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Much like the Knirk and Gustafson design model, Kemp's model is also small scale and can be used for individual lessons.
In comparing Gange's Nine Steps of Instruction and Kemp's Design Model, several topics are included in both. Obviously both identify goals and objectives and making this information known to the student. Designing and delivering instructional experiences with specifically selected resources that will allow learners to master the objectives. The last is assessing student performance.
The differences between the two are visible in Gagne's nine steps following a sequential model of instruction - do this, then this, and this and end with this. The Kemp Model is a big picture view of instructional design. Here are all the things instructors need to take into consideration but not necessarily in a particular order. Kemps model does however give some guidance in knowing that planning, project management, support services and the summative…… [Read More]
Instructional Design offers teachers a number of advantages and disadvantages. Instructional design can provide a framework and allow the coordination of assessment, objectives and teaching. However, instructional design can be limited by weak learning objectives, and potentially supersede real concerns over learning. Despite these disadvantages, instructional design is a valuable teaching tool.
Instructional design can be defined as "is the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of instruction. Instructional design models typically specify a method, that if followed will facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude to the recipient or acquirer of the instruction" (Wikipedia). While instructive, this definition does little to reveal the true nature of instructional design. A simpler definition may be of instructional design as "the systematic process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and learning" (McNeil).
Cognitive learning theory provides the largest single influence on instructional design…… [Read More]
This creates a problem in terms of homework exercises: students without a computer at home could hardly be expected to complete computer assignments outside of the classroom. This widens the digital divide, as students with computers at home have a large advantage in terms of learning and concomitant future opportunities.
olutions for the Digital Divide
The digital divide is a significant problem not only in education, but also in terms of job opportunities and the future of learners. It is directly connected to the divide between the very rich and the extremely poor, which means that it is imperative to address the problem if any social equality and human rights are going to be reached in the future.
TeacherNet (2007) cites the case study of Bowbridge Primary chool, where an initiative has been launched to increase the learners' access to computers not only at school, but also at home. The…… [Read More]
Instructional Design and Needs Assessment
Instruction design could be defined as an activity which is purposeful in behavior in which reflection on decisions to be taken in design plays a significant role. (Shambaugh, 2000) There are various models of instructional designs which are used in education of which a popular method is ADDIE model. The ADDIE model is a simple model used for design of instructions and can be widely used in several settings because of its systematic and generic nature. (Peterson, 2003) Almost all models have five areas namely: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. (JHPIEGO's Instructional Design Process)
In the analysis phase, main centre of attention of the designer is focused on the target audience. The most commonly used analysis techniques are the needs assessments. The needs assessment is performed to understand the need of the audience. This is done by making a distinction between what information the…… [Read More]
A recent study determined that "educational design research integrates design and research into a socially responsible approach to inquiry related to learning and teaching" (Oh, eeves, 2010, p. 263). The Oh and eeves study is just one example of why I include research-based design in my practice. Oftentimes, it behooves me to discover a variety of techniques available to address certain situations, and without research, I would have no access to those various techniques. esearch allows me the opportunity to discover how others view the same problems that I am confronted, but even more importantly allows me to see solutions that I might not otherwise consider.
As Henry Clay Lindgren wrote in the 1950's "the terms theories of learning has a formidable sound to it. It may connote research with mice and monkeys, complex mathematical formulae, and esoteric research papers" (Lindgren, 1958), but what it really means is…… [Read More]
One recent debate around the subject of instructional design is based in learning theories. Experts and laymen alike wonder if there is a specific learning theory that is more suited to using instructional design. esearch indicates there is not as long as the instructional design is well planned and facilitated smoothly (Melo, 2004).
In my own teaching career I plan to utilize instructional design on regular basis. I will begin each year with a careful evaluation of the student need. This will be done by examination of test scores, conversations in the classroom and concerns of the parents through a questionnaire process.
Once I have established the needs of the students I will apply them to the learning objectives that have been set out by the state, the county and the local school system. I will also align them with the various projects and unit studies that…… [Read More]
Summative assessments are useful to determine a student's level of mastery and can be an indicator of potential for success in subsequent courses or units. If a student does poorly on a summative assessment, for example, remedial instruction may be required. Summative assessments help teachers evaluate content and delivery and make adjustments as needed. Summative assessments are not always useful for informing instruction. When they are used at the end of a course, for example, the teacher may not have the opportunity to work further with that particular group of students.
Assessments can be misused when results are interpreted according to a certain agenda. For example, a school district may be facing a severe budget crisis and opt to reduce services to save money. Particularly when a test is evaluated subjectively, the results can be skewed to show that a child does not need a referral for special services.
The…… [Read More]
If the teacher believes that something there is missing, then he or she will have to make some of the pre-requisite knowledge part of the objective to be achieved (Scott, 2001).
Prioritizing and sequencing the information now becomes the important task for the teacher ("Techniques of Analysis," 2000). In order to process the information, students need it to be presented in a logical manner which includes ranking what is most vital to least vital. Although the teacher may not specifically state this to the students, the teacher should be aware of which tasks the students must master completely vs. other tasks that are secondary. Sequencing also plays an important part in a student's acquisition of information. If looked at from a Constructivist point-of-view, the students need to build their knowledge upon existing knowledge. Some of the existing knowledge they may already possess due to prior learning; however, in order to…… [Read More]
4). Another extremely important result is that from an important economic point-of-view, the use of this project has reduced costs by an average of forty percent; coupled with cost savings ranging from 20% to 77% (Twigg, 2004, para. 4).
The issue of increasing learning ability and accessibility through the use of technology is nothing new. However, what Twigg suggests in this article is that until the implementation of this project there had not been an optimal relationship between instructional design and technology.
One of the central ideas that illustrate the above point is the change in students from being passive note-takers to a more dynamic instructional model that stresses self-exploration and problem solving. This approach also involved more comprehensive and ongoing feedback, as well as continual assessment of work via technological aids. According to Twigg the project also places emphasis on more online tutorials. While these aspects are not revolutionary…… [Read More]
technology and instructional design in education began during orld ar II. In this short essay, the author will evaluate its effectiveness in the post-war period.
As during the Second orld ar, many of the advances came about due to the need to educate soldiers and the public in the fight against the monolithic enemy of communism during the Cold ar. Unlike during orld ar II, the Cold ar was of indeterminate length. ith no end in sight, the "race" between the U.S. dominated west and the Russian dominated east involved every bit of technology. Instructional technology (IT) as a field was no different.
During the war, films, film strips and other visual aids as well as audio equipment were necessary for the rapid and mass education of military personnel being trained to fight in orld ar II. Based upon these experiences and the perceived (as well as actual) successes in…… [Read More]
instructional design models, including elements defining ways traditional methods encourage learner involvement. eferences required. A peer reviewed journal article, textbooks, and current journal articles credible websites.
Discuss the various instructional design models, including elements defining ways in which traditional methods encourage learner involvement.
The foundational instructional design model is called the 'ADDIE' model: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. During the analysis (planning) phase, the designer identifies the "learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience's needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project" (ADDIE Model, 2012, Learning Theories). During the design phase, learning objectives are further specified as the instructional plan takes shape. The development phase involves the actual creation of the content. The implementation phase is the execution of the instructional plan. During this execution phase, input is solicited from learners…… [Read More]
Time to develop and use assessments effectively must be built into the teachers' work week. They are time-consuming, but worthwhile, and should not be administered as an afterthought. The results tell us a great deal about students and ourselves. It will be a challenge to make sure assessments are meaningful and are accorded the time they deserve.
When we think of assessments, we often think about formal assessments, whether they are teacher-created quizzes, chapter tests from a textbook, or standardized tests that compare students across the country. Assessment can, and should, include the informal observations teachers make in their classrooms on a daily basis. Because teachers spend so much time with their students, they are in a good position to see both struggles and progress. It may be one of the easiest ways to see what students need because it is immediate and requires no preparation. We can learn from…… [Read More]
This is where a clear framework of educational objectives is necessary for a school and particular discipline. No teacher really works alone; all teachers must rely on the fact that student achievement is attained through a careful understanding of where students need to be.
The teacher's other task is to determine what other factors might impact student learning ("Assess Instructional Needs," 2001). What other needs of the students must be met in order for the student to master a new skill or concept? This could be an obvious consideration such as do all students speak English as their primary language. If not, modifications may have to be made from the beginning of the process. Other factors that need to be consider such as the socio-economic factors of the community or individual students overlap with the learner analysis portion of creating an instructional design system. Other stresses from family life, peers,…… [Read More]
Instructional Practices for High Level Learners
hen it comes to the right curriculum (instructional practices) that teachers and administrators should be developing -- that are effective in helping students achieve a high level of learning -- this paper points to a standards-based system (combined with creative curricula) as the most effective. There are a number of ways in which teachers can implement those practices that lead to a high level of learning in students -- and this paper reviews those strategies.
Explain various instructional practices designed to achieve high-level learning for all students in a standards-based curriculum.
Instructional practices in schools rarely stay static, according to a peer-reviewed article in the journal Computers in the Schools. In fact, many schools over the past few years have been actively engaged with "fundamental restructuring efforts" because teachers appear willing in many instances to try "…a range of instructional practices" that will be…… [Read More]
Instructional Building Design
Over the last several years, institutions of higher education have been facing considerable challenges. This is because the total number of enrollments is increasing. While at the same time, they have to build new facilities to keep up with demand. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from study that was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics which said, "Enrollment in degree-granting institutions increased by 37% between 2000 and 2010 from 15.3 million to 21.0 million. Much of it was in full-time enrollment; the number of full-time students rose 45%, while the number of part-time students rose 26%. During the same time period, the number of females rose 39%, whilst the number of males rose 35%. These increases can be affected both by population growth and by rising rates of enrollment. Between 2000 and 2010, the number of 18- to 24-year-olds increased from 27.3…… [Read More]
Instructional Methods: Training Health Instructors
Training a health instructor requires the use of a variety of pedagogical methods. It is essential that all instructors possess high levels of competence and can disseminate accurate information. The trainees must possess both academic and hands-on knowledge to be effective.
A lecture format remains the preferred way to ensure that listeners have received the correct information. "This approach is consider the best method to use because the instructor interfaces with the students by presenting segments of instruction, questions the students frequently, and provides periodic summaries or logical points of development" (Methods of instruction, 2013, TLCS). The disadvantage is that students may grow bored with its lack of interaction. This can be remedied through injecting dialogue and discussion into the lecture format. To orient the students in their duties and to brief them on the information they must convey, some lecturing is required to convey…… [Read More]
As was the case with Step 1, this step also could have used additional information. Specifically, the manual does not indicate that it is very difficult for one person to balance the Main Arm (Part # 11) while positioning the pair of Pillow Block Bearings (Part # 27). The only way for a single person to accomplish this is to lift the Main Arm onto the shoulders and stand in front of the Main Upright (Part #3) so that one can reach around the upright section to assemble the Block Bearings.
Once the Main Arm is attached to the Block Bearings as indicated in Diagram 3 of the manual (KFP, 2009, p.4), Step 4 is much less difficult. However, as in the case of earlier steps, it would also be easier to connect the Slide Support (Part # 10) with the assistance of a second individual…… [Read More]
Technology in Instructional Delivery: The Case of Capella University
The use of technology, particularly Internet technology, in instructional delivery in educational institutions has revolutionized the way people access and utilize educational information. Online instructional delivery, either in mixed (combination of traditional and online modes of instruction) or purely online formats, have made learning more interactive, not only between the learner and the tool, but also between the teacher and learner and among learners themselves. This increasing demand for an online mode of instruction delivery in educational institutions is a reflection of the need to not only adopt the new technology, but also to 'manipulate' this technology to suit the users' learning needs (oschmann, 1996:8). The following description of the technology of instructional delivery at Capella University demonstrates this point.
In addition to its traditional format of instructional delivery, which is face-to-face classroom setting, Capella University has an online learning system…… [Read More]
ABC/123 Version X
Instructional Module Part I Worksheet
Instructional Module Part I Worksheet
Instructional Module Element
Instructional topic and module title (why you are choosing this topic)
Instructional module goal(s) and objectives
Learning setting (such as business and educational setting)
Audience, including the description of intended audience
Delivery modality (such as online, hybrid, and face-to-face)
The preferred delivery modality is a hybrid approach. There are certain features of real-life learning including the face-to-face rapport provided by class discussions that cannot be replicated online. Online learning, however, is convenient and allows people with busy schedules to reinforce concepts 24/7 through enhanced self-study. Also, for people who are shy and cannot contribute as much as they would like in the 'real world,' online message boards and chat rooms provide them with an opportunity to engage in dialogue with classmates. Online learning allows a substantial multimedia component such as…… [Read More]
Higher Ed Course
Course Design: 20th Century History and Popular Music
For many students, popular music is scene as being disposable and readily replaceable. The nature of the modern media cycle means that much of what dominates the sphere of popular music is inherently designed to achieve vast commercial appeal with a short shelf-life. However, there are also ways in which popular music has figured critically into moments in history. This is the premise that underscores the proposed higher education course, which would be couched within the broader discipline of History.
The proposed course is intended to draw parallels between important moments in history and the way that the culture of popular music connected to these moments or in some powerful instances such as the British Invasion, oodstock and the Hip Hop movement, even came to define some of these important historical moments. Using different eras in history…… [Read More]
Instructional Strategy Into the Classroom
The instructional strategy selected for implementation in the classroom is job aids. There is a large body of research that suggests that job aids can be used to effectively improve understanding, cognition, retention and interpretation of material in the classroom (Dwyer & Spaulding, 2001). Simply defined, job aids are simple tutorials that often contain graphics used to illustrate the steps needed to accomplish a task or define a problem (Thiagi, 1999). They can come in many different forms including: checklists, decision tables, worksheets, flowcharts, diagrams or any other items that help improve student performance with regard to individual tasks, without requiring memorization of the specific steps or factual information related to the task (Thiagi, 1999).
A good example of a potential 'job aid' is a yellow pages directory (Thiagi, 1999) which helps people locate and use telephone numbers. Job aids work by improving an individual's…… [Read More]
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The traditional classroom environment is no longer supportive of student learning and it is critically necessary that educators address the current classroom environment as well as their instructional practice in the classroom if students are to be effectively prepared through education to take their rightful place in a global society characterized by information technology and networked business systems. The classroom environment that is characterized by different learning activities, cooperative and inclusive learning will provide a solid base in learning to prepare students for entrance into the world as effective and functionally adept individuals.
urgstahler, Sheryl (2002) Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab. Washington Education Staff webpage. Online available at http://staff.washington.edu/sherylb/univ_pacer.html.
Riddle, Elizabeth (1999) Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory. Helen a. Kellar Institute for Human Disabilities. Online available at http://chd.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/theorists/constructivism/vygotsky.htm.
10 Design Ideas for Schools of the 21st Century (1998) American School & University. 1…… [Read More]
" (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998)
Activities in the classroom that use generative themes derived from the adult learner's lives "have been seen to facilitate their acquisition of literacy." (Friere, 1992; as cited in: Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) According to Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson (1998) the use of "life-context-specific materials and activities in adult literacy programs is supported by research that documents the powerful role of context in learning." Stated as an example is "...workplace literacy programs teach literacy skills as they are needed within specific work contexts. Compared to programs that concentrated more on 'genera' literacy, adult programs that incorporated job-related materials were associated with larger increases in both job-related and general literacy." (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) However, it is noted that other studies state findings that "much of the growth made by participants in general literacy programs is likely to be lost if recently learned skills…… [Read More]
Service Theory design is not a basic foothold that can be explained in only a few sentences. There is a lot of thought, experimentation, research, and trial and error that goes into the creation of a sound theory. First, it is important to acknowledge all of the things that can play a role in the design of a theory itself. esearchers have reported that community and culture significantly influence value orientation (Goel, 2010), perceived needs, and motivation as well as provide the ground for creating shared understanding. All disciplines have their own cultures, and all cultures evolve through cross-cultural exchanges. It all starts with a series of questions and ideas that the researcher would like to find out background information on, and possible determine information that may not have been evident upon first glance.
The questions that would need further clarity are: (1) what model best fits the current prospective…… [Read More]
Being aware of these different types of learners in the classroom will help the teacher plan ways to motivate students and promote a positive attitude.
Motivation and attitude in the classroom is frequently linked to other factors in the students' lives such as culture, ethnicity, language skills, and socio-economic issues ("Analyze Learners," 2001). Being aware of the diversity in the classroom will assist the teacher when designing the program. For instance, different cultures place value of different things. It is the teacher's and the district's responsibility to be aware of the ways that certain cultures perceive learning and education. If teachers are not familiar with this information about a group of students in their building, the district should provide some staff development to assist teachers in understanding the culture. Providing this kind of support should not stop at culture and ethnic differences, but it should extend to socio-economic factors. As…… [Read More]
For the principal too, this method helps him improve his relationship with staff and the atmosphere has a positive impact on students and parents where a harmonious school atmosphere is created instead of one that represents fragmentation.
In all ways, then, my experiences within this leadership-cycle has only been positive.
Goals in the next five years that relate to instructional leadership
Instructional leaders need to know what is going on in the classroom. I intend to walk around the students inconspicuously picking up observations of the way that they perceive their classroom teaching and unobtrusively picking up information regarding classroom content. I also intend to make an unobtrusive survey of textbooks and material taught in the classroom. I will inconspicuously interweave my observations in the meetings in a manner that teachers do not feel threatened.
I also intend to make these meetings more relaxed encouraging teachers to dress in casual…… [Read More]
Lesson Plan Design: usiness/Corporate Ethics
This lesson plan will be designed to teach students traditional and conventional moral philosophies, standards and ethical convention in a corporate/business environment. As protocol students will be required to examine traditional moral and ethical standards as defined by philosophical and sociological standards.
The purpose of the lesson will be to teach students about the types of ethical considerations they might be faced with in a business or corporate environment. Students will be expected to have adequate knowledge of current events, and engage in discourse related to the morality of recent news events related to corporate ethics. The course will also require students to analyze their own experiences within corporate America where appropriate or the workplace and identify what gaps currently exist in the moral/ethical aspect of employment and asses how improvements made in this area might impact the workforce as a whole.
Students not having…… [Read More]
Instructional leadership and professional development are some of the most important components towards enhancing the effectiveness of teachers with regards to learning outcomes and achievement of the required educational standards. This is primarily because instructional leadership and professional development are focused on student learning and achievement. School districts are increasingly recognizing the need to promote instructional leadership and professional development of educators in order to enhance student learning and achievement. Paterson Public School considers instructional leadership and professional development as the basic vehicles for generating the desired change in teaching practice, which in turn helps in enhancing learning outcomes and student achievement. As a result, the school utilizes several measures for conducting needs assessment in relation to instructional leadership and professional development. This paper examines the evaluation instruments utilized by Paterson Public School for needs assessment on instructional leadership and professional development.
Evaluation Instruments at Paterson Public School
Paterson Public…… [Read More]
For example, managers can increase productivity by assigning the right number of employees to each project, avoiding over- or understaffing. Managers should also be sensitive to interaction problems between employees. When managers are aware of personality conflicts between employees, they should avoid assigning them to the same team.
Increasing productivity involves a careful study of employees' work performance and of managerial decisions, a daunting process in which individuals may feel unfairly singled out or victimized. While this process is painful, it is appropriate when responsibility for low productivity clearly lies with certain individuals. if, however, it is not obvious who the culprits are, the best approach to take is to consider not only individual responsibility, but also search for larger systematic factors behind the low productivity. The problem may be a result of poor management of people and inadequate allocation of resources. Alternatively, it could be the result of an…… [Read More]
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…… [Read More]
TESOL: Materials and Course Design
A situation analysis, giving all details availale efore the course egins:
New comers of the TESOL school scheme will e assessed for their English language proficiency y the teachers assigned y TESOL (Teaching of English to speakers of other languages). Programming system will e run under this teacher - memer of TESOL (Dorr, 2006).
This TOSEL teacher is assigned to assist and teach student in estalishing sound understanding of English language, coping with the required skills and academic strategies to assist the process of gaining firm proficiency in English language as necessitated y the course design and classroom environment (Dorr, 2006).
Teacher assigned y TESOL is also a memer of programming system as a support memer, the team of which is designed to develop a close relation with students and collaoration with other related groups including programming team, parents, other teachers, administrative staff and counselors…… [Read More]
Joint Application Design
Describe how joint application design (JAD) might be considered a better information-gathering technique than the traditional method of requirements gathering? What are its shortcomings?
The Joint Application Design (JAD) methodology could potentially be considered a better information gathering methodology compared to more traditional information gathering approaches given its highly structured approach to capturing and validating data. The highly methodical nature of the application design technique that concentrates on identifying critical success factors, project deliverables, scheduling workshop activities, and organizing workshops are all based on information and knowledge transfer (Davidson, 1999). The potential of the JAD technique to increase the level of participation on the part of project participants while also reducing the time and costs associated with the actual research process (Jackson, Embley, 1996). The JAD technique has also shown significant value in bringing experts in specific areas together and gaining useful insights as a result (Davidson,…… [Read More]
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…… [Read More]
Instructional Modifications for an English-As-Second-Language 10th Grade Student
Teaching for Exceptionalities
The student is a 15-year-old bilingual male in enrolled in 10th grade. He presents as having difficulties in his school work primarily due to his current inability to speak, read, and write English fluently. He is currently reading at approximately a 2nd-grade level, and all of his assignments are modified. Examples of the instructional modifications he experiences are as follows: Material is read aloud to him, writing assistance is provided to help him translate from his native language to English, and all story format math problems are converted to conventional number format to sidestep reading and translation difficulties. When a high level of academic support is provided, the student does not exhibit problem behaviors. However, he reports feeling overwhelmed and stressed, and these underlying emotions do contribute to occasional bouts of problem behavior.
Instructional example. I took a content-focused…… [Read More]
Knowles stated "The richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves" (p. 66). n instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience. Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). gain, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the correct answer.
By not tapping into the experience of adult learners, negative effects may result (Knowles, 2005). The adult learner identifies their experiences as who they are. In other words, their experiences help to define them as a person. dult learners, who perceive their experiences as being ignored or devalued, perceive…… [Read More]
Holding this paper waiting for more research on systematic instructional planning would have been a better step, this would have probably eliminated the contradictory nature of the research which brought the element of unprofessionalism. It is important for one to include research not supporting their hypothesis but it is more important not to undermine his or her argument.
Potential effects of the fixes
Including more participants in the study would bring a possibility of applying the findings to a larger group in society since increasing the number of participants widens the answers to the questions asked. Including a Likert scale in the survey can also enhance the responses given by the teachers and would reveal some information that was not previously obtained. Standardizing the coding system and making the process thorough would prevent wrong categorization of answers and also give the authors' arguments more strength.
In order to help the…… [Read More]
It addresses the needs of students by "proactively planning for instructional, environmental, and technology supports to allow all students to effectively access and engage in instruction (Basham, Israel, Graden, Poth, & Winston, 2010). esponse to Intervention (TI) provides tiered levels of support to all students, allowing for more intensive and individualized instruction. As Basham et al. point out, TI and UDL share common features and purposes; they are both grounded in research-based practices and attempt to design both environments and solutions enabling all students to learn.
iley, Beard and Strain (2004) discussed virtual manipulatives in an article that addressed special needs. Students with disabilities may have difficulty with teaching tools such as tiles, base ten blocks, geoboards, tangrams and the like; a number of interactive websites have been developed that allow students to work with on-screen manipulatives. These can be good for students like Amos (who is afraid of using…… [Read More]
Non-Instructional Services in Schools
eplacing non-instructional personnel in schools with professional service providers is a controversial topic for several reasons. Parents and other stakeholders are naturally more reluctant to trust the welfare of their children to for-profit professional service providers than local school employees. Whereas schools have direct control over their employees, outsourced workers are more loyal to their employers than to schools. There are concerns about the quality of services and how their quality might be adversely affected by cost-cutting measures. On the other hand, outsourcing non-essential functions could potentially represent significant cost savings for educational institutions. On balance, outsourcing non-instructional functions is a viable approach to cost reduction provided that institutions follow best practices in connection with selection of service providers and accurate calculation of measurable projected outcomes. However, in addition to the actual implementation of an effective service selection process, there are also internal political considerations.
Overview…… [Read More]
Educators are faced with the challenge of dealing with each student's needs. Everyone needs a chance to grow, learn and face the challenges that are necessary for attaining excellence. There are always special needs children in each learning environment. Each of these students needs special attention because of their uniqueness in the learning process. Such learners may possess special gifts including learning potential and other talents. If such learners are attended to with an aim to nurture their special gifts, they are likely to make significant and special contribution to the communities that they come from and the world in general (Davis & Rimm, 2004).
Recommendation for Mike Grost
In the case of Mike Grost, he has been found to possess special gifts including perfect emotional and physical health, remarkable intelligence, and eidetic memory, artistic and creative abilities. He demonstrates great ability in a wide range of areas of learning.…… [Read More]
The principles of good web design revolve around a number of central core factors. One important central criterion in the development of the principles of effective web design is to fully understand crucial characteristics of the medium. Another central aspect is to base your design message on aim and communication. The first factor -- understanding the medium of the Internet - is an essential and often neglected factor in web design as will become evident in the discussion of the various principles. Secondly, it should always be remembered that, within the context of the specific medium, being able to communicate quickly and effectively with the viewer or client is what makes a good Web site effective. The intended purpose of the web site is also another cardinal feature that influences the principles of design as it is in the creative presentation that is determines its ultimate level of…… [Read More]
product design summary for a web quest that teaches 5th grade students how to build a web page using Microsoft ord
In recent years, web quests have been used to great effect by educators with the purpose of giving students the ability to search the orld ide eb for instructional as well as entertaining information. The web quest format allows students to employ an interactive form of knowledge seeking with a visual, audio, and verbal component. The importance of instructing students in the use of the web as a tool that can be deployed to educate through the use of technology and to connect students to the world has not always been deployed to its full potential, partly because of a certain level of teacher discomfort with computers, partly because of certain district's technical limitations, and partly because the nature of the information available on the web has only recently…… [Read More]
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…… [Read More]
Direct Instruction stands for society's equality and it works best.
Direct Instruciton should be used as a method for education because it has proven to be the most effective technique for actual learning and understanding. Since teachers are working directly with the student, they are can immediately respond to the needs of the student and adjust levels of comprehension based upon their different rates of comprehension. Additionally, the use of DI ensures that teachers do not "belabor" certain aspects of lessons and at the same time can either slow or speed up their lesson according to the student's needs. The focus is that this learning strategy places all of the emphasis upon the student and provides manevurability into the hands of the teacher. This creates high levels of confidence for the student because he feels that he is consistently accomplishing goals while increasing comprehension because the teacher adjusts to the…… [Read More]
The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is ironically titled due to its practical application to many diverse and segmented groups of students. egardless of the semantics, the philosophy and approach behind the theories contained in UDL contain solid principles that can be ascertained and implemented by staff and faculty at all levels of education.
In my particular situation there is a unique set of circumstances that ultimately allow for the UDL system to be a worthwhile application of curriculum modification. All the students in my school have unique social and cultural barriers to overcome in order to realize some educational success. Oftentimes these qualities are hidden from plain sight and a deeper and more reasonable approach appears to be necessitated by this cultural diversification.
The UDL approach offers many benefits that are evident in my school situation. Options can be presented that best suit the current students needs.…… [Read More]
..collaborative teachers also value and build upon the knowledge, personal experiences, language, strategies, and culture that students bring to the learning situation." (ibid)
This teaching procedure has the advantage of being multidirectional and not limited to the teachers directed knowledge only. This obviously allows for a more inclusive approach and for those student at different levels to express themselves in this environment.
The following is an example of how this process should work.
Consider a lesson on insect-eating plants, for example. Few students, and perhaps few teachers, are likely to have direct knowledge about such plants. Thus, when those students who do have relevant experiences are given an opportunity to share them, the whole class is enriched. Moreover, when students see that their experiences and knowledge are valued, they are motivated to listen and learn in new ways, and they are more likely to make important connections between their own…… [Read More]
This approach also makes students with different learning styles, such as those who learn best kinesthetically rather than verbally feel more competent in the classroom:
One of the greatest 'resources' for a truly interactive classroom is a flexibly-minded instructor who is willing to use the community as a resource, and to demand more from his or her students. Experiential learning is often more time-consuming for both the teacher as well as the student. The teacher must engage in more creative assignment creation and grading techniques. Another important resource is a willingness of the community to work with educators. This can include a teaching hospital that fosters the development of new nursing students, a local workplace that helps young people volunteer and find service-oriented jobs, and the financial resources to create laboratories within the classroom using new media as well as traditional book and exams.
But while finances are certainly important,…… [Read More]
Part 1: Understanding by Design - Stage 1
What content standards and program or mission-related goals will this unit address?
The mission related-goal to be addressed in this unit is to enhance students’ ability to make sense of problems and work towards solving them. In this regard, the relevant ISTE Standard to be addressed in this unit is Standard 1: Creativity and Innovation. Additionally, the unit will address Pennsylvania’s Common Core State Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2 for Mathematics.
What standards, competencies, and outcomes will this unit address?
Based on PA’s Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2, the competency to be addressed in this unit is the use of understanding of fractions to partition shapes into halves, quarters, and thirds (Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014). Students are expected to be creative and innovative in partitioning shapes in different sizes based on insights they have obtained from fractions. Through this process, the unit is expected to…… [Read More]
Creativity is a necessary attribute for instructors using the Gardner method of instruction, precisely because it does not prescribe the use of any specific materials in particular at all.
A typical approach within the Gardner system might use an ice skating session to present lessons of Newtonian physics in a manner conducive to understanding by students with better kinesthetic awareness, for one example. Likewise, music might be used to present mathematical concepts such as ratio and scale, or scientific concepts such as the physics of mechanical waves. The Gardner method employs these materials in a manner designed to promote active learning by presenting the subject matter lesson directly through materials that lend themselves to absorption via all seven intelligences (Gardner, 1999).
Instructional Constructivist Technology in Active Learning Educational Methods:
One of the most comprehensive educational system emphasizing the constructivist method is the Full Option Science System (FOSS) program. The FOSS…… [Read More]
curriculum of all the schools of a district. It uses 5 sources and is in APA format.
The main aim of my curriculum that I have designed for five elementary schools, 4 middle schools and one high school of the district, is that I intend uniformity in the curriculums of all the schools so all the schools impart the same educational quality and therefore there is no discrepancy and the whole community remains satisfied. y this design model, which will be introduced in all the schools of the district, there will be coordination between the schools, the teachers from all the schools will have identical training and the administration will also be trained to monitor and coordinate such a program. The administration of all the schools will have a head administrator to see that all the schools correctly comply to the curriculum and work as one big system of schooling.…… [Read More]
The Cricket Eats
The Cricket Lives
The Cricket Does
The Cricket Has
Helps: Quote memory, rewrite text, apply information, apply extra materials to book.
Part 7- riting Activity -- Pick one setting in Cricket in Times Square and write a 1-2 paragraph explanation of why that setting was used and your description of it (e.g. city, etc.). Be sure to develop concepts like: hat do you see? hat do you smell? Are there lots of people there? hy? Is it calm or busy? Is it dangerous? Imagine that you are in this setting and seeing it from the Cricket's point-of-view.
Part 8 - Fluency Activity
Part 1 -- Comparative and Superlative Adjectives (example questions, this from Chapter 13):
1. Chester stayed up most of the night
a) playing for the animals
b) learning new musical pieces
c) talking to Tucker and Harry
d) because he was too excited to…… [Read More]
Several approaches will be helpful in creating this environment:
1. Developing useful study guides useful for ELLs. This will focus their ideas and attention on major ideas and gives a place of focus.
2. Assign reading partners or groups. Pairing ELLs with fluent readers will be very helpful. Teamwork can have a very strong effect on learning.
3. Encouragement: One strategy is the "Say Something" activity. Students take turns reading aloud, and following the reading, each student 'says something,' such as asking question, making a comment, making a connection to something already read, or responding personally to the text. The exercise also engages students as readers and get them thinking about the text
Observation and assessment are also important components of this approach and must be successfully managed by the teacher in order to maximize learning and comprehension. Assessment occurs throughout a lesson and is informal, authentic multidimensional, and…… [Read More]
Interactive Tutorial Effective?
Tutorials are integral to learning new technologies or procedures, from learning how to use a new software application to learning how to speak a new language. Therefore, it is important to know what factors determine the effectiveness of a particular tutorial. Empirical evidence and experimental research can be used to assess tutorial effectiveness, as learning can be objectively measured. Tutorial designers can improve their products by using empirical research to base their user interfaces, interactivity levels, instructional exercises, length of lessons, and hardware platform flexibility.
Effective tutorial design is critical not just for the user experience, but also to the effectiveness and accessibility of the product. This proposal identifies and evaluates the factors that help determine the effectiveness of a tutorial, with the ultimate goal of helping developers design successful interactive tutorials that they can integrate into products and services. Specifically, our research will focus on interactive…… [Read More]
This study will represent one attempt to infuse conflict resolution practices with a focus on unity as a methodology and an outcome for recognizing the risks of conflicts. The study will also examine factors associated with conflict, and the utilization of analytical thinking strategies to avoid hostile confrontations and violence (Farrell, a.D., & Meyer, a.L. 1997).
The goal of the study is to answer the questions of how to build a lasting foundation for peace in the classroom. To achieve this overarching goal, the project will answer the following four main questions:
How frequently does conflict resolution and peer mediation impact students' conflicts, attitudes, and behavior?
2. How does adding conflict resolution in addition to the peer mediation program in the 6th grade curriculum impact the school climate?
3. How do conflict resolution or peer mediation programs effectively handle disputes if teachers taught the program in a 6th…… [Read More]
MA or PHD level is designed to develop and new argument on a particular subject. Within the overall presentation, a literature review is a section in which previously published information in a particular subject area, time period, or focus level, is discussed. ather than a summation of sources, a literature review should have an organizational pattern that combines both summary and analysis -- summary to recap the information from the particular author's point-of-view, analysis to provide a way to interpret material and synthesize new information (Literature eviews, 2004).
Case Studies -- Literature eview Outlines-
Teacher's Perceptions of Strategies and Skills Affecting Learning of Gifted 7th Graders in English Classes (Noble, 2010)
Historic Influences on Gift Education
b. Defining Giftedness
c. Precursors to Gifted Performance
Identification of Gifted Students
a. Teacher/Student Motivation
b. Instructional Strategies
c. elationship between strategies and learning skills
III. Teacher perceptions of giftedness
a. Factors affecting…… [Read More]
There are varying educational backgrounds and levels in distance education and the delivery method must be in a way that is interactive using visuals, charts, graphs and other stimulating realia.
In conclusion, the Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design and the Jerrold Kemp Model of Instructional design are both excellent models for developing both traditional and distance learning materials. However, the differences among the types of ISD Comparison 6 learners must be clearly identified and defined in order for either of these models to be successful. With technology changing the face of education, instructional design models will also need to change in order to best educate and meet the needs of the different types of learners.
Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.
Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers,…… [Read More]
He or she is more often an adult or continuing student, thus these learner characteristics should be tailored, suggests the Kemp model, to the due dates and assignments given by the instructor. An online student's learning objectives are more likely to be practical or vocationally oriented, thus teaching activities and use of resources can and should be guided towards these objectives, suggests Kemp.
Also, crucial aspects of the Kemp design model are steps such as pre-testing, which ensures that the learner's needs are accommodated by the course syllabus. These steps are often more easily conveyed via an online format -- the pre-tests can be given well in advance, even before the class begins and the instructor and the pupil can even have an extended discussion through email as to what sorts of support services and methods of evaluation are most appropriate for his or her needs before the course takes…… [Read More]
curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of the classroom teacher. Some aspects of curricular design are addressed at the school level if, in fact, a school has a guaranteed and viable curriculum. egardless of the direction provided by the school (or district), individual teachers still need to make decisions regarding curricular design at the classroom level given the unique characteristics of their students. Indeed, in a meta-analysis involving 22 studies, Anderson, (2003) found a strong relationship between a student's knowledge and experience with content and the type of…… [Read More]
Chapter 3 stresses the importance both fundamentally and ethically of representing information truthfully and honestly through visual and experiential means that are meaningful to the learner and respect the fact that the individual mind is rather limited and therefore needs human centered externals to help it learn and retain information. Chapter 4 stresses the importance of individuality in the development of technologies that teach and interact with people. The overall work is important as it stresses the fact that technologies, as a creation of man must be developed and manipulated to reflect the humanity of their purpose. The fallibility of the mind is stressed as is its limitations and the possibility of the development of greater tools to impart knowledge is the most important factor in the development of learning tools.
Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. [chapters 1, 2, 3, 4]
In this work…… [Read More]
Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…… [Read More]
Teaching Unit for an 8th-Grade Language Arts and Literature Class
Community, District, and School Factors
Learning Goals and Objectives
Pre-Assessments Aligned with Learning Goals and Objectives
Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Assessments
Criteria Used to Measure Student Performance for Learning Goals
Plan for Formative Assessment to Gauge Student Progress
Design for Instruction
Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 1.
How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and b.
How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context
Materials and Technology Required to Implement
Plan for Assessment of Student Learning During
and/or Following the Activity
Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 2.
How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and Objective(s)
How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context
Materials and Technology Required to Implement
Plan for Assessment of Student Learning During
and/or Following the Activity
Instructional Decision-Making…… [Read More]