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Instructional Effectiveness Many Scholars Claim
Words: 1604 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: A2 Outline Answer Paper #: 43779153
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Time to develop and use assessments effectively must be built into the teachers' work week. They are time-consuming, but worthwhile, and should not be administered as an afterthought. The results tell us a great deal about students and ourselves. It will be a challenge to make sure assessments are meaningful and are accorded the time they deserve.

When we think of assessments, we often think about formal assessments, whether they are teacher-created quizzes, chapter tests from a textbook, or standardized tests that compare students across the country. Assessment can, and should, include the informal observations teachers make in their classrooms on a daily basis. Because teachers spend so much time with their students, they are in a good position to see both struggles and progress. It may be one of the easiest ways to see what students need because it is immediate and requires no preparation. We can learn from…


Hur, J.W., & Suh, S. (2010). The development, implementation, and evaluation of a summer school for English language learners. The Professional Educator 34(2).

Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijmans, D.M.A., & Jochems, W.M.G. (2010). Assessor's approaches to portfolio assessment in assessment of prior learning procedures.

Evaluation in Higher Education 35(1), pp. 55-70.

Rhodes, T. (2010). Since we seem to agree, why are the outcomes so difficult to achieve? New

Instructional Systematic Design System for
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44436926
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This is where a clear framework of educational objectives is necessary for a school and particular discipline. No teacher really works alone; all teachers must rely on the fact that student achievement is attained through a careful understanding of where students need to be.

The teacher's other task is to determine what other factors might impact student learning ("Assess Instructional Needs," 2001). What other needs of the students must be met in order for the student to master a new skill or concept? This could be an obvious consideration such as do all students speak English as their primary language. If not, modifications may have to be made from the beginning of the process. Other factors that need to be consider such as the socio-economic factors of the community or individual students overlap with the learner analysis portion of creating an instructional design system. Other stresses from family life, peers,…


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (August, 2001). Assess

Instructional Needs. Retrieved October 19, 2006 at 

Techniques of Analysis. (2000). Retrieved October 20, 2006 at

Instructional Practices for High Level Learners and Standard-Based Curriculum
Words: 1426 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36854231
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Instructional Practices for High Level Learners

hen it comes to the right curriculum (instructional practices) that teachers and administrators should be developing -- that are effective in helping students achieve a high level of learning -- this paper points to a standards-based system (combined with creative curricula) as the most effective. There are a number of ways in which teachers can implement those practices that lead to a high level of learning in students -- and this paper reviews those strategies.

Explain various instructional practices designed to achieve high-level learning for all students in a standards-based curriculum.

Instructional practices in schools rarely stay static, according to a peer-reviewed article in the journal Computers in the Schools. In fact, many schools over the past few years have been actively engaged with "fundamental restructuring efforts" because teachers appear willing in many instances to try "…a range of instructional practices" that will be…

Works Cited

Copeland, S.R., and Cosbey, J. (2008-2009). Making Progress in the General Curriculum:

Rethinking Effective Instructional Practices. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe

Disabilities, 33(4), 214-227.

Liu, L., Jones, P.E., and Sadera, W.A. (2010). An Investigation on Experienced Teachers'

Instructional Building Design Over the Last Several
Words: 1551 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81758405
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Instructional Building Design

Over the last several years, institutions of higher education have been facing considerable challenges. This is because the total number of enrollments is increasing. While at the same time, they have to build new facilities to keep up with demand. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from study that was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics which said, "Enrollment in degree-granting institutions increased by 37% between 2000 and 2010 from 15.3 million to 21.0 million. Much of it was in full-time enrollment; the number of full-time students rose 45%, while the number of part-time students rose 26%. During the same time period, the number of females rose 39%, whilst the number of males rose 35%. These increases can be affected both by population growth and by rising rates of enrollment. Between 2000 and 2010, the number of 18- to 24-year-olds increased from 27.3…


Fast Facts. (2012). NCES. Retrieved from: 

Promoting Space Efficiency in Building Design. (2010). SMG. Retrieved from: 

Carpenter, W. (1997). Learning by Building. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lombardozzi, C. (2012). Learning Environments by Design. Philadelphia ASTD. Retrieved from:

Instructional Method Guide
Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73333935
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Instructional Methods: Training Health Instructors

Training a health instructor requires the use of a variety of pedagogical methods. It is essential that all instructors possess high levels of competence and can disseminate accurate information. The trainees must possess both academic and hands-on knowledge to be effective.

A lecture format remains the preferred way to ensure that listeners have received the correct information. "This approach is consider the best method to use because the instructor interfaces with the students by presenting segments of instruction, questions the students frequently, and provides periodic summaries or logical points of development" (Methods of instruction, 2013, TLCS). The disadvantage is that students may grow bored with its lack of interaction. This can be remedied through injecting dialogue and discussion into the lecture format. To orient the students in their duties and to brief them on the information they must convey, some lecturing is required to convey…


Methods of instruction. (2013). TLCS. Retrieved: 

Principles and methods of training. (2013). FAO. Retrieved:

Instructional Writing -- Squat Machine
Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78766361
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Step 3:

As was the case with Step 1, this step also could have used additional information. Specifically, the manual does not indicate that it is very difficult for one person to balance the Main Arm (Part # 11) while positioning the pair of Pillow Block Bearings (Part # 27). The only way for a single person to accomplish this is to lift the Main Arm onto the shoulders and stand in front of the Main Upright (Part #3) so that one can reach around the upright section to assemble the Block Bearings.

Step 4:

Once the Main Arm is attached to the Block Bearings as indicated in Diagram 3 of the manual (KFP, 2009, p.4), Step 4 is much less difficult. However, as in the case of earlier steps, it would also be easier to connect the Slide Support (Part # 10) with the assistance of a second individual…


Keys Fitness Products, L.P. (2009). Leverage Squat Machine Model KPS-LS Assembly

and Instruction Manual. Garland, TX: KFP. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from:

Technology in Instructional Delivery The Case of
Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4518783
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Technology in Instructional Delivery: The Case of Capella University

The use of technology, particularly Internet technology, in instructional delivery in educational institutions has revolutionized the way people access and utilize educational information. Online instructional delivery, either in mixed (combination of traditional and online modes of instruction) or purely online formats, have made learning more interactive, not only between the learner and the tool, but also between the teacher and learner and among learners themselves. This increasing demand for an online mode of instruction delivery in educational institutions is a reflection of the need to not only adopt the new technology, but also to 'manipulate' this technology to suit the users' learning needs (oschmann, 1996:8). The following description of the technology of instructional delivery at Capella University demonstrates this point.

In addition to its traditional format of instructional delivery, which is face-to-face classroom setting, Capella University has an online learning system…

Koschmann, T. (1996). In CSCL: Theory and Practice of an Emerging Paradigm. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Merrill, G. And C. Galbraith. (2010). "Learning outcomes and instructional delivery method in professional and business related courses: An empirical study controlling for course and instructor differences." Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 2.

Reiser, R. And J. Dempsey. (Eds.). (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. NJ: Pearson.

ABC 123 Version X Instructional Module Part I
Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93690174
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ABC/123 Version X

Instructional Module Part I Worksheet

Instructional Module

Instructional Module Part I Worksheet

Instructional Module Element

Your esponse

Instructional topic and module title (why you are choosing this topic)

Instructional module goal(s) and objectives

Learning setting (such as business and educational setting)

Audience, including the description of intended audience

Delivery modality (such as online, hybrid, and face-to-face)

The preferred delivery modality is a hybrid approach. There are certain features of real-life learning including the face-to-face rapport provided by class discussions that cannot be replicated online. Online learning, however, is convenient and allows people with busy schedules to reinforce concepts 24/7 through enhanced self-study. Also, for people who are shy and cannot contribute as much as they would like in the 'real world,' online message boards and chat rooms provide them with an opportunity to engage in dialogue with classmates. Online learning allows a substantial multimedia component such as…


Definitions of instructional design. (1996). Adapted from Training and Instructional Design,

Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University. Retrieved from the University of Michigan: 

Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Higher Ed Course Design 20th Century History
Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38918687
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Higher Ed Course

Course Design: 20th Century History and Popular Music

Course Description:

For many students, popular music is scene as being disposable and readily replaceable. The nature of the modern media cycle means that much of what dominates the sphere of popular music is inherently designed to achieve vast commercial appeal with a short shelf-life. However, there are also ways in which popular music has figured critically into moments in history. This is the premise that underscores the proposed higher education course, which would be couched within the broader discipline of History.

The proposed course is intended to draw parallels between important moments in history and the way that the culture of popular music connected to these moments or in some powerful instances such as the British Invasion, oodstock and the Hip Hop movement, even came to define some of these important historical moments. Using different eras in history…

Works Cited:

Hiebert, J. & Morris, A.K. (2012). Teaching, Rather Than Teachers, As a Path Toward Improving Classroom Instruction. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(2), 92-102.

Hurtado, S.; Milem, J.; Clayton-Pederson, A. & Allen, W. (1999). Enacting Diverse Learning Environments: Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

Shaw, K. (2012). Leadership Through Instructional Design in Higher Education. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 12(3).

Implementing an Instructional Strategy Into the Classroom
Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 758657
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Instructional Strategy Into the Classroom

The instructional strategy selected for implementation in the classroom is job aids. There is a large body of research that suggests that job aids can be used to effectively improve understanding, cognition, retention and interpretation of material in the classroom (Dwyer & Spaulding, 2001). Simply defined, job aids are simple tutorials that often contain graphics used to illustrate the steps needed to accomplish a task or define a problem (Thiagi, 1999). They can come in many different forms including: checklists, decision tables, worksheets, flowcharts, diagrams or any other items that help improve student performance with regard to individual tasks, without requiring memorization of the specific steps or factual information related to the task (Thiagi, 1999).

A good example of a potential 'job aid' is a yellow pages directory (Thiagi, 1999) which helps people locate and use telephone numbers. Job aids work by improving an individual's…


Dwyer, F. & Spaulding, K. (2001). "The effect of time-on-task when using job aids as an instructional strategy." International Journal of Instructional Media, Vol. 28, Issue 4, p. 437

Dwyer, F. & Spaulding, K. (1999). "Effect of job aids in facilitating learners' cognitive development." International Journal of Instructional Media, Vol. 26, Issue 1, p. 87

Rossett, A. (1991). "Job aids in a performance technology world." Performance & Instruction, Vol. 30, Issue 1, pp. 1-6

Thiagi, S. (1999). "Rapid instructional design." [online]. October 5, 2004, at

Secondary Classroom Environment Design Classroom
Words: 1523 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68942513
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The traditional classroom environment is no longer supportive of student learning and it is critically necessary that educators address the current classroom environment as well as their instructional practice in the classroom if students are to be effectively prepared through education to take their rightful place in a global society characterized by information technology and networked business systems. The classroom environment that is characterized by different learning activities, cooperative and inclusive learning will provide a solid base in learning to prepare students for entrance into the world as effective and functionally adept individuals.


urgstahler, Sheryl (2002) Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab. Washington Education Staff webpage. Online available at

Riddle, Elizabeth (1999) Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory. Helen a. Kellar Institute for Human Disabilities. Online available at

10 Design Ideas for Schools of the 21st Century (1998) American School & University. 1…


Burgstahler, Sheryl (2002) Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab. Washington Education Staff webpage. Online available at .

Riddle, Elizabeth (1999) Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory. Helen a. Kellar Institute for Human Disabilities. Online available at

10 Design Ideas for Schools of the 21st Century (1998) American School & University. 1 January 1998. HMRH Architects. Online available at .

Armstrong, Thomas (2000) Multiple Intelligences - Online available at .

Service Theory Design
Words: 1410 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68493883
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Service Theory design is not a basic foothold that can be explained in only a few sentences. There is a lot of thought, experimentation, research, and trial and error that goes into the creation of a sound theory. First, it is important to acknowledge all of the things that can play a role in the design of a theory itself. esearchers have reported that community and culture significantly influence value orientation (Goel, 2010), perceived needs, and motivation as well as provide the ground for creating shared understanding. All disciplines have their own cultures, and all cultures evolve through cross-cultural exchanges. It all starts with a series of questions and ideas that the researcher would like to find out background information on, and possible determine information that may not have been evident upon first glance.

The questions that would need further clarity are: (1) what model best fits the current prospective…


Freeman, J.B., & Ambady, N. (2011). A dynamic interactive theory of person construal. Psychological Review, 118(2), 247-279. doi:10.1037/a0022327

Goel, S. (2010, April 1). Design of Interventions for Instructional Reform in Software Development Education for Competency Enhancement. Online Submission, Retrieved from EBSCOhost..

Rodrigues, R., de Lima Bicho, A., Paravisi, M., Jung, C., Magalhaes, L., & Musse, S. (2010). AN INTERACTIVE MODEL FOR STEERING BEHAVIORS OF GROUPS OF CHARACTERS. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 24(6), 594-616. doi:10.1080/08839514.2010.492167

Tracey, M. (2009). Design and development research: a model validation case. Educational Technology Research & Development, 57(4), 553-571. doi:10.1007/s11423-007-9075-0

Learner Analysis Before an Instructional
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58428645
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Being aware of these different types of learners in the classroom will help the teacher plan ways to motivate students and promote a positive attitude.

Motivation and attitude in the classroom is frequently linked to other factors in the students' lives such as culture, ethnicity, language skills, and socio-economic issues ("Analyze Learners," 2001). Being aware of the diversity in the classroom will assist the teacher when designing the program. For instance, different cultures place value of different things. It is the teacher's and the district's responsibility to be aware of the ways that certain cultures perceive learning and education. If teachers are not familiar with this information about a group of students in their building, the district should provide some staff development to assist teachers in understanding the culture. Providing this kind of support should not stop at culture and ethnic differences, but it should extend to socio-economic factors. As…


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (August, 2001). Analyze Learners.

Retrieved October 19, 2006 at

Instructional Leader as They Relate
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45299441
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For the principal too, this method helps him improve his relationship with staff and the atmosphere has a positive impact on students and parents where a harmonious school atmosphere is created instead of one that represents fragmentation.

In all ways, then, my experiences within this leadership-cycle has only been positive.

Goals in the next five years that relate to instructional leadership

Instructional leaders need to know what is going on in the classroom. I intend to walk around the students inconspicuously picking up observations of the way that they perceive their classroom teaching and unobtrusively picking up information regarding classroom content. I also intend to make an unobtrusive survey of textbooks and material taught in the classroom. I will inconspicuously interweave my observations in the meetings in a manner that teachers do not feel threatened.

I also intend to make these meetings more relaxed encouraging teachers to dress in casual…

Design for a Lesson
Words: 2282 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87497894
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Lesson Plan Design: usiness/Corporate Ethics

This lesson plan will be designed to teach students traditional and conventional moral philosophies, standards and ethical convention in a corporate/business environment. As protocol students will be required to examine traditional moral and ethical standards as defined by philosophical and sociological standards.

The purpose of the lesson will be to teach students about the types of ethical considerations they might be faced with in a business or corporate environment. Students will be expected to have adequate knowledge of current events, and engage in discourse related to the morality of recent news events related to corporate ethics. The course will also require students to analyze their own experiences within corporate America where appropriate or the workplace and identify what gaps currently exist in the moral/ethical aspect of employment and asses how improvements made in this area might impact the workforce as a whole.

Students not having…


Adelgais, A., King, A., Staffieri, A. "Mutual Peer Tutoring: Effects of Structuring Tutorial Interaction to Scaffold Peer Learning." Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 90, 1998

Dunham, James H. "Principles of Ethics." Prentice-Hall: New York: 1929

IUB. "Collecting Student Feedback." {Online}. Available: 

Reigeluth, C. "Instructional Theories in Action: Lessons Illustrating Selected Theories and Models." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1987

Instructional Leadership and Professional Development Plan Assessment
Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57355042
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Instructional leadership and professional development are some of the most important components towards enhancing the effectiveness of teachers with regards to learning outcomes and achievement of the required educational standards. This is primarily because instructional leadership and professional development are focused on student learning and achievement. School districts are increasingly recognizing the need to promote instructional leadership and professional development of educators in order to enhance student learning and achievement. Paterson Public School considers instructional leadership and professional development as the basic vehicles for generating the desired change in teaching practice, which in turn helps in enhancing learning outcomes and student achievement. As a result, the school utilizes several measures for conducting needs assessment in relation to instructional leadership and professional development. This paper examines the evaluation instruments utilized by Paterson Public School for needs assessment on instructional leadership and professional development.
Evaluation Instruments at Paterson Public School

Paterson Public…

Instructional Improvement Plan for an
Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50774394
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For example, managers can increase productivity by assigning the right number of employees to each project, avoiding over- or understaffing. Managers should also be sensitive to interaction problems between employees. When managers are aware of personality conflicts between employees, they should avoid assigning them to the same team.

Increasing productivity involves a careful study of employees' work performance and of managerial decisions, a daunting process in which individuals may feel unfairly singled out or victimized. While this process is painful, it is appropriate when responsibility for low productivity clearly lies with certain individuals. if, however, it is not obvious who the culprits are, the best approach to take is to consider not only individual responsibility, but also search for larger systematic factors behind the low productivity. The problem may be a result of poor management of people and inadequate allocation of resources. Alternatively, it could be the result of an…

Teacher Instructional Technology Literacy Instruction Improve Elementary
Words: 1207 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59092318
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teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.

Using phenomenology

Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?

In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).

Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…


Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 

Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.

The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.

TESOL Materials and Course Design a Situation
Words: 6759 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39322444
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TESOL: Materials and Course Design

A situation analysis, giving all details availale efore the course egins:

New comers of the TESOL school scheme will e assessed for their English language proficiency y the teachers assigned y TESOL (Teaching of English to speakers of other languages). Programming system will e run under this teacher - memer of TESOL (Dorr, 2006).

This TOSEL teacher is assigned to assist and teach student in estalishing sound understanding of English language, coping with the required skills and academic strategies to assist the process of gaining firm proficiency in English language as necessitated y the course design and classroom environment (Dorr, 2006).

Teacher assigned y TESOL is also a memer of programming system as a support memer, the team of which is designed to develop a close relation with students and collaoration with other related groups including programming team, parents, other teachers, administrative staff and counselors…

bibliography of ESL resources: Suggestions for selecting materials & ircs top choices. Illinois Resource Center.

Hamayan, E., Marler, B., Sanchez-Lopez, C. And Damico, J. (2007). Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners: Delivering a Continuum of Services. Caslon Publishing.

Kieffer, M.J. (2008). Catching up or falling behind? Initial English proficiency, concentrated poverty, and the reading growth of language minority learners in the United States. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 851-868.

Linse, C. (2008). Language Issue or Learning Disability? Essential Teacher, 5/4, 28-30.

Roessingh, H. (2006). Early language and literacy development among young ELL: Preliminary insights from a longitudinal study and the dual language book project. [Power Point Presentation Slides] Retrieved online November 20, 2011 at

Joint Application Design Describe How Joint Application
Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91444189
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Joint Application Design

Describe how joint application design (JAD) might be considered a better information-gathering technique than the traditional method of requirements gathering? What are its shortcomings?

The Joint Application Design (JAD) methodology could potentially be considered a better information gathering methodology compared to more traditional information gathering approaches given its highly structured approach to capturing and validating data. The highly methodical nature of the application design technique that concentrates on identifying critical success factors, project deliverables, scheduling workshop activities, and organizing workshops are all based on information and knowledge transfer (Davidson, 1999). The potential of the JAD technique to increase the level of participation on the part of project participants while also reducing the time and costs associated with the actual research process (Jackson, Embley, 1996). The JAD technique has also shown significant value in bringing experts in specific areas together and gaining useful insights as a result (Davidson,…


Beasley, R.E. (1999). Instructional multimedia software development: Implications for the analysis & design phases of the SDLC. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 40(2), 2-6.

Cao, L., Mohan, K., Xu, P., & Ramesh, B. (2009). A framework for adapting agile development methodologies. European Journal of Information Systems, 18(4), 332-343.

Davidson, E.J. (1999). Joint application design (JAD) in practice. The Journal of Systems and Software, 45(3), 215-223.

Grenci, R.T., & Hull, B.Z. (2004). New dog, old tricks: ERP and the systems development life cycle. Journal of Information Systems Education, 15(3), 277-286.

School Budget Is Designed the
Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23005154
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"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).

3. Key Budget Terminology

There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are


The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:

Local source,

Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.


Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…


Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.

State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.

New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.

Teaching for Exceptionalities
Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85814613
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Instructional Modifications for an English-As-Second-Language 10th Grade Student

Teaching for Exceptionalities

The student is a 15-year-old bilingual male in enrolled in 10th grade. He presents as having difficulties in his school work primarily due to his current inability to speak, read, and write English fluently. He is currently reading at approximately a 2nd-grade level, and all of his assignments are modified. Examples of the instructional modifications he experiences are as follows: Material is read aloud to him, writing assistance is provided to help him translate from his native language to English, and all story format math problems are converted to conventional number format to sidestep reading and translation difficulties. When a high level of academic support is provided, the student does not exhibit problem behaviors. However, he reports feeling overwhelmed and stressed, and these underlying emotions do contribute to occasional bouts of problem behavior.

Instructional example. I took a content-focused…


Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners. World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment. Retrieved 

Brisk, M., & Harrington, M. (2000). Literacy and bilingualism: A handbook for all teachers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Manuel, J. (2003, December 23). Majoring In Moneyball. Baseball America. Retrieved

Gaming as an Instructional Strategy
Words: 10150 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29985406
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Knowles stated "The richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves" (p. 66). n instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience. Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). gain, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the correct answer.

By not tapping into the experience of adult learners, negative effects may result (Knowles, 2005). The adult learner identifies their experiences as who they are. In other words, their experiences help to define them as a person. dult learners, who perceive their experiences as being ignored or devalued, perceive…

A somewhat controversial and negative environmental outcome identified from the review of literature was the competitive component to gaming. In an evaluation conducted by Gruendling et al.(1991), some learners (5%) felt threatened by competitive nature of gaming (N = 40) and stated that gaming can cause unnecessary anxiety and stress. Bloom and Trice (1994) stated that too much competition can take the fun out of the process of learning for some and perhaps discourage student participation.

Psychosocial Outcomes

Psychosocial outcomes were also identified from the review of literature. Gaming was found to have encouraged and enhanced active participation and communication-social interactions, improve peer relationships, promote teamwork and collaboration, as well as decrease participants fear, tension, stress, and feelings of intimidation (Ballantine, 2003; Bays & Hermann, 1997; Berbiglia et al., 1997; Bloom & Trice, 1994; Cowen & Tesh, 2002; Dols, 1988; Fetro & Hey, 2000; Gifford, 2001;

Superior Teachers Employ Systematic Instructional
Words: 1784 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 9209684
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Holding this paper waiting for more research on systematic instructional planning would have been a better step, this would have probably eliminated the contradictory nature of the research which brought the element of unprofessionalism. It is important for one to include research not supporting their hypothesis but it is more important not to undermine his or her argument.

Potential effects of the fixes

Including more participants in the study would bring a possibility of applying the findings to a larger group in society since increasing the number of participants widens the answers to the questions asked. Including a Likert scale in the survey can also enhance the responses given by the teachers and would reveal some information that was not previously obtained. Standardizing the coding system and making the process thorough would prevent wrong categorization of answers and also give the authors' arguments more strength.

In order to help the…


Young, a., Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1998). Do superior teachers employ systematic instructional planning process procedures? A descriptive study, Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46:2, 65.

Non-Instructional Services in Schools

eplacing non-instructional personnel in schools with professional service providers is a controversial topic for several reasons. Parents and other stakeholders are naturally more reluctant to trust the welfare of their children to for-profit professional service providers than local school employees. Whereas schools have direct control over their employees, outsourced workers are more loyal to their employers than to schools. There are concerns about the quality of services and how their quality might be adversely affected by cost-cutting measures. On the other hand, outsourcing non-essential functions could potentially represent significant cost savings for educational institutions. On balance, outsourcing non-instructional functions is a viable approach to cost reduction provided that institutions follow best practices in connection with selection of service providers and accurate calculation of measurable projected outcomes. However, in addition to the actual implementation of an effective service selection process, there are also internal political considerations.



Bushman M.F. And Dean J.E. (2005) Outsourcing of non-mission-critical functions: A

solution to the rising cost of college attendance. Lumina Foundation. Accessed online:


Individual instructional needs of'students
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Educators are faced with the challenge of dealing with each student's needs. Everyone needs a chance to grow, learn and face the challenges that are necessary for attaining excellence. There are always special needs children in each learning environment. Each of these students needs special attention because of their uniqueness in the learning process. Such learners may possess special gifts including learning potential and other talents. If such learners are attended to with an aim to nurture their special gifts, they are likely to make significant and special contribution to the communities that they come from and the world in general (Davis & Rimm, 2004).

Recommendation for Mike Grost

In the case of Mike Grost, he has been found to possess special gifts including perfect emotional and physical health, remarkable intelligence, and eidetic memory, artistic and creative abilities. He demonstrates great ability in a wide range of areas of learning.…

Principles of Good Web Design
Words: 3086 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66537855
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Web design

The principles of good web design revolve around a number of central core factors. One important central criterion in the development of the principles of effective web design is to fully understand crucial characteristics of the medium. Another central aspect is to base your design message on aim and communication. The first factor -- understanding the medium of the Internet - is an essential and often neglected factor in web design as will become evident in the discussion of the various principles. Secondly, it should always be remembered that, within the context of the specific medium, being able to communicate quickly and effectively with the viewer or client is what makes a good Web site effective. The intended purpose of the web site is also another cardinal feature that influences the principles of design as it is in the creative presentation that is determines its ultimate level of…


Beebe, R.J., Trenta, L., Covrig, D., Cosiano, P., & Eastridge, H. (2002). Build It and They Will Not Necessarily Come: The Effectiveness of a Professional Development Web Site for Entry-Year Principals THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 29(11), 58+.

Bhat, S., Bevans, M., & Sengupta, S. (2002). Measuring Users' Web Activity to Evaluate and Enhance Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 97+.

Boling, E., Beriswill, J.E., Xaver, R., Hebb, C., Kaufman, D., & Frick, T. (1998). Text Labels for Hypertext Navigation Buttons. International Journal of Instructional Media, 25(4), 407.

Dickson, T. (2000). Mass Media Education in Transition: Preparing for the 21st Century. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Product Design Summary for a Web Quest
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product design summary for a web quest that teaches 5th grade students how to build a web page using Microsoft ord

In recent years, web quests have been used to great effect by educators with the purpose of giving students the ability to search the orld ide eb for instructional as well as entertaining information. The web quest format allows students to employ an interactive form of knowledge seeking with a visual, audio, and verbal component. The importance of instructing students in the use of the web as a tool that can be deployed to educate through the use of technology and to connect students to the world has not always been deployed to its full potential, partly because of a certain level of teacher discomfort with computers, partly because of certain district's technical limitations, and partly because the nature of the information available on the web has only recently…

Works Cited

Dodge, Bernie. (2004) "The Web quest Site." Site first created February 1998, last modified 2004. Retrieved on July 14, 2004 at 

Dodge, Bernie. (2001). "Five Rules for Writing a Great Web Quest." Retrieved on July 14, 2004 at 

Dodge, Bernie. (1993) "Some Thoughts about Web Quests." Retrieved on July 14, 2004 at

Schrock, Kathy. (2004) "Why Web Quests?"

Teacher Instructional Technology With New Literacy Instruction
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teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?

The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.

The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.

The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.

The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…


Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.

Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:

Sociology Press.

Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.

Research-Based Instructional Approach That I
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Direct Instruction stands for society's equality and it works best.

Direct Instruciton should be used as a method for education because it has proven to be the most effective technique for actual learning and understanding. Since teachers are working directly with the student, they are can immediately respond to the needs of the student and adjust levels of comprehension based upon their different rates of comprehension. Additionally, the use of DI ensures that teachers do not "belabor" certain aspects of lessons and at the same time can either slow or speed up their lesson according to the student's needs. The focus is that this learning strategy places all of the emphasis upon the student and provides manevurability into the hands of the teacher. This creates high levels of confidence for the student because he feels that he is consistently accomplishing goals while increasing comprehension because the teacher adjusts to the…

Conditions Necessary for Design and
Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5876733
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This approach also makes students with different learning styles, such as those who learn best kinesthetically rather than verbally feel more competent in the classroom:

One of the greatest 'resources' for a truly interactive classroom is a flexibly-minded instructor who is willing to use the community as a resource, and to demand more from his or her students. Experiential learning is often more time-consuming for both the teacher as well as the student. The teacher must engage in more creative assignment creation and grading techniques. Another important resource is a willingness of the community to work with educators. This can include a teaching hospital that fosters the development of new nursing students, a local workplace that helps young people volunteer and find service-oriented jobs, and the financial resources to create laboratories within the classroom using new media as well as traditional book and exams.

But while finances are certainly important,…

Works Cited

Cantor, J.A. (2008). Delivering instruction to adult learners. (3rd. ed.). Reports - 1995. The

ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education. Washington, DC: The George Washington

University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development.

Retrieved May 22, 2009

Understanding by Design Instructional Planning Framework
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Part 1: Understanding by Design - Stage 1

Established Goals:

What content standards and program or mission-related goals will this unit address?

The mission related-goal to be addressed in this unit is to enhance students’ ability to make sense of problems and work towards solving them. In this regard, the relevant ISTE Standard to be addressed in this unit is Standard 1: Creativity and Innovation. Additionally, the unit will address Pennsylvania’s Common Core State Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2 for Mathematics.
What standards, competencies, and outcomes will this unit address?

Based on PA’s Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2, the competency to be addressed in this unit is the use of understanding of fractions to partition shapes into halves, quarters, and thirds (Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014). Students are expected to be creative and innovative in partitioning shapes in different sizes based on insights they have obtained from fractions. Through this process, the unit is expected to…

Constructivist Instructional Technology During the
Words: 1306 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31462759
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Creativity is a necessary attribute for instructors using the Gardner method of instruction, precisely because it does not prescribe the use of any specific materials in particular at all.

A typical approach within the Gardner system might use an ice skating session to present lessons of Newtonian physics in a manner conducive to understanding by students with better kinesthetic awareness, for one example. Likewise, music might be used to present mathematical concepts such as ratio and scale, or scientific concepts such as the physics of mechanical waves. The Gardner method employs these materials in a manner designed to promote active learning by presenting the subject matter lesson directly through materials that lend themselves to absorption via all seven intelligences (Gardner, 1999).

Instructional Constructivist Technology in Active Learning Educational Methods:

One of the most comprehensive educational system emphasizing the constructivist method is the Full Option Science System (FOSS) program. The FOSS…


Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New designs for teaching and learning: Promoting active learning in tomorrow's schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books. Huber, R.A., & Moore, C.J. (2001). A model for extending hands-on science to be inquiry based. School Science and Mathematics, 101(1), 32. Schroeder, U. & Spannagel, C. (2006). Supporting the active learning process. International Journal on Elearning, 5(2), 245.

Shmaefsky, B. (2005). The critical elements of doing effective classroom demonstrations. Journal of College Science Teaching, 35(3), 44.

Curriculum Design Implementation and Evaluation
Words: 1391 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27813777
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curriculum of all the schools of a district. It uses 5 sources and is in APA format.

The main aim of my curriculum that I have designed for five elementary schools, 4 middle schools and one high school of the district, is that I intend uniformity in the curriculums of all the schools so all the schools impart the same educational quality and therefore there is no discrepancy and the whole community remains satisfied. y this design model, which will be introduced in all the schools of the district, there will be coordination between the schools, the teachers from all the schools will have identical training and the administration will also be trained to monitor and coordinate such a program. The administration of all the schools will have a head administrator to see that all the schools correctly comply to the curriculum and work as one big system of schooling.…


Theory of Instruction: Principles and Applications, 1991 (Rev. ed.), by Siegfried Engelmann and Douglas Carnine (Association for Direct Instruction)

Direct Instruction Reading, 1997 (Rev. ed.), by Douglas Carnine, Jerry Silbert, and Edward Kameenui, (Prentice Hall)

Designing Effective Mathematics Instruction: A Direct Instruction Approach, 1997 (Rev. ed.), by Marcy Stein, Jerry Silbert, and Douglas Carnine (Prentice Hall)

Designing Instructional Strategies, 1990, by Edward Kameenui and Deborah Simmons (Prentice Hall)

Cricket in Times Square Instructional
Words: 1122 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21224100
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The Cricket Eats

The Cricket Lives

The Cricket Does

The Cricket Has

Helps: Quote memory, rewrite text, apply information, apply extra materials to book.

Part 7- riting Activity -- Pick one setting in Cricket in Times Square and write a 1-2 paragraph explanation of why that setting was used and your description of it (e.g. city, etc.). Be sure to develop concepts like: hat do you see? hat do you smell? Are there lots of people there? hy? Is it calm or busy? Is it dangerous? Imagine that you are in this setting and seeing it from the Cricket's point-of-view.

Part 8 - Fluency Activity

Part 1 -- Comparative and Superlative Adjectives (example questions, this from Chapter 13):

1. Chester stayed up most of the night

a) playing for the animals

b) learning new musical pieces

c) talking to Tucker and Harry

d) because he was too excited to…

Works Cited

Guided Reading Level. (2007, June). Retrieved from

Glass, K.T. (2009). Lesson Design for Differentiated Instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Miller, G. (2007). Reading Activities. Retrieved from:

Siop Sheltered Instructional Observation Protocol
Words: 520 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14945504
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Several approaches will be helpful in creating this environment:

1. Developing useful study guides useful for ELLs. This will focus their ideas and attention on major ideas and gives a place of focus.

2. Assign reading partners or groups. Pairing ELLs with fluent readers will be very helpful. Teamwork can have a very strong effect on learning.

3. Encouragement: One strategy is the "Say Something" activity. Students take turns reading aloud, and following the reading, each student 'says something,' such as asking question, making a comment, making a connection to something already read, or responding personally to the text. The exercise also engages students as readers and get them thinking about the text


Observation and assessment are also important components of this approach and must be successfully managed by the teacher in order to maximize learning and comprehension. Assessment occurs throughout a lesson and is informal, authentic multidimensional, and…


Echevarria, J. & Graves, a. (2003). Sheltered instruction: Teaching English language learners with diverse abilities. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Echevarria, J. & Short, D. (2003). The effects of sheltered instruction on the achievement of limited English proficient students. Retrieved from

how to design a really good'software tutorial
Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79933631
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Interactive Tutorial Effective?

Tutorials are integral to learning new technologies or procedures, from learning how to use a new software application to learning how to speak a new language. Therefore, it is important to know what factors determine the effectiveness of a particular tutorial. Empirical evidence and experimental research can be used to assess tutorial effectiveness, as learning can be objectively measured. Tutorial designers can improve their products by using empirical research to base their user interfaces, interactivity levels, instructional exercises, length of lessons, and hardware platform flexibility.

Effective tutorial design is critical not just for the user experience, but also to the effectiveness and accessibility of the product. This proposal identifies and evaluates the factors that help determine the effectiveness of a tutorial, with the ultimate goal of helping developers design successful interactive tutorials that they can integrate into products and services. Specifically, our research will focus on interactive…

Works Cited

Anderson, Rozalynd P. and Wilson, Stephen P. "Quantifying the Effectiveness of Interactive Tutorials in Medical Library Instruction." Medical Reference Services Quarterly Vol. 28, Issue 1, Spring 2009, pp. 10-21.

Boot, Walter R., Kramer, Arthur F., Simons, Daniel J., Fabiani, Monica and Gratton, Gabriele. "The effects of video game playing on attention, memory, and executive control." Acta Psychologica, Vol 129, Issue 3, Nov 2008, pp. 387-389.

Deterding, Sebastian, et al. "Gamification." Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2011, pp. 2425-2428.


Innovative Research Design Will Be
Words: 1738 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 83547693
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This study will represent one attempt to infuse conflict resolution practices with a focus on unity as a methodology and an outcome for recognizing the risks of conflicts. The study will also examine factors associated with conflict, and the utilization of analytical thinking strategies to avoid hostile confrontations and violence (Farrell, a.D., & Meyer, a.L. 1997).

Research Questions

The goal of the study is to answer the questions of how to build a lasting foundation for peace in the classroom. To achieve this overarching goal, the project will answer the following four main questions:

How frequently does conflict resolution and peer mediation impact students' conflicts, attitudes, and behavior?

2. How does adding conflict resolution in addition to the peer mediation program in the 6th grade curriculum impact the school climate?

3. How do conflict resolution or peer mediation programs effectively handle disputes if teachers taught the program in a 6th…

4. How are peer mediation programs equally effective (or ineffective) for elementary, middle, and high schools?


A mixed methods approach will be utilized for this study. This approach involves the use of both a quantitative and qualitative approach. The facilitator for this research study will collect data using the Likert scale 7 and 15 questionnaire survey at the end of the 2009 school year . The Likert scale will also be used to complete the 15 survey questions which will address concerns about the program. The program will also conduct an open-ended and closed-ended interview questionnaire concerning conflicts between middle school age children. A field interview will be used to collect data using a recorder to transcribe the information for analysis.

MA or Phd Level Is Designed to
Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 8987093
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MA or PHD level is designed to develop and new argument on a particular subject. Within the overall presentation, a literature review is a section in which previously published information in a particular subject area, time period, or focus level, is discussed. ather than a summation of sources, a literature review should have an organizational pattern that combines both summary and analysis -- summary to recap the information from the particular author's point-of-view, analysis to provide a way to interpret material and synthesize new information (Literature eviews, 2004).

Case Studies -- Literature eview Outlines-

Teacher's Perceptions of Strategies and Skills Affecting Learning of Gifted 7th Graders in English Classes (Noble, 2010)


Historic Influences on Gift Education

b. Defining Giftedness

c. Precursors to Gifted Performance

Identification of Gifted Students

a. Teacher/Student Motivation

b. Instructional Strategies

c. elationship between strategies and learning skills

III. Teacher perceptions of giftedness

a. Factors affecting…


Alstron, A. (2011). Having Our Say: Thoughts, Perspectives and Perceptions of Graduates of Satellite East Junior High School for the Gifted and Talented. Teacher's College, Columbia University.

Jordan, K.A. (2010). Gifted Student Academic Achievement and Program Quality. College of Education -- Louisiana Technical University.

Literature Reviews. (2004). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from: 

Noble, J.P. (2010). Teacher's Perceptions of Strategies and Skills Affecting Learning of Gifted 7th Graders in English Classes. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Educational Technologies and Online Learning
Words: 1513 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60612633
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There are varying educational backgrounds and levels in distance education and the delivery method must be in a way that is interactive using visuals, charts, graphs and other stimulating realia.


In conclusion, the Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design and the Jerrold Kemp Model of Instructional design are both excellent models for developing both traditional and distance learning materials. However, the differences among the types of ISD Comparison 6 learners must be clearly identified and defined in order for either of these models to be successful. With technology changing the face of education, instructional design models will also need to change in order to best educate and meet the needs of the different types of learners.


Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers,…


Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers, Inc.

Brown, Frederick G. (1981). Measuring Classroom Achievement. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Dalton, William. Assessing Student Learning: It can be more than a survey. Retrieved May 25, 2006 at

Pre and Post-Internet in the
Words: 937 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78606935
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He or she is more often an adult or continuing student, thus these learner characteristics should be tailored, suggests the Kemp model, to the due dates and assignments given by the instructor. An online student's learning objectives are more likely to be practical or vocationally oriented, thus teaching activities and use of resources can and should be guided towards these objectives, suggests Kemp.

Also, crucial aspects of the Kemp design model are steps such as pre-testing, which ensures that the learner's needs are accommodated by the course syllabus. These steps are often more easily conveyed via an online format -- the pre-tests can be given well in advance, even before the class begins and the instructor and the pupil can even have an extended discussion through email as to what sorts of support services and methods of evaluation are most appropriate for his or her needs before the course takes…

Works Cited

Jerrold/Kemp Design Model. (1971) Design and Implementation Online Image. Retrieved 13 Jun 2006 at

Kemp, J.E., (1971). Instructional design: A plan for unit and course development. Belmont, CA: Lear Siegler, Inc./Fearon Publishers.

Curriculum Books Have Been Written Since the
Words: 3875 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59141556
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curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of the classroom teacher. Some aspects of curricular design are addressed at the school level if, in fact, a school has a guaranteed and viable curriculum. egardless of the direction provided by the school (or district), individual teachers still need to make decisions regarding curricular design at the classroom level given the unique characteristics of their students. Indeed, in a meta-analysis involving 22 studies, Anderson, (2003) found a strong relationship between a student's knowledge and experience with content and the type of…


Ackerman, P.L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117(3), 288-318.

Anderson, J. (2003). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Anderson, J. (2009). Rules of the mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Brooks, C. (2000). Knowledge management and the intelligence community. Defense Intelligence Journal, 9(1), 15-24.

Anderson, J.R., & Fincham, J.M. (2004). Acquisition of procedural Skills from Examples. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20(6), 1322-1340.

Educational Tech Annotated Bib Astleitner
Words: 3759 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 2331558
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Chapter 3 stresses the importance both fundamentally and ethically of representing information truthfully and honestly through visual and experiential means that are meaningful to the learner and respect the fact that the individual mind is rather limited and therefore needs human centered externals to help it learn and retain information. Chapter 4 stresses the importance of individuality in the development of technologies that teach and interact with people. The overall work is important as it stresses the fact that technologies, as a creation of man must be developed and manipulated to reflect the humanity of their purpose. The fallibility of the mind is stressed as is its limitations and the possibility of the development of greater tools to impart knowledge is the most important factor in the development of learning tools.

Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. [chapters 1, 2, 3, 4]

In this work…

Wittrock, M.C. (1992). Generative learning processes of the brain. Educational Psychologist, 27(4), 531-541.

Wittrock present a functional model of learning that pays close attention to four processes of learning; attention, motivation, knowledge or preconceptions and generation. The author's point-of-view is clearly one of biological i.e. neurological brain function and develops a schema in which knowledge or learning takes place, as interactive and fluid in the mind. Understanding each of these four aspects can give the educational developer an idea of the need to bring learners all the way in to a learning environment through attention, motivation and base knowledge to elicit generative principles of cognition, i.e. The assimilation of novel material, that will add to their base knowledge of understanding. Wittrock's model in fact stresses that in creation of interactive or even static instruction if one key aspect is lacking, the whole of the system is resistant to learning. This is important in that it makes clear that development of technologies that instruct must produce attention and elicit motivation as well as build from some existing knowledge base to be effective for any user to generate a set of new knowledge. Even the most simple instructions often build on a set of base knowledge, that is frequently taken for granted and many instructional environments lack the sort of stimulation that garners attention and motivates the learner.

Total 17 papers including 3 books. I'll send you the articles in PDF files except three books Saffer, D. (2007). Designing for Interaction. Berkeley: New Riders. Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. Norman, D. (1993). Things that make us smart. New York: Doubleday/Currency. I think you can find these easiliy in libraries.

Hot Seat an Ethical Decision-Making
Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 72488009
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Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…


Frame, M.W., Flanagan, C.D, Frederick, J., Gold, R., Harris, S.(1997). You're in the hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students. Simulation and Gaming, March Vol. 28, No. No. 1, 107-115

Teacher Work Sample
Words: 3214 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89565389
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Teaching Unit for an 8th-Grade Language Arts and Literature Class

Contextual Factors

Community, District, and School Factors

Classroom Factors

Student Characteristics

Learning Goals and Objectives

Pre-Assessments Aligned with Learning Goals and Objectives

Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Assessments

Criteria Used to Measure Student Performance for Learning Goals

Plan for Formative Assessment to Gauge Student Progress

Design for Instruction

Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 1.

How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and b.

How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context

Materials and Technology Required to Implement

the Activity


Plan for Assessment of Student Learning During

and/or Following the Activity

Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 2.


How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and Objective(s)


How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context


Materials and Technology Required to Implement

the Activity


Plan for Assessment of Student Learning During

and/or Following the Activity

Instructional Decision-Making…

Works Cited

Dorn, Charles M., Stanley S. Madeja and F. Robert Sabol. Assessing Expressive Learning: A

Practical Guide for Teacher-Directed, Authentic Assessment in K-12 Visual Arts

Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Oklahoma Teacher Work Sample Assignment. (2003, March 11). Oklahoma Higher Education.

Learner Analysis When Presented With a Teaching
Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54229794
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Learner Analysis

When presented with a teaching situation, one of the major challenges teachers must deal with is the various and often divergent sets of needs inherent in each student. Nevertheless, the University of Alberta (2001) emphasizes that teaching should be conducted around learners and their needs rather than around the text or teacher. Hence, learner analysis is a vital component of teaching effectively.

According to the University of Alberta (2001), there are various perspectives on conducted learner analysis, also known as audience analysis, in the classroom. Often, these begin with an assessment of the basic characteristics in learners that are considered to be important in an analysis of their needs. Some, for example, identify two basic types of learner-related characteristics: Prerequisite knowledge, skills and attitudes, and other learner characteristics such as their demography, psychology, aptitudes, experience, learning styles, and so on. Both these basic sets of characteristics should be…


Cleman, K.A. (2011) Applying Audience Invoked Models to Instructional Design Methods. Retrieved from:

Daigre, R.M. (2011) Chapter 4: Instructional Analysis: Analyzing the Learners. Retrieved from: 

Eastham, N. (2008). Cognitive Load Theory. Instructional Design Course. Retrieved from: 

Intulogy, Ltd. (2010). Learner Analysis. Retrieved from:

Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis the University
Words: 1825 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12900591
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Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis

The University of San Diego Counseling Center (USDCC) has been established to provide enrolled students with access to quality counseling and healthcare services. Employing a diverse selection of the university's most accomplished psychiatrists, psychologists, medical doctors, registered nurses, and other healthcare professionals, the USDCC operates a high-volume Critical Intensive Care Unit with the assistance of a 50-member nursing staff. Although the USDCC has built a reputation for delivering competent and qualified critical care services across a number of years, the organization's management structure has become concerned that educational priorities have not been updated to reflect modern advancements in the field. To that end, the USDCC recently elected to conduct a comprehensive Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis to identify the paramount educational needs in place, and the institutional forces working to facilitate or impede the implementation of these needs. Empirical research on the efficacy of various…


Lewin, K. (1939). Field theory and experiment in social psychology: Concepts and methods.

Journal of Sociology, 44, 868-896. Retrieved from 


Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Nurse Lesson Plan Nursing Lesson
Words: 2472 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77423753
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Though the lesson plan cannot project what distribution of critical thinking and reasoning abilities will define the classroom, it will be appropriate to shape the lesson plan with the capacity for flexibility in its presentation.

Content Outline:

A note, upon entering into the content breakdown on this subject; the material covered here is of a diverse and nuanced range, with each subject singularly requisite of its own course of investigation. e would therein set a range of learning objectives for each aspect of the subject. However, given the limitation of the course time to just three hours, we have outlined six overarching learning objectives, with each of the above identified domains represented twice.

Cognitive Learning Objectives

Our first learning objective will be to help familiarize learning with H.I.M. application modules, placing a particular emphasis on the most current IT tools at our disposal. Here, learners will use their application skills…

Works Cited:

American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA). (2007). Homepage.

Bastable, S.B. (2003). Nurse as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice. Sudbury, MA Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Duphome, R & C.N. Gunawardena. (2005). The effect of three computer conferencing designs on critical thinking skills of nursing students. The American Journal of Distance Education, 9(1)

Johns, M. (2002). Health Information Management Technology: An Applied Approach. American Health Information Management Association.

Ethics What Types of Information Does One
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hat types of information does one need to gather to successfully design and implement a training solution?

The first question to consider when evaluating the training needs of various employees and designing a training solution would include -- what experience do the prospective users have with the types of applications and knowledge required to embark upon the proposed training course and successfully complete it? If the experience with the applications is minimal, it might be necessary to have instructors to facilitate the introduction into the new application, or to expand the training solution to include more remedial skills work.

Next, a training designer would have to ask what level of computer or Internet skills do the users have -- are these skills similar to those required by the new application or are they profoundly different? If profoundly different, the training procedure and even the initial assessment procedure itself may…

Work Cited

"Front End Analysis." (2003) George Mason University Resources for IT. Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at