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Immigration at Different Times
Immigration in early 1800's and today
Immigration has not been ever so easier for people residing across the globe. People have to obey the immigration policies made by countries. This study would give sound coverage to all issues faced by people in northern cities in the early 1800s era. Hence, issues with immigration in past would be compared with current issues to immigration. Millions of immigrants expiated to northern cities to find quality living standards. Northern cities reserve a very important place on the entire continent for providing opportunities to people. The ratio of immigrants from United Kingdom was found little higher than other countries. Northern cities have become so diverse. This was probably the reason besides huge influx of immigrants in northern cities.
Immigration a huge issue northern cities early 1800s
Huge influx of immigrants had started moving to get settled in northern cities. Economic…
Tolany, S. E. 'African-Americans and immigrants in northern cities: the effects of relative group size on occupational standings in 1820' 2011, university of Washington publication, vol.1, pp.121-189.
Hynes, G.E. PhD. 'The migration of negroes into northern cities; Executive sectary of the national league on urban conditions among negroes' 2000, vol. 1, pp.494-497.
Tolnay, S.E. 'African-Americans and immigrants in northern cities: The effects of relative group size on occupational standing' 2001,vol. 80, no.2, pp. 573-604.
Master Planners: Faculty Development Article
This article was very interesting in terms of technology and its usefulness within large organizations. The public tends to think of technology as a means of saving money in market characterized by budget cuts and government defaults. However, upon reading this article, technology is not as efficient as many pundits believe it to be. First, as the article indicates, there is a steep learning curve in regards to the utilization of the technology. This is especially true in university settings as professors are apprehensive about using technology to begin with. These professors are often unfamiliar with the technology altogether, or they simply refuse to use it. This creates complications as students are hindered by the professor's inability to use technology effectively. Furthermore, due the high turnover rates in technology related products, organizations constantly have to alter their usage. These organizations may have many incompatible…
1) Ewing, Walter A. Border Insecurity: U.S. Border-Enforcement Policies and National Security, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Spring 2006.
2) Freeman, Joe. Living and Working in the European Union for Non-EU Nationals. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 0-9786254-0-4
3) Immigration Policy Center. Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, November 2005.
4) Karakayali, Nedim. 2005. "Duality and Diversity in the Lives of Immigrant Children: Rethinking the 'Problem of Second Generation' in Light of Immigrant Autobiographies," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 325 -- 344.
A myth may be described as a false set of beliefs that people form in order to justify a form of social institution or social construct. The immigration myths revolve around the people that settle in from one country or part of the world to another. There are some common misconceptions in the society that pass justifications of how and why immigration may be a strain on a society and affect the region they migrate to. Some of these immigration myths are highlighted below:
The immigrants do not pay their taxes
According to the Cato Institute, many people believe that the immigrants in any country live in the country without paying any taxes. They think that because they are not the permanent residents of the country, they can get away without being charged with any taxes (Chiswick, 1992). This however, is not true. It is the duty of…
Chiswick, Barry. Review of Immigration, Trade and Labor Market. Journal of Economic
Literature. (1992): 212-213.
Filer, Randell. The impact of immigrant arrivals on the local labor market equilibrium for native workers. Immigration and the workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas. 1992.
Hamermesh, Daniel. Help or Hindrance. Economic Implications of Immigration for African Americas. 1998.
Immigration in France
A greater percentage of the 3 million Muslims who live in France are of North West Africa origin. Such statistics is owed to the events of the First World War that saw soldiers from Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia sent to fight along side French fighters (Laroui, 1970). Algeria sent at least 173-000 men to the World War I many of whom lost their lives. Of the 56,000 soldiers that Tunisia sent, 12,000 never returned to their native Tunisia (Seljuq, 1997). Moroccan soldiers were charged with the responsibility of defending Paris at the height of the First World War. Other than the troops, the Maghreb also provided France with relief and manpower to replace French personnel who were engaged in the military. By 1919, almost 119,000 Algerian youths had taken up jobs in French factories. Moroccan workers started trickling to Bordeaux as early as 1916. By 1980, 25%…
Borjas, G.J. (1994). The Economics of Immigration. Journal of Economic Literature,
Combes, P., Decreuse, B., Laouenan, M. & Trannoy, A. (2010). Discrimination against African
Immigrants in France: Spatial Mismatch at the National Level. Journal of Economic
Immigration in the United States
In the United States, there is a general believe that education attainment is correlated with high income. People with the college graduate diploma earns a higher income than less educated American population. More importantly, education has become significantly linked with another outcome in life that includes life expectancy and ability to get married or taking care of children. Despite the benefits associated with college education, the gap between the more educated and less educated people in the United States is becoming wider. (Greenstone, and Looney, 1). The outcome of the investigation carried out by the Hamilton Project with reference to the impact of education on people's well-being shows that education is the major determinants of securing the high paying jobs. Typically, less educated American earn a small percentage of what high educated people earn. Typically, more than 80% of school dropouts earn less than $30,000…
Aud, Susan. Fox, Ann Mary and Kewalramani, Angelina. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups. National Center for Education Statistics.2010.
Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N. Lopez (2011-07-21). "K-12 Educational Outcomes of Immigrant Youth." The Future of Children. 21 (1): 129 -- 152
Census Bureau. "Nation's Foreign-Born Population Nears 37 Million." Press Release. U.S. Census Bureau. 2010.
Greenstone, Michael, and Looney, Adam. The Importance of Education: An Economics View. Education Week. 2012.
Although Kirch points out that migrants could initially be protected from such non-communicable diseases, such an advantage could be short-lived. It is also important to note that most migrants (especially those seeking to escape harsh conditions back home) could be forced to do menial jobs to make ends meet. This is more so the case for those who do not possess a specific set of skills which could enhance their chances of being employed. In the words of Kirch, "migrants who do physical work have a higher risk of injury and health sequelae leading to early retirement than the majority population of an industrialized country" (925). Thus in the final analysis, migrants could end up being worse off then they were before migrating. This significantly weakens the view that the U.S. serves as a safe haven for all immigrants.
It should also be noted that immigration does promote the spread…
Describe U.S. Immigration policies within a historical framework.
The current policies of the United States toward immigration are much different when compared to the historical strategies of the country. As: work was bountiful, immigrants were entering the nation in droves, and the availability of jobs was suited to employ the masses of people. The reason why is because historically, immigration was encouraged. This is because, it was considered to a part of building of a new country which required: many hands and individuals from different classes in society.
The earliest immigrants were either characterized as being from: Northern European countries or they were Africans, who were forcefully sent to the nation as slaves. This is because of the promise of better financial circumstances led many to relocate to America (in effort to seek out these opportunities). While this persisted for those emigrating from their places of birth, the…
Androff, D. (2011) U.S. Immigration Policy and Immigrant Children's Well-
Being: The Impact of Policy Shifts. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. 10 (5).
Benton, K. (2010). The Rude Birth Immigration Reform. Wilson Quarterly. 34 (3).
Hester, T. (2010). Protection not Punishment: Legislative and Judicial Formation of U.S.
Immigration and the Presidential Election
United States immigration reform is one of the most controversial issues in this presidential election and represent significant policy gap between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, the Democrat and epublican presidential candidates respectively. Based on their proposals, Trump and Clinton have taken opposite sides in the quest to implement immigration reforms if elected president. While these candidates favor secure borders as a crucial component for U.S. growth and stability, they differ on how they would address major immigrant issues. The candidates' proposals are radical and have attracted considerable criticism in which Trump's proposals are seen as un-American whereas Clinton's proposals are regarded as undermining immigration policies (Liu, 2016).
The key perspective of Trump's immigration reform platform is anti-immigrant in view of his proposals. If elected president, Trump would create a new deportation taskforce that will help identify criminals and remove immigration violators from the country…
Kesley, A. (2016, September 1). Trump vs. Clinton: Comparing Their Stances on Immigration Reform. ABC News. Retrieved October 12, 2016, from http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/trump-clinton-comparing-stances-immigration-reform/story?id=41799971
Liu, L. (2016, September 25). Here's Where Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump Stand on Immigration. Business Insider. Retrieved October 12, 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/hillary-clinton-and-donald-trump-immigration-2016-9
Sarlin, B. & Seitz-Wald, A. (2016, September 2). Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton Are Universes Apart on Immigration. NBC News. Retrieved October 12, 2016, from http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/donald-trump-hillary-clinton-are-universes-apart-immigration-n641686
Valverde, M. (2016, July 15). Compare the Candidates: Clinton vs. Trump on Immigration. Retrieved October 12, 2016, from http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2016/jul/15/compare-candidates-clinton-vs.-trump-immigration/
In recent years the issue of immigration has sparked a great deal of discussion. Although America is a nation of immigrants, there is also a deep-rooted belief that people should immigrate to America through the proper legal mechanisms. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate how the agency that governs immigration in the nited States functions in its role. The research will focus on several facets of immigration including street level or local bureaucracy and the policies that are enforced as it pertains to teachers, police and other law enforcement personnel, social workers, judges, public lawyers and other public servants/services. The investigation will also examine problems facing such as budget restraints and how they deal with them. There will also be some attention paid to how officials deal in situations too complex to fit into programs, and human dimensions. The research will explore the differences between street level…
USCIS Strategic Plan: Securing America's Promise." Retrieved March 25 from; http://www.uscis.gov/files/article/USCISSTRATEGICPLAN.pdf
USCIS Offices. http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis / menuitem.5af9bb95919f35e66f614176543f6d1a/?vgnextoid=476fcf021c599110V gnVCM1000004718190aRCRD&vgnextchannel=2af29c7755cb9010VgnVCM10 000045f3d6a1RCRD
USCIS Transformation: Improvements to Performance, Human Capital, and Information Technology Management Needed as Modernization Proceeds. Retrieved March 25 from; http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-07-1013R
" U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services Website. 2006. Office of Homeland Security. 24 Jul. 2006 http://www.uscis.gov/graphics/shared/statistics/yearbook/2005/table07.xls.
Office of Immigration Statistics. "Legal Permanent Resident low by Type and Major Class of Admission: iscal Years 1996 to 2005." U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services Website. 2006. Office of Homeland Security. 24 Jul. 2006 http://www.uscis.gov/graphics/shared/statistics/yearbook/2005/table06.xls.
Office of Immigration Statistics. "Legal Permanent Resident low by Region and Country of Birth: iscal Years 1996 to 2005." U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services Website. 2006. Office of Homeland Security. 24 Jul. 2006 http://www.uscis.gov/graphics/shared/statistics/yearbook/2005/table03.xls.
Office of Immigration Statistics. "Legal Permanent Resident low by State of Residence: iscal
Years 1996 to 2005." U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services Website. 2006. Office of Homeland Security. 24 Jul. 2006 http://www.uscis.gov/graphics/shared/statistics/yearbook/2005/table04.xls.
Office of Immigration Statistics. "Legal Permanent Resident low by Type and Major Class of Admission: iscal Years 1996 to 2005." U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services Website. 2006. Office of Homeland Security. 24 Jul.…
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. "Immigrant Assimilation: Is the U.S. Still a Melting Pot?"
Southwest Economy. 2004. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. 24 Jul. 2006 http://www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/2004/swe0403a.html .
Country Studies. "Immigration." Germany. 2005. Countrystudies. 24 Jul. 2006 http://countrystudies.us/germany/89.htm .
Immigration and Asylum Policy in the EU
The formation of the European Union was a feat, unprecedented in modern history. This agreement represented feat of political cooperation never before accomplished in the history of the world. Under this agreement, local governments were able to combine forces and operate on a Regional level. Prior to the formation of the EU, Europe consisted of many different countries and these countries were rich in tradition and individual culture. The formation of the EU caused many, often-conflicting cultures, to lay their differences aside and enter into a spirit of cooperation. There were many issues to be resolves, such as market equality. All countries in the EU were not on an equal economic scale. Some were large and powerful, industrialized and economically stable. Others were developing countries and in order to enter into the marketplace and compete on an equal scale, they had to be…
Counter Summit in Tampere (Finland) Against EU's Immigration Policy. Internet Discussion Board. Antti Rautiainen on Thu, 2 Sep 1999-20:49:12 +0200 (CEST).
A online] http://www.nettime.org/Lists-Archives/nettime-l-9909/msg00011.html . Accessed February, 2003.
European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE). "EU asylum, migration and immigration legislation and policy under development." [online] http://www.ecre.org/eu_developments/eu_docs.shtml Accessed February, 2003.
EU Immigration Policy." March 1997. 4(3). [online]
Immigration and Health Policies in the 20th Century
Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" (Lazarus 1998)
hen you think of people struck by unbelievable hardships and misery, it might not be so hard to believe that a part of their soul dies with each passing day. But one should know that even if you experience the worst imaginable disaster and survive, there still exists a small light of hope in your mind. ithout this light, it would be impossible to live on. So in a corner of every human being's mind, especially of those who came to leave their countries during the 20th-century, there existed a hope of something better - something new and permanent.
Their hope was to wake up…
Fuchs, L. "Immigration Policy." Encyclopedia of the United States Congress, edited by Donald
C. Bacon, Rogher H. Davidson, and Morton Keller, vol. 2, pp.1093-1101. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Lazarus, E. "Untitled" from The New Colossus (July 1998).
Magnusson, L. "Introduction - A People of Hope" (2001). 29 November 2003. http://library.thinkquest/26786/introduction/intro
This changed in the 1970s and 80s, when many nations closed their borders to immigrants and Italy became popular as a temporary and permanent stop for many immigrants (Caritas 2002).
This created many of the same problems that the United States faces, including a large number of illegal immigrants entering and/or remaining in the country as well as the economic burden of vastly increased numbers of people -- legal and otherwise -- dependent on state services and competing for the available jobs, which are not always plentiful in the country (Caritas 2002; BBC 2009). Current immigration policy consists of regionally-distributed work visas, with permanent immigration to the country far more difficult to achieve (BBC 2009). In fact, the laws regarding illegal immigration have also become much harsher in recent years in response to the growing national threat that the large immigrant numbers are seen to constitute, with Italian citizens facing…
BBC. (2009). "Italy's immigrants despair at new laws." BBC News. Accessed 15 November 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8170187.stm
Caritas, Z. (2002). "Immigration in Italy." Accessed 15 November 2010. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Gbcsut1UO_IJ:www.joensuu.fi/tkk/projektit/koli/files/esit01.rtf+immigration+in+italy&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari
Columbia. (2007). "Italy: History." Highbeam Research. Accessed 15 November 2010. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0858953.html
Spartacus. (2010). "U.S. Immigration." Accessed 15 November 2010. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAimmigration.htm
Yet the power shift on Capitol Hill -- away from the most vocal advocates of erecting more fencing and making illegal entry a felony -- doesn't ensure that Congress will create a new path to citizenship for the approximately 12 million residents with no legal right to be in the United States." (Edsall, 2007) From this point-of-view it is important that the groups involved in the process to be well aware of their possibilities related to the influence over the political circles.
There are several interest groups concerning the issue of immigration. On the one hand, there are the trade unions and on the other hand there is the government. The trade unions argue for the rights of the workers to remain in the country. In this sense, especially immigrants from Mexico have a proper place in the way in which immigration policy is conducted. They organize manifestations, protests, riots,…
Associated Press. (2008). "Immigration." Polling Report. Accessed 13 May 2008, at http://pollingreport.com/immigration.htm
Barlett, D. & J. Steele. (2004) "Who Left the Door Open?" Time. Accessed 13 May 2008, at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,695827-1,00.html
Edsall, T. (2007) "Immigration - Border Politics." National Journal Magazine. Accessed 13 May 2008, at http://www.nationaljournal.com/njmagazine/nj_20070210_6.php-related=true&story1=nj_20070210_6&story2=nj_20060715_4&story3=h_20070702_28
FAIR. (2007) "How Many Illegal Aliens?" Federation for American Immigration Reform. Accessed 13 May 2008, at http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=iic_immigrationissuecentersb8ca#_edn3
america.gov. In the Eastern Hemisphere 170,000 immigrants were allowed in; in the estern Hemisphere 120,000 immigrants were welcomed in, Daniels continues. The law did limit the number of immigrants from "any nation" to 20,000 per year. As for "refugees" the law permitted only 6% of the total number of immigrants to be those considered refugees (Daniels reports that the 6% amounted to about 17,400 visas).
Between 1966 and 2000 about 22.8 million immigrants entered the U.S., and "the bulk" of those twenty-two million were "family members of recent immigrants" (called "chain migration") (Daniels). According to the Center for Immigration Studies the law (technically called "The Hart-Celler Act of 1965") "for the first time" gave a higher priority to "relatives of American citizens and permanent resident aliens than to applicants with special job skills" (www.cis.org).
Some of those preferences included: a) unmarried adult sons and daughters of U.S. citizens; b) members…
Center for Immigration Studies. (1995). Three Decades of Mass Immigration: The Legacy of The 1965 Immigration Act. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2009, from http://www.cis.org/articles/1995/back395.html .
Daniels, Roger. (2008). The Immigration Act of 1965: Intended and Unintended Consequences
Of the 20th Century. America.gov. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2009, from http://www.america.gov/st/educ-english/2008/april/20080423214226eaifas0.9637982.html .
History Matters. (2008). Who Was Shut Out?: Immigration Quotas, 1925-1927. Retrieved
For that reason alone, it is imperative that illegal immigrants entering the United States who are apprehended and found to be infectious receive treatment before deportation. However, this question of the health risks posed by illegal immigration has only served to heighten the tensions in the border communities, and cause Americans to be more cognizant of the ethnicity of the illegal immigrants.
So far, in review, the key issues Americans have about immigration are: illegal immigrants vs. legal ones; healthcare, because of the illegal immigrant rate of contagious diseases. This is in support of the thesis of the statement here, but socialism, because Americans believe socialism is the theoretical opposite of capitalism; and religion if the religious group is not willing to conform to the American law and tradition of an all encompassing religious society have not yet been discussed with the supporting peer reviewed expertise that is…
Brooks, James F., ed. Confounding the Color Line: The Indian-Black Experience in North America. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2002. Questia. 7 Apr. 2009
Immigration: The Creation and Destruction of America's Most Momentous Decision
Immigration has always been a part of American history. The decision to let foreigners into the country is perhaps one of the most momentous of American decisions, as both the benefits and drawbacks of this issue become apparent. Immigrants come to the country both legally and illegally. The impact of this has been both destructive and constructive in terms of the economy, the environment and the culture of the United States as a whole.
Firstly, the initial benefit of immigrating to the United States was experienced by the immigrants themselves. They left their home countries in order to flee disasters such as crop failures, job and land shortages, and several forms of persecution, including political and religious. America, especially during the seventeenth to early twentieth centuries, was seen as the land of ultimate freedom and opportunity. Thus any person who…
Beck, Roy. "Immigration to the United States." March 11, 1996. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/beck.html
Defreitas, G. Inequality at work: hispanics in the U.S. labor force. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
DinAlt, Jason. "The Environmental Impact of Immigration into the United States." Carrying Capacity Network Focus, Vol. 4 No. 2. 1997. http://www.carryingcapacity.org/DinAlt.htm
Huntington, Samuel P. Who are we?: the challenges to America's national identity. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.
Heterogeneity and a vibrant multiethnic ambiance characterize urban life in America. For the past several hundred years, the population of the United States has been bolstered by people migrating from abroad: from Europe at first, and later, from countries from the far corners of the world. According to Nancy Kleniewski in her article "Immigrants and the City," at least 22 million current residents of the United States are immigrants (p. 152). In addition to augmenting the cultural fabric of the United States, immigrants are also "having a profound impact on the economics, politics, and culture of the United States," (Kleniewski p. 152). Kleniewski assesses the contemporary conditions of immigrant populations in the United States, noting especially why immigrants tend to settle predominantly in urban areas. For instance, Kleniewski notes that 93% of all immigrants in the United States live in urban centers. Choosing urban centers is not necessarily based…
Kleniewski, Nancy. "Immigrants and the City." Cities, Change, and Conflict.
Historian Oscar Handlin once wrote, "I thought to write a history of immigrants in America. Then I discovered that the immigrants were American history." Indeed, no other country in the world can claim to being a "nation of nations," and to having the same diversity of nationalities and ethnicities.
This diversity has always been a source of national pride but it has been a source of friction as well.
The United States has traditionally been regarded as a "melting pot," where people of various ethnicities and nationalities immigrate and assimilate into the American way of life. However, a growing number of immigrant groups defy these expectations and hold on to many aspects of their traditional values, such as religion and language. Recent policies regarding immigration now embody this trend towards a plurality of cultures, or multiculturalism.
This paper compares the "melting pot" and multiculturalism approach to immigration. The first…
Glazer, Nathan. We Are All Multiculturalists Now. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
Glazer, Nathan and Daniel Patrick Moynihan. Beyond the Melting Pot. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1963,
Hurh, Won Moo. The Korean-Americans. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Kimlicka, Will. "American Multiculturalism in the International Arena." Dissent, Fall 1998: 73-79.
The main concern that Americans have regarding the massive influx of immigrants in their border states is that their jobs will be taken. All the rumors concerning Americans being fired so that lower-paid immigrants could take their place don't really have a firm basis, as they are just stories based on misconceptions and suppositions. The reality is different, and it proves that there is no reason for harsh measures to be taken concerning legal immigrants coming into the country.
Illegal immigration doesn't even seem to have a dramatic effect on wages, with pay for unskilled work in Arizona regularly exceeding the minimum wage.
Unskilled workers currently make up to thirty percent of Arizona's labor workforce, and they are constantly in demand. (Judis, John B. pp. 6)
Because of various purposes, some people choose to enter the U.S. illegally. As they don't have all the benefits that legal immigrants have, they…
"Illegal immigrants risk their lives to better themselves." (the Economist) Every year thousands of people die in their attempts to pass borders illegally. Most of them would rather lose their lives than to return to the poverty which they left behind.
Immigrants themselves are not guilty for their acts. They are guilty for wanting to escape the poverty from their countries. Globalization has proved to be effective when concerning immigrants, with conditions in several third-world countries having bettered. As a result, lesser people have been inclined to leave the respective countries.
"Keep out," the Economist, Jan. 3rd, 2008.
Immigration has always been an important part of America’s heritage. Its towns and cities are full of different cultures and peoples from around the world, pointing to the many different types of people who came to America seeking opportunity and a new home over the centuries. The early Spanish and French missionaries came in the 16th century seeking converts to Christianity. The Puritans and English followed. The Germans and Italians and Irish and Polish all came to America in the wake of Industrialization. Over time, America was host to so many different populations and groups of people that it was referred to as the melting pot in 1909 (Higgins). However, America’s approach to immigration has changed over the years—especially in the wake of 9/11. Indeed, the world seems very different from out the shadow of the fallen Twin Towers. That horrific tragedy altered the American consciousness, led to…
Dobuzinskis, Alex. “Illegal Immigrant Acquitted of Murder in San Francisco, Trump
Slams Verdict.” Reuters, 30 Nov. 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-california-crime-immigrant/illegal-immigrant-acquitted-of-murder-in-san-francisco-trump-slams-verdict-idUSKBN1DV3CR
Hasson, Peter. “Soros Transfers $8 Billion to His Open Society Foundations.” Daily
Caller, 17 Oct. 2017. http://dailycaller.com/2017/10/17/soros-transfers-18-billion-to-his-open-society-foundations/
Higgins, Julia. “The Rise and Fall of the American ‘Melting Pot’.” Wilson Quarterly, 5
Dec. 2015. https://wilsonquarterly.com/stories/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-american-melting-pot/
Vallejo, Jody. Barrios to Burbs. CA: Stanford University Press, 2012.
An understandably contentious issue, immigration cuts to the core of what it means to be American. Recent immigrants find themselves especially vulnerable to being caught in the crossfire of heated debates over American immigration policy. The migration of Mexican nationals to the United States is hardly a new phenomenon; in fact, the tide of immigration flow from Mexico ebbed in the 1970s. As Massey 1986) points out, it is a gross generalization to assume that economic factors alone drive immigration. Certainly there are a large number of immigrants from Mexico to the United States who are both pushed and pulled by financial need. Yet firmly established structures and institutions support new immigrants, and immigration is frequently a family phenomenon—particularly evident in the Mexican immigrant experience (Massey, 1986). Prevailing anti-immigration discourse in the United States obfuscates the tremendous amount of diversity within the American immigrant experience, and even among specific immigrant…
As Metzler and Off (2018) point out, the Hispanic population in North Carolina is changing the geography of one of the state’s most important cities and surrounding county—Charlotte: “North Carolina’s Hispanic population has grown faster [in Mecklenburg County] since 2010 than both the white and the black population, according to recently released Census data estimates.” Metzler and Off (2018) report on this finding in The Charlotte Observer in an article published June 25th, 2018. This development is, therefore, very current—but in effect it has been happening for years as more and more Hispanic immigrants travel to the city and the surrounding suburban areas.
The Hispanics have altered the city and the county of Mecklenburg in various ways—but especially in the need for services like health care, which many impoverished immigrants cannot afford to obtain on their own. The Hispanic community provides signs and services for members of their own…
Metzler, C. & Off, G. (2018). Hispanic population continues to rise in NC as white population trails. Retrieved from https://www.charlotteobserver.com/latest-news/article213539719.html
Two immigration policy moves and interventions that would be worth highlighting in this text are the Border Protection, Anti-terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005 and the Trump Administration immigration policies. According to the Center for Immigration Studies (2017), the Border Protection, Anti-terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005 “was limited to enforcement and was focused on both border and the interior.” In essence, the law was passed in response to the increasing threat of terror attacks – aided, in part, by weaknesses in internal enforcement (amongst other factors). In the current administration, we are experiencing a move towards what has been referred to as an immigration system founded on merit. As a matter of fact, according to Blanco and Kopan (2017), President Donald J. Trump favors an immigration policy that would permit only those with a certain skill set or capabilities likely to be of benefit the…
Blanco, O. & Kopan, T. (2017). Trump\\\\'s Merit-Based Immigration System: Who Would Get In? Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2017/03/03/news/economy/merit-based-immigration-trump/index.html
Center for Immigration Studies (2017). Historical Overview of Immigration Policy. Retrieved from https://cis.org/Historical-Overview-Immigration-Policy
Williams, W.E. (2013). Liberty versus the Tyranny of Socialism: Controversial Essays. California: Hoover Press
A. The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act has defined American immigration policy throughout the latter half of the twentieth century and continues to do so in spite of recent attempts by the Trump administration to reform the policy. The Immigration and Nationality Act establishes precedents for both family class and skills-based visa applications, and also presents specific quotas for each country of origin without barring immigrants from any one country or region. It is that latter issue, plus the family class provisions, which Trump has recently taken issue over (Krogstad & Gonzalez-Barrera, 2018). Current policies proposed by Trump would also eliminate prevailing programs like Temporary Protected Status and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA). Common themes between past and present immigration policies have been the attempt to balance the economic and the humanitarian goals of immigration policy.
B. American immigration policies have affected the demographic composition of the nation, and…
The Syrian Refugee Crisis
With the war in Syria leading to the loss of so many lives and homes, it was only natural that the developed world should take notice. The Syrian refugees would have to be admitted somewhere, would have to be given shelter somehow. For a world that professed the principles of the UN—to act humanely towards one and all—how could the developed world not respond? Those were Angela Merkel’s thoughts in 2015. Truth be told, however, the experiment had been a long time coming. Integration and immigration had been key topics for Germany’s leader as well as for other member states of the EU. Immigration had been one of the key controversial issues that compelled Britons to vote to leave the EU in the shocking Brexit event that occurred in 2016 (Hunt & Wheeler, 2016). For leaders like Merkel, welcoming immigrants (especially those from the war torn…
DW. (2004). Integration debate heats up in Germany. Retrieved from http://www.dw.com/en/integration-debate-heats-up-in-germany/a-1402802
Hunt, A. & Wheeler, B. (2016). Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32810887
Neo, H. (2016). Germany must have frank talk about integration: Merkel. Retrieved from https://www.yahoo.com/news/germany-must-frank-talk-integration-merkel-161231123.html?ref=gs
Rau, J. (2000). Without fear and without illusions: Living together in Germany. Retrieved from http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/Ch.7,Doc.13FIN.pdf
Shahak, I. (2017). ‘Greater Israel’: The Zionist plan for the Middle East. Retrieved from https://www.globalresearch.ca/greater-israel-the-zionist-plan-for-the-middle-east/5324815
UNHCR. (2016). UNHCR reports crisis in refugee education. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/afr/news/press/2016/9/57d7d6f34/unhcr-reports-crisis-refugee-education.html
Weaver, M. (2010). Angela Merkl: German multiculturalism has ‘utterly failed’. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/oct/17/angela-merkel-german-multiculturalism-failed
Syrian Refugee Statistics: Pulling Together the Economic Indicators
The stakeholders in this issue are the major nations of the EU: Germany, Italy, France, Poland, Belgium, Hungary and the Netherlands. Turkey is also a country that has received a large amount of immigrants and has used this to leverage negotiations with the other countries, threatening in fact to unleash a wave of immigrants on Europe if their demands are not met (Karadeniz & Tattersall, 2016). England has received many immigrants as well, but the UK has also voted to leave the EU, and thus the EU is mainly affected by this problem now. In fact, Turkey has some 2.7 million Syrian immigrants within its borders and half a million Iraqi refugees as well (Karadeniz & Tattersall, 2016). The following chart represents Turkey’s share of immigrants:
Source: IMF (2016)
Germany and Hungary have received the most migrants in the EU:
IMF. (2016). The refugee surge in Europe. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/sdn/2016/sdn1602.pdf
Karadeniz, T. & Tattersall, N. (2016). Erdogan warns Europe that Turkey could open migrant gates. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-europe-erdogan/erdogan-warns-europe-that-turkey-could-open-migrant-gates-idUSKBN13K0R6
The U.S. was formed by immigrants: they came from Europe—from England, Germany, Poland, Ireland, France, Italy, and many other countries. Later on, they began coming in from Asia, and then from Mexico—particularly during the 20th century when the Bracero Program was put into effect by the U.S. federal government to help ensure that the fields were taken care of while the men were off fighting in WW2 (Calavita 1992). This paper will compare and contrast the experiences of major immigrant groups in America and discuss the factors that account for their success or continued challenges. It will also analyze the issue of what should be the goal—whether immigrants should incorporate or assimilate—and why.
THE EXPERIENCE OF IMMIGRANTS
Chinese immigrants came over to the U.S. in the 19th century and went to work in the mines and on the railroads out West, laying track and laboring intensely under…
Austin, A. 2004. From Concentration Camp to Campus. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Bartoletti, Susan C. 2001. Black Potatoes: The Story of the Great Irish Famine, 1845-1850. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Calavita, Kitty. 1992. Inside the State: The Bracero Program, Immigration, and the I.N. S. New York, NY: Routledge.
Domhoff, Bill. (1982). Jews in the Protestant Establishment. New York, NY: Praeger.
Hafetz, J. 2012. “Immigration and national security law: Converging approaches to state power, individual rights, and judicial review.” ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 18(3):628.
The journey to America was different for all types of immigrants. Some came from Asia, some from Europe, some from Latin America. Each faced unique hardships and challenges along the way. For some it was an experience filled with trauma, and for others it was an experience filled with hope. This paper will compare and contrast the experiences of six different readings by six different immigrants to explore the nature of the journey to America that each immigrant experienced.
Vo Thi Tam tells the story of emigrating to America as one of the many “boat people” who fled the Communist takeover of South Vietnam following the pullout of American troops at the end of the Vietnam War. As a refugee, the immigration process was fraught with perils: the threat of pirates at sea, the threat of starvation or death from dehydration, the threats from others who did not…
Antin, Mary. “The Promised Land.” Emerging Voices: Readings in the American Experience. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993.
Bradford, William. “Of Their Voyage.”
Davis, Marilyn. “Crossing the Border.” Emerging Voices: Readings in the American Experience. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993.
Mukherjee, Bharati. “Jasmine.” The Middleman and Other Stories. Grove Press, 1988.
Njeri, Itabari. “Coming to America.” Emerging Voices: Readings in the American Experience. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993.
Tam, Vo Thi. “From Vietnam.” Emerging Voices: Readings in the American Experience. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993.
The Trump Era travel ban has ruffled a lot of feathers. People suggest the travel ban goes against the rights of U.S. citizens, residents, and people on visa. President Donald Trump’s actions has led to fierce criticism on both the Republic and Democratic sides as well as bring about legal challenges. Many Americans agree that the temporary banning of refugees and immigration from specific countries is wrong. They agree because they feel it is not necessary in guaranteeing the safety of the United States. While the travel ban allows some Americans to feel safe during an age where terrorism dominates, it creates racial tension and hatred; additionally, banning certain countries or immigration has been done in the United States before, showing a dark side to the nation.
Terrorism is a prevailing topic across the globe. From London to France, terrorism and immigration problems have generated an uneasy atmosphere that has…
Foley, Frank. Countering Terrorism in Britain and France: Institutions, Norms and the Shadow of the Past. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Gyory, Andrew. Closing the Gate: Race, Politics, and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Univ of North Carolina Press, 2000.
Hanrahan, Mark, and Jessica Wang. \\"Number of Fatal Terrorist Attacks in Western Europe Increasing, Data S.\\" U.S, 12 July 2017, www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-attacks/number-of-fatal-terrorist-attacks-in-western-europe-increasing-data-show-idUSKBN19X1QO. Accessed 16 Dec. 2017.
Oshima, Shotaro. \\"Why the 1920s U.S. Ban on Japanese Immigrants Matters Today.\\" HuffPost, 22 Dec. 2015, www.huffingtonpost.com/shotaro-oshima/1920s-us-ban-japanese_b_8858260.html. Accessed 16 Dec. 2017.
Seonnichsen, John. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. ABC-CLIO, 2011.
October 23, 1890
When I arrived on the shores of the United States, I was naturally apprehensive about the stories I had heard about signs proclaiming “No Irish Wanted.” Fortunately, things have changed a great deal since my cousin Barney emigrated here thirty years ago. There are many Irishmen and women in respectable positions. Many Irish also fought in the American Civil War and attainted positions in government afterward. Being Irish is no longer a shame.
I counted myself very fortunate to find a position as a maid in the house of Mrs. A. I was able to secure my position through the use of an employment, or intelligence agency, and was told I was very lucky to be employed by as wealthy a family as the As, because my duties would be comparatively lighter than a girl in a family who could afford only a few servants.…
Partially satisfied; though the study does not state it as a research question specifically, it does provide the focus, intent and purpose of the study in the first paragraph of the study. However, there are a series of questions that are posed at the end of the first section—and it is unclear as to whether or not these questions should be taken as the specific research questions that the study will address or if they are just being posed rhetorically to help frame the importance of the study.
Not satisfied; the study’s core concepts could be more explicitly defined. The term “gender gap” should be explained more fully along with the concepts of “fleeing the home” and being an “asylum seeker”—why are they fleeing, where are they going, what is the reason for this phenomenon (is it geopolitical, economic, sociological, religious?). Likewise, what they seeking asylum from? What…
Immigration in America: The Benefits and Costs of a Polarizing Problem
As Suarez-Orozco, Rhodes and Milburn (2009) point out, immigrants need “supportive relationships” in order to succeed in the foreign country that they move to (p. 151). However, when that foreign country is determined to address immigration issues—not only illegal immigration but also legal immigration—it can become a difficult problem for both sides of the political aisle. For a nation like the United States, that is especially true. After all, America was founded by immigrants. The early Spanish and French missionaries came in the 16th century seeking converts to Christianity. The Puritans and English followed. The Germans and Italians and Irish and Polish all came to America in the wake of Industrialization. Over time, America was host to so many different populations and groups of people that it was referred to as the melting pot in 1909 (Higgins). However,…
Nation of Immigrants
America is sometimes referred to as a "nation of immigrants" because of our largely open-door policy toward accepting foreigners who pursuing their vision of the American Dream. Recently, there has been a clamor by some politicians and citizens toward creating predominantly closed-door policy on immigration, arguing that immigrants threaten American life by creating unemployment, taking jobs from American workers, using much-needed social security services, and encroaching on the American way of life. hile these statements seem valid for many, they are almost overwhelmingly false, and more than likely confused with the subject of illegal immigration. Immigrants actually enhance American life by creating, not taking jobs, bolster social service funds through tax payment, and bringing valuable technical knowledge and skills to our country.
Illegal immigration is defined as the trespassing across the national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the…
Farrell, Chris. "Imigration Can Fuel U.S. Innovation -- and Job Growth." Bloomberg Businessweek. July 19, 2010. 30 July 2011
Masters, B. "The Pros and Cons of Illegal Immigrants." National Public Radio. March 29, 2006. 30 July 2011.
Messerli, Joe. "Should America Maintain/Increase the Level of Legal Immigration?" BalancedPolitics.org. May, 18 2011. 30 July 2011.
"Pros And Cons Of Illegal Immigration." Iloveindia.com. (NDI). 30 July 2011.
The Existential Fallacy Behind Arizona's Immigration Policy
Few issues currently featured in American public debate are clouded by as much emotional bias, invective and distortion as that of immigration reform. Particularly as this concerns America's shared border with Mexico, immigration is a discussion which carries significant political ramification, clear racial overtones and distinctions in ideology where American openness is concerned. As a result, many political figures have been moved to comment or drive policy on the issue-based less on the support of fact than on the employment of inflammatory rhetoric. And quite frequently, this rhetoric is presented with little concern for the logical fallacies which may underlie is basic formative claims. Rarely has this been evidenced with more vitriol or determination than in the state of Arizona over the last several years. In the context of our discussion, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer is particularly noted for her steady…
Biggers, J. (2011). How Arizona wrote the GOP's immigration platform. Salon.com.
hile some eventually returned to their homelands, the vast majority settled throughout the United States, forming ethnic communities in urban areas, and homesteading farmlands in the west and mid-west rural areas. They fled their homelands due to economic depressions, and/or religious and political persecutions for the opportunity to establish a better life in the New orld, and in the process endured many hardships and often discrimination. Today, more than 43 million Americans claim German ancestry, and another 34 million claim Irish roots.
Cohn, Raymond L. "Immigration to the United States." Illinois State University.
Retrieved November 13, 2006 at http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/cohn.immigration.us
Hansen, Lawrence Douglas Taylor. "The Chinese Six Companies of San Francisco and the smuggling of Chinese immigrants across the U.S.-Mexico border, 1882-1930." Journal of the Southwest. March 22, 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hardwick, Susan . "Galveston: Ellis Island of Texas." Journal of…
Cohn, Raymond L. "Immigration to the United States." Illinois State University.
Retrieved November 13, 2006 at http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/cohn.immigration.us
Hansen, Lawrence Douglas Taylor. "The Chinese Six Companies of San Francisco and the smuggling of Chinese immigrants across the U.S.-Mexico border, 1882-1930." Journal of the Southwest. March 22, 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hardwick, Susan W. "Galveston: Ellis Island of Texas." Journal of Cultural Geography.
Immigration issues have been hot in the media ever since the Obama administration proposed to change the immigration rules in the U.S. earlier this year. The current rule states that illegal immigrants need first to leave the country before they can request a waiver on the 3-10-year ban on coming back to the U.S. legally. The ban is placed based on how long the immigrants have lived illegally in the country. With the proposed rule, the children and spouses of legal U.S. citizens can request the government to make a decision on the waiver without them having to first leave the country. After the waiver has been given, they can then head back to their countries to apply for their visas. Associated Press, 2012()
The director of U.S. citizenship and immigration services, Alejandro Mayorkas, stated that this new rule would cut down the amount of time an illegal immigrant would…
Associated Press. (2012). Obama Administration Proposes Immigration Rule Change for Family of Citizens Retrieved February 5th, 2012, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2012/01/06/obama-administration-plans-immigration-rule-change-for-family-citizens/
Fox News Latino. (2012). Romney Grabs Florida Latino Vote, Immigration Not Major Issue Retrieved February 5th, 2012, from http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/politics/2012/01/31/romney-grabs-florida-latino-vote-immigration-not-major-issue/
Madison, L. (2012). Romney on immigration: I'm for "self-deportation" Retrieved February 5th, 2012, from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-57364444-503544/romney-on-immigration-im-for-self-deportation/
Impact of Immigration on Jacksonian America
In the middle half of the nineteenth century, more than one-half of the population of Ireland immigrated to the United States. So did an equal number of Germans. Most of them came because of civil unrest, severe unemployment or almost inconceivable hardships at home. This wave of immigration affected almost every city and almost every person in America. From 1820 to 1870, over seven and a half million immigrants came to the United States, more than the entire population of the country in 1810. Nearly all of them came from northern and western Europe about a third from Ireland and almost a third from Germany (U.S. History.org, 2011).
During the early nineteenth century millions of people left their homes and headed to America in search of a new life. Many of these people immigrated from Ireland and Germany, coming through New York…
Frankel, H. (1946, December). The Jackson Period in American Histor. Fourth international, Vol 7, No. 12, 365-368. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www.marxists.org/archive/braverman/1946/12/jackson.htm
Kim, S. (2007, January). Immigrantion, industrial revolution and urban growth in the United States, 1820-1920: Factors endowments, technology and geography. Washington university in St. Louis and NBER. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://soks.wustl.edu/immigration.pdf
Schuler, D. (2006, June 4). The influence of immigrants on American political thought. The glittering eye. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://theglitteringeye.com/?p=2046
U.S History. Org (2011). Irsh and German immigration. U.S. history online textbook. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www.ushistory.org/us/25f.asp
Immigration and Immigrants
Applied Problem/Social Issue:
This paper discusses identity theory as a concept in sociological theory as related to immigration and immigrants. Should the United States continue to allow Immigrants to enter the U.S. seeking refuge and citizenship, when our nations states are already overly populated? Should Immigrants be allowed to enter the U.S. And work when there are hundreds of citizens and native-born Americans already unemployed and desperately searching for work? These are but a couple of questions that add to the conflicting messages immigrants and their children face in modern day society. They add to the increasingly complex problem of finding identity in a torn nation.
The United States is world known for its ethnic diversity, due in part to the immigration allowed over several years. Many people however, fail to find a means to foster inter-racial and ethnic identities, thus causing much conflict and a lack…
Dion, Kenneth. "Social Identity and Affect as Determinants of Collective Action: Toward an Integration of Relative Deprivation and Social Identity Theories," Theory & Psychology, 5, 1995.
Dion, Kenneth. "Gender and Acculturation in Relation to Traditionalism: Perceptions of Self and Parents among Chinese Students," Sex Roles 41(1/2), 1999 (co-author).
Herrmann, Katy. "Culture Contact." Russel Sage Foundation, March 10, 2003,
Kao, Grace. (1999). "Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment and Public Assistance." Journal of Psychological Well-Being and Education, Pp.410-477
In January of 2010 Haiti suffered a 7.0 magnitude earthquake which destroyed much of the country and left the population devastated. When this tragedy occurred, Haiti was "already the poorest in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty." ("CIA") As a Haitian with little prospects of having a decent life, or making a decent living, I have decided that I want to emigrate to the United States. After much consideration, including researching the immigration and naturalization process, but most importantly the costs, I have discovered that it will be very difficult for me to emigrate. The costs alone are much more than a poor Haitian like myself to pay. It costs over $1,000 U.S. just to apply for a Green Card, and this will only grant me residency, and another $680 U.S. just to apply for citizenship. And…
"CIA - The World Factbook." Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html
"Statue of Liberty Inscription, by Emma Lazarus." New York City Travel Guide.
Retrieved from http://www.nycinsiderguide.com/Statue-of-Liberty-Inscription.html%20//%20axzz1dnloO1VL
To put a price tag on the problem for reader, Indiana University economist Eric Rasmusen claims in figures from a 2005 GAO report on foreigners that were incarcerated in Federal and state prisons calculated that illegal immigrants commit 21% of crime in America. This cost America more than $84 billion (Kingsbury).
Illegal immigration from Mexico is a major funnel for terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda. This is stated in the groups own words. In a 2009 video, an al Qaeda recruiter threatened to smuggle a biological weapon into the United States. He claimed that the organization would do this via tunnels under the Mexico border. The video aired on Al Jazeera and was later posted to several web sites. These show Kuwaiti dissident Abdullah al-Nafisi telling supporters in Bahrain that terrorists in al Qaeda were observing the U.S. border with Mexico to figure out how to send terrorists…
"Al Qaeda eyes bio attack from Mexico." Washington Times 3 June 2009: Web.
24 Oct 2010. .
"Al-Qaida Operative Nabbed Near Mexican Border." News Max.com. News Max.com,
20 Nov. 2005. Web. 24 Oct 2010. .
Economic and political factors in the originating country influenced the decision to migrate; the perception that the United States has greater political freedoms and more economic opportunity has consistently influenced the decision of Turkish immigrants to come to the United States rather than other nations, such as in Europe. hatever opportunities there might be more immigrants, those without specific job skills or a higher level of education quickly find themselves relegated to a low class job market and struggling to survive. Turkish immigrants are also likely to form close-knit communities upon arriving in the United States because of strong ethnic identification and general American animosity towards Muslims in the United States -- whatever the religious beliefs of individual immigrants. These historical factors have facilitated the creation of a sizeable Turkish immigrant population in the United States that, nonetheless, finds it difficult to integrate with mainstream American society.
Acehan, Isil. "Outposts of an Empire: Early Turkish Migration to Peabody, Massachusetts." The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University. Ankara, Turkey: Bilkent University, May 2005.
Akcapar, Sebnem Koser. "Turkish Highly Skilled Migration to the United States: New Findings and Policy Recommendations." Migration Research Program at the Koc University. Istanbul, Turkey: Koc University, 2005-2006.
Kaya, Ilhan. "Identity and Space: The Case of Turkish Americans." The Geographical Review 95.3 (July 2005): 425-440.
ig companies were also eager to hire immigrants to reduce their own expenditures. This led to a wave of anti-Catholic riots that targeted immigrants. The largest of such riots took place in Philadelphia in 1844, involving Protestants, Catholics, and local militia. The riot killed sixteen people, injured several dozens, and destroyed over forty buildings.
The nativists formed influential parties to limit the number of immigrants, extend the period of naturalization of immigrants into citizenship, and pressured the government to ban foreign-born citizens from holding public offices. The anti-immigration sentiment even influenced the decisions over U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-48. They opposed American expansion into Mexico, Cuba, and the rest of Central America since their citizens were Catholic. The Daily Sun of Philadelphia explained it in 1846: "if we look towards Mexico, we are menaced by the accession of eight million foreigners, not only entirely ignorant of our institutions, but ignorant of…
Greenberg, Amy. Manifest Manhood and Antebellum American Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
U.S. History: Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium: 25f: Irish and German Immigration. Available at (Accessed: May 9, 2011).
U.S. History: Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium: 25f: Irish and German Immigration. Available at (Accessed: May 9, 2011).
Quoted in Amy Greenberg, Manifest Manhood and Antebellum American Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 99.
There is no question, however, that immigration issues will remain in the forefront of our national policy debates.
Deportation Factors and Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude
Research indicates that since the late 1980s, Congress had been tightening the substantive provisions of the immigration laws, to make it far less likely that a convicted criminal alien can find a way to be relieved of expulsion. For many years the basic statutory pattern was that a crime involving moral turpitude rendered a person deportable, if it was committed less than five years after the person's entry and resulted in a sentence of one year or more confinement. A later-committed crime or one that drew a lighter sentence did not result in deportation. If the person committed two such crimes that were not part of a single criminal scheme, they could render the person deportable no matter when they were committed. A drug offense…
Calavita, Kitty. Immigration, law and marginalization in a global economy: Notes from Spain. Law and Society Review (1998).
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/chinex.html (26 Apr. 2005).
Immigration Act of 1907. http://www.multied.com/documents/immigrationact.html (26 Apr. 2005).
Levinson, Peter. The facade of Quasi-Judicial Independence in Immigration Appellate Adjudications. http://www.rightsworkinggroup.org/files/peter_article.pdf.(26 Apr. 2005).
Alien Nation is organized onto fifteen chapters, divided into three parts:
Part I: Truth: (2) the View from the Tenth Circle; (3) the Pincers; (4) How Did it Happen? (5) Why Did it Happen? (6) So What?
Part II: Consequences: (7) Immigration Has Consequences: Economics; (8) Immigration Has (More) Consequences: Economics II; (9) Immigration Has Consequences: Cultural, Social, Environmental...; (10) Immigration Has Consequences: Political Power; (11) Immigration Has Consequences: A Less Perfect Union; (12) Immigration Has Consequences: The War against the Nation-State; (13) Doing the ight Thing? The Morality of Immigration;
Part III: Shipwreck and Salvage: (14) What, Then, Is to Be Done? (15) Conclusion: The Bowels of Christ?
Brimelow commences his book by seeking the genesis of the immigration problem and finds that it is linked to the massacres conducted by totalitarian regimes. To better explain, the author of Alien Nation… believes that the rulers of the…
Brimelow, P., 1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, Random House
Lind, M., 1995, the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Reilly, J.J., the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Forth American Republic, http://www.johnreilly.info/tna.htm last accessed on September 1, 2009
1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, National Vanguard Magazine, Edition of November-December, No. 115
This work is a consummate discussion of the strain that immigration has placed on the public and social systems of Denmark, as another example of the strain and stress pulling public opinion in favor of anti-immigration.
Kirkwood, R. Cort. "The Gathering Storm: Islamic Violence in France, Fostered by French nti-Christian Political and Cultural Elites, Gives a Glimpse of What Our Own Elites re Bringing upon Us Via Uncontrolled Immigration." The New merican 23 Jan. 2006: 23+. Questia. 21 May 2009 .
This work offers a discussion of how Islamic violence is effecting Europe, with brief but essential discussions of Denmark.
Kvist, Jon, and Lisbeth Pedersen. "Danish Labour Market ctivation Policies." National Institute Economic Review (2007): 99+. Questia. 21 May 2009 .
This work is an overall discussion of the Danish labor market and where immigrants fit into it.
Kymlicka, Will, and Keith Banting. "Immigration, Multiculturalism and the Welfare State."…
A editorial discussion of the issue of street level crime with regard to Islamic immigrant groups in Denmark.
Tierney, Jack. "The Right Becomes a Major Factor - the European Right Has Attracted Voters in Western Europe Who Feel the Center-Left Parties Are out of Touch and Even Corrupt." World and I Dec. 2002: 18. Questia. 21 May 2009 .
Another discussion of Denmark's political shift toward right-wing conservative politics in representation, largely as a result of anti-immigration sentiment.
Pastor categorizes the last century (ending in the 1980s) as falling into several categories, with regard to immigration policy, which he also notes is open for debate, as it is usually done in public debates in Congress and between the executive branch and congress.
While policy during this period may be categorized in many ways, a Latin American perspective suggests four useful divisions...: Defining Limits, 1875-1921; the Classical Special elationship, 1921-1964; From Special elationship to Global Policy, 1965-1978; and the Special Case -- Illegal Migration.
1984, p. 37)
The shift associated with immigration from, European sources to Latin America, and namely Mexico is well documented and determinant of many social issues, including those designated with the legal immigration sphere as well as those designated illegal, by virtue of the manner in which immigration is done. This was also a shift, in that there had been significant movements during and following…
Borjas, G.J. (2001). Does Immigration Grease the Wheels of the Labor Market. 69.
Briggs, V.M. (1995). Mass Immigration, Free Trade and the Forgotten American Worker. Challenge, 38(3), 37.
Briggs, V.M. (1996). Immigration Policy and the U.S. Economy: An Institutional Perspective. Journal of Economic Issues, 30(2), 371.
DeSipio, L., & De la Garza, R.O. (1998). Making Americans, Remaking America: Immigration and Immigrant Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ethics and Social esponsibility:
Immigration and Amnesty in the United States
The question of immigration, especially in this country, is ever-present. From our past, and well into our future, the United States will be a nation of immigrants. However, as political candidates raise a number of questions relating to immigrants south of the border, one must wonder about how immigration has grown into such a hotly debated issue, and how it is separating this country. Though it is true that the United States needs immigration reform, one must also look at the traditions of the country, and how they can protect the less fortunate, especially in the area of immigration. The reason this must happen is because most come here with notions of a better place, where they can live safely and freely, and prosper as individuals. This nation ought to offer that to all individuals, for that is…
Amnesty International. "USA must fight anti-immigration sentiments in nine states" (2010). Amnesty International. < http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/usa-must-fight-anti-immigrant-sentiment-in-nine-states >.
Baier, K. (1990). "Egoism" in A companion to ethics, Ed., Peter Singer. Blackwell: Oxford.
Cox, A., & Posner, A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. 809,
Even European immigrants experienced discrimination in the 19th century. As Vellos (1997) points out, "American society did not accept the Irish Catholics and Germans, and movements to limit immigration began to form." The Chinese Exclusion Act established anti-Asian sentiments and was not repealed until as late as 1943. For the first time in American history, immigration was "seen as a threat to the United States economy, and Congress began expanding the list of 'undesirable classes' hoping to upgrade the quality of immigrants and to limit overall entry," (Vellos 1997).
In spite of having to live in squalid inner city tenement buildings, new waves of immigrants relished the idea of the American Dream. The American Dream provides the ideological and psychological incentive for new immigrants to a pursue a path of upward social mobility. Upward social mobility was most likely unavailable in the home country, whereas the United States has been…
"A Historical Look at U.S. Immigration Policy." (1995). Retrieved online: http://web.missouri.edu/~brente/immigr.htm
Center for Immigration Studies (n.d.). Immigration history. Retrieved online: http://www.cis.org/ImmigrationHistory
Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform (2010). U.S. Population and Immigration Data, Projections and Graphs. Retrieved online: http://www.cairco.org/data/data_us.html
Diner, H. (2008). Immigration and U.S. History. America.gov. Retrieved online: http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307112004ebyessedo0.1716272.html
In the most extensive study till date including nearly 3,000 people, Prof Vega has revealed that acculturation to U.S. customs has a damaging impact in the U.S. He found double the rate of mental disturbance in U.S. compared to the latest happenings of immigration or Mexicans who stayed in their country. Prof Vega along with his team of associates found that U.S. born Mexican-American, the lifetime threat of being detected with any mental disorder was analogous to that for non-Hispanic whites which is 48.1% that roughly one in two people. However, in case of new immigrants and Mexican citizen, the rate dropped down to 24.9%. Besides, they found out that the rate of psychological effect went up progressively after immigration in such a measure that Mexicans who had stayed in the country for more than 13 years had roughly identical rate as who were born in U.S. (as Mexican Immigrants…
Causes and Consequences of California's Latin American Origin Immigration" Retrieved at http://clnet.ucla.edu/challenge/ccorigin.htm. Accessed on 4 May, 2005
Chac n, Oscar; Rodr'guez, Aide; Shannon, Amy. (June, 2004) "Latino Immigrant Leaders Push for Immigration Reform: Background on Immigrant-Led, Community-Based Organization." Citizen Action in the Americas, No. 10; Americas Program, Interhemispheric Resource Center (IRC) Retrieved at http://www.americaspolicy.org/citizen-action/series/10enlaces_body.html
Huntington, Samuel P. "The Special Case of Mexican Immigration" the America Enterprise online. Retrieved at http://www.taemag.com/issues/articleid.12114/article_detail.asp. Accessed on 4 May, 2005
Marti, Dinerstein. (September, 2004) "Social Security 'Totalization' - Examining a Lopsided Agreement with Mexico" Retrieved at http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/back904.html . Accessed on 4 May, 2005
These measures included laws, which denied services to undocumented residents, alerted police to assume ICE functions, penalized for employers who hired the aliens, and made English the official language. In Arizona, ordinary citizens were encouraged to report businesses, which hired suspicious foreign-looking persons. Hispanics were the major targets of this xenophobia because they were believed to be the major law violators. Statistics showed that there were approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants, most of them Latinos or Hispanics, in the U.S. The national bias against them showed up in studies, which considered only them in determining how much they were costing the country in services. ut did they really drain the economy? A spokesman for the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission did not think so. A 2004 study on "foreign-born" citizens of Virginia alone concluded that Asians outnumbered Hispanics. The Commission found that these "foreign-born" citizens were not a huge…
Galuszka, P. (2008). Hispanics bearing the brunt of xenophobia. Diverse Issues in Higher
Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mWMX/is_1_25/ai_n2491956?tag=content;col1
ICE (2008). About ICE. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://www.ice.gov/about/index.htm
Marcucci, M.R. (2007). Marchers call for immigration reform. Oakland Tribune: ANG
Immigration Education in California
Few issues create long-lasting controversy, the type of controversy that engages nearly every member of society regardless of their economic, ethnic, intellectual, political, religious, or social background. Examples of such issues are abortion, crime, the death penalty, racism, rape, etc. Another example of such an issue is immigration education in California. hile California has traditionally embodied the "melting pot" image that the United States so ardently embraces, the issue of immigration education in California has created (and continues to create) quite a stir.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to immigration education in California. Part II discusses the materials and methods utilized. In Part III, the problem of immigration education in California and the probable causes is outlined. Part IV examines the research methods employed. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations and potential solutions.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was conceived…
Hayne, Sarah. "Immigration News: California Proposes Higher Education for Immigrants." 6/29/01. Retrieved at http://www.usvisanews.com/memo1345.html. On November 12, 2002.
FactBook 2002: Immigration Status of Students- Proposition 187 of 1994 and Welfare Reform Act of 1996." Retrieved at http://www.cde.ca.gov/resrc/factbook/immigstatus.htm . On November 12, 2002.
Immigration Education Issues Pathway: Immigration Policies and Laws." Retrieved at http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/pathways/immigrant_issues/impol.html. On November 12, 2002.
Immigration News: California Won't Keep Bilingual Education Programs." 12/30/99. Retrieved at http://www.usvisanews.com/memo825.html. On November 12, 2002.
Advocacy groups, whether private or government-sponsored, ease transition from home to America but being uprooted poses severe psychological and sociological problems that are not easy to fix.
The United States remains one of the only nations to openly welcome immigrants as a national policy; Canada is another. For centuries the United States has relied on immigrant labor to fuel industry and add nuance to the nation's cultural fabric. The United States is no longer viewed as a melting pot because of the increased pride among immigrants in their native cultures and languages. Balancing assimilation with preservation of culture is still the most difficult task for immigrants, many of whom hope for a more stable life in the new world while still retaining the values and lifestyles of their ancestors.
Refugees continue to hold a unique social, economic and political status in the United States. As Tumulty notes, the Hmong assimilated…
Branigin, William. "Immigrants Shunning Idea of Assimilation." The Myth of the Melting Pot. Washington Post. May 25, 1998. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/meltingpot/melt0525a.htm
Clemetson, Lynette. "Bosnians in America: A Two-Sided Saga." The New York Times. April 29, 2007. Retrieved Jun 15, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/29/us/29youth.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&adxnnlx=1213585920-/U4w96yxQS4h7/bEHNl%20Ug
Federation for American Immigration Reform. "How Mass Immigration Impedes Assimilation." Retrieved Jun 15, 2008 at http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=iic_immigrationissuecenters641a
The Great Immigration Panic." The New York Times. June 3, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/03/opinion/03tue1.html
The United States is known as the "nation of immigrants." The reason for this is not hard to find: the economic opportunities and the "American Dream" have attracted waves of immigrants from different parts of the world to make America a mosaic of diverse cultures. hile America has lived up to its reputation as the "land of opportunities" and provided new settlers with the freedom and means to achieve their dreams, people who have adopted U.S. As their country have also played their part in making America great. This essay focuses on why the immigrants from Europe wanted to come to America in the early 1600s and from the 1820s to 1914; what were their expectations and what did they achieve in their adopted country.
The Early European Settlers
The history of European settlement in America started with a group of 214 Englishmen, belonging to the Virginia Company, arrived…
Dinnerstein, Leonard. "Immigration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD ROM Version, 2003
"U.S. Immigration History." World Immigration. 2003. December 16, 2004.
Small groups of Spanish colonists had established European settlement in Saint Augustine, Florida, even earlier in 1565, but the English immigration is more relevant to the history of colonial America and the United States
The first Africans who were brought to America were not slaves -- slave trade started later.
Immigration in America
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze Bharati Mukherjee's essay, "Two Ways to Belong in America." Specifically, it will discuss the position that immigrants who legally come to this country should become citizens of this country, because they have enjoyed all the benefits the country has to offer, and they should be loyal to the country that has given them success and a new life. Immigrants who come to this country to live and work as legal immigrants certainly are not bound to become American citizens. However, as author Mukherjee notes in her essay, many immigrants are grateful to the country that has given them so much, and so, they do not want to take it for granted, or turn their back on it. Immigrants who do not become citizens have a place in American society, but if that is their choice, then…
Mukherjee, Bharati. "Two Ways to Belong in America." Writer's Presence: A Pool of Readings, 4th Edition. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Salins, Peter D. "Toward a New Immigration Policy." Commentary Jan. 1997: 45+.
Schuck, Peter H. Citizens, Strangers, and In-Betweens: Essays on Immigration and Citizenship. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
Susser, Siskind. "Why Become a Citizen?" VisaLaw.com. 4 Feb. 2004. 22 Nov. 2004.
S. And formed a country overflowing with thoughts, ways of life and backgrounds. The people arrived and continue to do so for many reasons, but, for all time, to realize one thing -- an improved life for their families. And, they have changed our nation, mostly for the better.
When we ask are we in favor of immigration, how can any one of us say no. For, except the Native Indians, we have all immigrated to this country either directly or via our ancestors who have given up their former lives to come here and proclaim themselves Americans.
Immigration gained more support in 1965 when President Johnson signed into law the Immigration Act of 1965. It changed and enhanced the methods used to allow immigrants to be admitted to the U.S. And it allowed more individuals from third world countries to come to America. This included Asian populations, which had…
Both Presidents Johnson and Kennedy wanted to change immigration law for many reasons, but in doing so they would confirm this country's principles of America being a land of the free, where all people are equal. The Immigration Act of 1965 was the culmination of that dream.
It is interesting to note that even though the Immigration Act of 1965 was not made into law to end discrimination, it was certainly seen as a major factor in doing just that.
The bottom line is that we can see, from the founding of our country up to the present day, America is a land where people can start new lives. From the founding fathers to current leadership, the U.S. has always been in favor of admitting those from any country who can declare their allegiance to this country and contribute to its well-being and sense of community. And that is the way it should always remain.
Some of the myths surrounding immigration are based on misinformation, others on simple ignorance, still others on incorrect interpretations from the media. Based on the text and popular sources, it seems that there are four major myths -- despite the fact that the United States is, in fact, a nation of immigrants:
Immigrants steal jobs from American citizens -- Immigrants count for 12% of the population, but 15% of the workforce; a result of the aging American population. What people really mean is that illegal immigrants are stealing American jobs. This is not true, since immigrants tend to be concentrated in low-skilled or agricultural jobs that most Americans do not want.
Immigration is mostly illegal and at an all-time high -- The high-point of American immigration came in the late 19th century. In the 21st century, about 2/3 of all immigrants are here legally as naturalized citizens or…
Immigration: Mexico and Impact on Women
Like many of the issues discussed in this course it is difficult to see a clear path to equal rights for female immigrants. This issue is particularly troubling because of the fact that there are layers of complex individual issues involved. A woman, whether in the country legally or illegally, may have challenges and struggles with regard to being treated fairly when compared to men as well as naturalized citizens. This inequality is compounded by the complex issue of immigration; those who are here illegally are highly marginalized and are not able to receive the protection that a citizen would. On top of all of those difficulties are the issues that affect illegal immigrants crossing the border from Mexico into the U.S.A. These people risk rape, murder, death by heat stroke, dehydration, and hyperthermia which have all been increasing in recent years.
Immigration is becoming a very contentious issue in America. Immigration, in many respects, is the reason why our country has grown so prosperously over the recent century. Differing views, opinions, and attributes all contribute to our nation's success. However, as the "Becoming American" transcript illustrates, more immigrants are inheriting the negative aspects of society as well. Many of these negative aspects, including heightened suicide rates, long work hours, depression, and obesity have a profound impact on society at large. As such, immigrants are now becoming more susceptible to many of the more negative aspects of American culture. As a result, these cultures continue to suffer losses both economically and socially.
To begin, the transcript first describes the great health of many within the Latin community. As immigrants, many of these individuals are relatively poor, but have exceptional health. Upon arrival to the Untied States, many Latin immigrants have less heart…
1) Tamura, Yuji, Do Employers Support Immigration? (July 29, 2010). Trinity Economics Papers No. 1107.
Advantages of a multicultural society and labor force
Although diversity can present challenges, having a diverse labor force can also convey many advantages to a society. America is a nation of immigrants and every subsequent wave of immigration has added new dimensions to the American culture. An excellent example of this is can be seen amongst the Chinese immigrants who came to the U.S. during the 19th century. "The Chinese performed every type of menial job that was available. They worked in the gold mines, the lumber industry, the fisheries and canneries, and as migrant farm laborers" and opened laundries -- any business that did not require extensive language skills and which racism did not bar them from entering (Asian-Americans, 2007, World History). The building of the railroads that transformed American society would have been impossible without the Chinese. "The Central Pacific ailroad employed about 15,000 Chinese" (Asian-Americans, 2007,…
Asian-Americans. (2007). World History. Retrieved:
Fernandez-Pereda, Cristina. (2008). Little Ethiopia: A thriving community in DC.
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