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As a consequence, these children need to be treated separately and teachers need to focus on assisting them as they learn until they are actually capable to say that they no longer require to be treated individually.
Some people perceive capitalism as an ideology that is created with the purpose of assisting the upper classes achieve success while lower classes suffer. According to them, the school system is designed to help individuals belonging to particular groups learn more rapidly and focus on concepts that they are actually interested of while other groups are provided with what appears to be a just system that is actually intended to keep them focused on growing up to be members of the middle and lower classes. Even with the fact that there are some exceptions regarding social classes, most individuals belonging to a particular social class are unlikely to experience success as long as…
Andersen, Margaret L. And Taylor, Howard F. "Sociology: The Essentials," (Cengage Learning, 2012)
Ballentine, Jeanne H. And Spade, Joan Z. "Schools and Society: A Sociological Approach to Education," (Pine Forge Press, 2008)
Brinkerhoff, David B. White, Lynn K., and Ortega, Suzanne T., "Essentials of Sociology," Cengage Learning, 2007
Garner, Roberta, "Social Theory: Power and identity in the global era," (University of Toronto Press, 2010)
Inequality is an issue that exist throughout the world. According to Samuelsson & Antony (2007) inequality is defined as "the narrow life choices and life chances for individuals and groups of people. If refers not to just what people have; it is not just differences in lifestyle, but also what they can do and what they can be (Samuelsson & Antony, 2007). In most cases minorities, women, poor and the elderly are amongst the groups that are discriminated against the most. These forms of inequality are known as racism, sexism, classism and ageism. All of these forms of inequality decrease the ability of these groups to reach their full potential.
The importance of inequality in the sphere of sociology is associated with the development of a society in which every person can flourish. Inequality does not only have a negative impact upon those that are oppressed or discriminated against, but…
Allan K., Turner J.H. (Autumn, 2000)A Formalization of Postmodern Theory. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 363-385
Brym R.J. (2008). New Society. Toronto: Thomas Nelson.
Freeman, Lance (2006) There Goes the 'hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.
Gentrification." Retrieved January 24, 2009 from; http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gentrification
It is no longer an economically viable option to pursue family life to the exclusion of professional life. Even in households with children (or especially in these households), it has become expected that both men and women would work outside the home. Too often, this trend is driven by economic circumstances rather than professional ambition as such.
It is furthermore significant that men do not occur in high frequency in the advertisements scrutinized. This appears to indicate that men are more oriented towards both family and career, or at least that they are not so concerned with the image of the condo market as their female counterparts. Being more oriented towards both family and career makes more sense for the modern man, as this has been the male paradigm since before the beginning of the female struggle towards more fulfillment than only family life. Men may have a greater tendency…
Brym, R.J. (2008). New Society. Toronto: Thomson & Nelson
The Globe & Mail. 2008
The Toronto Star. 2008
Women could not take part in political discussions and were not allowed to hold public positions, but in the years of empire such principles were changing. Attitude of Romans towards home and family made them seek advices of their wives, in fact women began to enjoy some basic public freedoms.
In years of empire woman got a right to control her own finance, which made her financially independent in case of divorce. Roman women worked seldom, labor was typical only for women from poor classes and slaves.
Since Roman society was based on slave-owning economy, gender roles were also observed among slaves. Female slaves were in more favorable position than male. Female slaves worked mainly at households and took part in child upbringing of their masters.
As we can see, gender roles in Ancient Rome contributed to the development of modern gender relations as they set the basic principles of…
Tuchman, Barbara W. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989.
Lipsitz Bem, Sandra The Lenses of Gender: Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality Yale University Press, 1994
Shulamith Shahar A History of Women in the Middle Ages Routledge, 2003
This is despite that fact that there are supposed to be protections in place for addressing these challenges (such as the Civil ights Act of 1964). (Kolby, n.d.) (Page, 2009)
Annual Income Levels for Men vs. Women
These numbers are showing how women are receiving lower earnings in contrast with men. This is further highlighting the disparities that currently exist with a glass ceiling in place to prohibit their advancement. (Kolby, n.d.) (Page, 2009)
The above tables are demonstrating income inequalities that are occurring based on economic, racial and gender lines. This means that there are widening gaps of income distribution between the various groups. When this happens, there will be class ceilings in place (which are making it difficult for specific demographics to have upward economic mobility). This is the primary reason, why these disparities have become worse and will continue on this…
Kolby. (n.d.). Stagnation and Economic Inequality.
Page, B. (2009). Class War? Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
The paradox of a U.S. national identity involves multiple contradictions, such as citizenship rights promised to U.S. citizens in contrast with differential group discrimination; of external and internal forms of racism with and through one another accepting and excluding certain categories of citizens; of civic and ethnic nationalisms that respond to the established but unstable two-faced U.S. national identity; the combined change and continuity that has allowed American society to constantly and repeatedly transform while retaining a deeply entrenched racial hierarchy; and a deeply gendered or masculine American family ideal that constructs and hides these contradictions, at the same time (Collins 2001).
Addressing these inconsistencies, inequalities and contradictions requires listening to those with different interpretations of how it is to be treated "like one of the U.S. national family" but actually excluded from that U.S. national family altogether (Collins 2001). It will mean finding a way to reconfigure that long-standing…
Collins, Patricia Hill. Race, Ethnicity and the Paradox of U.S. National Identity. University of Cincinnati, 2001. http://www.yorku.ca/gmcr/race_gender_class/racism_files/Collins2001.pdf
Kearl, Michael C. Race and Ethnicity. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 2005. http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/race.html
Rhode Island Foundation and the Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity. Racial and Ethnic Minority Disparities. Brown University, 2004. http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Race_Ethnicity/Disparities_RI/finl%20report4.pdf
Overall, these articles show the complexity of the issue of inequality and suggest that the issue is not as clear as it seems. In considering these articles, it can be seen that there is not even certainty over whether a gap really exists and over how the gap is measured. In addition, there are arguments over whether inequality is really even a problem.
Movin' On Up." Wall Street Journal, August 17, 2000, p. A.22.
The Wealth Divide: The Growing Gap in the United States Between the ich and the est." Multinational Monitor 24.5 (May 2003). etrieved August 8, 2005. Web site: http://www.multinationalmonitor.org/mm2003/03may/may03interviewswolff.html
Boshara, . "Poverty is More Than a Matter of Income." Wall Street Journal, September 29, 2002, p. 4.13.
Francis, D.. "How Social Security Could Narrow ich-Poor Gap." Christian Science Monitor, March 28. 2005). etrieved August 8, 2005. Web site: http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0328/p17s01-cogn.htm
Grier, P. "ich-Poor Gap Gaining Attention." Christian…
Movin' On Up." Wall Street Journal, August 17, 2000, p. A.22.
The Wealth Divide: The Growing Gap in the United States Between the Rich and the Rest." Multinational Monitor 24.5 (May 2003). Retrieved August 8, 2005. Web site: http://www.multinationalmonitor.org/mm2003/03may/may03interviewswolff.html
Boshara, R. "Poverty is More Than a Matter of Income." Wall Street Journal, September 29, 2002, p. 4.13.
Francis, D.R. "How Social Security Could Narrow Rich-Poor Gap." Christian Science Monitor, March 28. 2005). Retrieved August 8, 2005. Web site: http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0328/p17s01-cogn.htm
People often face inequality. hether it is based on gender, race, ethnicity, religion, class, or disability, students may feel at times stifled or stunted in their education based on feelings of inadequacy and experience of inequality. For decades prior to the Civil Rights Movement, blacks and whites remained separated with white children going to good schools and black children going to poorly funded and maintained schools. Although people in the United States have come together to integrate and provide a common playing field for everyone, blacks still experience inequality, with many facing poverty and going to underfunded schools with crowded classrooms and low quality instructors. Therefore, it is important to realize what kind of issues children face today in terms of inequality through learning principles and observing communication while implementing sound strategies. Ten golden nuggets will be utilized from week 5 and week 6 readings in order to…
Knight, David. 'Don'T Tell Young Black Males That They Are 'Endangered." Washington Post. N.p., 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
Lewin, Tamar. 'Black Students Face More Harsh Discipline, Data Shows'.Nytimes.com. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
Murrell, Peter. 'Making Uncommon Sense: Critical Revisioning Professional Knowledge About Diverse Cultural Perspectives In Teacher Education.'Eric.ed.gov. N.p., 1990. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
Rist, Ray. 'Student Social Class and Teacher Expectations: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Ghetto Education'. Harvard Educational Review 40.3 (1870): 411. Web. 14 Mar. 2015.
The questionnaire will comprise of 60 randomized statements, 20 from each domains of Love, Sex, and oles & esponsibilities. Each statement will be evaluated using a 6-point Likert Scale (to reduce the respondent's chances of taking the middle ground) with anchors labeled strongly agree and strongly disagree. Data will be subjected to Split-Half reliability test and Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha to check reliability and to set the questionnaire to its final length.
The same 30 respondents for pre-test will also be answering the Survey of Interpersonal Values (SIV), an inventory that measures the importance of 6 values salient to interpersonal relationships. Of the 6, the researcher hypothesize that 3 are correlated with egalitarianism: Support (receiving kind and considerate treatment; +correlation), Independence (being free to do things in one's own way; +correlation), and Conformity (doing what is socially acceptable and proper; -correlation). The SIV will be used to check the validity of…
Thompson, W. & Hickey, J. (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
King, L.A., King, D.W. (1997). Sex Role Egalitarianism Scale: Development, Psychometric
Properties and Recommendations of Future use. Psychology of Women Quarterly. Vol. 21, 71-87.
Doyle, J.A. (1983). The Male Experience. Wm. C Brown Company, College Division.
Inequalities are useful for when a person wants to demonstrate that there are multiple possible answers to a question, or a range of answers to a particular math question. This example uses body mass index (BMI) as a way of demonstrating how some answers have ranges. The BMI is a rough measure of health based on weight and height. The formula for calculating BMI is as follows: BMI = [W / H2] *703. The following guidelines are suggestive of the relationship between health and weight: 17
Gender Inequality at Workplace
We live in a modern world, a world of advancements and developments. The present era has witnessed the greatest developments of human society and people claim that this era is just and free of inequalities. Despite the large scale developments and the transition to modernism, various inequalities and discriminations, such as racial and socioeconomic disparities, still exist in the society. Gender discrimination, can be regarded as one of the contemporary social problems. In this inequality, the oppressed party, usually the women, suffers a lot. They have to face various issues in relation to education, job opportunities, wage and benefits and unequal treatment. It has been reported by various studies that in the case of recruitment, employers prefer to employ male candidates more as compared to female candidates. In addition to that, the requirements for female candidates are set so high that they find it very difficult…
Hallman, L. (2013). The Simple TruTh about the Gender pay Gap. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women (AAUW). pp. 8-10. http://www.aauw.org/files/2013/02/The-Simple-Truth-2013.pdf [Accessed: 12 Jun 2013].
Klasen, S. And Lamanna, F. (2010). The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Updates and Extensions. Belgium: European Development Research Network (EUDN). pp. 2-6. http://www.eudnet.net/download/wp/EUDN2008_10.pdf [Accessed: 12 Jun 2013].
Lui and Chang (2013). Comparing Attitude toward Gender Inequality -- Based on Data of Eastern and Western Countries . Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. pp. 1-12. http://ricas.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/aasplatform/achivements/pdf/2011_ab_liu.pdf [Accessed: 12 Jun 2013].
Parcheta, N., Kaifi, B. And Khanfar, N. (2013). Gender Inequality in the Workforce: A Human Resource Management Quandary. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 4 (3), pp. 240-246. Retrieved from: http://jbsq.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/March_2013_17.pdf [Accessed: 12 Jun 2013].
inequality"; measured? Do causal relationships "class" "inequality"? Assignment instructions This assignment, covers concepts presented Unit 2, asks prepare essay response (approximately 1600-1700 words, typed/word-processed pages) questions presented .
Throughout the past recent years, the world has evolved at a rapid pace, and this development has been obvious at an economic level, a technological level, but also a social level. Specifically, more and more emphasis is placed on social well-being and the creation of social advantages across nations.
In the direction of social well-being, an increased emphasis is being placed on the elimination of inequality, and the efforts have yet to be fully capitalized upon. In the age of capitalism and globalization, the rich seem to become richer, and the poor become even poorer. While this statement might appear as lyric, it can be backed by several real life examples. One relevant example in this sense is represented by the…
Haughton, J.H., Khandker, S.R., 2009, Handbook on poverty and inequality, World Bank Publications
Kelley, J., Klein, H.S., 1981, Revolution and the rebirth of inequality: a theory applied to the national revolution in Bolivia, University of California Press
Kirch, W., 2008, Encyclopedia of public health, Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Spinger
Milanovic, What is inequality and how to measure it, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=7&ved=0CHEQFjAG&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsiteresources.worldbank.org%2FINTDECINEQ%2FResources%2FInequalitypart1.ppt&ei=lNskUOTqCIvOsgbFnIHACg&usg=AFQjCNEuLB4Q-7__WMrwonbcuV3mstMh8g last accessed on August 10, 2012
inequality in Canada, one of the most interesting, and depressing, factors is the way in which seemingly unrelated demographic factors work together to present difficulties above and beyond those faced by any single group, while simultaneously demonstrating how these seemingly unrelated factors all stem from the same underlying problems. This is particularly true when it comes to women's healthcare, an issue which has already received inadequate attention and support even before one factors in other elements that make access to that healthcare more difficult. hen reading the articles discussing this subject, " Redefining Home Care for omen with Disabilities: A Call for Citizenship," Affirming Immigrant omen's Health: Building Inclusive Health Policy," and " Becoming "The Fat Girl": Acquisition of an Unfit Identity," I was especially struck by how the specific difficulties faced by disabled women, immigrant women, and overweight women are ultimately based on their status as women and the…
Equality and Equity
Inequality within Organizations
Equality and equity: Applications
One of the most notable deficits in equality within my organization is the lack of women in senior management positions. Although women are represented at lower level and middle level positions of leadership, the top leadership remains disproportionately male. One possible reason for this is the fact that women still bear a disproportionate amount of the child-rearing and housekeeping burden in our society. Women are being forced to 'do it all' if they wish to 'have it all.'
When women are not at the upper echelons of leadership in an organization, the organization lacks the input and the perspective of 51% of the population. In social service agencies in particular, which are often given the responsibility of dealing with the unique needs of women and children -- who are more likely to suffer poverty than males -- a lack of…
Cooper, Terry. (2012). The responsible administrator. Jossey-Bass.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. (2012). Why women still can't have it all. The Atlantic. Retrieved:
Today, educational inequalities are experienced in most campuses, and it is getting more vicious day by day. This is because one side does not want to fight, but the other tends to act very bellicose. esearch has shown that this problem pits different groups of people starting from the faculty, staff, administrators and the students. In the United States, education takes the lead toward the realization of pluralistic democracy; this means the government has to ensure that there is total and equal accessibility to educational opportunities for all Americans, at all level and all fields. In summary this paper will analyze the articles provided by identifying the forms of educational inequities and inequality faced by students from minority backgrounds.
According to Michelle & Jessica (2004), in their article of Circuits and consequences of dispossession: the acialized realignment of the public sphere for U.S. youth, the city managed to…
Liesemeyer J, (2004). Greasy Grinds and Quasi-Robots: Rhetoric of Exclusions against Jewish and Asian-American Stuidents in America Universities.
Michelle F, & Jessica R, (2004). Circuits and Consequences of Dispossession: The Racialized Realignment of the Public Sphere for U.S. Youth
Takagi D.Y. (n.d). Admissions and Race in Higher Education.
The modern society is characterized by different issues that face race, ethnicity, culture, and gender. Most of these varying issues in today's society are centered on individual rights because of the increased likelihood of discrimination or prejudice based on different factors including race, gender, ethnicity, and culture. One of the major issues that need to be addressed in today's society is inequality in the United States education system. This is an issue that requires urgent attention because education systems not only reflect inequality levels in the society but also act as indicators of inequality levels for future generations. The increased levels of inequality in the United States education system reflect the level of inequalities in other sectors in the country given the impact on education on these societal facets and aspects.
Generally, education is one of the most important functions of the government because it is the foundation…
Cordes, B. & Miller, G. (n.d.). Inequality of Education in the United States. Retrieved from Rockhurst University website: http://cte.rockhurst.edu/s/945/images/editor_documents/content/PROJECT%20INEQUALITY%20stUDENT%20PAPERS (Listed%20Alphabetically%20by%20P/cordes.pdf
Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2013). Culture and psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Inequality is one of the concerns that have been discussed at length on multiple fronts. Towards this end, some of the topics relating to inequality that have been explored in academia or on the policy front relate to, but they are not limited to; wage inequality, intergenerational income mobility, executive pay, gender pay gaps, wealth inequality, etc. Today, economists, social scientists, policy makers etc. continue to grapple with the issue of inequality. In the realm of economics, we have propositions such as trickle-down economics and middle-out economics.
In basic terms, trickle-down economics has got to do with the assumption that benefits accessed by the wealthy (such as tax breaks) are capable of being trickled down to the rest of the population. Thus, as per this school of thought, everyone in the economy benefits from the increased income of the wealthy (i.e. in terms of increased investments and job…
Gender inequality is often present here. Often, one spouse takes on too many roles, either because the other spouse is not willing to take on these rolls or because the first spouse is, inherently, an overachiever or perfectionist. In this circumstance, it is easy for the spouse who is overwhelmed to become frustrated with his or her mate because he or she feels that the mate is not holding equal responsibility in the marriage. What has been suggested by many feminists and marriage counselors is that couples need to work together to share roles equally in the household, each taking on the roles most conducive to his or her strengths. Also, it is important for each spouse to recognize the contributions that the other makes to the family and thank him or her for these contributions. In this case, then, gender inequality will not exist, and couples will feel appreciated…
His assertion that the idea of "mass production" must also be accompanied by "mass consumption" is based on the idea that the individual has the economic resources to be able to purchase goods. This, by its very nature, implies that income is distributed throughout society, and in situations where it is not, it leads to economic crisis'. In the case of the United States in the 1920's, the kind of income distribution necessary to maintain a mass production economy slowly disappeared into the coffers of a few wealthy individuals. and, "as in a poker game where the chips were concentrated in fewer and fewer hands, the other fellows could stay in the game only by borrowing. When their credit ran out, the game stopped." (Eccles, 1951) Eccles blamed, in part, the extension of private credit, or credit that was provided outside the traditional banking system. This included mortgages, consumer installment…
Downing, David. (2001). The Great Depression. Chicago, Il: Reed Educational & Professional Publishing. Print.
Eccles, Marriner. (1951). Beckoning Frontiers. New York: Knopf. Retrieved from http://www.mtnmath.com/banana/greatDepr.html
Hall, Thomas, and J. David Ferguson. (1998). The Great Depression: An
International Disaster of Perverse Economic Policies. Michigan, USA:
There are certain specific factors associated with the rich. As along as one can afford decent shelter, sumptuous meals; better education and access better health care then such a person cannot be said to be poor. It is so natural for the rich to remain healthy and live longer than the poor. They lead an easy life, for instance, it is unheard of for a business executive to go without food or sleep out on a park bench. They understate the equally undisputable fact that by equitably distributing and allocating wealth human injustices and misery can be prevented. It is important to note that unfair distribution of wealth is not a recent phenomenon or something unique to America but it is a situation that humanity has faced since the start of civilization. Most contemporary economic systems, unfortunately, worsen this situation by extolling, defending and promoting this brutal distribution…
Appelbaum, B. (2014, October 17). Janet Yellen Warns of Inequality Threat. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
Domhoff, W. (n.d.). Who Rules America: Wealth, Income, and Power.Retrieved November 2, 2014.
Dunn, A. (2012, March 21). Average America vs. The One Percent.Retrieved November 2, 2014.
Fieldhouse, A. (2013, June 14). Rising Income Inequality and the Role of Shifting Market-Income Distribution, Tax Burdens, and Tax Rates.Retrieved November 2, 2014.
Inequality in Marriage in English Literature
Although existing from the dawn of history itself, marriage as an institution has greatly changed its scope and purpose in time. Thus, before the modern period, marriage was an arrangement between two parts, functioning almost as a social contract and meant to serve particular proposes. Marriage used to be one of the most important institutions in society, as it was the only acceptable way to have and raise children and thus perpetuate the human race. It was almost a social indecency to shrink from marrying and to lead an independent life. Moreover, once a marriage was contracted, a divorce would have been unacceptable. For some men, marriage was a source of dowry or a means of getting a better social position. For women though, for the longest time, marriage had been the only means of survival, something that their very existence depended on. In…
Coontz, Stephanie. Marriage, a History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage. New York: Viking, 2003.
Three 'Rules' That Don't Apply; A Historian Upends Conventional Wisdom." Newsweek (June 5, 2006): 49.
Crittenden, Ann. "Knot for all." The American Prospect 16.5 (May 2005): 38(2).
Cruea, Susan M. "Changing ideals of womanhood during the nineteenth-century woman movement." ATQ (The American Transcendental Quarterly) 19.3 (Sept 2005): 187(18).
economic growth and inequality necessarily compliments?
Economic Growth and Inequality
The relationship between economic growth and economic inequality has been thoroughly studies throughout the decades. Some of the theoreticians in the field claim that economic inequality has a positive effect on economic growth, while others have concluded that the effect is actually a negative one, because of the costs it implies, and a more economically equal situation would be preferable.
However, practice reveals even more complex implications of the phenomenon of economic inequality on economic growth. Several studies have revealed that in poor countries, economic inequality reduces inhibits economic growth, compared to richer countries, where inequality stimulates economic growth.
Economic inequality also has social implications. A high level of inequality usually leads to social cohesion, for example, which may further lead to social pressures on the government, strikes or other social manifestations in certain circumstances.
Although inequality has social, political…
1. Von Mises, Ludwig (1996). Human Action: A Treatise of Economics. Chapter XXXV The Welfare Principle vs. The Market Principle. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from http://www.mises.org/humanaction/chap35sec3.asp .
2. Gini coefficient (2009). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/Index.aspx?QueryId=11353 .
3. Barro, R.J. (1999). Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries. Harvard University. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/barro/files/p_inequalitygrw.pdf .
4. Economic Growth and Income Inequality: Reexamining the Links (1996). The World Bank. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from http://www.worldbank.org/fandd/english/0397/articles/0140397.htm .
Inequalities ampant Among the DOD and Associated Agencies: An Analysis of Affirmative Action Efforts in the Military and Civilian Workforce
There have been numerous initiatives in recent years targeted at eliminating discrimination and under-representation among minorities and the disabled in the civilian workforce. However within the Department of Defense/Navy and other branches of the military, there is still a discrepancy of representation with regard to minority candidates. Today the DOD is working together with multiple agencies in order to establish affirmative action oriented recruitment, retaining and promotions programs that will specifically attract minority and disabled candidates, in an attempt to eliminate the discrepancies that currently exist with regard to representation. There have been numerous articles and reports that have analyzed the DOD's and Navy's combined efforts to improve representation, two of which are closely examined below.
Analysis of DOD and Civilian Workforce Initiatives
There is ample evidence that suggests that…
Bowling, J. (1995). "Equal employment opportunity: women and minority representation at interior, agriculture and Navy." U.S. General Accounting Office, Retrieved May 1, 2005: http://ww.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt-GGD-95-211
DOD. (2003). "DODD 1440.1, May 21, 1987." November 21, 2003 Department of Defense. Retrieved May 1, 2005: http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html2/d14401x.htm
Sample, D. (2003 -- Feb). "EEO staff encourages black students to consider DoD job opportunities." American Forces Press Service. United States Department of Defense, Retrieved May 01, 2005: http://www.defense.gov/news/Feb2003/n02262003_2003022610.html
Inequalities Are Made and emade South Wales
The objective of this work is to examine the way that inequalities are made and remade in South Wales. As this study will relate, there are inherent inequalities in South Wales both historically and traditionally. The work of Winckler (2009) entitled "Equality Issues in Wales: A esearch eview" that statistics on equality in Wales is based on measurements relating to race, gender, disability, age, sexual orientation, and religion. The report states that there are 10,000 refugees and 2,500 asylum seeker in Wales, in addition to 2,000 Gypsy Travelers. Men are outnumbered by women. 29% of the population is 60 years old or older. An approximate 27% of the adult population is disabled.
Poverty and Social Exclusion
Winckler states that sufficient evidence exists to make the conclusion that ethnic minority groups along with individuals who are disabled and children and young people as well…
Moore, H. And Jorm, L. (nd) Measuring Health Inequalities in New South Wales. NSW Public Health Bulletin. Vol. 12 No. 4.
Regional Inequalities in Wales (2011) Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research. Data and Methods. WISERD. Retrieved from: http://www.wiserd.ac.uk/research/quantitative/regional-inequalities-in-wales/
Winckler, V. (2009) Equality Issues in Wales: A Research Review. Equality and Human Rights Commission. Spring 2009. Research Report 11. The Bevan Foundation.
Murray characterizes educational romantics as people who believe that the academic achievement of children is determined mainly by the opportunities they receive and has little to do with their intellectual capacity. Educational romantics believe the current K-12 education system is in need of vast improvement.
Murray describes two types of educational romantics, one set on the Left and one on the ight, and differentiates between the two thusly:
"Educational romantics of the Left focus on race, class, and gender. It is children of poor parents, and girls whose performance is artificially depressed, and their academic achievement will blossom as soon as they are liberated from the racism, classism, and sexism embedded in American education. Those of the ight see public education as an ineffectual monopoly, and think that educational achievement will blossom when school choice liberates children from politically correct curricula and obdurate teachers' unions (Murray, 2008)."
Both of these…
Bluestone, B. (2001, December 10). The inequality express. The American Prospect. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://prospect.org/article/inequality-express
Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. (1976). Education and inequality. In Schooling in capitalistic America: Educational reform and contraditions of economic life. New York: Basic Books Inc., 347-352. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://homepage.smc.edu/delpiccolo_guido/Soc1/soc1readings/education%20and%20inequality_final.pdf
Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York: Random House.
Murray, C. (2008). The age of educational romanticism. The New Criterion, Vol. 26, Issue 9, 35-42. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=c1982738-7db5-4e79-a111-f63982ce3e61%40sessionmgr111&hid=106
inequalities there needs to be a curb injustice and prejudice that occurs. A country should be considered to be like a family where the weakest is protected against the strongest who may consciously or unconsciously wrong them. It also must not be forgotten that the weakest are not to be excused for breaking the law, as no one should be above the law. All individuals need to be treated as equals, and hence, also deserve equal rights in status; caste, color or creed should not have any bearing on the way that one is treated.
Being contemporary human beings, it is about time that primitive beliefs are deemed irrelevant. A political set up that is independent of religious influences is perhaps the most appropriate for a country because of the fact that more people will eventually be brought closer together.
Considering the ongoing discrimination, it appears that this is the…
1. Arce, R. (2004) Massachusetts court upholds same-sex marriage. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/LAW/02/04/gay.marriage/
2. A Cockeyed Contention (2003) http://www.tompaine.com/feature2.cfm/ID/9549
inequalities in the distribution of resources and services to client populations of the organization you selected. Explain the impact of the inequalities on clients and the organization.
Equality and equity of access: What's the difference?
Equality is a common phrase used in the rhetoric of American democracy. But equality and sameness are not synonyms. Having to be 'the same' as everyone else is not equality at all. For example, for persons of minority religions, being prohibited from practicing their religion or even being forced to obey certain dictates that are in conflict with their religious codes can threaten their equal rights, even though violating their religious taboos might make them more 'the same' as everyone else. Not providing a supportive instruction program to ESL students does not make these students more equal, in relation to their peers, even if 'the same' education is offered to all students.
Doing away with…
Social Stratification and Social Mobility
Systems of social stratification
The systems refer to the manner that the society utilizes in ranking individuals in a hierarchy. Undeniably, the classifications suffice the reality that some groups of individuals possess greater wealth, power, and status compared to others. Differences in the groups of individuals describe the nature of social stratification. Social inequality occurs as a significant aspect of the society as it facilitates the smooth operation of the society. For example, high rewards lure and motivate highly talented individuals to perform involving tasks such as brain surgery. On the other, most individuals can perform blue-collar jobs such as cleaning toilets and mowing grass thereby limiting its level of returns.
The open class system allows social interactions between classes that rely on achievements, prevalent in industrialized nations. On the other hand, the closed class system confirms on the social status of individuals and ancestral…
Gane, Nicholas (2005). Max Weber as Social Theorist 'Class, Status, Party'. European Journal of Social Theory, 8(2):211-226
Resnikoff, Ned (2014, November 11). Global inequality is a rising concern for elites. Aljazeera America. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/11/11/global-inequalityisarisingconcernforelites.html
Inequalities in Mental Health
Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)
The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…
Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
ichard Mitchell and Professor Daniel Dorling from the University of Leeds and Dr. Mary Shaw from the University of Bristol on the parliamentary constituencies of Britain revealed a number of social policy scenarios. The study traced the impact of the variations to society that might be brought through the effective execution of three social and economic policies. Firstly, they examined the efficacy of the policy of modest redistribution of wealth to counteract the health inequalities. During the decades 1980s and 1990s there were a considerable variation in the wealth possessions of rich and poor reflected in the major variations in their health enumerated by mortality rates. The study revealed that by returning to the inequalities in wealth of 1983 about 7500 deaths annually could have been prevented. (educing health inequalities in Britain)
The study assessed the impact of such policy to be most effective in the Birmingham Ladywood constituency in…
Health inequalities kill thousands" (27 September, 1999) Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/456807.stm . Accessed 3 September, 2005
Introduction to health inequalities" Retrieved at http://www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/HealthInequalities/HealthInequalitiesGeneralInformation/HealthInequalitiesGeneralArticle/fs/en-CONTENT_ID=4079644&chk=8WiiZg. Accessed 3 September, 2005
Link BG; Phelan JC. (May, 2005) "Fundamental Sources of Health Inequalities" Policy
Challenges in Modern Health Care. pp: 71-84. Retrieved at http://www.rwjf.org/research/researchdetail.jsp?id=1944&ia=141 . Accessed 4 September, 2005
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
ecent proposals to privatize Social Security and cut Medicaid funding would thus exacerbate the equity gaps that already exist." (Center for American Progress, 2004)
When a young black man is accepted into a university-based wholly on quota requirements even though he may have had less success in High School compared to a young white man, then we must again redefine our word - inequality. Who is worse off in this case? Consider that in this scenario, it may in fact be an advantage for a person to be young and black but as the scale tips with age, that same advantage becomes a liability. The answer to our question then, at least for this example, is maybe.
Economic independence may be the outcome when wage work is an option. but, there are many scenarios where wage work puts people into an even worse economic setting. Consider that minorities…
Carden, William Art (2003). What is Wealth Inequality? Ludwig von Mises Institute, May 22, 2003,. Retrieved March 16, 2005, from Ludwig von Mises Institute Web Site: http://www.mises.org/fullstory.aspx?control=1229
Center for American Progress. (2004, March 26). Inequality in America. Retrieved March 16, 2005, at http://www.americanprogress.org/site/pp.asp?c=biJRJ8OVF&b=40526
Are healthcare inequalities UK
Defining Health Inequality
The term healthcare disparity or healthcare differences have been defined in a number of ways. Healthcare inequality can be defined as the difference of the health levels of any tow comparable demographic groups within a certain country or a region even when proper healthcare facilities are available. The inclusive incidences include higher rates of mortality as well as morbidity within the people who belong to lower occupational classes and are poorer. These rates are higher as compared to the mortality rates in the people who belong to better occupational classes being richer and more privileged. Second important aspect that has been highlighted in the definitions of healthcare inequality includes increased rates of occurrence of mental healthcare-based issues in people from poor classes.
A number of countries have been highlighted with healthcare inequalities including Canada and UK. Since 1980, the documentation of…
Asthana, S, and Dr. Halliday, J 2006, What works in tackling health inequalities?: pathways, policies and practice through the life course, Studies in poverty, inequality, and social exclusion, The Policy Press.
Barron K. 2009, Health inequalities: written evidence; Volume 422 of HC SeriesPaper (Great Britain. Parliament. (Session 2007-08). House of Commons)) Written evidence, The Stationery Office.
Davies P. 2007, The NHS in the UK 2007/08, 9th edn, The NHS Confederation.
Dowler E. 2007, Challenging health inequalities: from Acheson to choosing health, Health and Society Series, The Policy Press.
.. when every citizen is given the full chance to reach his or her potential." (Celimene and riys)
This understanding of equality remains true "... As long as we do not remain unequal in residual (unwanted) risks. That is as long as inequality is not rooted in pure random events. Otherwise this inequality is bad, a true divide indeed!" (Celimene and riys).
What Dornbusch is saying in effect is that inequality is a positive aspect that flows from the different talents, motivational elements and market forces that normally occur in a free market economy. He does not view inequality that is a result of outside factors that are imposed, such as discrimination and oppression, in a positive light. Only inequality that results from natural differences and different degrees of individual effort and motivation is considered to be "good." In this regard I would tend to agree with his views.
Dornbusch R. (1999) a CENTURY of UNRIVALLED PROSPERITY. Retrieved August 4, 2007, at http://www.esi2.us.es/~mbilbao/pdffiles/dornbus2.pdf .
Celimene F. And Briys E. Globalisation and Risk Sharing: Debunking Some
Common Pitfalls. Retrieved August 3, 2007 at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:tgVua2zoKeEJ:cyberlibris.typepad.com/blog/files/Haiti2.doc+DORNBUSCH+STATES+POVERTY+IS+BAD,+but+INEQUALITY+IS+NOT%22&l=en&t=clnk&d=2&l=u
Then, in 1000 a.D., Polynesian farmers colonized New Zeeland -- the group would break into two tribes, the Maori and the Moriori, who would later on collide (Diamond).
In 1500 a.D., Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil and claimed it as a territory for his country. The period also represented an ascension in arts, as numerous works, such as sculptures and cathedrals, had been completed. Books were being printed; advancements were being made in literacy and more focus was being placed on the learning process, with the opening of learning institutions; diplomatic services and approaches were gaining momentum; more inventions were being made and the first forms of copy right and patents emerged (Timeline). All these developments were however occurring in the more developed states, such as Spain, France, the Netherlands or Portugal.
Given this situation, as well as Diamond's theory of world evolution, it could be argued that…
Diamond, J.M., 1997, Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, W.W. Norton
2009, Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, Barnes & Noble Website, http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbninquiry.asp?r=1&ean=0393038912 last accessed on September 25, 2009
Guns, Germs and Steel, About the Book, Jared Diamond, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/about/jared.htmllast accessed on September 25, 2009
Jared Diamond: Why Is the World so Unequal? Yonsei University, Retrieved from www.yeh.pe.kr/s2/report_down.php?d_uid=160&PHPSESSID on September 26, 2009
New Inequality by Richard B. Freeman whereby he has given certain viewpoints about the income inequality problems in the United States.
Richard B. Freeman in his book The New Inequality has discussed about the income inequality problems that are prevalent in the United States. The same has risen to unexpectedly high levels. He has told one and all about the unfathomable experiences attached with earnings of low-paid Americans as well as income recession that has hit these people consisting of nearly 80% of all American families. This paper discusses the issues attached with inequality with respect to incomes of the Americans.
Argument of the Author
The argument provided by Freeman in his book is pretty solid and conclusive in stating what is the current problem with the American families in the times of today as well as what needs to be done in order to plug the gap between the…
Author Unknown, Solving The New Inequality Boston Review: A Political and Literary Forum
Poverty and Inequality Among Children
Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).
In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…
1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309307
2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. http://links.jstor.org/sici=0360-0572%281997%2923%3C121%APAIAC%E2.0.C )%3B2-L
3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995. http://pangaea.org/street_children/nameri/poor.htm
4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003. http://www.migrationinformation.com/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=188
Gender equality establishes the concept and attitude of unbiased and impartial allocation of corporate resources and prospects involving men and women. It establishes equality for men and women in terms of opportunity in social circles. But the corporate world is based on certain gender norms and stereotypes of role provisions. Hence these roles have made certain divisive identities (Sharma, & Sharma, 2012). The social norms of women being the housewife and caretaker of the family have infected eastern and western civilization. Corporations have been hiring women for mid-level and lower level positions, but they are blocked from top level positions (Ntermanakis, as cited by Mihail 2006).
According to Schein, Mueller, Lituchy and Liu (1996), women are afflicted with the typical think-manager-think male norm. In Nichols (1994) opinion, the popular opinion is that women aren't cut out for the tough decisions and roles of management position; hence they are kept out…
Lyman, L.L., Ashby, D.E., & Tripses, J.S. (2005). Leaders who dare: Pushing the boundaries. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Merchant, K., (2012). How Men and Women Differ: Gender differences in Communication Styles, Influence Tactics and Leadership Styles. Retrieved 29 September 2014 from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1521&context=cmc_theses
Michailidis, M.P., Morphitou, R.N., & Theophylatou, I.I. (2012). Women at work equality vs. inequality: barriers for advancing in the workplace. International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 23(20), 4231-4245. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.665071
Ryan, M.K., & Haslam, S.A. (2007). The glass cliff: Exploring the dynamics surrounding the appointment of women to precarious leadership positions. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 549-572.
In a 2003 issue of Monthly Review, Tony Platt writes that the U.S. has the most regressive system of welfare for the poor among developed nations and in recent years it has become even more punitive (Platt pp).
The New Yorker Fact eb site is a site that contains the latest issue of the New Yorker magazine. The essay for October 21, 2005 was titled "Day Stripper: Clothing-optional swimmers get into trouble with the natives" by Mark Singer, discussing nudist in New England.
Birdsall, Nancy. "hy inequality matters: some economic issues."
Ethics and International Affairs. October 01, 2001. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Bradbury, Katharine L. "The growing inequality of family income: changing families and changing wages." New England Economic Review. July 01, 1996. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Malamud, Deborah C. "ho they are - or were:…
Birdsall, Nancy. "Why inequality matters: some economic issues."
Ethics and International Affairs. October 01, 2001. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Bradbury, Katharine L. "The growing inequality of family income: changing families and changing wages." New England Economic Review. July 01, 1996. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Malamud, Deborah C. "Who they are - or were: middle-class welfare in the early New
Systems of Power and Inequality
In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…
Anderson, M.L. And Hill Collins, P. (2009). Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V., and Winter, D.D. (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thorton, B. (2006). Critical consciousness and liberal education, In Watson, B. (2006) Civic Education and Culture.
Wilkerson, M. (2012, March 8). Kony 2012 campaign: Oprah and bracelets won't solve problem. The Guardian.
One can run up against the barriers of entrenched social class, or perhaps lack certain required distinctions or certifications that readily confer status. hile few modern nations claim to possess hereditary classes, most do possess groups of individuals who control vast amounts of family wealth, and the power that goes with it. Many other individuals, by virtue of the social status of their families possess at least the resources to obtain college degrees, or open businesses of their own - all things that will improve their social status. Others lack these things and seem, despite socio-political theories to the contrary, to be condemned to a life as low status individuals. As in the past, inequality exists today, even in a supposedly equal society.
Angle, John. "The Surplus Theory of Social Stratification and the Size Distribution of Personal ealth." Social Forces 65.2 (1986): 293-326.
Angle, John. "The Surplus Theory of Social Stratification and the Size Distribution of Personal Wealth." Social Forces 65.2 (1986): 293-326.
Maisels, Charles Keith. Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India, and China. London: Routledge, 2001.
The gender-based sexual double standard is logically indefensible on any level.
Piercing the thin veil of justifications offered supporting it requires little more than substitution of the identity of the subjects in any hypothetical or analogy based on the premise. Nevertheless, it persists throughout most of American culture, and sadly, its manifestations in the Western World are infinitely more benign than the cruelty it inspires elsewhere. Ultimately, its roots lie both in the usefulness of rationalization for justifying the truly immoral pursuit of sexual conquests by deception, and (likely) male psychological fears of sexual inadequacy whose details far exceed the scope of this essay.
Baker, ., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey eports on Sexual behavior in…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey Reports on Sexual behavior in the Human Male and Female. New York: Mentor
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essential of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
nature of inequality between the north and south, he has to understand the role of technology in the international system. Someone who would say such a thing overlooks the fact that it's not the amount of technology that counts, but how you use it that matters. In the wealthiest western nations, the use of technology has been actively directed by well-regulated capital lending mechanisms. These financial instruments allow inventors, laborers, and merchants to borrow money at interest that can later be repaid within the context of a legal environment that protects property and contracts.
According to Weatherby, the tragedy of the third world has four culprits: dependence on the west, delayed modernization, increasing population, and the unequal distribution of wealth. He argues that even if all third world countries don't possess these qualities; that each possesses two or three of them. If the lack of modernization is to serve as…
Angloplat Goes the Extra Mile to Pioneer Black Empowerment. Sunday Times; November 10th 2002.
Immanuel Wallerstein, The Eagle Has Crash Landed. Foreign Policy, July, 2002.
Between Here and There. The Economist, July 5, 2001.
Does Population Matter? The Economist, December 5, 2002.
Education Inequality: A Sociological Perspective
One of the most important aspects of life today is probably education. Without a high quality of education, especially on the tertiary level, it is very difficult to find gainful employment or to advance in one's chosen career. For this reason, one of the great tragedies in the world today is social inequality and the educational inequality that goes along with it. Even if "jobs" were provided for every single homeless or unemployed individual in the country, this would be little more than a band aid; it would be hopeless inadequate to address the larger and longer-term problem, which is a basic inequality in education. Starting at the primary level, children whose parents can afford to place them in private schools receive a far better education than those in the public school system. When they have completed primary and secondary education, there is again income-related…
Sociological Perspectives on Education. (2015). Retrieved from: https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_sociology-understanding-and-changing-the-social-world-comprehensive-edition/s19-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
In order to reduce the negative implications of social inequality, based on race, ethnicity or even economic features, researcher James Jackson promotes three broad recommendations. They are as follows:
development of a sustained, comprehensive focus by government and private and public organizations on providing greater economic opportunities in education, employment and intergenerational transfer of wealth enforcement of existing Civil ights legislation and regulations to eliminate continuing, persistent racial and ethnic discrimination in housing, employment, schooling and the criminal justice system, and identification of common objectives among racial and ethnic minority groups to produce workable, long-lasting coalitions" (Jackson)
The past century has witnessed improvements in the conditions of the white immigrants to the United States and this has materialized in reduced crimes and punishments within the Chinese and Japanese communities. The improvements in their situation have been based on increasing socioeconomic status. The same cannot however be said about…
Hawkins, D.F., Herring, C., Race, Crime and Punishment: Old Controversies and New Challenges
Jackson, J.S., African-American Prospects in the 21st Century: A Framework for Strategies and Policies
Analysis of the Price of Inequality
In the year 2013, issues of socioeconomic inequality are perhaps as pressing and problematic as they have ever been. This is the assertion at the crux of Joseph E. Stiglitz text, The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future (ISBN-13: 9780393345063). Released in 2012 by .. Norton & Company publishers, the 560-page text is a timely and compelling contribution to the current public discourse on our need for greater economic equality in the United States.
Understanding the orientation of the text at the center of this analysis requires a more complete understanding of its author, the economist, Columbia professor and winner of 2001's Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. According to his self-composed biography at the Memorial Foundation site, Stiglitz (2001) was born in Gary Indian in 1943. By his own report, his interests as a young student would lead…
Chinni, D. (2012). 'The Price of Inequality' and 'The Betrayal of the American Dream.' Jefferson Institute.
Columbia University. (2013). Curriculum Vitae-Stiglitz. Gsb.columbia.edu.
Edsall, T.B. (2012). Separate and Unequal. The New York Times.
Stiglitz, J.E. (2001). Biographical. The Nobel Foundation.
Educational Inequality Along acial Lines
The role of education in the American society cannot be overemphasized. Education plays an important role in equipping students with knowledge and skills for transforming their life and the society at large. Also, the education system instills appropriate values, behaviors, and attitudes in students, making them useful members of the society. Nonetheless, while education is important, it tends to reinforce the existing social inequality, particularly along racial lines. Funding inequalities and learning outcomes between schools from privileged backgrounds and those from unprivileged backgrounds attest to this. This paper examines inequality in education along racial lines. The paper specifically focuses on four aspects: the role of education from two sociological perspectives; the role of funding in producing educational inequality along racial lines; America's cultural diversity (in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and class) and the educator's role in promoting cultural diversity; as well as an anti-racist…
Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. (2014). Restoring opportunity: the crisis of inequality and the challenge for American Education. Boston: Harvard Education Press.
Farley, J. (2012). Majority-Minority Relations. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: theory, research, and practice. 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press.
Parrillo, V. (2009). Diversity in America. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press.
Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality etween The Sexes
Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.
At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties…
Bartlett, K. (1993) Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, and Commentary, New York: Little,
Brown & Company (1993).
Feitz, A. (1999) 'Feminist Scholarship: A Classic Oxymoron?', in Enterstageright.com: Enter
Stage Right. http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/1099femspeak.htm accessed on January 5, 2005.
Price of Inequality
In the wake of the most recent economic downturn and an apparently ongoing depression in the world markets, many economists, political scientists, and social theorists have examined the roots of these dire times. For the most part, it appears that many blame "unstoppable developments" (Edsall, 2012), and particularly in the forms of globalization and automation, as being responsible. Joseph E. Stiglitz uses his new work, The Price of Inequality, to outline his reasons for not believing that these forces are unstoppable or even inevitable. Instead, Stiglitz suggests that, by addressing the political and economic roots of inequality in an integrated way, new frameworks can be constructed for a better and more sustainable economy.
According to Stiglitz (2012), the main driving force for the "two-tier" society in evidence today is the somewhat toxic integration of politics with the economy. According to Stiglitz, politics have played a major role…
Case, J. (2012, June 12). Review of The Price of Inequality. Political Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.politicalaffairs.net/review-of-the-price-of-inequality/Here%20are%20some%20useful%20note%20for%20the%20book
Edsall, T.B. (2012, Aug. 3). Separate and Unequal: "The Price of Inequality" by Joseph E. Stiglitz. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/05/books/review/the-price-of-inequality-by-joseph-e-stiglitz.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1& ;
Stiglitz, J.E. (2012). The Price of Inequality. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company.
The numbers are converted into a point, and that point is used as a test point to see if they fall within the shaded area of the graph. If the test point is in shaded area, the combination can fit. If the test point is outside of the shaded area, then the combination will not work. This can also be determined by plugging the numbers into the equation for the linear equality, which can provide more precise answers than a quick visual assessment from a graph, particularly if the point is close to the line created by the linear inequality.
The first question asked is: will the truck hold 71 refrigerators and 118 TVs? Those numbers are plugged into the equation y = ? -3x + 330. The number sentence resulting is: 118 ? -3(71) + 330? Simplified, that sentence reads 118 ? 117. Clearly that is false. Therefore, the…
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
Income Inequality and Education
A Human Capital Inequality and the Composition of Education Expenditure
Hwang, Jinyoung. (2011). A cross-country analysis of human capital inequality and the composition of education expenditure. European Journal of Social Sciences, 24 (1):
According to Hwang (2011), it has been observed in previous literature that substantially inequitable societies in terms of income distribution tend to spend more on tertiary education (university-level education) than lower-level education. "Wealth distribution is a plausible explanation for the distributional bias of government expenditure on education, as long as the distribution of wealth determines the existence and number of organized group[s] in an economy" (Hwang 2011: 97). This discrepancy could be explained by the fact that the rich tend to send their children to private schools not subsidized by the state for lower-level education, or to better-funded, locally funded secondary institutions and thus only need substantial federal support for education at the…
This is important, because utilizing technology to deliver various health care solutions will: increase collaboration, improve the underlying amounts of care and it can help to reduce costs. Once this takes place, it means that implementing various changes can be easier.
When a health care professional encounters an Asian patient in their practice, what are at least three characteristics he/she should consider in order to improve communication and cultural competence in delivering services to this patient and tell why those characteristics are important to consider.
Three characteristics that should be considered would include: family, communication and the concept of time. Family matters to Asian patients, as this is their foundation for strength and support. Communication is important, with these patients more focused on body languages and pauses (to signify substance vs. The actual words). Time will be different between the two cultures, as Asian patients will place less of an…
Cultural Values of Asian Patients. (2009). Dimensions of Culture. Retrieved from: http://www.dimensionsofculture.com/home/cultural_values_of_asian_patients_families
Define Culture. (2010). Roshan Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.roshan-institute.org/templates/System/details.asp?id=39783&PID=474552
Values. (2010). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/values.html
On the contrary, he uses the pretext of working as a male nurse on trading ships of the Argentine national shipping-company to travel to several countries of Latin America, such as Brazil and Venezuela. During one of his voyages he meets two people who would change his views and ultimately, his entire life: Doctor Hugo Pesce in Peru and Fidel astro who shares he's revolutionary vision. Upon graduating from Medical School, influenced by the widespread poverty and social decay affecting Latin America, he devotes himself to the profound study of Marxism, political economy and other related disciplines; it is precisely during this stage in he's life that he realizes his vocation had shifted from medical to revolutionary.
he Guevara. he Guevara Politics. The ommunist Party. Online. Available from the Internet:
http://www.thechestore.com/he-Guevara-politics.php, accessed 6 September 2007.
Books and Writers. he Guevara. Online. Available from the Internet: http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/guevar.htm, accessed 7 September 2007.…
Che Guevara Politics, the Communist Party. http://www.thechestore.com/Che-Guevara-politics.php
Che Guevara. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/guevar.htm
Che Guevara Politics, Marxist-Leninist Education. http://www.thechestore.com/Che-Guevara-politics.php
HG Wells' the Time Machine reminds me of the contemporary state of the world and its problems that can actually be reduced to three attributes: environmental causes, political conditions, and economic conditions.
The Eloi seem at first sight to be a peaceful Utopian community who, although not intellectual, has used technology to control their environment and to make it work for them. Only through the duration of the book and more significantly much later, does the narrator realize that the activities of the Eloi have actually despoiled the environment. The traveler travels ahead to approximately 30 million years ahead of his own time and sees lecherous insects swarm over the country and ravage it. The further he travels, the more closely he sees the earth's rotation gradually cease, the planet become increasingly colder, and the Earth become a more forbidding, dank, and lifeless place. Eloi and similar civilizations…
Wells, HG The definitive Time machine: a critical edition of H.G. Well's scientific romance Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Schwartz-Nobel, Loretta. Poisoned nation: pollution, greed, and the rise of deadly epidemics
New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
Jenkins, M. What's gotten into us?: staying healthy in a toxic world. New York: Random House, 2011.
Television shows and the perpetuation of gender inequality
The television and media in general plays a key role in shaping the mentality of the viewers and in effect creating a culture for a nation. The American TV has continuously portrayed the white males as the main subject and players in their programming. Indeed they account for two thirds of the characters on TV with women diminished in number and role. The women, when brought into the scene are often portrayed as obsessed with their beauty, they are thin, passive, young and predominantly concerned with their relationships. These are depictions that place the female gender way below the males since the females are seen to be playing a very remote and insignificant roles as compared to the men in those TV programs, this translates to how women are seen in the real life situation.
On the other hand, men are depicted…
Gender biases and stereotypes persist at almost every level and in every area of society. Often, the differential treatment given to males and females is subtle and deeply ingrained, taken so much for granted that most people are unaware that they are perpetuating gender bias. For example, adults treat male and female children differently, speaking to them using different tones of voice, reacting differently to their actions, and showing subtle signs of approval or disapproval when the child does or does not conform to gender norms. Even parents who claim to be progressive and egalitarian unconsciously pass on gender norms and stereotypes because they are just reacting to children the way they have been programmed and patterned to act. Boys are expected to be more aggressive, more physical, and less sensitive or emotional than girls. Sometimes the differential treatment reverberates, leading to unequal treatment with meaningful life outcomes such as…
Economic Inequalities: Deep-ceded Problems in America
New York is a city that is synonymous with America to many people and societies around the world. New York city is a land of freedom and opportunity, symbolized by Lady Liberty in New York harbor. This is a place that does not discriminate based on background, but allows people to chart their own destinies. Or does it? The New York of the 1960s or even the 1990s does not exist anymore. Economic inequality has run rampant in New York as it has in many metropolitan cities. Bill Moyers, economist reported that “Among our largest, richest 20 metro areas, less than 50 percent of the homes are affordable.’ In New York City, he said, ‘Inequality in housing has reached Dickensian dimensions’” (Winship). This paper will explore how the economic inequality is undermining the very democratic principles that shaped this country. When there’s too much…
linear equation and a linear inequality be solved in the same way? Explain why. What makes them different? Team B
A linear equation and a linear inequality can be solved the same except for very specific scenarios: one flips the inequality sign whenever multiplying or dividing by a negative (Staples, 2012). What makes them different is that the answer will not be a single number, but a range of numbers.
Stapel, E. (2012). Solving inequalities: An overview. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from Purplemath.com website: http://www.purplemath.com/modules/ineqsolv.htm
What are the four steps for solving a problem? Should any other factors be accounted for when solving a problem? Should any factors be accounted for when explaining how to solve a problem? Explain your answer.
The four steps for solving a problem are to: remove grouping symbols, clear fractions, isolate the unknown variable on one side, and check the answer. Removing grouping signals involves…
Poverty Income Inequality and Female Labor Market Participation
1.1. Problem Statement
Today's global inequality and poverty is an outcome of two successive centuries of unequal progress, and eradication remains one of the greatest global challenges. The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) identified that 22 percent of the world population (1.3 billion people) live with multi-dimensional poverty, with 42 percent living in Sub Saharan Africa and 41 percent living in South Asia. Every multidimensionally poor person is deprived of multiple poverty indicators which include health, education, and standards of living indicators, which include cooking fuel, drinking water, sanitation, electricity, housing, and asset ownership (UNDP, 2020). The different levels of poverty and income inequality are a manifestation of differences in gender labor participation. According to the International Labor Organization estimates, the women labor force participation rate of 49% is disproportionately lower than the men labor force participation rate of 75% and…
Cipollone, A., Patacchini, E., & Vallanti, G. (2014). Female labor market participation in Europe: novel evidence on trends and shaping factors. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-9012-3-18
ILO. (2016). Global Gender Gap Report. In Encyclopedia of Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119085621.wbefs350
ILO. (2017). World Employment Social Outlook. In Report. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_579893.pdf
Ntuli, M. (2014). Determinants of South African Women\\\\' s Labour Force Participation, 1995- IZA DP No . 3119 Determinants of South African Women\\\\' s Labour Force Participation, 1995 – 2004 Miracle Ntuli October 2007 Forschungsinstitut Institute for the Study of Labor. November 2007, 1995–2004.
OECD. (2019). Measuring the impact of social protection on inclusive growth. In Can Social Protection Be an Engine to Inclusive Growth (pp. 21–37). OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/a43dc9c3-en
Raihan, S., & Jahan, I. (2018). How Does Social Protection Affect Labor Force Participation in Bangladesh? South Asia Economic and Policy Studies. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2071-2_8
UNDP. (2020). Charting pathways out of multi-dimensional poverty?: Achieving the SDGs. 1–52. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2020_mpi_report_en.pdf