Illegal Drugs in U.S. Annotated Bibliography Annotate Annotated Bibliography

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Illegal Drugs in U.S.

Annotated Bibliography

Annotate Bibliography on Illegal Drug Laws and Issues in the U.S.

Annotate Bibliography on Illegal Drug Laws and Issues in the U.S.

This work will develop a concept that is associated with the history of illegal drugs in the United States and briefly touches on the issue of how the laws surrounding illegal drugs have changed in the United States over the years. The work will be comprised of a brief annotated bibliography which will explore through credible sources, books and journal articles the issue of illegal drugs and their evolution as the impetus for the so called modern "war on drugs" that commenced in the 1980s and continues today with foundational consequences for the incarceration rates in the U.S. And that has far reaching social implications stemming from it. The work will take the form of an alphabetical rather than topical bibliography and each entry will include a works cited entry in APA format, a brief summary of the source, an evaluation of the article credibility, and close with a brief discussion of the sources significance for the review.

Andreas, P. (1995). Free market reform and drug market prohibition: U.S. policies at cross-purposes in Latin America. Third World Quarterly, 16(1), 75. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This work discusses how the free trade movement associated with Latin America is bifocal, looking first at an attempt to develop free market trade between the U.S. And Latin American nations while simultaneously attempting to control and reduce illegal drug trade from Latin America into the U.S. The article stresses that the illegal drug market, viewed as a law enforcement issue, in Latin America is inextricable of the legal trade opportunities viewed as a market issues making U.S. policy contradictory and difficult to navigate. The hope of U.S. policy is to bolster private sector legal trade options to support a decrease in illegal market economic options, but this is clearly an unrealistic goal as the illegal market in drugs is an integral and accepted aspect of the legitimate market and leading market force in many Latin American nations, in the private sector.

The credibility of this work is unquestionable, though it is dated the climate of the illegal vs. legal markets in Latin American nations has changed very little since 1995 and there is clear evidence that continued utilization of contradictory policy has not helped curb the illegal drug trade into the U.S.

This work demonstrates a global view of the illegal drug trade through an economic perspective that is essential for this review as it shows that the problem of illegal drugs entrance into the U.S. has broader economic and theoretical implications, beyond a law enforcement perspective.

Ben B., T., Deputy, D., & Office of National Drug Control, P. (July 22, 2010). Alternatives to incarceration. FDCH Congressional Testimony, Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This work is a congressional testimony of alternatives to drug crime incarceration by the Deputy Director of the Office of National Drug Control. This speech offered by the DD of the ONDC is demonstrative of the belated national recognition of the limited resources of the U.S. with regard to continuing to incarcerate drug offenders as criminal rather than treating drug use and offences as a social and medical problem not in small part to the lack of sustainability associated with present incarceration trends, which are ever increasing in numbers and which offer little if any rehabilitative services to help combat recidivism.

The credibility of the information is unquestionable as Ben is in a position to be fully aware of the scope and scale in incarceration as well as the limitations it has upon rehabilitative services and its overall lack of sustainability and its source as a major impetus for further rather than lesser social and societal ills.

This work is important for this review as it demonstrates that U.S. officials are finally willing to look at alternatives to incarceration for drug crime, in light of the cost of drug related incarceration and the limitations incarceration has on reforming "criminals" who often return to the same challenged drug laden social networks that they were removed from when they were incarcerated, without treatment or other rehabilitative services.

Kerrigan, M. (2003). In the war zone. in, War against drugs (p. 9). Mason Crest Publishers. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Kerrigan in the full length book, War Against Drugs, provides insight into the key issues associated with the U.S. effort to reduce illegal drug trade in the U.S. The work discusses the connection between illegal drug use and other forms of criminality and how much the drug trade is costing the U.S. The work stresses the need for greater collaboration between agencies for drug enforcement activities.

This book is informative and credible it predates the financial crises which has forced the U.S. To take a hard look at incarceration rates and the costs of continuing to focus on illegal drug trade and the criminality that surrounds it.

To some degree this work is important, for this review, with regard to its point-of-view, as it shows the "tough on crime" mentality that created the "war on drugs" and the impetus for criminality of illegal drug use and distribution.

Lager, J.M. (2010). Overcoming cultures of compliance to reduce corruption and achieve ethics in government. McGeorge Law Review, 41(1), 63-83. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article discusses many various ethical scandals associated with public office in the U.S., noting the internal complacency for U.S. Department of Interior officials use of illegal drugs. Stressing the need to regulate and create oversight for government level conduct. Though the work looks at other issues of corruption the illegal drug discussion is insightful.

This work is clearly credible as it demonstrates timely examples of government level corruption that is contrary to the "war on drugs" and tough on crime mentality, as pervasive even of the government.

The work demonstrates the insidiousness of illegal drugs, in the sense that it gives an example of how acceptance of certain behaviors in government officials does not coincide with an all out war on drugs against the public and private sector. The work is important for this review because it makes a point about how social acceptance of drug use behaviors is growing in the public and private sector and how the "war on drugs" has failed and will likely continue to fail.

McNeece, C. (2003). After the war on drugs is over: Implications for social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 39(2), 193. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article discusses the implications of the war on drugs for social work education and how the manner in which the "war" was conducted and is being conducted creates greater need in social work. The work stresses that policy and law changes should not develop plans for legalization but that incarceration is also not the answer as it does not break the cycle of use or community level need for social work interventions and in fact may increase them.

This work is a credible example of a comprehensive discussion of the social implications associated with the war on drugs.

The work is important to the review as it demonstrates a more holistic approach, to drug crime realties that include the community level issues and how social work and social work training could be a part of recovery from the war on drugs.

Peter, W., Representative, & United, States Senate. (Dec 5, 2008). Solutions to drug-related crime. FDCH Congressional Testimony, Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Discussion in congress, by congressman Peter regarding the need for collaborative law enforcement solutions to combating illegal drug trade and illegal drug activities for community safety. According to Peter the failures of the so called war on drugs are seated in a lack of interagency and community collaboration and communication.

This work is not necessarily credible as it is an example of an opinion no matter how informed of the community level threat that in and of itself spurned the war on drugs.

The work is important as it is an example of the "tough on crime" mentality that is, even today pervasive in the mentality of political officials who have increasingly become the new authorities, primary to law enforcement experts, on the nature of crime and community threat and as the source of laws that reflect fear rather than reality with regard to drug and other crime.

Roy, S. (2007). Are illegal drugs inferior goods in the U.S. . Atlantic Economic Journal, 35(3), 303. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Roy discusses the role that illegal drugs play in the economy in the U.S. The researcher looks at the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and discovers significant income inferiority between those who use drugs and those who do not. Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, evidence of income inferiority in illegal drug consumption is presented. The study then attempts to statistically account for or level the disparity, and is only able to do so to a point. The…

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