Instructional Design Models, Including Elements Defining Ways Essay

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instructional design models, including elements defining ways traditional methods encourage learner involvement. References required. A peer reviewed journal article, textbooks, and current journal articles credible websites.

Discuss the various instructional design models, including elements defining ways in which traditional methods encourage learner involvement.

The foundational instructional design model is called the 'ADDIE' model: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. During the analysis (planning) phase, the designer identifies the "learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience's needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project" (ADDIE Model, 2012, Learning Theories). During the design phase, learning objectives are further specified as the instructional plan takes shape. The development phase involves the actual creation of the content. The implementation phase is the execution of the instructional plan. During this execution phase, input is solicited from learners and instructors about its efficacy. Finally, and equally critically the evaluation phase 'grades' the instructional process as a whole, and feedback from users is solicited.

Built into the ADDIE model are both formative and summative techniques of assessment. Learners give feedback during the execution during the formative phase, either in terms of taking quizzes or being solicited for their opinions. Then, during the final, summative phase, there is a general evaluation. However, one of the obvious criticisms of the ADDIE model is that feedback comes too late in the process.

Another model commonly used in instructional design is the ASSURE model. The acronym stands for these following steps: analyze learners; state objectives; select media and materials; utilize media and materials; require learner performance; and evaluate and revise. The first stage is similar to that of ADDIE -- it involves analyzing the 'audience' of the lesson. The next stages are more specific in nature than ADDIE, however. The second stage involves setting objectives, followed by selecting media and materials. This is followed by utilizing the materials and preparing the learning space. During the 'require learner performance phase' "there should be activities included in the lesson or that allow learners to respond and receive feedback before any type of evaluation is administered" (Smaldino, Lowther, & Russell 2012). Finally, during the evaluative phase, the designer, teacher, and students evaluate the entire instructional process in a summative fashion.

The ASSURE model has the advantage of providing more specific steps, in terms of the content design than ADDIE. However, like ADDIE, there is emphasis on student feedback only during the final phases, first in a formative fashion and next in a summative fashion. Neither model solicits student feedback throughout the design process, except in the form of audience analysis.

Q2. In order to teach phlebotomy techniques to a group of students, the learners must comprehend anatomy and physiology of the vascular system and must demonstrate the ability to draw blood. Which traditional instructional design would you choose? Provide information about the advantages and disadvantages of the selected method.

Given that the learning objective…

Sources Used in Document:


ADDIE Model. (2012). Learning theories. Retrieved:

Clark, Don. (2010). Why instructional system design? Retrieved:

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