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system development life cycle Use in HCIT / Interdependence of SDLC and HCIT
Explain the processes of project management.
Explain the systems development life cycle and how it is used in HCIT
Examine the role of a health care manager in a typical IT project
Compare the project management life cycle with the systems development life cycle
Explain the Process of Project Management
A project's management is based singly on the idea that projects go through various phases that are characterized by different sets of tasks and activities that ensure the project moves from the conception stage to its conclusion. A project may be huge or small, have cost or time constraints and be of a certain level of complexity and so it is crucial that a sound approach is used in managing the whole life cycle of the project. Project management has 5 phases (Pathak, 2014):
Conrick, M. (2006). Health informatics: transforming healthcare with technology. South Melbourne: Thomson Social Science Press.
Front, V.M. (2015). The Project Management Method and the SDLC. The Ultimate Guide to the SDLC. Retrieved from http://ultimatesdlc.com/project-management-method-sdlcon27thNovember , 2015.
Pathak, R. (2014). Top 5 Project Management Phases. Project Management. Retrieved from http://project-management.com/top-5-project-management-phases on 27th November, 2015.
University Alliance. (2015). Healthcare IT Project Manager: Job Description and Salary Information. Retrieved from http://www.usfhealthonline.com/resources/career/healthcare-it-project-manager-job-description-salary on 27th November, 2015.
Stanne M. Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R.T. (1999) Social Interdependence and Performance and Motor Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 125. 134-154.
Evaluate organization and writing style of author
This article attempts to evaluate the importance of positive forms social interdependence in such psychological factors as building student self-esteem and in creating more effective educational environments for students through the medium of cooperative learning. Firstly, the article attempts to define the concept of social interdependence. Then, it examines how theoretically social interdependence functions within positive and negative fashions, how it may be quantitatively measured in terms of alliances individuals feel towards different social groups, for example, and then why it is an important concept for social scientists and educators and how it may be deployed in cooperative learning situations.
rganizationally, for a theoretical paper the use of definition, statistics, and then specifics is admirable. However, the problem with the…
One must commend the attempt to theoretically quantify and classify such a difficult and ephemeral concept as positive social forms of behavior. The author's stress upon the need for further use of small groups in educational practice, for instance, provides a practical template of behavior for the educator. (Stanne, Johnson & Johnson, 1999, 940) However, merely stressing the need for the positive use of social skills opens up the proverbial 'can of worms' in terms of teaching appropriate moral values to students within educational settings. Although ethics may be an appropriate subject of debate, particularly for older students, and learning to work well with others is a notable objective that educators must keep in mind, the practical application of this and expansion of this into the curriculum still remains vague after reading the article.
Identify areas for future research
Can schools foster positive networks of social relationships through group work alone, or must a sense of positive and mutual form of social interdependence arise from the home and the immediate community? Do students with strong civic affiliations in the form of churches and youth organizations demonstrate a greater ability to use cooperative work to their advantage in school? What role does gender and ethnicity play in this -- as girls are notable for their ability to form cooperative organizations earlier than boys and engage more in cooperative play, according to theorists such as Carol Gillian, might the stress upon social interdependence favor girls? Do ethnic social structures and ethnic affiliations within particular communities work for or against forming sense of social interdependence within school communities?
Evaluating the research endeavors of someone other than oneself is a task that requires honesty, integrity, and fairness. The one performing the evaluation must be sure that all evaluation opinions are properly evidenced and supported, as there exists an enormous difference between having an opinion about that which has been researched as opposed to being opinionated. In addition the research being evaluated, albeit experimental, descriptive, clinical or a newspaper research report, must exhibit a clear statement of the problem and hypothesis, a fully described method of data collection and analysis, and thorough evidentiary support as to need. Without meeting these conditions the research being conducted is of little value. The remainder of this paper will focus on one particular form of research, namely the newspaper research report, with respect to a health care issue; i.e., teenage health related matters and educational issues and the statistical methods employed to…
Ennis, Rebecca (2004). "State ranks last in kids count survey." Commercial Dispatch.
Columbus, MS. June.
165) and he argued for a change in consciousness to go along with the economic globalization. Arias argued that the current climate is not interdependent, but actually fiercely independent and insular and moreover dedicated to self-aggrandizement, not cooperation to spread economic justice around the globe. Other voices are also arguing this, again presupposing that globalization is no longer an issue, but a fact, but that the globalization that exists is one of independence, not interdependence. Two of those voices specifically argue the twin issues of social justice in global interdependence, and ethics.
Social justice as a measure of global interdependence
Polack proposes that currently, "social work is confronted with a global system in which the world's people are bound together in a complex web of economic relationships. People's lives are now linked to lives of distant others through the clothes that they wear, the energy that warms them, and even…
Bartholomew, S. (1997). National systems of biotechnology innovation: Complex interdependence in the global system. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(2), 241+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Breitenfellner, a. (1997). Global unionism: A potential player. International Labour Review, 136(4), 531+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database,
" (Zurn, 2004)
Zurn (2004) states of GATT that this regime is a primary example of an international institution in the traditional sense in that the form of GATT regulation has three features, which are distinctive as follows:
1) the states are the ultimate and exclusive addressees of the regulation. They are issued with directives not to increase customs tariffs or to apply them in a discriminating way. The objective of the regulation is therefore to influence state behavior in order to solve the problem in question.
2) Such regulations take effect at the borders between states, and in this sense, they primarily constitute a form of interface management, regulating the transit of goods and bads out of one national society into another.
3) There exists a relatively high degree of certainty as to the effects of such regulations. The actors are able to make relatively precise, empirically…
Denationalize (2008) Merriam-Webster. Online available at http://mw1.m-w.com/dictionary/denationalization.
Isiksal, Huseyin (2004) to What Extent Complex Interdependence Theorists Challenge to Structural Realist School of International Relations. Alternatives Turkish Journal of International Relations. Summer & Fall 2004. Vol. 3 No. 2 and 3. Online available at http://www.alternativesjournal.net/volume3/number2/huseyin5.pdf
Zurn, Michael (2004) Global Governance and Legitimacy Problems. Institute for Intercultural and International Studies. University of Bremen. Project: The G-20 Architecture in 2020 - Securing a Legitimate Role for the G-20. 29 Feb 2004. IDRC, Ottawa. Online available at http://www.l20.org/publications/25_pN_g20_ottawa_zuern.pdf
Zangl, Bernhard and Zurn, Michael (1998) the Effects of Denationalization on Security in the OECD World. The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies. Occasional Paper. Dec 1998. Online available at http://www.nd.edu/~krocinst/ocpapers/op_15_2.pdf
Assume that you are the CEO of a multi-national company. What is the first thing you consider when selecting a model to use in an upcoming cross-cultural merger, joint venture, or acquisition? Why? How will this consideration assist you in selecting the best model for the situation?
Being the CEO of a multi-national company, the primary thing I would first and foremost take into consideration when choosing a model in a forthcoming cross-cultural merger is the cultural aloofness that exists between my organization's culture and the other company. The fundamental reason for doing so is because in instances of a merger, joint venture or acquisition, more often than not, the players from one end of the merging organization hold dissimilar perspectives, beliefs and points of view of the organizational culture (Graen, 2006). Therefore, by getting into a joint venture, merger or acquisition devoid of comprehensively integrating the differing cultural views,…
For example a
monitoring surveillance strategy could tell a nation that they need more
heart specialists and possibly an entire medical clinic dedicated to heart
disease to treat both their aging population and the emergencies more
elderly visitors to their nation experience.
Conversely an evaluation strategy of surveillance would look at the
processes in use throughout the emergency room and see which are performing
well, which aren't and what can be done to make the processes physicians
and nurses use to treat patients more efficient. The underlying difference
then of an evaluation versus a monitoring strategy is the focus on
improvement to a specific goal or objective. Evaluation strategies of
surveillance focus on progress to a specific goal or objective first, while
monitoring strategies seek often to quantify the behavior of any process,
procedure or approach to treatment from a healthcare perspective.
Question 3 Response
In the nation you serve…
Cameron Balloon Simulation
What did you learn about Cameron Balloons business process?
Perhaps the most compelling point of interest in this simulation was the indication that Cameron Balloons employs a consistent workflow process that nonetheless maintains the flexibility for innovation. As one moves through the work-flow simulation, one can see that the development of a Balloon Concept is the initial step and includes the input of the customer, the graphic design and the sales team. As the overview of the company denotes, Cameron is responsible for 80% of the uniquely shaped non-spherical balloons in flight today. The initial phase of the workflow demonstrates that this creativity is facilitated by an interconnectedness between client, concept developers and those who will ultimately be charged with pricing the output from this concept. I found this to be an extremely compelling balance between a standardized process and the output of innovation.
In that regard, the university strives to ensure that it creates an environment conducive to the exchange of meaningful information.
The Declaration's Article 26 clearly points out that "everyone has a right to education" (UDHR). In this case, the Declaration recommends that the accessibility of higher education be enhanced. Further, in the second part of Article 26, the Declaration states in no uncertain terms that:
Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups… (UDHR)
Saint Leo's core value of community attempts to establish a spirit of interdependence, unity as well as belonging. By ensuring that the relations between people are based on respect and mutual trust, the University succeeds in promoting tolerance. This in my opinion is in line with…
Saint Leo University. "The First Florida Catholic University: Mission and Values." Saint Leo University. N.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
Smith, Rhona. Textbook on International Human Rights. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights -- UDHR. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights." United Nations. N.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
The maintenance roles help to support the creative side, which is a task that can be high risk at times (Benne & Sheats, 1978). The work that the junior members do in providing support to the creatives while simultaneously challenging them to develop stronger ideas is one of the reasons that the shop's output is so highly regarded.
This group has a significant amount of trust. The different members have built this trust over the course of years and multiple projects. ith this trust, however, they are able to be stronger, in particular with task roles. Assumptions are challenged frequently, in particular with regards to the outcomes sought by the customers. The group views this is value added to the customer, by refining a vague customer concept into something that is actionable for the advertising firm.
The high level of trust that the group members have in one another allows…
Baltes, B.; Dickson, M.; Sherman, M.; Bauer, C.; LaGanke, J. (2002). Computer-mediated communication and group decision-making: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Vol. 87 (1) 156-179.
Benne, K & Sheats, P. (1978) Shared experiences in human communication: Functional roles of group members. Hayden Publishing.
One of the biggest problems we have in this situation is that the two shifts are competing, rather than working together. To better align the objectives of the lunch shift with the objectives of the dinner shift, I will create a reward system. Achievement is a higher order of motivation and can therefore be highly effective.
The reward system would be store-wide so that all shifts understand that we are all working together for a common goal. At present, the only sense of motivation that any individual shift has is towards their own basic goals. By providing for a higher level of achievement, I will align each shift with an overall objective. I will, however, also maintain shift-level objectives. To do this, I will focus motivation on goal orientation. Each shift will have specific achievement objectives. By doing this, I will leverage the inherent competitiveness of the lunch shift. They…
Thomas, Kenneth W. & Kilmann, Ralph H. (1974) Conflict and Conflict Management. Kilmann.com Retrieved December 11, 2008 at http://www.kilmann.com/conflict.html
Technology Conduct a technology analysis organization. 1.hat kinds good services organization produce? Are input, conversion, output activities source greatest uncertainty organization? 2.hat role technology form knowledge play production organization's goods services? 3.
Apple's recent technological advancement propelled the company into the group of the most profitable institutions ever. The fact that the organization expanded its focus to incorporate the mobile market played an important role in making it possible for it to market its products to a much wider audience. The fact that Apple have traditionally used their products as a means to get customers to stay with them when considering future purchases is also supported by the organization's involvement in the mobile market. Apple's value is largely owed to the combination of its sub-brands, taking into account that each of the 'i' products contributes to the company's overall success.
Technological know-how plays an essential role in assisting the company…
Daft, Richard L., "Understanding Management," (Cengage Learning, 01.01.2008)
Morrisey, Sean, "iOS Forensic Analysis: for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch," (Apress, 21.12.2010)
Pont, Simon, "The Better Mousetrap: Brand Invention in a Media Democracy," (Kogan Page Publishers, 03.11.2012)
William Duiker's "fragmentation" argument, found in his Contemporary World History, Fifth Edition (Duiker), acknowledges the fact of globalization and states that Friedman's discussion about the impact of globalization is "stimulating" (Duiker 351). Simultaneously, Duiker believes that there is a reaction to globalization. Duiker believes that societies will react to the globalization trend by trying to preserve: local interests such as local businesses and jobs; their identities; and their senses of meaning and purpose (Duiker 342). This argument also appears to be quite logical without contradicting Friedman's theory. For example, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) among the United States, Canada and Mexico is designed to eliminate investment and trade barriers among those nations, essentially opening up all three countries to further economic globalization (Friedman 229-230). Simultaneously, the local reaction within the United States, for one, was angry protest by American laborers and labor unions because NAFTA would cause the…
Duiker, William J. Contemporary World History, Fifth Edition. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Friedman, Thomas L. The World is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. New York, NY: Picador, 2007. Print.
Siry, Joseph V. "Population." 2 February 2013. Encyclopedia of Earth. Web. 27 April 2013.
due to the fact that the concepts explained are intangible in nature and therefore, they can be transferred and inserted in a variety of different situations. The explanation of habits appears to be accurate as well as insightful. Many times habits have negative connotations associated with them, during this reading however habits are described as positive building tools. By understanding the composition and make up of habits one can come to better control them and use them for positive growth in different areas or aspects of life. As described by the author, a habit is "the intersection of knowledge, skill and desire" (Covey 47). The author explains that in order for habits to be effective and positive all three of the above mentioned components are required. First one must understand the role of knowledge in the equation. Knowledge is described as knowing "what to do" and why. Skill is described…
Covey, Stephen R. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic. New York: Fireside Book, 1990. Print.
Team Conflict Situation
For the purpose of this paper, I am a leader of a team that is working together to complete a project of significance. Unfortunately, but not surprisingly, there is a conflict between members of my group. The conflict is escalating, which is problematic, as the deadline for the project is approaching and again, the project holds significance for us and the company for which we work. The nature of the conflict among the group members has to do with the high degree of task interdependence for this particular project. Something that is an unfortunate, regular occurrence in group projects is that some of the group members feel overworked and that they have become responsible for the majority of the work on the project. This is another aspect of the team conflict I must address as leader of this group. Besides myself, the team members are women…
Behfar, K.J., Peterson, R.S., Mannix, E.A., & Trochim, W.M.K. (2008). The Critical Role of Conflict Resolution in Teams: A Close Look at the Links Between Conflict Type, Conflict Management Strategies, and Team Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 170 -- 188.
Bradley, B.H., Klotz, A.C., Postlethwaite, B.E., & Brown, K.G. (2013). Ready to Rumble: How Team Personality Composition and Task Conflict Interact to Improve Performace. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 385 -- 392.
Somech, A., Desivilya, H.S., & Lidogoster, H. (2009). Team conflict management and team effectiveness: the effects of task interdependence and team identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 359 -- 378.
2. elational Dialectics Theory
elational dialectics theory is defined as an "interpretive theory of meaning-making in familial and non-kin relationships" (Baxter a.L., 2008). The dialectical process of thinking increases in a major manner our general view of the conceptual framework on life and relationships that we form in life. Through the dialectical view, we are able to see what we could not see before in relationships, as well as seeing afresh the things that we saw at a surface level. The theory is very instrumental in crisis or conflict solution and mediation between two conflicting parties.
The dialectical theory has employed four approaches mainly in solving dialectical tensions described as follows:
(a). Totality; which recognizes that contradiction is part and parcel of the human existence and cannot be understood in isolation. It says that dialectics are related intrinsically to each other. Therefore there is a great interdependence of people in…
Counseling Central, (2011). Counseling Definition of the Week: Self-Disclosure. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://counsellingcentral.com/counselling-definition-of-the-week-self-disclosure/
Taylor D. & Altman I., (2008). Social Penetration Theory. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/900829/social_penetration_theory.html?cat=72
Baxter a.L., (2008). Relational Dialectics. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://www.communicationencyclopedia.com/public/tocnode?id=g9781405131995_yr2011_chunk_g978140513199523_ss24-1
57). Although both teams and work groups are similar, there are some instances in which one is better suited than the other, and these issues are discussed further below.
elative effectiveness of work groups compared to teams.
While some authorities suggest that team and work groups share a sufficient number of commonalities to make them indistinguishable, there are some situations in which work groups may be more effective if they are defined within certain categories (Biech, 2001). In this regard, Lewis (2001) reports that a useful definition of team is "a group of people who work together to achieve a common goal. Unless they collaborate and cooperate with each other, they cannot achieve the goal because it is too big for any one of them to accomplish individually" (p. 410). Although this general definition could well fit most work groups as well, there are some distinguishing characteristics involved. According…
Biech, E. (2001). The Pfeiffer book of successful team-building tools: Best of the annuals.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
Kristof, A.L. (1999). Person-organization fit: an integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(10, 1-2.
Kruppa, R. & Media, A.K. (2005). Group dynamics in the formation of a Phd cohort: a reflection in experiencing while learning organizational development theory.
By this time, religious differences had ceased to matter quite as much, but technology was still an inhibiting factor, especially when it came to facilitating trade (Lewis & igen).
The improvement of sailing and the increased navigation that began occurring around 1400 A.D. opened up new trade to far and sometimes unknown lands. New land routes into China also brought the world together. The increasing size and degree of the ecumene from this time onward and previous partial ecumenes' benefited civilizations by providing greater sources of economic expansion and a greater variety of goods (Lewis & igen).
Koeller, David. "Formation of the Eurasian Ecumene." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/world/Formation.html
Lewis, Martin and Karen igen. The Myth of Continents. Univeristy of California Press: Berkley, 1997.
Koeller, David. "Formation of the Eurasian Ecumene." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/world/Formation.html
Lewis, Martin and Karen Wigen. The Myth of Continents. Univeristy of California Press: Berkley, 1997.
Cameron Balloons is a British company established in 1971 that primarily manufactures hot air balloons. Since then they have grown to production of about 500 balloons per year, with a market share of about 70% of those produced in the United Kingdom. They are well-known for quality, novelty, and their interesting balloon shapes (Harley Davidson, the Sphinx, Beethoven, etc.) (Civilian Air Authority, 2012). With their U.S. facility the company produces over 1 balloon per day, and averages almost $10M in annual sales.
Cameron Balloons is a leader in the hot-air balloon market, a very competitive market because of the overcapacity of many competitors in many countries, all vying for a limited customer. An additional strength for Cameron is that they are designed and built by two distinct companies that are independently owned and managed but are linked and committed to building the industry's best and most unique product. In addition,…
BizEd. (2011). Guided Tour of the Cameron Balloons Virtual Factory. Retrieved from: http://www.bized.co.uk/virtual/cb/tour/index.htm
Civilian Air Authority. (2012). GINFO Search Results Summary. Retrieved from: http://www.caa.co.uk/application.aspx?catid=60&pagetype=65&appid=1&mode=summary&aircrafttype=cameron&dereg=true
Muller, M. (2011). Essentials of Inventory Management. New York: American Management Association.
al-Mart's Domestic and Global Marketing Challenges
al-Mart is at once one of the most visible retail firms in the world and one of the most consistently criticized. Due to its poor record on labor rights, its deleterious impact on local communities and businesses, and its various ethical sacrifices in the name of everyday low prices, al-Mart's marketing challenges generally center on these shortcomings in its domestic and global reputation. A consideration of the environmental circumstances impacting al-Mart's marketing conditions reveals a company a number of vulnerabilities to public impression but also with great opportunities to make improvements in this area.
One area in which balance is needed is that of global trade. In this context, al-Mart has established a level of global interdependence that demands relatively unregulated production in developing world contexts. It is this interdependence -- whereby its low everyday prices rely on the undercutting of labor and…
Humes, E. (2011). Wal-Mart's Green Hat. Los Angeles Times.
Savage, C. (2012). With Wal-Mart Claims, Greater Attention On a Law. The New York Times.
Virginian-Pilot. (2012). The Discounting of Integrity. PilotOnline.com.
A variety of technical and management issues arise during the implementation and operation of any change process. Change management in technology projects is essential to implement and monitor mechanisms to support and control users, business, and technology (Yarberry, 2007). There are different change project modules used at any stage of a project development. These include the change curve, Lewin's change management model, and Beckhard and Harris change model used in the understanding phase. The project-planning phase uses the impact analysis, Burke-Litwin, McKinsey 7s framework, Leavitt's diamond, organization design, and SIPOC diagrams. The implementation stage uses Kotter's 8-step change model, training needs assessment, while the communication change uses stakeholder analysis, stakeholder management, mission statement, and vision statements. In this analysis, the Leavitt's Diamond, the Kotter's 8-step change model, and Leavitt's model for organizational change is concerned with the interdependence of four main factors, including structure, people, technology, and task.…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, 266.
Bruckman, J.C. (2008) Overcoming Resistance to change: Casual Factors, Interventions, and Critical Values. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Psychology Press 11, 211-219.
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page
Davison, R. (2002) Cultural Complications of ERP. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 45, 109.
Searching for Sustainability
When researchers analyzed the global resource flow trends that emerged between 1980 and 2002 they found a 25% worldwide increase in material extraction and natural resource use (Behren, Giljum, Kovanda, and Niza, 2005). The increased material extraction rates were attributed to growing economies in developing nations like China and the growing size of the consumer class in these countries. When compared to trends in economic activity in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), the percent generated by material extraction shrank by 25% during the same study period. The rapid growth in the size of the less resource-intensive service sector was blamed for this finding.
The growing size of the service sector has some advantages in terms of sustainability, including lower resource utilization and cleaner technologies, but based on the findings of Behren and colleagues (2007) the growth in material extraction and utilization outstrips…
Behren, Arno, Giljum, Stefan, Kovanda, Jan, and Niza, Samuel. (2007). The material basis of the global economy worldwide patterns of natural resource extraction and their implications for sustainable resource use policies. Ecological Economics, 64, 444-453.
By way of introduction to the topic, Legro examines the general presumption that a state's sense of identity defines the parameter of its national interests, thus directing its domestic or international conduct. Rather than subscribing blindly to this fundamental precept of neorealism, Legro offers a competing theory of identity and its influence on international relations, surmising that "states become what they do as much as they do what they are, they desire what they do as much as they do what they desire" (20). It is Legro's contention that a state's distinct set of cultural norms, social values, and other markers of identity can direct governmental actions on the world stage, but that these actions will inevitably influence this identity, thus providing an entirely different contextual framework for international relations as time progresses and circumstances change.
Legro cites the example of America's divergent approaches to participation in each of the…
Dunne, Tim, Kurki, Milja, and Smith, Steve. International relations theories: discipline and diversity. Oxford University Press, USA, 2007.
Ikenberry, G. John. After victory: institutions, strategic restraint, and the rebuilding of order after major wars. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Keohane, Robert O. Neorealism and its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
Legro, Jeffrey. Rethinking the world: great power strategies and international order. Cornell University Press, 2005.
Hispanic Culture and Beliefs
The Hispanic culture is rich and vibrant, but there are struggles that those outside of the culture may not realize. One of these is with seeking out and receiving healthcare services. Many Hispanic people wait too long to get healthcare. For some, it is because they are not in the United States legally and they fear deportation. However, for the large number of Hispanic people who were born in the U.S. Or who are otherwise in the country legally, it is mainly cultural concerns that keep them from seeking treatment. They are often distrustful of other cultures, and the men in the Hispanic culture are a proud group who believe they can handle issues themselves. Of course, this is a generalization. Not every Hispanic person fits this particular stereotype of their culture. Beliefs about healthcare and the seeking of that care, as well as how they…
Yet, they do not know exactly what it is that they want. A database would be extremely helpful at this stage as it could offer information on the type of products and services the customers need and the new market could as such be created. A relevant example of an emergent market is constituted by the it products and services within most developing countries. The second evolutionary stage occurs as the products and services introduced in the emergence stage begin to register high levels of sales. At this level, more producers are interested in promoting their own products within the growing market and the future expectations related to it are generally positive. The growth stage of the market is also supported by customers, who realize the benefits of the given product, but also by companies which develop and implement strong marketing campaigns.
The third evolutionary level is maturity, a situation…
Grashaw, K., 2009, Recognizing the Eight Demand States in a Market, Kurt Grashaw Marketing Communications, http://www.grashaw.com/articles/EightDemandStates_060809.html last accessed on October 16, 2009
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., 2005, Principles of Marketing, 10th Edition,, ISBN 7302114358
Perner, L., 2009, Service Outputs, University of Southern California, http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/dist_Service_Outputs.html last accessed on October 16, 2009
Rao, T.P.R., Jain, a.K., Key Concepts for Marketing of Information Products and Services, the International Development Research Center, http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-114853-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html last accessed on October 16, 2009
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The coming of globalization and capitalism remain the power changer fight against colonialism in the world today.
The attractiveness presented by tourism can also not be overestimated for the countries whose climate, geography, and/or history seem to provide an exploitation-ready endogenous product. The potential of post-colonial ideologies to erode the potential gains from tourism are however high should room for such ideology be given. The apparent contributed success that the industry has earned should be appreciated and the notions of colonialism should not be imposed especially so for country that deserve the growth and stand to benefit from tourism. What needs to be done is management of the flow and policy brought about.
[510 words u.f.t.q.]
Question 4: Select two of the critical issues / matters listed below, and explain what has been learnt about it over the last couple of decades - according to the J& contributors and/or the…
CROTTS, J., C 1999. Consumer decision-making and per-purchase information search in A pizamand Y Mansfeld (Eds), Haworth Hospitality Press, Haworth Hospitality Press.
CROUCH, G.I. & RITCHIE, J.R.B. 1999. Tourism, Competitiveness, and Societal Prosperity. Journal of Business Research, 44, 137-152.
JAMAL, T. & ROBINSON, M. 2009. The SAGE handbook of tourism studies, SAGE.
JAMAL, T.B. & GETZ, D. 1999. Community Roundtables for Tourism-related Conflicts: The Dialectics of Consensus and Process Structures. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7, 290-313.
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…
Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar
Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.
"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.
22 Mar 2012.
Chain of Retail Stores -- Project Management Case Study
Project management has become so refined over the course of its development that the implementation of a project based on a good project management foundation is actually more important than having any in-depth knowledge or expertise in any particular industry (Badiru & Adedeji, 2012).
he four most common compositions of teams are the purely functional project structure, the pure project organization, cross-functional team, or a hybrid or matrix team (Field & Keller, 1998). Furthermore, there are a wide array of outsourcing and project partnering opportunities that can further complicate the network structure (Cleland & Ireland, 2006).
Establishing a schedule is more than likely one of the most important critical success factors of any modern project (homsett, 2010). Many of the project management software solutions, such as Microsoft Project, can be a project manager's…
Thomsett, M. (2010). The Little black Book of Project Management. AMACOM.
Toan, A. (1968). Using Information to Mange. New York: New York Ronald Press.
Weygandt, J., Kimmel, P., & . Kieso, D. (2008). Tools for Business Decision Making. London: Wiley.
Business Principles and Technology
The contemporary workplace has vastly changed thanks to the globalization effects that in itself has grown quire complex too. The previous workplace and the requirements are very different from the one that is experienced currently. The today's world has vastly changed in terms of structure, process and even content of work hence making work cognitively very complex, work is now more team-based than ever before, more dependent on the social skills of each employee, work is dependent on the technological competence, more time pressured and apparently more mobile and far less dependent on geography (Judith H., 2010). This therefore calls for a keen linkage between the organizational structure and design to the goals and expected outcomes of the organization. In the attempt to align the organizational structure to the vision and goals of the organization, there are key issues that must be observed; the…
Judith H., (2010). The Changing Nature of Organizations, Work, and Workplace. Retrieved August 2, 2013 from http://www.wbdg.org/resources/chngorgwork.php
Matthew W & Bertie M., (2005 ). implementing Planned Change: An Empirical Comparison of Theoretical Perspectives. Retrieved August 2, 2013 from http://www.bsu.edu/mcobwin/ajb/?p=57
Media Tech Publishing, (2013). Link Individual Performance to Organizational Goals. Retrieved August 2, 2013 from http://talentmgt.com/articles/view/link_individual_performance_to_organizational_goals/3
Bandura, A. (1999). Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities. Personality and ocial Psychology Review, 3(3), 193-209.
Discusses the moral agency embedded in socio-cognitive theory and other self-regulatory mechanisms responsible for restraining immoral personal behavior. Focuses primarily on specific factors that lead to moral disengagement, in which individual root justification for immoral behavior. Author sheds light on the importance of having a moral agency and dangers of not have one. He maintains that in the absence of such an agency, immoral conduct becomes rampant and destroys the moral fabric of the society. The thesis revolves around the idea that "Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty." I found the article valuable because the author backs his arguments with findings from previous studies. However a moral detailed discussion on…
Social work text exploring a wide range of sociological principles with an emphasis on critical analysis of each school of thought; objective consideration of the efficacy and utilitarianism of each social work paradigm.
Harrison, L.E., & Huntington, S.P. (Eds.). (2000). Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (1st ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Specifically addresses the relationship between cultural values and societal development. Concludes that changes in societal values result in subsequent shaping of the developmental process of social structures. The
Leadership and Human Resources
Sunflower Electric Power Corporation certainly had compelling circumstances that motivated management to pursue cultural change. Having recently undergone debt restructuring and charges of mismanagement and corruption, employee morale was at an all-time low. The major priority for the company was to completely change its corporation culture with a huge emphasis on interpersonal relationships.
The culture of Sunflower was a command-and-control culture characterized by authoritative and conservative leadership. This culture had encouraged turf wars among managers and had inhibited effective job performance. Sunflower's new CEO, Chris Hauck, undertook many initiatives to change the culture to a competence culture in which leadership is visionary, sets high standards and encourages people to achieved new heights.
Competence cultures, unlike command-and-control ones pursue excellence and innovation. However, resistance to change would make Sunflower's cultural evolution a challenging one. There are four basic reasons for resisting change (Greene, Adam and Ebert, 1995):…
Greene, C., Everet, A, and Ebert, R. (1005). Management for effective performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Maxwell, J. (2003). Leadership by example is key to guiding a strong company. Houston Business Journal. Retrieved November 13, 2003 from Houston Business Journal Web Site: http://houston.bizjournals.com/houston/stories/2003/10/06/smallb2.html
Schneider, B., Competence run amok. Retrieved November 13, 2003 from Hanigan Consulting Web Site: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:frizEcXV4IUJ:www.haniganconsulting.com/competence_run_amok.pdf+%22Competence+culture%22&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Group / Team Communication
Analysis of a group I am familiar with An environmental group that I occasionally meet with and interact with as a volunteer has a great track record in rescuing and rehabilitating injured and orphaned wildlife. They had a strong leader for several years but apparently he got burned out and chose to step down. The present leader, unfortunately, has a milquetoast personality and although she is a very hard worker and a dedicated team member, her leadership abilities are seriously lacking.
Communication, diversity, power structure, decision-making and progress. The group is mostly women (two Latinas are the only minority persons involved), and they have more meetings than they need to. Last week they had a board meeting (7 board members) in which they discussed future fundraising activities. The time wasted in this meeting was terrible, because each board member should have polled volunteers that work in…
Microsoft Business. (2013). How to work together effectively as a team. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.microsoft.com .
Myatt, M. (2012). 10 Communication Secrets of Great Leaders. Forbes. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com .
Richards, L. (2013). Importance of Team Communication Skills. Houston Chronicle.
Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com .
Netflix employees "tear, slap, and clack" through a day's work can be easily understood within a classic sociological framework, using either a Marxist or a Durkheim lens. Both Marx and Durkheim would have noted that the Netflix model represents quintessential division of labor. The employees perform one task with maximum efficiency. hile Durkheim would focus primarily on the social contracts and organization of the employees within the Netflix organization, Marx would critique the means by which the Netflix associates are distanced from the owners of the means of production, their labor artificially devalued and exploited, especially given the employees come from developing countries in Africa and Asia. However, the way Sheehan describes the Netflix operation shows that Durkheim's concepts of social solidarity, specialization, and interdependence are indeed requisite to human survival and are inescapable, as the sociologists affirms in his dissertation on the function of the division of labor.
Durkheim, Emile. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: The Free Press, 1984.
Marx, Karl. Das Capital. Vol. I
Sheehan, Susan. "Tear, Slap, Clack." The New Yorker. 28 Aug, 2006.
According to Zetterholm (2009), God’s covenant with the people of Israel entails a bilateral relationship. In exchange for special status, the Jewish people agree to obey God’s commandments to the best of their ability. Lapses in judgment due to human nature or sin can be rectified via atonement and divine intervention. Thus, God always intended for faith to be a prerequisite for salvation. The endeavor to live by the commandments is itself insufficient.
Paul’s transformative message of faith alone being the key to salvation appears to run contrary to contemporary living in a consumer society. Likewise, Paul’s message appears, at least on the surface, to conflict with ancient Jewish teachings. It is possible to reconcile Paul’s teachings with both Judaism and modern life. For one, God did intend for mercy and grace to be embedded into the bond of the covenant. Second, no amount of mundane effort can replace the…
Roles can be rotated regularly to give all team members experience; and 5) Task or sequence interdependence
This occurs when one group member must first complete his/her task before the next task can be completed. For example, collecting water samples might be assigned to two group members, while research on how to collect samples is done by two other group members. (Foundation Coalition, 2009)
Cooperative learning according to the University of Wisconsin cooperative learning group is stated to be structures that "...generate ideas for open-ended questions or problems. The instructor poses an open-ended question and asks groups of students to generate multiple responses. Groups then summarize their responses and report in one of several ways: in writing, random calling, groups reporting to each other, etc. A faculty member might apply one of these structures at the beginning of a new topic by briefly describing the topic and then asking groups…
Berquist, WH and Phillips, SR (1975) Getting Students Involved in the Classroom: A Handbook for Faculty Development. Council for the Advancement of Small Colleges. (pp.114-117)
Chickering, a., and Gamson, Z. (1987) "Seven Principles for Good Practice," AAHE Bulletin, 39:3-7, ED 282-491, 6pp, MF-01; PC-01.
Diesel, Elizabeth, Allen, Michael, Schreiber, Madeline, and Borrego, Maura (2006) Improved Student Learning in Large Classes by Incorporating Active Learning with a New Design of Teaching Studies. 36th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference 18-21 Oct 2006. San Diego, CA.
Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K. (1991) Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom, Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company
"Twenty-three million Americans experience workplace bullying within their work lifetimes" (cited in Seagriff, 2010, p. 575). With the economic challenges Americans are facing recently, tensions in the workplace are also on the rise, as employees increasingly worry that their jobs are in jeopardy. This fear over possibly losing their job means many employees will not risk reporting bullying to their employers.
Interdependence conflicts, as mentioned, are another common type of workplace conflict. This type of conflict centers on an employee's dependence of another person's assistance, input or output to perform their job (Kankanhalli, Tan, & Kwok-kee, 2007). In other words, task interdependence varies depending on the extent which an employee needs materials, information or support from their workplace peers, in order to do their job. "Task interdependence alters the course and consequences of conflict. Some have asserted that because high task interdependence implies the need for intensive interactions among members,…
Bacal, R. (1998). Conflict prevention in the workplace: using cooperative communication. Winnipeg: Bacal & Associates.
Bhattacharya, S. (19 Sept 2010). "Resolving conflict at work." Busienss Today, 19(9). p. 127-129.
Booher, D. (May 1999). "Resolving conflict." Executive Excellence, 16(5). p. 5.
Budd, J. & Colvin, a. (Jul 2008). "Improved metrics for workplace dispute resolution procedures: Efficiency, equity and voice." Industrial Relations, 47(3). p. 460-479.
This time employees' compensation was to be decided by: the base salary, individual incentives centered on performance, and finally the team based incentive program. However, this system could not provide good results for the company, as money became the ultimate issue for the team members (which was affecting the decision making process). It also resulted in an increased competitive rivalry among business units. Ultimately, the company revoked this system which had already given it huge pains in terms of financial losses. Then, they tried to implement the companywide profitability-based bonus program. This is when they started using non-monetary rewards, with its employees to: invoke a sense of belonging inside their organization. (Garvey)
Effectiveness of Team-ased Compensation Systems
Various studies on team-based compensation systems have been conducted in the past, and most have demonstrated that changing an organization's pay structure from: an individual-based compensation system to team-based one can bring highly…
Auchterlonie, David." Team-Based Incentive Compensation is Vital to Successful Operating Turnarounds." Journal of Private Equity (2009): 81 -- 90. Print.
Carpenter, Mason."Top Management Team Compensation: The Missing Link Between CEO Pay and Firm Performance." Strategic Management Journal 23 (2002): 367 -- 377. Print.
Garvey, Charlotte. "Steer Teams with the Right Pay: Team-Based Pay is a Success When it Fits Corporate Goals and Culture, and Rewards the Right Behavior - Focus on Compensation." Find Articles, 2002. Web. 12 Apr. 2011
Irlenbusch Bernd." Relative Rewards within Team-Based Compensation." Labor Economics (2008): 141 -- 167. Print.
Income Disparity and Development in Latin American Countries
The income disparity in the Latin American countries is the largest in the world and has a dramatic and complex impact on the development of these countries on many related levels. As one commentator states, "Inequality is as Latin American as good dance music and magical-realist fiction. Like those other regional products, it thrives." (Inequality in Latin America. A stubborn curse.)
Statistics from the World ank indicate that the richest tenth among Latin Americans earn 48% of total income, while the poorest tenth earn just 1.6%. The equivalent figures for rich countries are 29.1% and 2.5%. (Inequality in Latin America). While fifteen years of market reforms have resulted in income levels that are above those of Africa, yet " ... income disparity is the largest in the world and 222 million people live in poverty." (SANCHEZ M. 2005) Numerous studies and reports…
Barro, R. "Democracy and Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, 1, 1-27. 1996
CONSTANCE P. A yardstick for misfortune. November 6, 2005.
Economics A-Z. November 6, 2005. November 6, 2005. http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?TERM=GNP
Leadership at Sea and Seven Habits of Highly Effective Sailors
The irony is unavoidable. I began reading Seven Habits of Highly Effective People when I was feeling at my least effective, personally, as a human being and as a child. I suppose I'm not alone in saying this, though. The fact of a parent's death makes every child feel ineffective, unable to cope with family grief and stress, as well as forced to face one's own mortality and "principles of personal vision." (1) The loss of a father makes it easy to lose one's sense of a future perspective, and the vision one has of one's self in a family and a societal context.
However, I was also, when I began the book, feeling quite ineffective as a leader as well. Because of my father's death in mid-August, I had to leave my ship and came home to tend to…
Covey, Stephen R. Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999.
Kenneth altz Structural Realism After the Cold ar
In his article Structural Realism after the Cold ar Kenneth altz, Kenneth altz makes the debate that examining interstate politics through the humanist point-of-view is still both feasible and detailed as a theoretical method. Printed almost ten years after the Soviet Union collapsed and the conclusion of the Cold ar itself, Kenneth altz's article makes the case that a realist method for examining interstate activity remains valid. The principal and possibly most noticeable point altz suggests is that balance of power theory still has a significance despite the fact the United States won the Cold ar and achieved rank as the world's lasting global force. The present time phase, where the United States likes its "unipolar instant," is but short-lived. In the future, as preceding sole powers have faced, the United States will experience inner over-spending of resources for ever growing external…
Waltz, Kenneth N. "Structural Realism after the Cold War." International Security 25.1 (2000): 5-41.
Nowadays, students have to choose between different academic disciplines: maybe one student prefers to be a psychologist rather than a physician. And then once the student has decided on psychology, he must choose, for example, to be a psychology major, as opposed to a physician major. Further more, there are even different categories within disciplines: social psychology, organizational psychology, clinical psychology, educational psychology etc., each with its own concepts, terminology and methods. As in many other areas of activity, the division of labor in modern academia was a necessary phenomenon in the modern society given the economic and social conditions of the modern world, when the aim of education is to prepare students for different specializations and then, through working, interdependence and collaboration is necessary in order to reach the goal and obtain the wanted results. Durkheim's theory division of labor depicts the fact that in a society based…
Clyde Hudgins, Clyde, Richards, Michael. G. Individual, Family and Community: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Contemporary Life. Introduction. http://www.accd.edu/sac/interdis/2370/intro.html
Comparative Political Systems. Lecture #2 - Theoretical Antecedents - Marx, Weber, & Durkheim. www.towson.edu/~roberts/339/A02marx.doc
Durkheim, Emile. The Division of Labor in Society Translated by George Simpson. New York: The Free Press, 1933
Grabb, Edward G. Theories of Social Inequality: Classical and Contemporary
In the context of Charters Schools, distributed leadership that connects organizational features (culture, business practices, motivation etc.) provides a greater opportunity for members to learn from one another. An increased participation in decision making is another characteristic of effective organizations that may be identified in the organizational structure of Charter Schools USA. An increased participation in decision-making leads to a greater commitment to organizational goals and group strategies are free to develop. Such form of leadership allows the increase in self-determination, and the members may anticipate and respond to the demands of the organization's environment.
Another important issue that makes Charter Schools USA effective is the use of 360 degree appraisal of performance, which involves a group of people who interact with the employee in many different ways and are able to rate his performance. esearch and practice has already proved the effectiveness of the feedback from multiple sources and…
About Charter Schools USA, Retrieved at http://www.charterschoolsusa.com/about.html
Campion, M.A., Medsker, G.J., & Higgs, a.C. (1993). Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness: Implications for designing effective work groups. Personnel Psychology, 46, 823-850.
Peterson, K. (1995) Critical Issue: Building a Committed Team, Retrieved at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le200.htm
Leithwood, K., (unavailable year), Educational Leadership, a review of the research, Retrieved from www.temple.edu/Lss/pdf/ReviewOfTheResearchLeithwood.pdf
China's Economy And Foreign Policy
There have been radical changes in the internal political and economic scenario of China during the last two decades. (Lampton, 2001) The growing economic stability and control has increased the status of china to a great extent among its trading counterparts. Further, it has become obligatory on the part of the Chinese Government to make it certain that the economic development to restructure the political discipline whose ideology had a severe jolt with the fall of Soviet Union. (Part Two - Chinese Foreign Policy) Ever since the inception of economic reforms in China during 1978 there is a considerable enhancement in the Gross Domestic Product to the tune of 9.5% per annum on average. It is pertinent to probe on the factors responsible for such a great success. The success is attributed to the adoption of institutions and policies by the Chinese Government that could…
Burns, Robert (1997) "Gore, Gingrich set missions to woo China" The Associated Press.
Carr, Earl. (February 19, 2004) "U.S. Diplomacy Needs Chinese Characteristics" Asia Times. pp: 5-7
Chinese Foreign Policy. Program for Contemporary Silk Road Studies. Retrieved from http://www.silkroadstudies.org/china.htm Accessed on 18 March, 2005
Chow, Gregory. (2000) China's Economic Reform and Policies at the Beginning of the 21st Century. Perspectives. Vol: 2; No: 1; pp: 47-53
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).
The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…
Chou, K.L. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 161-169, 2000.
Jose, P.E., Huntsinger, C.S., Huntsinger, P.R. & Liaw, F-R. Parental values and practices relevant to young children's social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp 677-702, 2000.
Misra, G., & Agarwal, R. The meaning of achievement: Implications for a cross-cultural theory of achievement motivation, from a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures, Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp 250-266. 1985.
Phalet, K. & Schonpflug, U. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: the case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 32, pp 186-201, 2001.
What is common to them is the fact that they both occur when individuals want their peers to improve their work efficiency. The difference between them is represented by how they are performed. For example, direct monitoring consists in directly observing the behavior and results of peers, praising or correcting them in accordance with the circumstances, reporting inappropriate behavior, and discussing other performance related subjects. This is very useful if included in a motivational system that can be used within the organization in case (Hultman, 2002). Indirect peer monitoring is based on gossip regarding the negative aspects, like poor performance, inappropriate behavior, and others. In such cases, the individuals observed by their peers may not be aware of this monitoring.
The effects of the two types of peer monitoring are slightly different. Direct peer monitoring has a positive influence on problem-free performance only when supervisory monitoring is low, otherwise it…
1. Loughry, M.L. & Tosi, H.L. (2008). Performance Implications of Peer Monitoring. Organization Science. Vol. 19, No. 6. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
2. Hause, M.L. & Woodroffe, M.R. (2001). Team Performance Factors in Distributive Collaborative Software Development. Department of Computing, the Open University. Retrieved February 28, 2010 from http://www.google.ro/search?hl=ro&q=group+performance+factors+of+influence&btnG=C%C4%83uta%C5%A3i&meta=&aq=f&oq= .
3. Hultman, K. (2002). Motivational system mapping. Organization Development Journal. Retrieved February 28, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5427/is_200201/ai_n21322405/ .
4. Goddard, W. & Melville, S. (2001). Research Methodology: An Introduction. Juta & Co, Ltd. Second edition, Lansdowne. Retrieved February 28, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=bJQJpsU2a10C&printsec=frontcover&dq=research+methodology&source=bl&ots=XqtbOeBS9k&sig=pVH4gNbRciKwK0v2RfX0YxJUjrg&hl=ro&ei=zZaKS4DmDZrimgOWo8W1DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CCYQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepage&q=&f=false .
CMBS overcomes resistance to change by concentrating on quantifying customer satisfaction by asking for ratings of each aspect of a system installation after it has been installed. This gives each member of the team a high level of ownership in the metrics being measured, and over time they improve as CMBS system integration teams become more attuned to the unmet needs of their customers purchasing systems. In this regard BSC strategies with accountability for performance lead to continual efforts to improve scores on each metric defined as part of both the customers' expectations and the motivation CMBS integration teams have to improve their performance and gain greater financial results as well. In this way CMBS alleviates resistance to change by focusing on how to motivate employees to become active change agents for the good of the metrics measured on behalf of clients.
Defining BSC Perspectives for CMBS
The four perspectives…
Elizabeth Barber. (2008). How to measure the "value" in value chains.
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 38(9), 685-698.
Richard Barrett. (2004). Hype and reality in performance management.
Measuring Business Excellence, 8(2), 9-14.
One aspect of the ethics of electronic communications is that people feel an insular autonomy, not necessarily true but implied by the format and that often times people chose to communicate at many times of the day and night, sometimes regretting that the communication was not made with appropriate forethought and skill. The social aspect of work communications must not be ignored as the dynamic of email communication can seriously alter the human dimension of work. (ooksby, 2002, pp. 2-3) in the management employee relationship, depending upon the size and structure of the organization, the dynamic of distance may be assumed and even relied upon for the foundation of authority. While in contrast the goal of management may be to connect more personally with individuals to ensure then that there is a common vision and understanding as well as a relationship that is demonstrative of teamwork and employee empowerment. Management…
Awadzi Calloway, J. & Awadzi, W. (2005) Trust Communication, and Leadership Challenges in Virtual Teams. The Consortium Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. 12 (2) 25-32.
Atkinson, a.S. (2004). Chapter 27 Ethics and the Corporate Communicator. In a Handbook of Corporate Communication and Strategic Public Relations: Pure and Applied, Oliver, S.M. (Ed.) (pp. 427-435). New York: Routledge.
Bielski, L. (2005). What Makes a Good Leader? The Go-to "Guy" with Vision and Passion Will Top the Org Chart -- and Lead Change Management. ABA Banking Journal, 97(12), 21.
Crossman, J.M. (2003). The Multi-Audience Memo and the International Business Interview. Business Communication Quarterly, 66(4), 72.
In Poland, a ritual exists by which a znajomy becomes a kolega: When the two parties-- regardless of gender -- give mutual permission to allow each other to drop the "Mr." And "Miss" and call each other by their first names. A celebration involving drinking frequently follows, frequently with the two drinking shots of alcohol with arms linked. The English terms closest to kolega are "buddy," "pal," and "companion."
The authors (McAndrew & ybak, 2006) hypothocized that since the Poles had more formalized and precise friendship words, they would differentiate more readily and consistently between different types of friends than Americans. They also looked at sex differences in judgments made about friendship, expecting that women in both America and Poland would probably make more discriminating judgments about relationships than would men.
Participants were either college students from the U.S. Or Poland. There were 56 Polish and 57 American participants. All…
Bell, S., & Coleman, S. (Eds.). (1999). The anthropology of friendship. Oxford: Berg.
Bond, M.H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 1009-1015.
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Greenberger, E., & Chen, C. (1996). Perceived family relationships and depressed mood in early and late adolescence:a comparison of European and Asian-Americans. Developmental Psychology, 32, 707-716.
Although not all of Davis' relational maintenance strategies are communication based, many of them are primarily work-it-out and have-it-out but also reintegration ceremonies. Davis did not empirically test his observations.
Braiker and Kelley (1979) were interested in understanding the role that conflict plays in relationship development. Employing a social exchange approach to relational maintenance, Braiker and Kelley conceptually defined maintenance as communication behaviors engaged in by members of the couple to reduce costs and maximize rewards in the relationship. Maintenance behavior was operationally defined using items primarily measuring communication with one's partner about the relationship (also included one item measuring self-disclosure and one item measuring willingness to change behavior). Thus, Braiker and Kelley also focus on metacommunication as a relational maintenance strategy.
Braiker and Kelley (1979) concluded that maintenance strategies change meaning over time, with maintenance behavior serving to increase interdependence and love in the earlier stages of development…
Ayres, J. (1983). Strategies to maintain relationships: Their identification and perceived usage. Communication Quarterly, 3-1, 62-67.
Baxter, L.A., & Dindia, K. (1990). Marital partners' perceptions of marital maintenance and repair strategies. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 187-208.
Braiker, H.B., & Kelley, H.H. (1979). Conflict in the development of close relationships. In R.L. Burgess & T.L. Huston (Eds.), Social exchange in developing relutionships (pp. 135-1-68). N ew York: Academic Press.
Canary, D.J., & Stafford, L. (1992). Relational maintenance strategies and equity in marriage. Communication Monographs, 59, 243-267.
This naturally tends to exacerbate the tension and increase the potential for conflict; as with many competing visions and views there are bound to be differences of opinion and consequently conflict between different individuals." As a result many people in many organizations are forced to invent their own corporate vision. When you have different versions of goals, direction, and values among different individuals and groups, you increase the probability of unproductive conflict. " (Landau, Landau, and Landau 9)
An example given by Landau et al. illustrates this important point. The authors describe a situation where each individual working in a museum visualized the aims and goals of the institution differently.
One visualized the museum as primarily an educational institution, whereas the other saw its primary goal as entertainment. The business of the museum could not be carried out without the collaboration of these two officers, but unfortunately the difference in…
Figure 1. Numbers of Unauthorized Foreign-Born in the United States, 1980-2005
Source: ( http://www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=13774 )
Another factor to consider is that globalization has also increased the national and cultural diversity in the workplace. (Landau, Landau, and Landau 22) "People of different cultures, genders, ages, and professions may have different attitudes toward work and family, equality
Market Structure and Managerial Decision Making
The objective of this paper is to discuss the concept game theory in the competitive market environment where there are two or more firms competing against one another. The paper cites the examples of Nash equilibrium, prisoner dilemma, and dominant strategy. Moreover, the paper discusses the theory of perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic market and theory of oligopoly. (Bhat, and au, 2008).
The game theory is a type of situation where the rewards or payoff given to any player depends on the action of the other players. The interdependence between two or more firms is referred as a game theory, and the rewards earned by a firm is known as a payoff, and the payoff matrix assists in analyzing the interdependence between firms. A duopoly is an interdependence between two players that may result in a game theory. However, a relationship between two…
Bhat, M.S., and Rau, A.V. (2008). Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis, Hyderabad, IND BS Publications, ProQuest ebrary. Web. Retrieved April 20, 2016, Chapter 4: Market Structures, pp. 85-107.
Krugman, P. & Wells, R. (2012). Economics and Microeconomics (Third Edition). Worth Publisher.
Mjmfoodie. (2011). Episode 29 Monopolistic Competition [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3F1Vt3IyNc
Links to Government Regulation of Monopoly
gender on Conflict management styles and perceived effectiveness
There has been great concern on whether there are differences in gender in effective management, which has been caused by the increase in female organizational managers in the past decades. Skills in managing conflict are important in the effectiveness of leadership. In addition, the perception of females' inability to deal with conflict and crises are often seen as barriers to their promotion as executive members. Furthermore, the supervisors' popularity among their juniors has been regarded as greatly significant in the recent times, since researchers have found that the main reason for many people quitting is the fact that they are not on good terms with their supervisors. This study is meant to look at the differences in gender; in the way supervisors manage conflicts. This study also seeks to determine the relationship between them and the popularity and effectiveness of the supervisors…
Copley, R. D. (2008). Conflict management styles: A predictor of likablity and perceived effectiveness among subordinates (Doctoral dissertation, faculty of the University Graduate School in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in the Department of Communication Studies, Indiana University).
Howard III, A. C. (2015). The Intertwining of Workplace Conflict and Home Life: An Interpretive Multicase Study.
ZHU, T. (2013). Conflict management between employees from different departments: contribution of organizational identification and controversy.
The nationalism furthered by Hamas is a direct salvo against oppression and occupation. Its foundation is premised on blame and hatred of the "other." Again, instability leads the uncertain from away from foreign and in the direction of the known, this being especially powerful, when meshed with the concrete assuagements of religion.
The efficacy of religion as an instrument of nationalist ideology can also be seen in the Islamist movement. hile lacking a state, there is still clearly an Arab nation which coheres to a distaste of foreign influence. The Al-Qaeda organization seems to be premised on exactly this, with Osama Bin Laden's impetus being derived from a scorn of estern presence in Saudi Arabia, and moreover, the Muslim world. Religion, here, is used to offer succor. It is analogous to the comfort provided in pre-ar Germany of through the idea of a superior kultur.
Muslim communities scattered about the…
Boose, Lynda E. 2002. Crossing the river drina: bosnian rape camps, turkish impalement, and serb cultural memory. Signs 28(1), 71-99.
Brinkman, Richard, L. (2008). Globalization and the nation-state: dead or alive. Journal of Economic Issues, 42(2), 425-434.
Kuzio, Taras. (2008). Democratic breakthroughs and revolutions in five postcommunist countries: comparative perspectives on the fourth wave. Demokratizatsiya, 16(1), 97-109.
Molchanov, Mikhail, A. (2000). Post communist nationalism as a power resource: a russia-ukraine comparison. Nationalities Papers, 28(2), 263-288.
Subprime mortgages were not by any means a major component of the total market, yet when they crashed, the high degree of market interdependency led to sharp declines in the value of many companies, not just banks that happened to be burdened with toxic assets. The methodology will therefore begin by comparing the interdependence of different markets over time. This will reveal whether or not sectors and global markets have become increasingly correlated over time. It is hypothesized that they have, which in turn has contributed to an increase in systemic risk as such interdependence reduces the value of diversification.
The second component of the paper will examine what is being done with respect to reducing systemic risk. This component will include an overview of the traditional theory and a review of the current literature on systemic risk. The crisis has spurred new work on systemic risk, including work specific…
Weisman, J. & Paletta, D. (2009). Summers says more regulators could join Fed to police risk. Wall Street Journal. Vol. 254, 62, A3.
Huang, X; Zhou, H. & Zhu, H. (2009). A framework for assessing the systemic risk of major financial institutions. Journal of Banking and Finance. Vol. 33, 11, 2036-2049.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…
Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's
Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.
Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.
The first flow of influence is disarming, the process of omitting any signs of power or control on the part of the seller. Second is liking, or how rapport is established and relationships are trigger with strangers. Third is distinctiveness, which refers to the degree that the seller's approach differs from others to which the buyer has been exposed.
Williams (1998) suggests that firms who want to move from traditional transaction oriented selling to relationship building must look closely at all aspects of sales management including recruitment, training, remuneration and sales planning. Conti and Cron (1998) state that the field sales force must be particularly involved in targeting individual customers, implementing relationship-specific offerings, and evaluating relationship outcomes for relationship selling to be effective. To accomplish those objectives, they suggest a planning framework that includes criteria that are conducive to collaborative relationships. The key criteria include; 1) the customer's business philosophy…
Alessandra, Tony & Barrera, Rick. (1993). Collaborative Selling: How to Gain the Competitive Advantage in Sales. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Anderson, Rolph E. (1996). Personal selling and sales management in the new millennium. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 16 (4), 17-32.
Boorom, Michael L., Goolsby, Jerry R. & Ramsey, Rosemary P. (1998). Relational communication traits and their effect on adaptiveness and sales performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (1), 16-30.
Borys, Bryan & Jemison, David B. (1989). Hybrid arrangements as strategic alliances: theoretical issues in organizational combinations. Academy of Management Review, 14 (2), 234- 249.
However, often firms face dilemma: should they recall the product and suffer loss or should they be silent? An organization that takes its ethical responsibilities seriously would recall the products, because it knows that in the long-run, consumers will trust the company and will have high confidence with the company's responsibilities.
Another thing that management needs to consider is that traditionally belief of firm relies on a 'win and loss" strategy. That means, if a business gains benefit, someone else will bear the costs. However, in the present time, the philosophical outlook has changed, which relies on a "win/win" strategy. That means, if a firm that follows ethical rules seriously will win as well consumers win by buying the reliable products and services from the company.
ecognizing interdependence between business and society, therefore, becomes important for managers for clearly visualizing the role of the ethics for the organizations. By clearly…
Collins, John W. (1994) Is Businss Ethics an Oxymoron? Business Horizons (Sept-Oct).
Kurt Lewin is widely acknowledged as a seminal theorist (Smith, 2001) who made an indelible impact on the field of psychology through his work on the cognitive and motivational processes of individuals, the dynamics of intra- and intergroup relationships, and the relevance of psychology for social programs (Lewin, 1998, p. 105). Lewin is also credited for his pioneering work in the area of experiential learning and action research (Smith, 2001). It is the objective of this paper to trace Lewin's contribution to the field of psychology from both a historical as well as present day perspective.
The influence of Kurt Lewin's life on his work
It would be useful to begin a historical perspective of Kurt Lewin's work with an analysis of his biography in order to examine the influences, if any, of his personal life on the theories that he later went on to develop. As it happens, in…
Bavelas, A., & Lewin, K. (1946). Training in Democratic Leadership. Twentieth Century
Psychology: Recent Developments in Psychology. Editors: Freeman, L., Harriman, P.L., Hartmann, G.W., & Lewin, K. New York: The Philosophical Library.
Chaplin, J.P., & Krawiec, T.S. (1974). Systems and Theories of Psychology. New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston.