid, 2005)

This group and others like it have changed the game in terms of counterterrorism. Since groups like the FARC began successfully drug trafficking while still conducting terrorist activities, government agencies and other counterterrorist groups have developed a theory of the "narco-guerrilla" and "narcoterrorism." (Schmid, 2005) These are terms that imply the link and the robust, though nefarious, relationship between illegal drug trade and terrorism.

I think that it is quite obvious that terrorist groups would be involved in drug trafficking, even groups that begin outside of the drug trade. Terrorist groups, no matter what…… [Read More]

Resources:
Makarenko, T. (2004). The Crime-Terror Continuum: Tracing the Interplay between Transnational Organised Crime and Terrorism. Global Crime, 6(1), 129 -- 145.

Schmid, a. (2005). Links Between Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: A Case of Narco-Terrorism? International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, January, 27, 1 -- 14.
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Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64185510

Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral Values and Moral Panics

A disinterested alien observer who came down to the planet Earth and saw the difference in how legal drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes were treated under the law when compared to illegal drugs would be hard pressed to explain the differential treatment. After all, alcohol and cigarettes cause or contribute to far more deaths, injuries, health problems, and social problems than illegal drugs. In fact, some illegal drugs, such as cannabis, are relatively free of side-effects when compared to those two legal substances. Furthermore, even some of the highly villianized hard drugs, such as heroin, are considered less addictive than nicotine. Therefore, it is difficult to understand why some substances are illegal and others are not. The reasons are not scientific or social; therefore, one must look at the history of drug policy in the Western world and how that has led to the creation of a drug policy that is based on value judgments about the types of people who do certain drugs rather than the real-life impact of the use or abuse of certain drugs when compared to other substances.

In order to understand why drugs…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Drug Testing Without the Consent

Words: 1704 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39053176

Thus, the hospital went against its own purpose of successfully treating all patients. By ignoring alcoholic addiction, they showed their main concern was illicit drugs, rather than treating all patients with addiction problems effectively.

In conclusion, drug testing pregnant women is not the problem in itself. What happens to those drug tests is the real problem. When women's tests are handed over to other authorities without their knowledge, it violates the Fourth Amendment. Reason and ethics play a part in our daily lives. However, law and the Constitution must reign over simple reason. While most Americans are reasonable and ethical, there are some who are not, and who must be governed by stricter laws. Drug testing pregnant women should continue. However, the results of their tests should remain confidential. If they do not, the implications for many other government interventions into Americans private lives are completely clear.

References

Bloom, Robert M. Searches, Seizures, and Warrants: A Reference Guide to the United States Constitution. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Colb, Sherry F. "What Is a Search? Two Conceptual Flaws in Fourth Amendment Doctrine and Some Hints of a Remedy." Stanford Law Review 55.1 (2002): 119+.

Roubister, Vida. "Drug Tests of Non-consenting Pregnant…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bloom, Robert M. Searches, Seizures, and Warrants: A Reference Guide to the United States Constitution. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Colb, Sherry F. "What Is a Search? Two Conceptual Flaws in Fourth Amendment Doctrine and Some Hints of a Remedy." Stanford Law Review 55.1 (2002): 119+.
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Drugs Legal Drug Prohibition Causes More Problems

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2553211

Drugs Legal

Drug Prohibition Causes More Problems Than it Solves

This is a paper on drug prohibition and its disadvantages. It has 1 source.

During Prohibition, Americans discovered that making popular substances unlawful cause more problems than it solves. Like alcohol and tobacco, drugs should be legal in this country as most of the problems related to drug use arise from the fact that they are illegal and hence more tempting.

Imagine this: Your fifteen-year-old son is going out to a fast food store, suddenly two gangs start shooting at each other, your son gets shot and dies in a cross fire.

The government of the United States spends more than $18 billion of tax payer's money on the drug war. The increased expenditure finances the Drug Enforcement Agency, Office of National Drug Control Policy and is used to build a new prison every week. Add to this the financial cost of lawyers, judges, police officers and prison guards. Moreover property seizers, road blocks and wire taps are commonly used in the drug enforcement process. You pay heavy taxes, your phones are tapped and your son is dead, all because drugs are illegal.

Illegal drug trafficking has created a complex…… [Read More]

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Drug Abused Pregnant With Fetus

Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69338994

Substance Abuse Upon a Fetus

Women's Issues

The Effects of Substance Abuse upon a Fetus

The Effects of Substance Abuse upon a Fetus

The ideas and consensus regarding what is appropriate behavior for pregnant women has changed in the world over the course of modern history, and specifically over the course of the past few decades. It is commonly held in modern countries around the world that substance abuse of any kind of drug is harmful and to be avoided during pregnancy. The fetus within the womb and the mother are connected in innumerable ways during pregnancy. This is why it is often said that what happens to the mother during pregnancy, also happens to the fetus. If the mother experiences stress during pregnancy, the fetus experiences stress, too. If the mother is high on cocaine throughout pregnancy, the fetus will ingest cocaine as well, in several ways, but primarily through the umbilical cord. There is little use in denying that abusing drugs during pregnancy will affect the fetus. At this stage in life, the fetus will be affected detrimentally. It is true that illicit substances can hurt the body with little and long-term use, but the affects of drug…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bondi, P. (2013). Statewide Task Force on Prescription Drug Abuse & Newborns. Florida State Attorney General, Web, Available from:  http://myfloridalegal.com/webfiles.nsf/WF/RMAS-94LJPF/$file/Statewide_Task_Force_on_Prescription_Drug_Abuse_and_Newborns_Final_Report.pdf . 2013 May 19.

Chasnoff, I.J., Burns, K.A., & Burns, W.J. (1987). Cocaine use in pregnancy: Perinatal morbidity and mortality. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 9(4), 291-293.
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Drug Use Among Teenagers

Words: 1572 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17843360

Rise of Illicit Drug Use Amongst Teenagers

According to recent surveys, there has been a rise in the use of illicit drugs amongst teenagers. One particular drug that has seen a steady increase in use is Ecstasy, while in other studies researchers have seen drugs become more available in a variety of markets, like the Internet, in order to cover a wider area for distribution.

Teenagers have been a prime source for these Internet-dealers, and while certain drugs have seen a drop in their use, it is only because they have been replaced by more illicit and easier to obtain drugs. Contrary to popular belief, teenage drug use is on the rise, and appears to only be heading on the up and up.

In a study conducted last year by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, out of 44,000 students, "the proportions of eighth-, 10th-, and 12th-graders who reported having ever taken ecstasy in 2001 were five, eight, and 12%, respectively"(Ecstasy Usage, 2002). Ecstasy is also known as MDMA, or methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It is a stimulant drug often taken for its hallucinogenic effects and initially became popular during the 'rave' scene during the mid-90s that gained more popularity towards…… [Read More]

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Drug King Pin Pablo Escobar The Writer

Words: 2125 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76853582

drug king pin, Pablo Escobar. The writer examines the life of Escobar and the role he played in the criminal justice system as well as how organized crime may be different had Pablo Escobar not existed. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

The war on drugs is a worldwide effort. Drug pins and drug lords are constantly being sought out as the central factors of the drug deals that end up on the streets and the effort to curb those deals lead to a search for the king pin at the heart of the operation. One of the most notorious drug king pins in the world was Pablo Escobar. Escobar was well-known for his role in the worldwide effort to manufacture, distribute and profit from the sale of illegal drugs. Escobar was so immersed in the world of drug dealing that there was an international focus on the capture and prosecution of Escobar. Escobar died a decade ago but his name lives on in history as one of the most influential and notorious drug deal kingpins in history.

When Pablo Escobar went down in a hail of bullets a decade ago the news was received as a…… [Read More]

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Drug Abuse Scenario Analysis

Words: 1958 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41487760

drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the whole of the United States. Alcohol is quickly eliminated from the body so it is important to measure the driver's BAC immediately after he is stopped (FindLaw, n.d). Frank's BAC level was recorded at 0.18 meaning that alcohol greatly affected his judgment, alertness and motor skills.

Unlikely DUI substances

Steroids…… [Read More]

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Legal Response to Drugs

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9481766

Drugs

Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more lives than the drugs themselves, too. The United States boasts the world's highest rate of incarceration, with the bulk of offenders actually being innocent of everything but wanting to get high. It is unethical to continue the war on drugs, and yet it continues to be an integral part of…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html
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Compare Drug Policy Between the U S and Netherlands

Words: 2726 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52701418

Drug Policies of the United States and the Netherlands

Virtually every country in the world has drug prohibition and criminalizes the production and sale of cannabis, cocaine, and opiates, except for medical uses, and most countries criminalize the production and sale of other psychoactive substances, and moreover, most countries criminalize simple possession of small amounts of the prohibited substances (Levine 2002). However, no Western country and few Third World countries have or have ever had forms of drug prohibition as criminalized and punitive as the United States (Levine 2002). Beginning in the early 1990's, drug policies in Europe, Canada, Australia and elsewhere began to shift away from criminalization of drugs, and no where has the pendulum swayed more than in the Netherlands (Levine 2002).

The United States' drug policy is the best example of criminalized drug prohibition that uses criminal laws, police, and imprisonment to punish people who use specific psychoactive substances, even in minute quantities, and in most places prohibits supervised medical use of cannabis by terminally ill cancer and AIDS patients (Levine 2002). Moreover, long prison sentences for possession, use, and small-scale distribution of illegal drugs are given under U.S. drug policies, and most U.S. drug laws explicitly…… [Read More]

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Signs and Treatment of Drug Overdose a Comparison of Heroin and Ecstasy

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4199194

Drug Overdoes

Ecstasy vs. Heroin overdoses -- treatment and diagnosis

For many EMTs, depending on the city and time they are stationed in, one of the most common problems they will have to cope with is dealing with a drug overdose. However, although all drug overdoses are dangerous, not all illegal drug overdoses are the same, symptomatically or in their treatment. A great deal of misinformation exists regarding drug overdoses and their treatment in popular culture -- even the popular film "Pulp Fiction" which depicts a 'successful' treatment of snorted heroin is in fact inaccurate -- ephedrine to the heart would not have saved a victim of a heroin overdose in real life. (Kuhn, 2003)

When dealing with any suspected drug overdose, the first thing to determine is in fact the victim's symptoms are indeed due to the ingestion of a drug, rather than of alternate cause. This is especially important to note with drugs such as heroin and ecstasy, both of which are sometimes fatal within as short a span of two to four hours, even for some hardened addicts whom have had a 'break' from the drug for whatever reason for a few weeks. Once the cause of…… [Read More]

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Have Stiff Drug Laws Helped or Hurt the Criminal Justice System

Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4814440

Drug Laws

The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal

As a major policy issue in the United States, the War on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the War on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove that stiffer drug laws will only have the impact of criminalizing countless drug addicts who might otherwise benefit substantially from rehabilitation and other treatment-based strategies. With a specific focus on the prohibition of marijuana, the research will set out to distinguish between those states that employ laws of prohibition and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.
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Legalizing Drugs

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62692066

Drug Legalization

This week, Columbian drug smugglers surgically opened six Labrador retriever and Rottweiler puppies and stuffed packets of heroin inside their bellies. Countless human beings have willingly stuck packages of illegal substances into any available bodily orifice or swallowed unknown quantities only to pass them out later. These instances indicate the grimly extreme lengths drug smugglers are willing to go in order to circumvent American drug prohibition laws. Drug trafficking is one of the world's most dangerous businesses; trafficking is intimately connected to crimes ranging from theft to murder to terrorism. In an article in Canadian paper the National Post, Ted Carpenter notes that both leftist and rightist paramilitary groups have "been financed largely by that country's cocaine trade." Carpenter continues to state, "The harsh reality is that terrorist groups have been enriched by prohibitionist drug policies that drive up drug costs ... What anti-drug crusaders refuse to acknowledge ... is that the connection between drug trafficking and terrorism is the direct result of making drugs illegal." An end to the drug prohibition is crucial. Key parallels can be drawn between drug prohibition and the now seemingly ridiculous alcohol prohibition movement in the early twentieth century: "The same type…… [Read More]

Resources:
Carpenter, Ted Galen. (4 Jan 2005). "Drug Prohibition is a terrorist's best friend." National Post.

'Heroine found hidden in puppies' bellies." (5 Jan 2005). MSNBC.com. < http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791103/>.
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Drugs and Alcohol Effects on College

Words: 2431 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64011369

Drugs and Alcohol Effects on College / Campuses

Current Literature On Drugs And Alcohol On College Campuses

Drugs and Alcohol Effects on College Campuses

The number of college students using the drug and alcohol in the United States of America has been on the increase. Binge drinking is the way most students in these colleges take alcohol. College students are a visible group where alcohol and drug abuse have become a common place. Effects of alcohol on college students cause social, legal, and academic problems. Students, on the other hand, engage in risky sex behaviors and other physical activities that might even result to death. Studies indicate that approximately four out of five college students in the United States abuse alcohol. About 1700 college students aged an estimate between 18-24-year die unintentionally because of alcohol and drug abuse. Most of these deaths are a result of motor vehicle accidents or injuries from assault (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002).

Alcohol and drug abuse in colleges is associated with rape. About 97000 students in United States experience rape episodes in colleges. Victims of rape in colleges are mostly associated with alcohol, drug abuse and in other cases date rape. A majority of college…… [Read More]

References:
Mohler-Kuo, M., Dowdall, G.W., Wechsler, H., & Koss, M. P (2004). Correlation of rape while intoxicated a national sample of college women. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs,

65(1), 37.
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Drugs and Addiction

Words: 1116 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18518565

Drugs and Addiction

Prolonged drug use produces compulsive seeking of the drugs. Drugs affect the functioning of the brains' functioning, and that has behavioral implications on the drug addict. Drug addiction leads to chronic relapses, which may lead a person to face problems of disconnection. Prescription drugs are becoming the most abused drug types regardless of the negative influences they produce to the lives and behavior of users. University students in America adapt to illegal use of prescription drugs like Adderall, piracetam and modafinil in search of increased intelligence.

The controversy behind the use of drugs like Adderall is based on the ethical influence on others with relation to effects its use has on addicts. The controversy behind Adderall use comes from the fact that it helps users in enhancing their concentration, while at the same time; it produces negative characteristics on users. As this paper discusses the addictive use of drugs, the focus is on the use of Adderall as an enhancement drug, and how it should be treated focusing on moral aspects of drug use on others. There is also going to be a focus on the essence of relating Adderall use to healthy eating, which is encouraged…… [Read More]

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Drug Culture Final the Second

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88370120

Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.

On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods, can be considered to be a postmodern horror film that parodies horror films, in general. In Cabin in the Woods, drug use, particularly marijuana, is exaggerated and simultaneously used to comment on society's perceptions of drug use and users. Additionally, commentary on the formulaic structure of horror films, and the…… [Read More]