Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Institutional Review Board Essays (Examples)

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

Boards of Directors Corporate Governance
Words: 13662 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50848269
Read Full Paper  ❯

In contrast, within the firm, the entrepreneur directs production and coordinates without intervention of a price mechanism; but, if production is regulated by price movements, production could be carried on without any organization at all, well might we ask, why is there any organization?" (Coase, 1937, p. 387) In simpler words if markets are so efficient why do firms exist? Coase explains, "the operation of a market costs something [such as the costs of negotiating and concluding a separate contract for each exchange transaction] and by forming an organization and allowing some authority (an "entrepreneur") to direct the resources, certain marketing costs are saved" (Coase, 1937, p. 391). Thus, firms actually present greater efficiency over markets by decreasing such costs.

That being said, if firms are so efficient, why are markets needed? (Coase, 1937). As per Coase, as the firm grows (when the entrepreneur processes additional transactions), decreasing returns to…

Reference List

Adams, R.B. And Ferreira, D. (2003) Diversity and Incentives in Teams: Evidence from Corporate Boards. 

Agrawal, A. And Knoeber C.R. (1996) Firm Performance and Mechanisms to Control Agency Problems Between Managers and Shareholders Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 31, 377-398.

American Management Associations (AMA) (1981) The Advisory Board Minutes of the National Association of Corporate Directors Meeting. New York (Headquarter)

Bauer, R., Guenster, N. And Otten, R. (2003) Empirical Evidence on Corporate Governance in Europe. The Effect on Stock Returns, Firm Value and Performance. EFMA Basel Meeting Paper

The Role of Crc and Cra in Study Initiation Process
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 77374311
Read Full Paper  ❯

Institutional eview Board esponsibilities at Study Initiation

esponsibilities of the IB in the initiation of the trial

IB is charged with the responsibility of protecting the safety and rights of participants in the clinical trial (Woodin and Schneider, 2008). Some IB responsibilities like a trial investigator, monitoring, auditing research records and research participant education are likely to be shifted to special units under the Human esearch Protection program (HPP). Such responsibilities promote sponsor-investigator relationships promoting ethical and safe research practices. In the U.S., IB also serves as the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) privacy committee dealing with research-associated activities. IB is especially useful for multicenter studies as it handles approving informed consent and protocol forms (Schultz, 2008). This makes meeting the regulatory requirements efficient. The responsibility of protecting human study participants is multifaceted. Belmont eport, Helsinki Declaration, and Nuremberg Code stipulate the underlying standards of protecting research…


Schultz, J. (2008). Improving Subject Recruitment. Applied Clinical Trials, 17(3), 46-52. Retrieved from 

Woodin, K. E., & Schneider, J. C. (2008). The CRA's Guide to Monitoring Clinical Research. Boston, MA: CenterWatch

Institutional Comparison of Fed and ECB
Words: 958 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66344659
Read Full Paper  ❯

Fed and the European Central ank: A Comparison

The Federal Reserve System of the United States and the Eurosystem of European Union are one of the key financial institutions of the global economy. Their policies and decisions influence almost every market in the world and this is the reason that an increased level of attention has been devoted towards these two central banks. The two systems have several differences as well as similarities with respect to their organizational policies & objectives, organizational structure and the decision making process.

Organizational Objectives:

The primary difference between the two institutions is that of their goals and objectives. The European Central ank or the "Eurosystem" mainly focuses towards the maintenance of price stability in the region and implements suitable regulations in this regard. On the other hand, the Fed not only focuses on the issue of price stability but also aims to increase the…

Bibliography: Nova Science Publishers: 2002

Jane W. D' Arista: The Evolution of U.S. Finance: Federal Reserve Monetary Policy, 1915-1935: M.E. Sharpe: 1994

McDonough W.J.: An Independent Central Bank in a Democratic Country: The Federal Reserve Experience: Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Quarterly Review: Vol. 19: 1994

Otmar Issing Ignazio Angeloni & Oreste Tristani: Monetary Policy in the EURO Area: Strategy and Decision-Making at the European Central Bank: Cambridge University Press: 2001

Lorenzo Bini Smaghi Daniel Gros: Open Issues in European Central Banking: St. Martin's Press: 2000

Post Tenure The Perceptions of
Words: 5554 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79017427
Read Full Paper  ❯

" (Zemsky, 1)

Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis of the research endeavor is that online professors will report no perceptible connection between post-tenure review and job performance.

Alternate Hypothesis

The alternate hypothesis of the research endeavor is that online professors will report that post-tenure review improves job performance.

Nature of the Study

Significance of the Study

The significance of the proposed research is based in the need for greater study of online instruction in higher education with relation to post tenure review. As with all other elements of this research process, we can initiate a discussion on the significance of the research with a reiteration of the fact that amongst educators without classification, the perspective on post-tenure review is generally hostile. This is because tenure is considered by most educators to be an important feature of the profession demanding of protection. To this end, Ceci et al. (2006) indicate that…

Works Cited:

Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003). Post-Tenure Review at Graduate Institutions in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 241-260.

Bowden, R.G. (2009). The Postsecondary Professoriate: Problems of Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Employment Law. Academic of Educational Leadership Journal, 13(3).

Ceci, S.J.; Williams, W.M. & Mueller-Johnson, K. (2006). Is Tenure Justified? An Experimental Study of Faculty Beliefs About Tenure, Promotion, and Academic Freedom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 553-594.

DeFleur, M.L. (2007). Raising the Question #5: What is Tenure and How Do I Get it? Communication Education, 56(1), 106-112.

Criminal Justice Career How Will This New
Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45479853
Read Full Paper  ❯

Criminal Justice Career

How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?

Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.

How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?

When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…


Cambridge Dictionary Online (2011). Research: Definition. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from 

CDC (2011). Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from 

Chris Williams, (2009). Scientific Research and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 21, 2011


Fathers Are Taking an Increasing Part in
Words: 2511 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1733000
Read Full Paper  ❯

fathers are taking an increasing part in the role of caring for children and bringing them up, particularly so since women have entered the workforce en flux, social research has increasingly focused on the part that father's play in raising their young children. The current opinion today as regards parenting is that shared parenting is the ideal situation particularly for mothers who are compelled to act as both breadwinners and fully available and concerned parents in a supportive and nourishing environment. Data shows that although the father often attempts to assume the nurturing role, the working mother often still remains the primary responsible caretaker in the family.

Questions that this study attempted to answer, consequently, were the following: Firstly, how do father and children form an attachment relationship in the first few years of life? In which sort of contexts do they do so, given that mothers remain responsible for…


Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: Sage.

Fowler, F.G. (2009). Survey research methods. Los Angeles: Sage

Kazura, K. (2000). Fathers' qualitative and quantitative involvement: An investigation of attachment, play, and social interaction. Journal of Men's Studies, 9, 1-13.

Nursing I Include Notes &
Words: 4151 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 4578711
Read Full Paper  ❯

The stengths of this design ae elated to the ease of application and usage. The design of the suvey was easy to administe and self explanatoy. While the weakness was elated to the willingness of the paticipant to Chapte Thee 5

paticipate complete the suvey and povide tuthful esponses. An additional weakness is elative to the age goup that was pesent fo the suvey and thei elationship to the use of computes.


Afte appoval of the study fom the Institutional Review Boad at Indiana

Wesleyan Univesity and Methodist Hospitals, Inc. Nusing staff wee ecuited to paticipate in fo the study. Paticipants wee eligible fo the study if they wee cuently an employee of the employed by Methodist Hospitals, Inc., It was also necessay that they hold a cuent nusing license, paticipated in online leaning, and wee able to ead and wite English. A egisteed nuse who has paticipated in…


Student characteristics for online learning success

The Internet and Higher Education, Volume 9, Issue 2, 2nd Quarter 2006, Pages 91-

105 Marcel S. Kerr, Kimberly Rynearson, Marcus C. Kerr

Chapter Three 13

Picky Nursing 518 Quantitative Critique
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4537057
Read Full Paper  ❯



Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables

What are the extraneous variables in this study? (1)

In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables? (1)


Study Instruments/Tools

Identify the type of each measurement strategy (i.e. Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview). (1)

Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by each measurement strategy. (1)

Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. (1)

Report the reliability of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)

Report the validity of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)


Data Collection Methods

If appropriate, identify the intervention protocol. (2)

Detail how the data were collected. (2)

In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study? (2)

In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect…

Learner Influence the Role of the Educator
Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28714530
Read Full Paper  ❯

Learner Influence the ole of the Educator as Learning Facilitator

The nature of the subject matter will invariably impact how it is approached in the classroom. Quantitative subjects demand the ability to manipulate numbers accurately; learning how to play an instrument requires hands-on practice and performance. A teacher may take into consideration the strengths and weaknesses of students' multiple intelligences to convey knowledge but the ultimate aim of the educational process cannot be forgotten. When teaching nursing, educators can be sympathetic to the learning preferences of students, but nursing by its very nature is a discipline which draws upon multiple intelligences. A nurse may technically understand the material from a scientific basis, but have little of the necessary interpersonal intelligence to translate this into practice. Conversely, someone who is a 'people person' but lacks the kinesthetic intelligence to provide care or the mathematical intelligence to understand the science of nursing…


IRB - Human Participants Committee Responsibilities. (2012). Cornell University. Retrieved: 

Study: Overworked nurses lead to unhealthy patients. (2011). Business Journal. Retrieved:

Philosophical Groundings in Research
Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 11674203
Read Full Paper  ❯

theory-building, applied research is conducted to solve a problem. Action research is conducted to solve an immediate problem experienced by a practitioner; the problems that are addressed through action research exist in the context or environment in which they conduct their professional work. A construct is an abstraction -- an idea that exists in the mind; if an abstraction is based on something concrete or tangible, it is a concept, but if it is based on something hypothetical or inferential, then the abstraction is a construct. The most important difference between qualitative research and quantitative research is that quantitative research is deductive in relation to the hypothesis, which is determined before the research has actually begun. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach that moves from the general case to the specific. In this manner, the deductive approach considers the potential cause of some phenomenon and explores whether its effect can…


Lodico, M., Spaulding, D., & Voegtle, K. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

[Type text]

Peer-Counseling as an Intervention for College Freshman Substance Abuse
Words: 2466 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 73376768
Read Full Paper  ❯

educing Substance Abuse Among College Freshman


Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman

Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman

Kazemi and colleagues (2013) were interested in understanding whether a behavioral intervention would reduce the prevalence of substance abuse among college freshman in the United States. The independent variable was motivational peer-counseling sessions (motivational interviews) about the risks of alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. The dependent variables were scores obtained on two questionnaires. These scores were then used to determine if there was a statistically significant association between blackout frequency, illicit drug use, and alcohol consumption. Demographic information (attribute variables) was also collected and the attributes of primary interest were ethnicity and gender. The hypothesis tested by the researchers is whether the intervention could reduce the prevalence of self-reported high risk behaviors among college freshman at a representative…


Barnett, E., Sussman, S., Smith, C., Rohrbach, L.A., & Pruijt-Metz, D. (2012). Motivational interviewing for adolescent substance use: A review of the literature. Addictive Behaviors, 37(12), 1325-34.

DiClemente, C.C. & Prochaska, J.O. (1982). Self-change and therapy change of smoking behavior: A comparison of processes of change in cessation and maintenance. Addictive Behaviors, 7(2), 133-42.

Dimitrov, D.M. & Rumrill, P.D. Jr. (2003). Pretest-posttest designs and measurement of change. Work, 20(2), 159-65.

Grucza, R.A., Norberg, K.E., & Bierut, L.J. (2009). Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(7), 692-702.

Statement of the Phenomenon of Interest
Words: 2248 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 92689802
Read Full Paper  ❯

quality where data is gathered through interviews, surveys and observations, while quantitative study establishes its results on the basis of surveys, questionnaires and statistical data. A quantitative study "Study of Nurses' Knowledge about Palliative Care: A Quantitative Cross-sectional Survey" by Prem et al. can be compared with the qualitative study in question to understand the difference. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of nursing professionals about palliative care through a palliative care knowledge test (PCKT) (Prem et al., 2012).

A cross-sectional survey has been done amongst 363 nurses working in a multi-speciality hospital by using a questionnaire PCKT, unlike qualitative study done by Dykes et al. that utilized a sample of 23 Ns and 19 NAs which can be easily interviewed, questioned and observed. A general finding of the quantitative study was in agreement with the previously established facts of poorer knowledge of palliative care but…


Dykes, P. C., Carroll, D. L., Hurley, A. C., Benoit, A. & Middleton, B. (2009). Why Do Patients in Acute Care Hospitals Fall? Can Falls be prevented." J. Nurs Adm., 39(6), 299 -- 304.doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181a7788a. Retrieved 19 September 2016 from 

Lobiondo-Wood, G. & Haber, J. (2014). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. (ed. 8). Missouri: Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Retrieved 19 September 2016 from

Prem, V., Karvannan, H., Kumar, S. P., Karthikbabu, S., Syed, N., Sisodia, V. & Jaykumar, S. (2012). Study of Nurses' Knowledge about Palliative Care: A Quantitative Cross-sectional Survey. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 18(2), 122-127.doi: 10.4103/0973-1075.100832

Wyse, S. E. (2011). What is the Difference Between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research? Snap Retrieved 21 September 2016 from

Extant Literature Has Been Dedicated to the
Words: 1198 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 53595430
Read Full Paper  ❯

Extant literature has been dedicated to the evaluation of closed head injuries using the Canadian Scale and New Orleans criteria for Adult patients in rural areas.The work of Stielle et al. (2005) explored the comparison of the Canadian CT head rule and the New Orleans Criteria in various Patients suffering from minor head injuries. Their work indicated that the current application of computed tomography (CT) for cases of minor head injury is rapidly increasing.This technique is further noted to be inefficient and highly variable in its actual application. The Canadian CT Head ule (CCH) as well as New Orleans Criteria (NOC) are clinical decision rules that bwere previously developed in order to guide CT use for the patients suffering from minor head injury while also recording a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of between 13-15 for the CCH as well as a score of 15 on the NOC scale. Stielle…


Smits at al (2007). Minor Head Injury: Guidelines for the Use of CT -- A Multicenter Validation Study. Radiology: Volume 245 (3).

Smits et al. (2005) External Validation of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for CT Scanning in Patients With Minor Head Injury. JAMA, September 28, 2005 -- Vol 294 (12)

Stiele et al. (2001). The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet 2001; 357: 1391 -- 96

Wu, C .,Jallo, J (2011).Developing a Clinical Guideline for CT scans involving closed head injury. Available online at

Analyzing a Health Related Article
Words: 1775 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 74494039
Read Full Paper  ❯

oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b

Overview of current therapy

The treatment setting for chronic hepatitis C has gone through an upheaval, above all in genotype 1. However, the exception is the continuity of interferon-based therapy and its related tolerability problems, insufficient reaction rates and several baseline factors that influence reaction to therapy (Gutierrez et al., 2015). The main concern undertaken in the current research study is that it attempts to obtain a new treatment combination that seems to be tolerable and necessitate a shorter time for therapy (Hunyady et al., 2014). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development has given rise to treatment courses of therapy made up of interferon-free, all-oral combinations of direct-acting antivirals. Despite the fact that the new courses of therapy are compelling and extremely useful, the full medical influence of HCV drug resistance, its inferences for retreatment, and the impending role of…


Gutierrez, J. A., Lawitz, E. J., & Poordad, F. (2015). Interferon free, direct acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Journal of viral hepatitis, 22(11), 861-870.

Hunyady, B., Gervain, J., Horvath, G., Makara, M., Par, A., Szalay, F., ... & Tornai, I. (2014). Diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of hepatitis C-virus related liver disease. Hungarian national consensus guideline. Orvosi hetilap,155(Supplement 2), 3-24.

Kumada, H., Suzuki, Y., Ikeda, K., Toyota, J., Karino, Y., Chayama, K., ... & Izumi, N. (2014). Daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection. Hepatology, 59(6), 2083-2091.

Lontok, E., Harrington, P., Howe, A., Kieffer, T., Lennerstrand, J., Lenz, O., ... & Miller, V. (2015). Hepatitis C virus drug resistance -- associated substitutions: State of the art summary. Hepatology, 62(5), 1623-1632.

Ethical Issues in Research
Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13492185
Read Full Paper  ❯

Anna's rationale for not obtaining informed consent?

Not informing research subjects regarding one's purpose is unethical. In order to see just how unethical her decision is, Anna must understand ethical concerns linked to studies that utilize human participants. The basic principles of justice, independence, and goodness form the basis of the aforementioned ethical concerns and warrant attention (UNC Charlotte| esearch& Economic Development Centre, n.d).). Ethics guidelines and codes explain the idea of informed consent with regard to studies on human participants. This process aims at presenting adequate facts to participants to ensure they are able to decide, after acquiring an adequate grasp of the situation, whether to participate in any research venture or not, and whether to continue participating or not. It is imperative to seek informed consent for every kind of research on humans, including therapeutic, diagnostic, social, behavioral and interventional researches, as well as for studies performed locally…


Argosy University (2014).Institutional Review Board Handbook. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from

Office for the Protection of Research Subjects (OPRS)| University of Southern California (n.d) Informed Consent in Human Subjects Research. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from 

Office of Research Integrity| The University of Tennessee Chattanooga (n.d) Informed CnosentConsent Requirements. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from 

UNC Charlotte| Research & Economic Development Centre (n.d). Informed Consent. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from

Download Chamberlain Library the Articles Uploaded Upload
Words: 824 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68598852
Read Full Paper  ❯

download Chamberlain Library) the articles uploaded, upload the articles required reading

This is for the "Telemonitoring…" article

The purpose of this research is to determine if it is advantageous to employ electronic home monitoring (EHM) for heart failure patients. Advantageous is determined by whether or not additional costs and hospital visits could be reduced with this technology, and if it could increase the length of time between hospital visits.

The research questions in this study were implicit and stated in the form of three hypotheses. The first questioned whether or not lower costs, emergency room and hospital visits could be achieved with EHM, the second was whether or not quality of life and caregiver mastery could improve while lowering rates of depressive symptoms, and the final one wondered whether or not, the combination of EHM, caregiver mastery and informal social support could decrease the risk of readmission to hospitals.


Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology
Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4872492
Read Full Paper  ❯

Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

aseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

arriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences


Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)

Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web:

Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.

Fill Blanks Document PDF File Submitted
Words: 534 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16540090
Read Full Paper  ❯

Mixed Method, Systematic Reviews, Integrated Reviews, Review of the Literature, Expert Opinions, Informative Articles are not appropriate for this assignment.)

Record your responses in the space provided. he boxes will expand as you type.

Your responses should be your own words and written in complete sentences. No "yes" or "no" answers. You should provide an explanation/rationale for each response.

Did the authors specifically indicate that the human rights of the subjects were protected? Did they specifically identify Institutional Review Board approval/Ethics Committee approval for this study? Did they indicate that they obtained informed consent for the study from the sample/participants? State what page numbers this information was found.

he participants gave informed consents and the procedures were performed in accordance with standards from the Committee of Human Experimentation of the University Institutional Review Board (Pieper, B., et al., 2010, p. 19).

15b: Does the study indicate that the subjects/participants received…

The study was identified as a quantitative study based on the research questions. Most of the answers were easily identifiable in the study and the textbook. Identifying the strengths for reliability was difficult in determining the viability of the study.


Pieper, B., et al., (2010), The Impact of Vascular Leg Disorders on Physical Activity in Methadone-Maintained Adults, Res Nursing Health, 33:426-440, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Protect the Human Rights of the Different
Words: 1093 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95060066
Read Full Paper  ❯

protect the human rights of the different participants, the research ethics committee was informed in Ireland. Inside the U.S., the Institutional eview Board was included as a part of the process. The research design was focused on utilizing the quantitative approach. This is when a specific sample of 70 older adults inside both countries was selected. (Willis, 2011)

During this process, they were asked a series of questions about obesity and understanding the lasting effects. They also had their BMI analyzed to determine if they were overweight or obese. The data collection methods were to conduct different interviews from respondents' answers to numerous questions. At the same time, they were weighed and each respondent was placed into a specific category. This was based upon the results from these measurements (i.e. normal, overweight or obese). (Willis, 2011)

To recruit subjects, everyone was allowed to participate voluntarily and informed how the information…


Marcinowiz, L. (2013). Perceptions of an Older Patient. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 7 (57), pp. 2 -- 5.

Willis, T. (2011). Body Mass Index Knowledge. British Journal of Community Nursing, 16 (3), pp. 110 -- 115.

Traditional Project Proposal Which Can Range From
Words: 814 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 9467262
Read Full Paper  ❯

traditional project proposal which can range from a few pages to more than a hundred depending on the individual institutional requirements and focus of the study. For instance, Mauch and Park (2005) report that, "The proposal is sometimes called an overview or a concept paper. Operationally, the terms seem to mean the same" (p. 97). Irrespective of what it is called, a concept paper provides the foundation for proceeding with the larger dissertation, including what will be investigated, how it will be studied and why the subject is of interest to the researcher (Mauch & Park, 2005). Typical components in a concept paper include a problem statement, the significance or importance of the study, the rationale for the study and so forth (Mauch & Park, 2005).

In the field of information systems, the range of topics spans the continuum from human-computer interface to emerging technologies that will inevitably achieve true…


Mauch, J.E. & Park. N. (2003). Guide to the successful thesis and dissertation: A handbook for students and faculty. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Schumacker, R.E. & Akers, A. (2001). Understanding statistical concepts using S-Plus.

Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schwab, D.P. (2005). Research methods for organizational studies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence

Critique of Health and Quantitative Research
Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 52133899
Read Full Paper  ❯

Nurses' Work Schedule Characteristics, Nurse Staffing, and Patient Mortality" (Trinkoff, et al. 2011 p 1). The authors argue that lower nursing staff level can lead to poor patients' outcome and poor care, however, higher nursing skills mix can assist in recording lower mortality rates. In overall, increase in a number of nursing staff is associated with improving patient outcome. The authors use the quantitative technique to collect data from 633 nurses working in different 71 acute non-federal hospitals in Illinois and North Carolina. The study also uses a generalized estimating equation to examine the hypothesis. The research examines whether the authors explicitly states the research questions or hypothesis.

Hypotheses or esearch Questions

Analysis of the research reveals that the authors do not explicitly state the research questions, and the absence of the research questions is not justified because one of the main features of quality quantitative research is to state…


Trinkoff, A. M., Johantgen, M., Storr, C. L., Gurses, A. P., Liang, Y., & Han, K. (2011). Nurses' work schedule characteristics, nurse staffing, and patient mortality. Nursing research, 60(1), 1-8.

Emotional Intelligence in Young Children
Words: 2728 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70778905
Read Full Paper  ❯

" (2001) Atkins-urnett relates that a "key index of competence in childhood and adolescence" is 'peer competence'. Stated is that: "Relationships with peers, as measured by sociometric indicators are strong indicators of both concurrent and future adaptive functioning." (2001) Longitudinal studies all show that there are similar characteristics "among resilient children: strong sense of competence and self-efficacy, well-liked by peers and adults, reflective rather than impulsive, use of flexible coping strategies, internal locus of control and good intellectual skills" (urnett-Atkins, 2001)

The work of Qualter, Gardner and Whiteley (2007) entitled: "Emotional Intelligence: Review of Research and Educational Implications" states that there is: "...continuing controversy over how to define and measure EI, and how significant the concept of EI is in predicting various aspects of life success. Two predominant perspectives are those adopting an Ability EI and a Trait EI approach." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Emotional Intelligence has been portrayed…


Bar-on, R. (in press). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional

Berry, D.J.; Bridges, L.J.; and Zaslow, M.J. (2004) Early Childhood Measures Profiles. Prepared by Child Trends: Washington DC.

Boyatzis, R.E. (1994). Stimulating self-directed learning thought the Managerial Assessment and Development Course, Journal of Management Eduaction,18(3), 304-323.

Chapman, B.P. And Hayslip, B. (2005) Incremental Validity of a Measure of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 85 No. 2. 2005.

Authors Y H Lin and S M
Words: 2768 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 16276987
Read Full Paper  ❯

B. This study used cross-sectional design and may tend to under-select individuals who have been exposed. This is known as "late-look bias." The possibility of nurses recalling MAEs over their careers may result in reporting of, or remembering information that is not accurate.

C. The instrument developed by authors used expert validity, but more research is needed to determine the construction validity and use the appropriate interventions to decrease MAEs (Lin & Ma).


esearch questions

ather than a hypothesis, the Lin and Ma (2009) study was guided by the following research questions:

A. What is the self-reported incidence of MAEs throughout a nurse's career in Taiwan?

B. What is the willingness of nurses to report MAEs?

C. What factors are related to nurses' willingness to report MAEs?

The first research question, though, differs from the authors' stated purpose which was to "explore the prevalence of MAEs and the willingness…


Gebhart, F. (2008, May 12). N.C. hospital loses CMS certification over drug and other errors.

Drug Topics, 152(6), 12.

Lin, Y-H & Ma, S-n. (2009). Willingness of nurses to report medication administration errors in southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional survey.

Wakefield, B.J., Uden-Holman, T. & Wakefield, D.S. (2005). Development and validation of the medication administration error reporting survey. In Advances in patient safety: From research to implementation. Henriksen, K., Battles, J.B., Marks E.S., et al. (eds).

Tebeaux 2010 Observes Is to Provide a
Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5667823
Read Full Paper  ❯

Tebeaux (2010) observes, is to provide a summary of the relevant research in a given area. This allows researchers to not only the ability to identify what gaps may exist in the scholarly literature on a given topic, but also how proposed research fits into or fills gaps in the reviewed literature. In an effort to support the need for the study, Hayhurst et al., (2005) provides a literature review that focuses on the positive and negative factors influencing nurse retention efforts. However, the literature review provided by Hayhurst et al., (2005) is marginal at best; it serves only to remind readers that nurses are not happy when job satisfaction is low, when management style and supervisory support are lacking, when work related pressures and personal or peer-conflict issues are present.

In contrast, nurse retention, Hayhurst et al., (2005) notes, is correlated with higher favorable perceptions of the work environment.…


AbuAlRub R.F. (2004). Job stress, job performance, and social support among hospital. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36, 1, pgs. 73 -- 78.

Erenstein, C.F. And McCaffrey, R. (2007) How Healthcare Work Environments Influence Nurse Retention. Holist Nurs Pract, 21, 6, pgs. 303 -- 307.

Hayhurst, A., Saylor, C., & Stuenkel, D. (2005). Work environmental factors and retention of nurses. Journal Of Nursing Care Quality, 20(3), 283-288.

McCauley, K.M. (2005). A message from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Am J. Crit Care, 14:186.

Lived Experience of Nurses With Medication
Words: 1988 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37696917
Read Full Paper  ❯

Nurses Medication


The Lived Experiences of Nurses with Medication

Nurses are tasked with the proper distribution of medications. Unfortunately, they sometimes are unable to perform that task properly due to various factors. This paper presents five separate studies, two qualitative and three quantitative or mixed, which researched how nurses commit medication error, what the antecedents are, and how they can be avoided. The studies are examined according to research design, sample size and whether the study could be extrapolated to the broader population.

The Lived Experiences of Nurses with Medication

This is a literature review which focuses on nurses who make medication errors and what importance is placed on those errors in relation to patient safety. Five studies were examined with the express purpose of determining what types of studies are being conducted to alleviate this issue, what research designs they are using, and whether…


Hofmann, D.A., & Mark, B. (2006). An investigation of the relationship between safety climate and medication errors as well as other nurse and patient outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 59(4). 238-249.

Kim, J., An, K., Kim, M.K., & Yoon, S.H. (2007). Nurses' perception of error reporting and patient safety culture in Korea. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 29(7). 827-844.

Jones, J.H., & Treiber, L. (2010). When the 5 rights go wrong: Medication errors from the nursing perspective. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 25(3). 240-247.

Schelbred, A.-B., & Nord, R. (2007). Nurses experiences of drug administration errors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(3). 317-324.

Promoting Community Awareness of the Need for
Words: 1537 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21314408
Read Full Paper  ❯

Promoting community awareness of the need for colorectal cancer prevention and screening," which was written by Causey and Greenwauld, is appropriate. It clarifies the purpose of the research study on which this article is based and provides an effective summary of the particular area of nursing and science that the authors are writing about. Nonetheless, it does not allude to the key variables that influence the study, its results, nor the particular model it utilizes, which is reflective of the principle area in which a sufficient title could be improved.

he abstract for the aforementioned paper is extremely effective. In a paragraph of just a few sentences, the authors are able to identify the key factors related to this study: the problem, the methods and the model used to gather data, the results and the conclusion gathered from those results. he writing is relatively terse and straightforward, and is bolstered…

There really was no intervention in this study, other than the educational session that all of the participants received. Nonetheless, the data collection method was not biased and the authors seemed appropriately trained to collect this data.


Other than the unusual way in which the paper was structured in which the literature review combined various aspects of a general overview of CRC (some of which was not germane to the research question) this document was well written presented in an accessible manner to nurses. Since one of the researchers had done a previous study on a topic closely related to this subject, the credibility of the authors was not dubitable and was enhanced by their professional and academic credentials. The validity of the study findings is also considerably compromised by the fact that the researchers "knew" (Causey and Greenwauld. 2011, p. 39) a percentage of the participants. Still, the study does function as a launching point for future research in this area as it specifically applies to nurses and educating the population regarding CRC.

Generational Differences in Social Media Usage
Words: 2329 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31623145
Read Full Paper  ❯

The topic for this paper is to determine what is meant by social change from the perspective of graduate students today. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part presents a background statement concerning the issue of interest and the gap in the existing body of knowledge the study intends to address. A description concerning the role of the researcher is provided in the second part and an explanation concerning the process of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to form the basis of the methods used in this study are presented in part three followed by the analysis and interpretation of those data. Finally, a discussion concerning the trustworthiness of the findings that emerged from this analysis and a summary of the research are presented in part four.

Background statement

What you have learned about social change as a social issue. Because the historical record confirms that…

Kangaroo Care Skin Contact Reduces
Words: 2023 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 75691077
Read Full Paper  ❯

Pain, 56(1), 95-101.

Andrews, K., & Fitzgerald, M. (1999). Cutaneous flexion reflex in human neonates: a quantitative study of threshold and stimulus-response characteristics after single and repeated stimuli. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41(10), 696-703.

Breau, L.M., McGrath, P.J., Stevens, B., Beyene, J., Camfield, C., Finley, G.A., Franck, K., Gibbins, S., Howlett, A., McKeever, P., O'Brien, K., & Ohlsson, A. (2006). Judgments of pain in the neonatal intensive care setting: a survey of direct care staffs' perceptions of pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment. he Clinical Journal of Pain, 22(2), 122-129.

Bruce, E., & Franck, L. (2005). Using the worldwide web to improve children's pain care. International Nursing Review, 52(3), 204-209.

Carbajal, R., Gall, O., & Annequin, D. (2004). Pain management in neonates. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 4(3), 491-505.

Chow, S.C., & Liu, J.P. (1998). Design and analysis of clinical trials: concept and methodologies. New York: John Wiley…

Taddio, A., Katz, J., Ilersich, A.L., & Koren, G. (1997). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet, 349(9052), 599-603.

Taddio, A., Goldbach, M., Ipp, M., Stevens, B., & Koren, G. (1995). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain responses during vaccination in boys. Lancet, 345(8945), 291-292.

Weaver, S.A., Diorio, J., & Meaney, M.J. (2007). Maternal separation leads to persistent reduction in pain sensitivity in female rats. The Journal of Pain, 8(12), 962-969.

Understanding Early Readmission Through Qualitative Measures
Words: 1725 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 2966373
Read Full Paper  ❯

eadmission of patients with diabetes is a problem that warrants consideration of the contributing factors. eadmission of patients within 30 days of discharge is considered to be an indicator of healthcare quality -- along with other circumstances, such as patient lifestyle -- that needs to be addressed from a patient care perspective and from a cost of care perspective (Dungan, 2012). A dismal statistic starkly represents the problem: oughly 8% of the U.S. population is represented by patients with diabetes, yet this group accounts for 23% of the hospitalizations in the nation (Dungan, 2012). On top of this figure, between 14.4% to 21% of diabetic patients are readmitted, compared to 8.5% and 13.5% of U.S. hospital patients overall (Dungan, 2012). The problem is exacerbated by the rise in national rates of diabetes means that more patients will present from the general population and, accordingly, more patients with diabetes will experience…


Donnell-Jackson, K., Ram M. Jhingan, R.M. And Rubin, D.J. (2013). Early Readmissions among hospitalized patients with diabetes: A qualitative assessment of contributing factors. Paper presented at Diabetes: Diagnosis, Complications & Outcomes, The Endocrine Society's 95th Annual Meeting and Expo, from June 15 -- 18, 2013, in San Francisco, California.

Dungan, K.M. (2012, September). The effect of diabetes on hospital readmissions. Journal of Diabetes Science Technology, 6(5), 1045-1052. Retreived from 

Dye, J. G, Schatz, I.M., Rosenberg, B.A., and Coleman, S.T. (2000, January). Constant comparison method: A kaleidoscope of data. The Qualitative Report, 4(1/2).

Hellman, R. (2014, October). An individualized inpatient diabetes education and hospital transition program for poorly controlled hospitalized patients with diabetes. Endocrine Practice, 20(10), 1097-1099.

Immigrant Women from Sub Saharan Africa
Words: 3090 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 28867781
Read Full Paper  ❯

Weight and Obesity

The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Immigrant Women from Sub-Saharan Africa Living in Grande Prairie, Alberta

In spite of the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population, little attention has been paid to immigrant communities, which are at a greater risk of weight gain compared to the majority. This is quite disturbing given the increased rate of migration from low-income countries. Lack of epidemiological data relating to overweight and obesity is particularly true for women of sub-Saharan African origin living in Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada. This study will involve a cross-sectional survey, to fill this gap in literature. A sample of 100 subjects is deemed to be representative of the target population. Knowledge of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population will be important for designing weight management interventions for this group, thereby reducing the risk of overweight and obesity as…


Adhikari, A., (2014). Prevalence of obesity among immigrants living in Canada. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2(1): 35-39.

Choi, J. (2012). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US immigrants: results of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14(6), 1112-1118.

City of Grande Prairie (2015). Census population. Retrieved from: 

Gele, A., & Mbalilaki, A. (2013). Overweight and obesity among African immigrants in Oslo. BMC Research Notes, 6: 119.

Intravenous Nursing Implementation of an
Words: 2934 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54111199
Read Full Paper  ❯

The second purpose was to explore the association of demographic variables and nurses' perceptions of pump implementation to ratings of the management team and job satisfaction. Data was collected via a survey given to 1056 nurses at a tertiary Magnet hospital. The first section of the questionnaire pertained to demographic characteristics, while the second section consisted of thirty questions on a 5-point Likert scale based on both STS Theory and the Life Patterns Model conceptual framework.

The researchers conclude that generalizations cannot be made based on just one study. They did state however that the findings of this study give credence to the importance of technological changes in clinical nursing practice. ecommendations were made for future studies in that there is a need to analyze the degree to which technology affects the environment, patient acuity as well as overall nursing satisfaction. Carrying out this study in more that one hospital…


Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2011). Retrieved from 

Bowcutt, Marilyn, Rosenkoetter, Marlene M., Chernecky, Cynthia C., Wall, Jane, Wynn, Donald

and Serrano, Christina. (2008). Journal of Nursing Management, 16(2), p.188-197.

International Clinical Harmonisation Proper Systems in Place
Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10839935
Read Full Paper  ❯

International Clinical Harmonisation


The International Congress Harmonisation

WHO Principles of Good Clinical Practice

Clinical research is conducted to insure the safety and efficacy of health and medical products and practices (WHO 2002). In the past, randomized controlled trials gave most of the information about the safety and efficacy of these products and treatments. Randomized clinical trials were considered the foundation of evidence-based medicine but reliably only when conducted according to principles and standards. These principles and standards comprise good clinical research or GCP. The guidelines were created to help national regulatory authorities, sponsors, investigators and ethics committees to implement GCP for overall clinical research. These were based on the guidelines provided by major international organizations, such as the International Conference on Harmonization or ICH GCP, and used as reference (WHO).

GCP incorporates accepted and established ethical and scientific quality standards complied with for the design, conduct,…

Cognitions Pertaining to Illness
Words: 1266 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6226624
Read Full Paper  ❯

Cognitions Pertaining to Illness

The role of risk estimates in preventive behaviour

The hypothesis that was formulated by Students X and Y can best be confirmed or refuted, at least generally, by asking the Likert-scaled questions, "How likely do you think it is that you will develop liver disease in future?" At the same time as they ask the question, "How much alcohol do you drink in the average week?" The superiority of this single approach to posing both questions to the respondents relates primarily to the efficiency of the survey administration and the reliability of the results that emerge. A delay of 4 months between posing these survey questions to all of their subjects would introduce a number of significant constraints to this study that could potentially adversely affect the ability of these researchers to accurately evaluate any responses they received.

First and foremost, 4 months is a prohibitively…

Sanford J Townsend-Rocchicciolli J horigan A & Hall
Words: 932 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 48563261
Read Full Paper  ❯

Sanford, J., Townsend-Rocchicciolli, J.,Horigan, A., & Hall, P. (2011). A process of decision making by caregivers of family members with heart failure. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice, 25(1), 55-70.

Describe the population for this study.

participants were recruited from cardiology offices, inpatient hospital units, or adult day care facilities. The participant had to be related to the patient with heart failure (HF), provide one activity of daily living, and/or assist the care recipient with two activities of daily living and do this voluntarily.

How was the sample selected? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this sampling strategy?

This was a convenience sample. The participants were recruited from cardiology offices, inpatient hospital units, or adult day care facilities and had to meet certain conditions. The strengths are that the researchers know and get precisely what they are looking for (in terms of qualifications of participants). The weaknesses are that…

Classic Milgram Studies on Obedience Were Inspired
Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62326312
Read Full Paper  ❯

classic Milgram studies on obedience were inspired by the Nurnberg trials of Nazi war criminals who consistently argued in their defense to their charges that they were just carrying out orders. In his original study Stanley Milgram (1963) had wanted to see if people would inflict pain to the point of serious injury or death as the result of being ordered to do so by authority figures. Milgram used a sham learning experiment and a confederate learner to test his hypothesis that few people would actually progress to the point of inflicting damage on strangers at the bequest of an authority figure (as we will see his original hypothesis was incorrect). The learning experiment required a "learner" (the confederate) to learn a list of word pairs. The teachers (recruited participants) were required to administer what they believed to be were painful electrical shocks to the learner whenever the learner failed…


Asch, S.E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgment.

In H. Guetzkow (ed.) Groups, leadership and men. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Press.

Asch, S.E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs, 70, no. 416.

Brown, R. (1986). Social Forces in Obedience and Rebellion. Social psychology: The second edition. New York: The Free Press.

Caffeine Increases Visual and Motor Performance
Words: 1913 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86964022
Read Full Paper  ❯

Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance

Biological Investigation

Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses

Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…


Bruce, M., Scott, N., Lader, M., & Marks, V. (1986). The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 81-7.

Brunye, T.T., Mahoney, C.R., Leiberman, H.R., & Taylor, H.A. (2010). Caffeine modulates attention of network function. Brain and Cognition, 72, 181-8.

Caffeineinformer. (2014). Drip Coffee: Caffeine levels. Retrieved 16 Mar. 2014 from .

Jacobson, B.H. & Thurman-Lacey, S.R. (1992). Effect of caffeine on motor performance by caffeine-naive and -- familiar subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 151-157.

Social Science Research Silver Roxane
Words: 429 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 74008829
Read Full Paper  ❯

For this kind of research to be effective, researchers must gain the trust and confidence of these individuals. Careful planning, focus group research, and investigation may help to build this kind of trust, but all of those steps add time (and expenses) to the research process.

c) Use of untested assumptions. Researchers may have their own assumptions about how people react to trauma, and these assumptions may negatively affect their own neutrality. Those assumptions may also impact the design of the study, through the types of questions being asked in the research to the way the researcher interacts with the subjects. Misconceptions about trauma are rampant, and in fact people react very differently to stresses in their lives.


Major Findings: Researchers discovered a great deal of variability in post-traumatic response among individuals in the immediate community where the trauma took place. Many of those closest to the trauma had…

Nurse Patient Interactions Related to Diabetic Foot Care
Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3685932
Read Full Paper  ❯

Diabetes Foot Care

Qualitative esearch Critique: Diabetes Foot Care

Sue Flood (2009) saw a need to examine the nurse-patient interaction in relation to diabetes foot care outcomes, in part because at least one health care organization (Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality) has concluded that diabetes care received by patients often do not meet best practice standards. The impact of substandard care includes a 45 to 85% difference in the incidence of foot ulcers and amputations, as reported by the U.S. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. The author further justified this study based on the ongoing global obesity and diabetes epidemics.

Flood (2009) decided to examine the nurse-patient interactions because this relationship has been shown to have a significant impact on patient outcomes. This represents the primary assumption the author tests in her study. The four components of nurse-patient interactions are: (1) affective support, (2) health information, (3) decisional…


Flood, L.S. (2009). Nurse-patient interactions related to diabetes foot care. MEDSURG Nursing, 18(6), 361-370.

Plan for Implementing Hourly Nursing Rounds
Words: 2107 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25791802
Read Full Paper  ❯

Hourly nursing rounding is regarded as one of the most suitable means for enhancing patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. This process can be described as a proactive, systematic nurse-centered evidence-based intervention to predict and deal with the various needs in hospitalized patients. There is sufficient evidence to demonstrate that effective hourly nursing rounding can enhance patient safety, promote team communication, and enhance the capability of staff to offer efficient patient care. Therefore, this approach would be a suitable method to help reduce falls, prevent ulcers, and call light use and result in enhanced patient satisfaction through evidence-based practices. The adoption of this method in the organization to improve patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes would require the development of a comprehensive implementation plan and participation from all key stakeholders.

Method of Obtaining Necessary Approval

The adoption of hourly nursing rounding in the healthcare facility to enhance patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes…


Brosey, L.A. & March, K.S. (2014, September 16). Effectiveness of Structured Hourly Nurse Rounding on Patient Satisfaction and Clinical Outcomes. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 00(00), 1-7.

Forde, J.C. (2014, April 9). Intentional Rounding: A Review of Literature. Nursing Standard, 38(32), 37-42.

Negarandeh, R., Bahabadi, A.H. & Mamaghani, J.A. (2014, December). Impact of Regular Nursing Rounds on Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care. Asian Nursing Research, 8(4), 282-285.

Timothy, H. (2015, June 2). Hourly Rounding is an Effective Patient Safety Strategy. Retrieved from American Sentinel University website:

Proper Documentation for Clinical Trials
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34675723
Read Full Paper  ❯

regulatory requirements involved will be covered. The report will also include an answer to the question of what three of the file documentation requirements are before a study can be begin at a given site. While the rules and regulations regarding clinical trials may seem arduous and aggravating, they exist for a very good reason.

As explained by the class PowerPoint, the role of the Investigator's Brochure is to offer a compilation of all clinical and non-clinical information that is relevant to a study. It also serves as a reminder and review of the protocol that must be followed. That protocol includes the rationale for the study as well as the compliance that must be part of the study. For the sponsor in particular, the Investigator's Brochure serves several specific needs. These needs include all information known an investigational drug, whether serious or adverse events are "expected" or "unexpected" during…


Investigator's Brochure. (2015). Investigator's Brochure. Presentation, Online.

PPD. (2015). Role of Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Ethics Committee in Clinical Trials -- PPD. Retrieved 19 September 2015, from

Ethical Dimensions of the Innovator Role
Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52938797
Read Full Paper  ❯

Ethics is a term that is commonly used to refer to appropriate rules of conduct or moral guidelines that govern people’s behaviors and actions. Additionally, ethics is a terms that refers to standards or norms for differentiating between right and wrong (Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching, n.d.). As a result, ethics has become an important component in research because researchers have a moral responsibility to safeguard their research participants when conducting a study. Experiment ethics has become a common feature in modern research practices because of the role and significance of the moral responsibility that researchers have as they conduct their study.
One of the most famous and compelling psychological researches that highlight experiment ethics is The Stanford Prison Experiment, which provided a simple narrative regarding human nature (Resnick, 2018). According to McLeod (2017), this research was conducted to examine how willing and ready people would adapt to…

Offered to Explain Aspects of
Words: 13539 Length: 49 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31299381
Read Full Paper  ❯

Fundamentally, hygiene factors are required to make sure a worker is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are desired to motivate a worker to higher performance. Herzberg also further classified peoples actions and how and why they do them, for instance, if one performs a work related action because they have to then that is ranked as movement, but if one performs a work related action because they want to then that is ranked as motivation (Scheid, 2010).

The principles of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory have been applied to a wide variety of factors influencing worker satisfaction. These factors comprise: working circumstances, quality of supervision, salary, status, security, company, job, company policies and interpersonal associations (Two Factor Theory -- Herzberg, Frederick, 2011). In the application of Motivation-Hygiene theory to this study of employee attendance and satisfaction, the factor that will be looked at is that of onsite childcare programs.

Utilizing this theory in…


Child Care & Parent Productivity: Making the Business Case. (2004). Retrieved from 

Employee Survey Use & Design. (2011). Retrieved from

Evans, Joel R. And Mathur, Anil. (2005). The value of online surveys. Retrieved from

Russell, Matthew. (2007). Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Designs. Retrieved from

Business Using Gelso 2006 Harlow
Words: 16758 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35830950
Read Full Paper  ❯

esearchers have an occasion to further organizational science and to make research practical by producing information that can impact changing organizational forms and circumstances. Pragmatically, academic researchers are not likely to get access to a company that is going through change unless the practitioners believe the research will be helpful (Gibson & Mohrman, 2001).

There have been a number of calls to augment the significance and effectiveness of organizational science to companies. The usefulness challenge cannot be defined merely as getting practitioners to value and include what academics learn. It is believed that the usefulness of research depends, somewhat, on the degree to which the perspectives of organization members are incorporated in research procedures and the results are included into those members' organization design activities that take place as their company adjusts to its changing environment. esearch is more likely to be seen as useful if there are occasions for…


Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (U.S.), National Academy of Sciences

(U.S.), National Academy of Engineering & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2009). On

being a scientist: A guide to responsible conduct in research, (3rd ed.). Washington,

D.C.: National Academies Press. Retrieved from:

Health Exploring the Tuskegee Syphilis
Words: 2669 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38901908
Read Full Paper  ❯

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study still remains as one of the most outrageous examples of disregard of basic ethical principles of conduct not to mention violation of standards for ethical research. The suspicion and fear produced by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study are still evident today. Community workers often report mistrust of public health institutions within the African-American community. ecently Alpha Thomas of the Dallas Urban League testified before the National Commission on AIDS saying that many African-American people do not trust hospitals or any of the other community health care service providers because of that Tuskegee Experiment (esearch Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 2010).

In 1990, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which is one of the country's major civil rights organizations, conducted a survey among 1056 African-American Church members in five cities. They found that 34% of the respondents believed that AIDS was an artificial virus, 35% believed that AIDS…


Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study. (2009). Retrieved March 9, 2010, from University of Virginia Health System Web site: 

Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). What Is the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? Retrieved March 10, 2010,

from Web site:

quantitative research
Words: 4778 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27150048
Read Full Paper  ❯

infer an answer to a particular section, then you must so state and JUSTIFY your statement.



Do not provide a "Yes" or "no" answer without an EXPLANATION. YOU MUST JUSTIFY ALL YOUR RESPONSES

ALL responses must be written in YOUR OWN WORDS. Do NOT use quotes.

Morike Adekemi

Full and Complete Reference for the Article: Hagan, Teresa L, BSN, RN., B.A., & Donovan, Heidi M, Phd., R.N. (2013). Ovarian cancer survivor's experiences of self-advocacy: A focus group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), 140-7. Retrieved from

You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.


What is the problem the study was conducted to address? (1)

Response: The problem this study was conducted to address was self-advocacy in clinical research as well as practice. Despite self-advocacy being cited as a trait desirable among…

Mental Health Counseling and Research
Words: 3990 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 65935118
Read Full Paper  ❯

However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.

Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.

Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis

In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…


Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.

Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.

Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.

Satisfy IRB Code and Rule Criteria
Words: 937 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25240366
Read Full Paper  ❯

Satisfy IB Code & ule Criteria

The literature has identified the manner and form by which conduct of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the Milgram Study have violated the provisions of the Institutional eview Board (IB) policies and standards. In an effort to clarify how the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the Milgram Study might have complied with the Institutional eview Board (IB) policies, this analysis proceeds as follows. For the main deviations from IB policies identified, alternative procedures and safeguards that do reflect compliance with IB policies and standards are identified and discussed. A caveat is relevant: realistically, changes to the research protocols would, in effect, render the research useless. Unfortunately, the experimental design required deceit and obfuscation of the actual research procedures. In effect, and in each case, the research should never have been conducted.

Tuskegee Syphilis Study

The following sections of IB were violated by the research. 46.103;…


American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (003-066X). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Code of Federal Regulations. (2009). Title 45: Public Welfare. Department of Human Services, Part 46. Protection of Human Subjects.

Jones, J.H. (1993). Bad blood: The Tuskegee syphilis experiment: History, facts, bad blood, bad science. New York, NY: Free Press.

Milgram, S (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(4), 317-378.

IRB Application for Research on Leadership Styles
Words: 2582 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35795913
Read Full Paper  ❯

Indiana Tech Institutional Review Board Application




Class (Day or CPS)/Campus Office

Does this particular project continue every semester and/or year: No

Project Title: Leadership Styles used to Promote Organizational Success Electronic signature of Principal Investigator

Directions: You need to answer the following questions.

Conflict of Interest: (Please check)

Investigators do___ do not__X___ have a real or potential conflict of interest.

Please indicate whether this research should be exempt or non-exempt from further human subjects review and indicate which of the six exemption reasons (Section A) justifies an exemption status.

This research is exempt under Category 2 of exemption categories. This is primarily because the study involves the use survey procedures on a group of consenting adults.

3. Please attach a copy of your responses to items 1-7 of the instructions (Section B), including all related documents,…

Non Credit Programs on Workforce Education
Words: 4392 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85084222
Read Full Paper  ❯

Several community colleges have in recent times shown preference for non-credit post-secondary students as opposed to credit students. This trait is particularly common in the areas of staff tutoring and contractor training. Several of these non-credit courses are quite popular for their flexibility in meeting the demands of the prospective workforce students as well as the demands of their employers. Important questions have been raised about traditional colleges due to the growth of this sector; these questions include the efficiency of colleges in utilizing resources and how well access is being provided for their (colleges) students. Answering the questions raised above will likely challenge state policies and practices at colleges, although analysing the effects of this program may be a herculean task due to the absence of data on activities as basic as admissions and acceptance in community college non-credit workforce education. With increasing states and college investments of resources…

VAP Prevention and Management Strategies
Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25244165
Read Full Paper  ❯

Prevention and Management of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Hospitals

Ventilator-associated pneumonia is an infection in the airways that develops more than 48 hours after a patient is intubated. While the prevention and management of pneumonia of any kind is considered as a commendable objective, it is characterized with several concerns given the significant effect of pneumonia linked to ventilator use. Ventilator-associated pneumonia has attracted considerable concern in the recent past because it has become the leading cause of death among infections acquired in the hospital. Actually, the rates of deaths from ventilator-associated pneumonia have exceeded those associated with central line infections, respiratory tract infections, and serious sepsis in the non-intubated patient ("Preventing Healthcare and Community Associated Infections," n.d.). It is increasingly likely that the most concerning aspect of ventilator-associated pneumonia is the high associated mortality (Kalanuria, Zai & Mirski, 2014). Consequently, several peer reviewed studies have been carried out to…


Junega et. al. (2011, May). Prevention and Management of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A

Survey on Current Practices by Intensivists Practicing in the Indian Subcontinent. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 55(2), 122-128.

Kalanuria, A.A., Zai, W. & Mirski, M. (2014). Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the ICU.

Critical Care, 18(208). Retrieved from

Process for Qualitative Data Collection
Words: 1058 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 70209972
Read Full Paper  ❯

Data Collection Procedure

What do you see as the value of the IB? Why would one be needed for informal research, such as a class assignment?

IB's value to researchers in America's Universities (AU) is enablement of superior ethical standards in conducting research works (including respondent protection), while allowing students, teaching faculty and other staff members to carry out research works in an efficient and timely manner. IB aims at creating an atmosphere of awareness and respect for research subjects' welfare and rights in university campuses, along with expanding on knowledge and enabling research of the best quality (Enfield & Truwit, 2008).

Issues that the IB might be interested in reviewing regarding the research question and design for this research study

especting Involved Individuals. Mandated by a moral obligation to respect other people, the idea of informed consent comprises three components: information, voluntariness, and understanding. esearch subjects are to be…


Amdur, R.J. & Bankert, E.A. (2011). Institutional review board: member handbook. (3rd ed). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 12-15.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. (4th ed.) Pearson Education, Inc.

Enfield, K. B. & Truwit, J. D. (2008). The Purpose, Composition, and Function of an Institutional Review Board: Balancing Priorities. Respiratory Care, 53, 1330-1336.

Fowler, F. J. (2009). Survey research methods (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Frequency and Quality of Social
Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63954919
Read Full Paper  ❯

Inclusion criterion required that participants be at least 18 years of age. Forty-one percent described themselves as Caucasian, 41% Asian/Pacific Islander, 6% African-American, 6% Latino, and 6% other. The Institutional eview Board at the affiliated university approved this research. Participants provided informed consent and completed online questionnaires regarding social networking use and experiences, rumination, and depressive symptoms. Three weeks after the first survey participants in this group were e-mailed instructions to complete an online follow-up survey that included an assessment of depressive symptoms.


The sampling method that was used for these studies were appropriate in trying to answer the research question of how are social networking use and the quality of interactions associated with depressive symptoms? The major goal of purposive sampling is to center on specific characteristics of a population that are of interest, which will best enable a researcher to answer their questions. The sample being looked…


Davila, J., Hershenberg, R., Feinstein, B.A., Gorman, K., Bhatia, V., & Starr, L.R. (2012).

Frequency and quality of social networking among young adults: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and corumination. Psychology Of Popular Media

Culture, 1(2), 72-86. doi:10.1037/a0027512

Purposive sampling: An overview. (2010). Retrieved from

Hiring or Non-Hiring of Older
Words: 2122 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 98419880
Read Full Paper  ❯

Also, since the survey is given by an outside agency and not the organization that the individual works for there is no worry on the participants part that anyone in his organization will have access to his responses. This reduces the fear of any possible retaliation if some of the responses are not favorable for the respondent's organization

Another reason why this method is appropriate is the reduction in peer pressure as touched on in the Ethical Considerations section of this paper. Participating in a survey via an instrument such as Survey Monkey, the individual can be assured that the responses provided are anonymous. In a survey conducted in interview form, there is a chance that the participant may not feel comfortable being completely honest because there will always be a trust factor. They don't really know the person interviewing them and there may not be enough of a comfort…


Babbie, Earl. The Practice of Social Research. (Eleventh Edition). California: Thomson-Wadsworth.

O'Reilly, Sally. (2006). More than able to pull their weight. Personnel Today, May 2, 2006, 25-26.

Webb, Wendy. (2009). Work is the new retirement. Training, 46(3), 44-45.

Whitney-Gibson, Jane, Jones, Preston J., Cella, Jennifer, Clark, Cory et al. (2010). Ageism and the baby boomers: Issues, challenges, and the TEAM approach. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 3(1), 53-59.

Organizational Culture Societal Culture and
Words: 7259 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84150707
Read Full Paper  ❯

ver the past decade, 'culture' has become a common term used when thinking about and describing an organization's internal world, a way of differentiating one organization's personality from another. In fact, many researchers contend that an organization's culture socializes people (Stein, 1985) and that leadership styles are an integral part of the culture of an organization. A culture-specific perspective reflects the view that the occurrence and the effectiveness of certain leadership behaviors (as well as constructs) is likely to be unique to a given culture.

In contrast, leaders in the culture-universal position contend that certain leadership constructs are comparable across cultures and that many universal leadership behaviors do exist. nly recently, based on the review by Bass (House, 1998), has the leadership research community begun to realize that universal and culture-specific leadership behaviors and constructs are not mutually exclusive categories, but can rather coexist in a single culture at the…

On the other hand, transactional leaders work with the existing rules, norms and procedures of the organization's culture, and reward followers for positive work, and also work to maintain the existing culture (Bass, 1985). The transactional leaders base their decision-making and actions on existing norms, values, and procedures (Bass, 1985). Transactional leaders, on the other hand, can deter organizational success and leadership effectiveness (Bass, 1985).

Leadership style has received a great deal of attention from human resource development researchers (HRD) in the past years (Woodwall, 2000). Some studies will be focused on building a HRD knowledge base in countries where this is low or inexistent (Kuchinke, 1999), whereas others try to identify the compatibility between different leadership styles and the national cultural characteristics. Ardichvili and Kuchinke (2002) used Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the extensive theory developed by Bass and Avolio to determine the leadership styles that are more likely to be correlated to different cultural characteristics in former USSR countries, Germany and the United States.

The results suggested that leadership development based on national dimensions as described by Hofstede should be considered with caution because countries with similar cultural features and geographical proximity may display different leadership styles. Further

Expression of Interest A Topic or Subject
Words: 3559 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97179831
Read Full Paper  ❯

expression of interest. A topic or subject that, one finds worthy enough of contributing to and that one can contribute to, through academic rigor is forms the body of a research. The work produced thus requires academic training and skills and the outcome is a 'work of scholarship'. The skills that are needed for research are: ability to clearly define a research subject/topic; identify a research query that will be pursued; identification of the main points that the topic encompasses; identifying the correct approach to gather the data/information that provides an answer to the research question (this in itself incorporates validation and reliability of the data); recognizing the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the discussions that follow and critically evaluating work done while pointing out the main conclusions and describing the possibility of further scope of work under the topic.

Key Definitions

Theoretical, physical environs or work done on a…


Abbott, M. And McKinney, J. (2013). Understanding and applying research design. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Biggs, M. (2006). Editorial: the role of context in art and design research. Working Papers in Art and Design. [online] Available at:  [Accessed 18 Jan. 2015].

Creswell, J. (2009). Research design. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Drew, C., Hardman, M. And Hosp, J. (2008). Designing and conducting research in education. Los Angeles, Calif.: SAGE Publications.

Methodologies and Research Methods Used in School Advisory Systems
Words: 3715 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47796924
Read Full Paper  ❯

Ethics comprises of an intricate set of principles, morals and institutional outlines that standardize scientific activity. Educational and social researchers face complex challenges occasionally, when they encounter the conflict of their legal and moral responsibility towards protection of their participants on one hand, and maintaining the standards, criteria of quality and significance of research on the other hand. Although, the research design or findings does not always restrained or deteriorated by ethical principles. At times, ethics are supportive in enhancing the quality of research, while some other times it's not. Additionally, researchers "bear a special responsibility for protecting the interests of vulnerable groups throughout the research process" (Tangen, 2014, p. 678).

At all times, educational practitioners have realized the weighed down value of education and that the quality of education rests on ethical standards. The consciousness of educational researchers regarding the ethical dimensions of their research is increasing day by…


Abed, M. G. (2014-2015). A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, And How May These Be Addressed. i-manager's Journal on Educational Psychology, 8(3),1-14.

Comer, S. K. (2009). The Ethics of Conducting Educational Research on Your Own Students. Journal of Nursing Law, 13(4), 100-105. doi: 10.1891/1073-7472.13.4.100

Dooly, D. L. (2013). Academic Achievement in Arkansas High Schools Based on the Implementation Level of a Teacher Advisory Program. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from 

ESRC. (2015). ESRC Framework for Research Ethics. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from