history of science has existed for many decades. This is considering that it is a well-established discipline of scholarly research. The scholarship of science initially concentrated on the physical and the biological sciences. However, it now includes both social and behavioral sciences. Some psychologists and scholarly researchers like George Sarton brought a call for a history of psychology. "Introduction to the History of science" is one of his articles in 1927 that represent the early work. The industrial and organizational psychology emphasizes on all areas of scientific discipline and the professional practice. Scientifically, the aim is to discover the phenomena, which influence behavior on the job and in the organization. Practically, the information obtained from empirical research can be applied in decision-making. This paper focuses on conducting a search for a case study in the industrial and the organizational fields. It gives a critical evaluation of various industrial and organizational aspects in "Industrial and organizational psychology: An evolving science and practice" book by Laura Koppes.
Laura Koppes' Contribution, its influence and Current regards
Studies by Laura in this field have seen many organizations appreciating the importance of psychology in understanding employees' behavior. It is evident that her contribution has seen many organizations modifying their knowledge-based economic system with the aim of improving production and distribution of information in all areas of employee effort. The benefits have been in employee efficiency, financial growth, and socio-economic growth. It has always been her intention to foster good working environments for employees whilst ensuring that organizational climates and cultures are in unison. Her influence in the I-O field is further underscored by the current developments in much organization where managers strive to ensure that the working conditions are optimal, safe, and ample for employees. This is informed by the fact that employees' psychological states influence their output and commitment.
Laura has had a great impact in the field of I-O psychology. Whereas many organizations had appreciated the effect of her works initially, it is important to point out that many of them have taken the discipline with great seriousness. The various publications made like (2012)'s "Do job applicant credit histories predict performance appraisal ratings or termination decisions?" And the "The counter-intuitive effects of flow on positive leadership and employee attitudes: Incorporating positive psychology into the study of organizations" have underscored her commitment in this field. Many other psychologists of her time are also working with her with the aim lifting the field into greater heights. They include Palmer, J.K., Smith, M., and Vodanovich, S. among others. She sees a future where the role of psychology in the workplace will be growing immensely as shaped by the rising human complexities.
The main purpose of this volume is to analyze various individual historical viewpoints concerning the industrial and organizational psychologists and significant subject matter experts. According to the author, the main goal of the I-O psychologists is to assist in the strategic development, which constructs better organizations. Moreover, the comprehensive strategies contribute to the success of an organization by improving the performance and the well-being of the employees. Laura asserts that psychologists have various reasons as to why they applied psychology to business and in the workplace. She further enables the reader to gain a deeper revelation in the I-O field past. This enables a person to gain an extensive comprehension of the present and hence focus on the future. The structuring of the historical perspective of the author is made around substantive subjects and not the professional areas. Besides, the author puts more emphasis on science rather than practice. The scientific development fosters access to documentation. In other cases, the author extracted information and relevant data from other relevant historical treatments.
The establishment of the current industrial and organizational psychology was made in the 1885-1930 period. Several historical accounts give credit to Hugo Munsterberg for the start of industrial psychology in the United States. In fact, the work is highly notable for research stimulation and the application of psychology to business-related problems. In this case, numerous contributors were engaged in science and the practice of psychology application in business. According to the author, psychologists such as Moore and Hartmann identified that the European countries were highly advanced in industrial psychology. Moreover, the psychology that was applied in the United States at that time suffered the lack of centers, which were organized around various research objectives. In the European countries, all the significant centers or institutes were founded to study the work. This was the aim of their establishment. In this case, they worked towards precise goals that increased their development in industrial psychology. During the early years in the United States, the industrial psychologists had to succeed without any sponsorship from the government. This was in contrast with those were based in Europe.
In this case, several personnel research agencies conducted studies in aspects such as employment management, industrial relations, and the working conditions. However, there was no any existence of a coordinated effort. This means that industrial psychology was not institutionalized. The results of the work were obtained from independent investigators who were full-time researchers and teachers at the universities. In 1932, Vittles individually recognized the contributors and developers of industrial psychology. These include Walter Van Dyke, Walter Dill Scott, Fred Moss, and Clarence Yoakum. The authors and their affiliations of industrial psychology related articles in four journals. It was identified that as late as 1917 some of the APA members were primarily working in various psychology applications. Individuals were practicing industrial psychology from 1913 to 1917. However, it was evident that there were no any full-time industrial psychologists because their work was not labeled industrial psychology.
Euphoria and prosperity swept across the United States after the war ended and during the 1920s. Because of this, the gross national product increased significantly. In this case, employment growth was experienced. This resulted in opportunities that made the industrial psychologists full-time employees and significant consultants in the industry. Moreover, most companies developed personnel departments in order to centralize the job placement and hiring activities. Furthermore, according to the author positions in the business and the industry offered various options for women. This was because there were limited opportunities in academia. In 1911, application of psychology to business was well described by Scott through his book. In the later years, Kingsbury identified two primary topics of industrial psychology. These include employer-employee relations and the psychology of the consumer.
An example of the earliest examples of research was a study with the professional telegraphers. In this case, they were examining the learning curves of the acquisition of their skills in sending and receiving Morse code. At this period, there was the emphasis on productivity, which influenced most organizational leaders to explore various ways to advertise, sell, and distribute their products. Laura affirms that although advertising was viewed as part of the early industrial psychology, it eventually evolved into a separate discipline. This is known as the consumer psychology. In the late 19th century, the presence of capitalism and the increased emphasis on efficiency forced most companies to decide on how to hire the most qualified employees. In addition to that, there was the development of specialization of labor market. This needed a system in which the individual differences in ability could be identified. The author asserts that most authors agree to the point that personnel selection and the placement issues dominated the industrial psychology at its inception.
In the United States, an early endeavor for the application of psychology occurred after the declaration of World War I. A psychology committee was formed to evaluate the psychological examining program for recruits. Moreover, the committee on classification of personnel was founded in order to enable the army in the selection of recruit officers. Psychologists placed much emphasis…