Interest Rates Essays (Examples)

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Quantitative Easing and Having Your Own Currency

Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26369122

Part 1: The US Dollar
There are several advantages for a nation to have its own currency. The biggest advantage is probably that having one's own currency allows a nation to print more money, which can help it to avoid debt default (Wood, 2011). This is tied to other issues of sovereignty, and especially fiscal and monetary sovereignty, where a nation can manage the value of its currency and use the currency as a means of influencing trade, and by extension the nation's economy (Wood, 2011).
In Europe, where most nations are on the Euro, the fact that these advantages do not exist became a critical issue during the recession of 2008-2009. Several smaller Eurozone nations faced high debt loads, but were unable to do anything about those debt loads. The reason is that the Eurozone economy as a whole is driven primarily by three large industrial nations – Germany,…… [Read More]

References

Da Costa, P. (2017) Fed official: It\\'s inevitable that a controversial policy will return in the next recession. Business Insider. Retrieved September 16, 2017 from  http://www.businessinsider.com/fed-official-qe-is-inevitable-when-the-next-recession-hits-2017-5 

Krugman, P. (2011) The economic failure of the Euro. NPR. Retrieved September 16, 2017 from http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=133112932

Ruan, H. (2013) Impact of US quantitative easing policy on Chinese inflation. University of Victoria. Retrieved September 16, 2017 from  https://www.uvic.ca/socialsciences/economics/assets/docs/honours/Ruan_Ryan.pdf 

Seth, S. (2015). What are the advantages of not adopting the Euro? Investopedia. Retrieved September 16, 2017 from  http://www.investopedia.com/ articles/investing/043015/what-are-advantages-not-adopting-euro.asp
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Interest Rate and Mortgage Market

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1062921

Defense of the Fed's New Interest-ate Policy, which was published by The Wall Street Journal on January 6th, 2013, financial reporters Frederic S. Mishkin and Michael Woodford carefully craft a justification of the Federal eserve's latest revision to its federal-funds rate target. The purpose of the article is to inform readers about the Fed's recent Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which resulted in the decision to keep the federal-funds rate near zero with a contingency based on the national unemployment and inflation rates. By linking the federal-funds rate target to a baseline of 6.5% unemployment, and a predicted rate of 2.5% inflation, while also providing public notice regarding its previously private policy criteria, the Fed is renewing its efforts to stabilize an economy battered by a prolonged recession. As Mishkin and Woodford state in the article, this "commitment not to raise rates in the future as soon as might have…… [Read More]

References

Mishkin, F.S., & Woodford, M. (2013, January 06). In defense of the fed's new interest-rate policy. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324274404578211832381399400.html

Yoon, A. (2013, January 28). Private mortgage market gains momentum after the crisis. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/BT-CO-20130128- 711413.html
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Interest Rate Currency

Words: 2998 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74486704

China announced on Oct. 28, 2004 the first interest rate rise in nine years. In this manner, Beijing is showing its willingness to adopt additional market-oriented reforms in order to have a tighter macro-economic control on the already overheated economy. Although the news regarding the evolution of the Chinese interest rate were contradictory, it would appear that North American economists are welcoming this interest rate increase.

The Chinese economy is rapidly becoming one of the most important in the world, with an annual 8% growth-rate, constant expansion in the preceding years and a history of twenty years of economic reforms. The global economy and especially neighboring countries such Taiwan and Hong Kong are feeling the pressure of the Chinese machine. Investors have made public their fears, since April 2004, that the economy will overheat and are now expecting the austerity measures by the Government to slow the growth and provide…… [Read More]

References:

. "China economy: Beijing considers rate rise to cool economy";

EIU ViewsWire. New York: Apr 20, 2004. pg. n/a (c) 2004 The Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd.,Source: Financial Times

2. "Chinese interest rise shakes international market";

The English version of the Chinese People's Daily Online
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Risk Management Tools Interest Rate Futures Interest

Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34672707

risk management tools: interest rate futures, interest rate options, forward rate agreement and interest rate swaps.

Interest Rate Futures

An interest rate futures contract is a financial derivative. It allows the buyer of the contract to lock in a future investment rate. Like all derivatives, interest rate futures are based on an underlying security, which is a debt obligation that moves in value as interest rates change (Ord, 2011).

The interest rate future is a contract between the buyer and the seller in which they agree to the future delivery of any interest-bearing asset. The interest rate future allows the buyer and seller to lock in the price of the interest-bearing asset for a future date.

Some examples of underlying instruments of interest rate futures include:

Treasury bills in the case of Treasury bill futures traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

Treasury bonds in the case of Treasury bond…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chance, D.M. (2008). Introduction to interest rate options. Louisiana State University. Retrieved December 7, 2011 from:  http://www.bus.lsu.edu/academics/finance/faculty/dchance/Instructional/TN01-02.pdf 

Farlex Financial Dictionary. (2009). Interest rate option. Retrieved December 7, 2011 from:  http://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Interest+Rate+Option 

Holton, G.A. (2007). Forward rate agreement. Retrieved December 7, 2011 from: http://www.riskglossary.com/link/forward_rate_agreement.htm

Holton, G.A. (2007). Interest rate swap. Retrieved December 7, 2011 from: http://www.riskglossary.com/link/interest_rate_swap.htm
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Negative Interest Rate Japan

Words: 6967 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36751911

Japan

On January 29th, 2016, the Japanese government instituted a negative interest rate for the first time in history. The stated objective of this policy is to "encourage banks to lend, business to invest and savers to spend," but the policy has come under heavy criticism. It is, ultimately, a high-risk policy that essentially takes Japan into uncharted waters (euters, 2016). To suggest that this policy is unorthodox is an understatement, but it highlights the rather unique position that Japan is in with respect to its economy. Economists in particular will be observing what happens with this policy closely, because it is a new situation, and the impacts can only be theorized at this point. This paper will outline the context for this decision, and analyze whether it not this is a good move by the Bank of Japan.

Background on the Japanese Economy, 1940s to 1980s

Understanding how this…… [Read More]

References

Einhorn, B. (2016). Abenomics? How about Kurodanomics? NewWeek Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-02-18/japan-abenomics-how-about-kurodanomics

IndexMundi.com (2016). GDP real growth chart, Japan. IndexMundi.com. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=ja&v=66

Jones, R. (2005). Japan's economy. OECD Observer. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/1511/Japan_s_economy.html

Kobayashi, K. (2009) The G20s blind spot: President Obama must squarely face the bad asset problem. Vox EU. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://voxeu.org/article/lessons-japan-s-failed-fiscal-stimulus
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Euro and Negative Effect of Single Currency Exchange Rate and Interest Rate

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78283741

Negative Effect of the Euro

The major issue facing the euro as a single currency is the potential problems that EU nations may face in absorbing future economic shocks. This is largely due to the fact that unlike most monetary unions, the euro will not be governed by a central fiscal policy since most member states are reluctant to give up control of taxation and expenditure policies. To compensate, euro countries are bound to observe fiscal guidelines laid down by the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 and the Stability and Growth Pact drawn up in 1997.

The Maastricht Treaty defined criteria that entails annual budget deficits held to 3% of GDP and the gross debt-to-GDP ratio reduced to 60% in order to avoid excessive borrowing by member states. Subsequently the Stability and Growth Pact defined the penalty sanctions to be imposed on defaulting nations. The EU believed that these measures would…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Atkinson, Mark. "Rate rises in Europe weaken euro." The Guardian. October 6, 2000. Guardian Unlimited Web site. URL:

http://www.stern.nyu.edu/globalmacro/

Dailey, Chris. "Fiscal Policy in the Eurozone." University of Dublin Web site. URL:

Concluding Statement of the IMF Mission on the Economic Policies of the Euro Area." June 27, 2001. International Monetary Fund Web site. URL:
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Rates Indicators the Effective Federal Funds

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73273138

8 for August, 2008, the most recent available (next release is October 20th). This represents a decline over the previous month, and the lowest level of the year. Over the past three months, this index has trended down. In June this was at 102.0, then 101.3 in July. Prior to that the level it had been stable all year (either 101.9 or 102.0).

In terms of individual components, the following components were up: average weekly unemployment initial claims, stock prices, manufacturing new orders (consumer goods) and index of consumer expectations. Of these, it should be noted that the stock prices are lower than at any other point this year except for July. Average weekly unemployment initial claims rising is a negative component, so a rise will reduce the leading indicators index. Manufacturing orders represented a slight increase but is well down for the year. Therefore, only consumer expectations made a…… [Read More]

Sources:

 http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/h15/data.htm 

http://www.conference-board.org/pdf_free/economics/bci/LEI0908.pdf
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Rate Adjustments by the Federal

Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99243237

But when the Fed declared a moratorium on its consistent hikes in 2006, not everyone cheered. Said one economist: "According to their statement, the main reason is that the Fed believes inflation is destined to fall even in the absence of further monetary tightening. I find both good news and bad news in that rationale. The good news is that the Fed is looking ahead, acting on a forecast, rather than just opening the window, taking the economy's temperature and deciding what to do. The bad news is that inflation forecasts are not very accurate. And the other bad news is that if the Fed expects a weak economy to drag inflation down appreciably, it must be pessimistic about the outlook for growth" ("Commentary: The pros & cons of unchanged interest rates," Nightly Business Report. PBS.com, 2006). Little had really changed in the economy, said some economists, the Fed was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Commentary: The pros & cons of unchanged interest rates." Nightly Business Report.

PBS.com. 14 Aug 2006. [18 Jul 2007] http://www.pbs.org/nbr/site/onair/transcripts/060814d/

Fed lifts interest rate to 3.75%" BBC News: Business. 20 Sept 2005. [18 Jul 2007]

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/business/4265872.stm
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Interest Paid at the Beginning of a

Words: 812 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97392793

interest paid at the beginning of a loan period than at the end of the loan period?

Whether an equal total payment plan is adopted or an equal principle plan, in both cases the interest paid at the beginning of a loan repayment period is more than at the end. This is because the interest is calculated on the amount that is loaned. When the first payment is made then a specific principle amount that the borrower has paid for is deducted from the total loan given. Thus the total amount loaned reduces and hence the interest on the new amount is lesser for the second payment.

Using an example of an equal principle plan, if a borrower borrows $10,000 for a repayment plan of 10 years at the rate of 10% per annum, the premium will be divided equally in 10 parts. Which means that each year $1,000 will…… [Read More]

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Interst Rate Effect on Housing

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76361472

These high costs will lead to a considerable decrease in the amount of investments in the housing market and will decrease the demand for real estate.

3. Elasticity of interest rates

The elasticity denotes whether or not the interest rate curve can be moved from a point to another and adjusted to the market requests based on the demand and supply for housing loans. The elasticity of the interest rate has been widely discussed by specialized economists, their opinions on the subject varying. In 1998, economists Robert liss and David Smith concluded that "the elasticity of interest rate volatility, the coefficient linking interest rate volatility to interest rate levels, is 1.5.." Furthermore, in regard with the highly elastic interest rates and low elastic interest rates, the two economists stated that "a moderately elastic interest rate process can capture the dependence of volatility on the level of interest rates, while highly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bliss, R.R. And Smith, D.C., 1998, The Elasticity of interest rate volatility: Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff, and Sanders revisited, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Working Paper 97-13a

Wikipedia, The Free Online Encyclopedia, November 2006, Interest Rate, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interest_rate,last accessed on November 25, 2006

Bliss, R.R. And Smith, D.C., 1998, The Elasticity of interest rate volatility: Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff, and Sanders revisited, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Working Paper 97-13a
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International Monetary Econ the Rates Obtained Were

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85891981

International Monetary Econ

The rates obtained were as of market close on November 25, 2011. Historical rates are difficult to obtain online so this approach is more realistic. The spot rate for USD/JPY is 77.13 and the spot rate for USD/GBP is 0.64399 (Oanda.com, 2011).

The six-month forward rate for USD-JPY is 75.39 and for USD-GBP is 0.6279. The 6-month T-bill rates are for the U.S. 0.05%; for the UK 0.53% and for Japan 0.0%.

If covered interest rate parity holds, then there should be no arbitrage opportunity in trading forwards of these currencies. So for USD-GBP we have the following:

(1 + r£)/(1+r$) = (£/$f)/(£/$s)

For this relationship, interest rate parity does not hold. For the USD-JPY relationship we have the following:

r¥)/(1+r$) = (¥/$f)/( ¥/$s)

/ 1.0005 = 75.39/77.13

0.999 = 0.977

For this relationship, covered interest rate parity also does not hold.

If I have $10,000, my…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Spot rates from Oanda.com. (2011). Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://www.oanda.com/currency/converter/

Forward rates from ForexPros.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://www.forexpros.com/currencies/gbp-usd-forward-rates

US Treasury rate from Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from  http://finance.yahoo.com/bonds 

UK Treasury rate from The Financial Times. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from  http://markets.ft.com/research/Markets/Bonds
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Economic Indicators Savings Rate Economic

Words: 1288 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95519489

This economic indicator can be used to determine inequality within a given region or area. It can also be view the capacity for individuals within a particular nation to consume

b. ate of Value- $41,560

c. Source of Information- "Per Capita Personal Income U.S. And All States." Per Capita Personal Income U.S. And All States. Bureau of Business & Economic esearch, 12 Oct. 12. Web. 02 Feb. 2013.

d. Date of information- September 2012

6) Housing Starts-

a. Economic Indicator- Housing starts are usually indicated by the number of privately owned, new houses, under construction within a given period. This data is usually comprised of three, very distinct components of single family houses, condos, and apartment buildings. Housing starts are very important economic indicators as housing is a substantial component of the middle class family's net worth. Home ownership is also a means by which are other industries are successful.…… [Read More]

References:

1) Cooper, Stephen. Census.gov. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 17 Jan. 2013. Web. 2 Feb. 2013.

2) "Insights on U.S. Mortgage Rates from Tom Reddin." Mortgage Rates RSS. N.p., 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013

3) "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey." Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2012-06.  http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS14000000 . Retrieved 2012-06-15

4) "Per Capita Personal Income U.S. And All States." Per Capita Personal Income U.S. And All States. Bureau of Business & Economic Research, 12 Oct. 12. Web. 02 Feb. 2013
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Financial Management Significance of Interest to the

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37409658

Financial Management

Significance of Interest to the economy:

Interest rates keep on changing with the passage of time; the rates which were present a month ago are quite different from the current rates. This is because the interest rates change with the change in the growth of the economy. The expectations of lenders and borrowers regarding the future prices also affect the interest rates (Trainer, 2012).

The interest rates in U.S. are affected by the values of the dollar, by foreign interest rates and also by the close examination of the monetary policy actions which are taken by the Federal eserve. In our market economy a great role is played by the interest rates. Interest rates work just like traffic signals. The way in which the signals direct the traffic on intersecting roads, similarly interest rates manage the flow of money to borrowers from savers. Usually in the fund movement,…… [Read More]

References

Trainer, R. (2012). The Basics of Interest Rates. Federal Reserve Bank of Newyork. Taken from:  http://ecedweb.unomaha.edu/ve/library/boir.pdf 

Risk Institute. (2012). Sources and effects of interest rate risk. The Principles for the Management of Interest Rate Risk. Taken from: http://riskinstitute.ch/138860.htm
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Federal Funds Rate the Federal Fund Rate

Words: 3201 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31382085

Federal Funds Rate

The federal fund rate was part of the solution, comprised in the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, to centralize the banking system and gain public control of the money supply, inflation, and economic growth. The banking crisis of 1907 was a result of decentralized, unregulated banking that caused confusion with private bank notes being used as currency. There were occasional episodes of monetary mismanagement where the money supply was not appropriate to fulfill the needs of the economy. Too much money caused rapid inflation where too little money stunted economic growth by hindering production and the exchange of goods and services. There were no nationally consistent banking policies and no one entity had control to implement policies until the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 became a national law.

The Federal Reserve System was created with the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 with a oard of Governors to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Amadeo, K. About.com U.S. Economy. 24 Jan 2012. Article. 14 Aug 2012.

Bankrate.com. How the federal funds rate affects finance. n.d. article. 15 Aug 2012.

Bofah, K. What Effect does the Fed Fund Rate Have on Stock Prices. n.d. Article. 15 Aug 2012.

Madrick, J. "Paul Volcker, Jimmy Carter, and Ronald Reagan." Madrick, J. Age of Greed. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011. 160-176. Book.
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Balancing Mortgage Rates Problems Faced While Balancing

Words: 1608 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14969412

Balancing Mortgage ates

Problems Faced While Balancing Mortgage ates

In general terms the monetary policies that contradict themselves mostly involve the process of changing the amount and level of the supply of money in a particular country. When it comes to talking about the expansionary monetary policy, it means that it expands and increases the flow and supply of money, then the impact it has on the monetary policies is that the flow or supply money decreases and hence so does the currency (Fisher, 1932).

Expansionary Monetary Policy

In the U.S., when the government wants to increase the supply of money, it can do so with a combination of three points.

By purchasing various securities from the open market which are also known as the open market operations

It can also be done by lowering the discount rate by the federal government.

It can also be done by lowering the…… [Read More]

References

Easton, B.H. (2011). Growth and Recessions of Economic Output: 1861-1939 (website tba)

Economic Committee (1932) Report.

Eggertsson, G.B. & Krugman, P. (2010). Debt, Deleveraging, and the Liquidity Trap: A Fisher-Minsky-Koo Approach

Eisner, Robert (1988). How real is the Federal Deficit? New York, The Free Press.
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Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on Trade Flows

Words: 1762 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22353467

Exchange Rate Volatility on Trade Flows

Exchange Rate Volatility

Impact on International Trade Flows

Exchange Rate Volatility

Impact on International Trade Flows

Bretton oods

Trade Flow

Trade Flow Responsiveness

Commodities

The dissolution of the Bretton-oods system in 1973 introduced a new era for international markets. No longer would the exchange rates be pegged and fluctuating exchange rates changed the game for international trade and investment. The newly introduced increase in volatility in the foreign exchange markets also increases the risk of uncertainty for all international transactions. The floating rates produce new complexities that have implications for any individual or organization who buys sells, makes, or trades goods or currencies. These implications directly affect nation's balance of trade; however they also literally indirectly affect every individual's lives in one way or another.

The exchange rate volatility has had mixed theories produced by academia in terms of its effects on trade flows.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BAHMANI-OSKOOEE, M., & KARA, O. (2003). Relative Responsiveness of Trade Flows to a Change in Prices and Exchange Rate. International Review of Applied Economics, 293-308.

Bahmani-Oskooee, M., & Wang, Y. (2008). IMPACT OF EXCHANGE RATE UNCERTAINTY ON COMMODITY TRADE BETWEEN THE U.S. AND AUSTRALIA. Australian Economic Papers, 235-258.

Cheong, Chongcheul, (2004) "Does the risk of exchange rate fluctuation really affect international trade flows between countries?." Economics Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 4 pp. 1?8

Hegerty, M.B.-O. (2007). Exchange rate volatility and trade. Journal of Economic Studies, 34 No. 3, 211-255
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Exchange Rate Fluctuations Forex's Opening Trade on

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96731230

Exchange Rate Fluctuations

Forex's opening trade on February 14, 2012 for the U.S. Dollar- Euro was one Dollar for .7593 Euros (Google Finance.com. February 14, 2012). Over the period covering the "Great Recession" and the subsequent recovery, the Euro has moved in a yo-yo pattern, at times buoyed by a weak dollar policy of the U.S., and alternately battered by a flight to safety as investors seek the relative strength of the world's reserve currency. Most recently the Dollar- Euro trade has seen the impact of a contagion sovereign debt crisis which has caused vicissitude swings in the currency trade. At the core of these movements however, is the fundamental question of what are the causes and factors of exchange rate fluctuations, and ultimately who are the beneficiaries?

Causes and Factors of Exchange Rate Fluctuations

hen discussing the exchange rate there are two components; the nominal exchange rate and the…… [Read More]

When discussing the exchange rate there are two components; the nominal exchange rate and the real. The former referring to "the rate at which a person can trade the currency of one country for the currency of another" (Mankiw, G.N. 2004), while the latter is " the rate at which a person can trade the goods and services of one country for the goods and services of another" (Mankiw, G.N. 2004). While the nominal exchange rate of one Dollar for .7593 Euros (Google Finance.com. February 14, 2012) garners the headline attention, it is the real exchange rate which is "a key determinant of how much a country exports and imports" (Mankiw, G.N. 2004). The practical application of the exchange rate is the appreciation or depreciation of a currency and the impact of that move on the affordability of goods and services.

Economists cite multiple factors for the movement of currencies relative to one another: inflation differentials, interest rate differentials, current account deficits, public debt, and political stability-economic performance (Investopedia.com. July 23, 2010). In the context of the Dollar-Euro trade, only a few of these factors directly play into the determination of the exchange rate. Inflation differentials mean very little due to the fact that Eurozone inflation year over year is averaging 2.748%, while the U.S.is averaging 2.96% (Global Rates.com. 2012). If there were a significant differential in inflation, lower inflation nations would have comparably stronger currencies. Interest rate differentials also have negligible impact in the Dollar-Euro currency trade. The Federal Reserve and European Central Bank have kept short-term interest rates under one percent for several years to encourage borrowing and liquidity. A large differential would indicate the country with higher rates would experience higher capital inflows and a currency appreciation. Both the Eurozone and U.S. run considerable current account deficits, the former 100 billion U.S. dollars in 2011 (Feldstein, M. November 30, 2011), while the latter experienced a 110 billion deficit in the third quarter of 2011 (U.S. Department of Commerce. 2012).

It is the last two factors which explain the largest movements in the Dollar/Euro trade; debt issuance and political stability and economic growth. The 800 pound gorilla in the room is that the Eurozone is in the midst of sovereign debt crisis which has poisoned the well of economic growth across the European economies. Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and others are rife with high debt to GDP ratios which are strangling private sector opportunities. Germany and France remain the stalwarts of the EU economy, yet even these engines of growth are suffering from the ever increasing debt burden of ECB bailouts and the concomitant surge in possible sovereign credit defaults. While the U.S.
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Exchange Rate

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3255356

fixed and floating exchange rates mechanisms are the exact opposites of one another, the advantages of one are generally the disadvantages of the other. Anyhow, in order to be able to evaluate for each case in part its positive and negative aspects, we should start with defining each, as most of the advantages and disadvantages derive there from.

The fixed exchange rate mechanism refers to a mechanism where "the government (central bank) sets and maintains the official exchange rate)

." The key word in this mechanism is pegging, which means that the currency has a price set against a major currency of the world and that the central bank ensures that this rate is kept throughout the entire period the currency is pegged.

The main advantage in this case refers to stability. Indeed, a fixed exchange rate mechanism helps eliminate or speculative activity on the respective currency. With no more…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Heakal, Reem. Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates. February 2003. On the Internet at  http://www.investopedia.com/ articles/03/020603.asp

2. Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates. (2003). On the Internet at http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/exchangerates/fixed_floating.htm

Heakal, Reem. Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates. February 2003. On the Internet at
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International Monetary System and Exchange Rate Policies

Words: 1065 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20667598

International Monetary System and Exchange ate Policies

A report/essay: chapter 17, multinational companies. select topic research write: Multinational vs. domestic financial management exchange rates international trade international monetary system exchange rate policies trading foreign exchange european monetary union interest

rate parity/purchasing power parity international capital structures.

The international monetary system and exchange rate policies

International Monetary systems

These are a set of rules and that regulate how international trade and payments are handled. It facilitates the exchange of capital, goods and services among countries. However, this system does not have a physical presence but, it consists of interlacing rules and procedures and is influenced by the market of foreign exchange. An example of an international monetary system is the International monetary fund. These interlacing rules and procedures are referred to as exchange rate Policies.

Exchange rate policies

These are rules that officials of public finance from different nations have developed…… [Read More]

References

Eichengreen. (2011). Exorbitant Privilege: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System

Goyal, M., Raman, Wang, and Ahmed; . ( 2011). Financial Deepening and International Monetary Stability.

Michael C. Ehrhardt, & Eugene F. Brigham. (2011). Corporate Finance (4th ed.): Cengage.

OECD. (2011). The Effects of Oil Price Hikes on Economic Activity and Inflation.
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Floating Exchange Rate System for

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84659324

However, once the floating rate system was implemented, there was a decrease in inflation and unemployment. This helped Chile to experience strong demand for imports and it kept whole sale / retail prices in check. One of the keys to their success was the fact that the central bank utilized flexibility when intervening in the Forex markets. This allowed the country to go through strong periods of stable economic growth and quickly adjust to new challenges in the global economy. (Gregio, 2004)

At the same time, the government must enact policies that will help to support responsible growth. This means that issues such as corruption, crime, inflation, the total amounts of government spending, interest rates and trade figures will influence the prevailing rates in the market. These factors can affect the confidence of traders, investors and ratings agencies. (Walker, 2002)

For example, Jamaica is utilizing a floating rate system. This…… [Read More]

References

Gregio, J. (2004). Flexible Exchange Rate Regime. Chile Central Bank. Retrieved from: http://www.bcentral.cl/estudios/documentos-politica-economica/pdf/dpe11.pdf

Walker, a. (2002). The Microstructure of the Jamaican Foreign Exchange Market. Bank of Jamaica. Retrieved from:  http://www.bankofjamaica.net/uploads/pdf/papers_pamphlets/papers_pamphlets_the_microstructure_of_the_jamaican_foreign_exchange_market__volumes__volatility_and_spreads.pdf
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Floating Exchange Rates Internal Balance

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75728851



In addition, floating exchange rates may also give the government some flexibility with respect to the consumption function. The current issue with Greece and the euro illustrates this. Greece needs to spur economic growth in order to build a current account surplus that will help it to pay off its debt. In a floating exchange rate regime, Greece could do this by reducing the value of its currency, making Greek exports cheaper on world markets. This would bring in the necessary foreign capital. The Greek government, however, does not have control over its exchange rate as a member of the Eurozone. As such, it has no such flexibility to spur export growth. Indeed, Greek products are overpriced on the world market because costs in Greece are out of line with its economy. Although the euro is a floating currency, for the Greek government it is not because it cannot exert…… [Read More]

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Exchange Rate

Words: 1799 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34927209

Theoretically speaking, there is only one factor affecting the exchange rate of a country adopting a floating exchange rate regime: the supply and demand of the respective currency on the international market. In this sense, if demand exceeds supply, then the value of the currency will go up and the respective currency will appreciate. On the other hand, if supply exceeds demand, the currency will depreciate and the price of the currency will decrease.

Starting from this statement, however, we can discuss several different factors that make the demand and supply vary, affecting thus the exchange. First of all, we have the level of the interest rate in a country. If the interest rates are higher, then foreign investors will choose to enter the national capital markets, purchase local currency and invest in local bonds or T-bills, which bring high returns, due to high interest rates. This mechanism will lead…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates. (2003). On the Internet at http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/exchangerates/fixed_floating.htm

2. S Johnson (July 2004). Dollar falls as data put focus on U.S. deficit. Financial Times

3. Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates. (2003). On the Internet at http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/exchangerates/fixed_floating.htm

4. Swann, Christopher (March 2004). Dollar falls as U.S. fails to create new jobs. Financial Times
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Fed Raises Key Rate Again henderson 2005 Which

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66304383

Fed aises Key ate Again"(Henderson, 2005), which appeared in The Washington Post, outlines the reasons Federal eserve officials recently implemented a short-term interest rate increase. The current federal funds rate stands at 4%, the highest level since 2001, and reflects a quarter percent increase. Furthermore, this raise is the twelfth consecutive one since June 2004 (Henderson, 2005) and is, as Federal eserve officers note, only one in a series of anticipated increases. The next raise is likely to take place at the end of January 2006, bringing the federal funds rate to 4.5%. However, certain analysts expect increases in December. Some specialists claim a projected rate of 5.5% by July of next year, which they say will conclude the cycle of increases. Naturally, with Greenspan retiring at the end of January, the proposed raises are speculative as Bernanke has yet to demonstrate his intentions as the future Federal eserve Chairman.…… [Read More]

References

BBC News (2005, Nov.1). 'Fed Raises U.S. Interest Rate to 4%'. BBC News.

Website: http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news/bbc.co.uk/

1/hi/business/4397032.stm.

Henderson, Nell (2005, Nov. 1). 'Fed Raises Key Rate Again'. The Washington
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Exchange Rate Issues for Deere

Words: 776 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66662973

Finance

Managing Financial isk including Currency Exchange ate isks

Deere and Company are suffering as the string dollar is impacting negative on sales in the Euro zone. The firm is suffering not only due to the exchange rate, but also the high level of competition from other European firms that are operating in the Euro.

If companies operate across international boarders they will face risks associated with exchange rate movement. In the case of a strong home currency, this will make the goods more expensive to purchase if the pricing is based in the home currency. The basing of the price on the dollar, even if it is converted to Euro's effectively passes the risk to the purchaser. The impact can be the price becoming uncompetitive, especially when there are firms that are basing their pricing structure on the same currency as the purchasers.

The firm may deal with the…… [Read More]

References

Howells P.G.A, Bain, K, (2007), Financial Institutions and Markets, London, Longman

WalMart, (2014), WalMart Annual report, accessed at http://stock.walmart.com/annual-reports
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Exchange Rate Determination

Words: 3372 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79532735

forward discount in predicting exchange rate modifications. The conclusion of the literature review is that the forward discount is a biased predictor and that are two possible explanations for this situation. One cause would be the presence of a time varying risk premium, and the other the failure of agents to make rational expectations (the inability to use all available information in an efficient manner).

The forward discount puzzle (as a predictor of exchange rate modifications) is a very discussed puzzle in the international finance literature, since its importance is quite high. As a result, numerous studies have concentrated on this issue, i.e. On the causes on the bias. Some authors (Fama, 1984), believe that this problem is traceable to the existence of a time-varying risk premium. Others connect it to learning effect (Lewis, 1989) or irrationality (Bilson, 1981) the "peso problem" (Krasker, 1980),

The "peso problem term" was introduced…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Beng, G.W. And W.K. Siong. (1993) Exchange Rate Expectations and Risk Premium in the Singapore/U.S. Dollar Exchange Rate: Evidence from Survey Data Applied Financial Economics, 3(4), pp. 365-73.

Bilson, John F.O., (1981) The Speculative Efficiency Hypothesis, Journal of Business, 54, pp. 435-452

Cavalgia, S.W., F.C. Verschoor and C.C.P. Wolff (1993a) Further Evidence on Exchange Rate Expectations Journal of International Money and Finance, 12 (1), pp. 78-98.

Cavalgia, S.W., F.C. Verschoor and C.C.P. Wolff (1993b) Asian Exchange Rate Expectations Journal of the Japanese and International Economics, 7(1), pp. 57-77.
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Finance Managing Exchange Rate Risk Can Be

Words: 1166 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48275278

Finance

Managing exchange rate risk can be a daunting task for many international firms attempting to expand overseas, acquire new companies, or simply manage its cash flows. Globalization has created a dynamic environment in which competition can arise to disrupt entire industries. Aspects such as technology, pharmaceuticals, banking, and automobiles have all experienced rapid change as a result of globalization and the competitive forces that underline it. As a result, companies, particularly smaller firms, have a higher propensity to experience volatile earnings overtime. Aspects that impact one sector of the globe can have a residual impact on other areas of the individual firm or industry. Managing exchange rates is therefore a viable option for firms to reduce volatility in earnings while subsequently managing its cash flows from operations. Below, is a 5 step program which could be implemented by a firm attempting to manage its exchange rate risk after an…… [Read More]

References

1. Jorion, Philippe (2009). Financial Risk Manager Handbook (5 ed.). John Wiley and Sons. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-470-47961-2.

2. Bartram, Sohnke M. (2006). "The Use of Options in Corporate Risk Management." Managerial Finance 32 (2): 160 -- 181
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Exchange rate crisis

Words: 905 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38566061

Exchange Rate Crisis

Exchange rate crises are quite common phenomena in the economic world. From the 1994 Mexican crisis and the 1997 Asian crisis to the 1999 Argentine crisis, currency crises have occurred with a somewhat remarkable frequency. Also, known as currency crises or balance of payments (BOP) crisis, exchange rate crises occur when a country's monetary authority (central bank) has inadequate foreign exchange reserves to sustain its set exchange rates. This is usually caused by trade shocks, persistent budget deficits, foreign interest rate shocks, political uncertainty, banking system weaknesses, and moral hazard problems. An exchange rate crisis is often symbolised by factors such as hyper-inflation, banking crisis, devaluation, and economic recession, clearly indicating the dire consequences a currency crisis can have on the economy. More importantly, an exchange rate crisis can easily spread beyond the national boundary, underscoring the need for measures to prevent the crisis. This paper discusses…… [Read More]

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Labor Economics Population Participation Rates

Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75094315



Source: McDonnel, B.M., Chapter 5, p. 130

Short-un Demand for Labor: The Perfectly Competitive Seller

Under the conditions imposed by the perfect seller, meaning that the market is characterized by perfect competition, the marginal revenue product equals the value of the marginal product. This then means that the labor supplies decreases. The situation is best revealed by the chart below, which presents how the VMP and MP curves, with their decreasing marginal productivity, generate a reduced demand for labor:

Source: McDonnel, B.M., Chapter 5, p. 136

Short-un Demand for Labor: The Imperfectly Competitive Seller

This situation is the most common one in the actual market place and it basically means that each economic entity has the right to establish its retail price based on organizational determinants, unlike the case of the perfect competition, where the price is set by the market.

The demand for labor in this situation is directly…… [Read More]

Reference:

McDonnel, B.M., 2008, Contemporary Labor Economics, 8th Edition, the McGraw Hill Companies
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Exchange Rate Risk Can Be Hedged The

Words: 440 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50569569

exchange rate risk can be hedged. The current cost of the room is £50 per day, which is: 50 * 1.50 = $75.00. For a consumer, the easiest way to hedge this risk would be to purchase pounds today, so that the cost of those pounds is locked in. The transaction is a money-loser because of the time value of money, except that in this situation the nominal amount of pounds is locked in, so the nominal amount of pounds needed will not change. Only the opportunity to make interest on that money changes. For £50 and one year, this amount is negligible, but for larger transactions the time value of money is significant and important, making this an undesirable option.

If the transaction was larger, it could be hedged on the futures market or with interest rate swaps. A forward contract could also be purchased. Futures have a downside…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Investopedia. (2011). How are futures used to hedge a position. Investopedia. Retrieved March 27, 2011 from  http://www.investopedia.com/ ask/answers/06/futureshedge.asp

"Foreign exchange forward." (2010). Montego Data. Retrieved March 27, 2011 from http://www.montegodata.co.uk/consult/fx/fxforward.htm
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Floating Exchange Rates Reflect Current Events and

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44275841

floating exchange rates reflect current events and future expectations; there are many reasons for such continual fluctuations. A brief examination of current events in Europe and the United States illustrates how quickly exchange rates change and what propels them to do so. The article "Euro Falls to 2-Year Low Against Dollar"(Waki, 2005), which appeared in The Moscow Times, succinctly describes the latest exchange rates of the euro and the dollar and the main reasons for these developments.

As of the early hours of November 10, 2005, the euro fell a quarter percent, currently holding at 1.1750 dollars (Waki, 2005). This is another drop in a series of recent falls; for example, it traded at $1.793 on November 7, 2005 and at $1.787 on November 8, 2005 (ead, 2005). This is an interesting situation as the euro had previously and steadily been appreciating. Naturally, a falling euro signals a stronger U.S.…… [Read More]

References

Economist, The (2005, Oct. 1). Currency Competition. The Economist. 377(8446), 74.

Economist, The (2005, Nov. 5-11). Building Problems. The Economist. 377(8451), 53.

Read, Madlen (2005, Nov. 8). U.S. Dollar Strengthens Against Euro. AP. Web site:

http://biz.yahoo.com/ap/051108/dollar.html.
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Exchange Rate Basic Questions

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47809821

Currency

Appreciate, depreciate

Changes in the spot rate of exchange between two countries can occur as the result of a change in the relative interest rates in those countries, a change in the balance of trade between those countries and changes in the inflation rates in those countries (Van Bergen, 2015).

The two that are most closely followed are the differences in the interest rates, and the differences in the inflation rates.

A forward is a contract that is written between a party and a counterparty, to exchange currency in a set amount at a set rate in the future. This is proprietary between the parties. A future is publicly-traded. So while it also sets a future date and price for a currency, it is publicly traded, the dates do not change, and the amount is fixed -- to increase the amount you have to buy or sell more futures.…… [Read More]

References

Van Bergen, J. (2015). 6 factors that influence exchange rates. Investopedia. Retrieved December 23, 2015 from  http://www.investopedia.com/ articles/basics/04/050704.asp
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Global Financing and Exchange Rate Mechanisms

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19684598

IMF and World Bank in global financing and exchange rate fluctuations

he International Monetary Fund plays a crucial role in the world's economy, especially in global financing and exchange rate fluctuations. However, its influence ranges well beyond those disciplines.

he main responsibility of the International Monetary Fund is to provide loans to nations experiencing balance of payments difficulties. he International Monetary Fund's involvement allows these countries to stabilize their currencies, rebuild their international reserves, continue to import much needed goods, and generally set the stage for strong economic growth.

A country can only ask for International Monetary Fund assistance when it has a serious balance of payments deficit, as in, more money goes out than comes in, and it cannot get financing to meet its international obligations.

he general understanding is similar to the United States Bankruptcy Code, which is, no one benefits from insolvency, neither the debtor nor the…… [Read More]

The Bank gets about 10% of its funds from taxpayers, in the form of direct contributions from member governments.

The IFC operates partly with funds contributed directly by its member countries but mainly with funds borrowed from the IBRD. The IFC is the fastest growing part of Bank operations, with IFC investments having grown to $2.1 billion last year. Among the transnational corporations represented on the IFC Business Advisory Council are the Bank of Tokyo, Credit Lyonnaise, Treuhandanstalt, SG Warburg.

www.imf.org www.worldbank.org  http://www.atu2.com/news/article.src?ID=294
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International Currency and Banking Interest

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50283834

This means those companies that are in industries that are exposed to tremendous amounts of volatility should be engaging in these activities. Some of the different areas they will become involved in are: currencies, stocks, futures, options and commodities. The reason why, is because these kinds of companies are often exposed to large swings that could happen at any point in time (due to adverse changes in the economy or the markets). This will have a negative effect on earnings and it will become difficult from them to make accurate projections. When a company begins using hedging, this will provide more consistent earnings stability to their business model. This is point that they can provide more stable returns to shareholders.

However, not all firms should be hedging. In some cases, this activity could be considered to be speculation. As, the hedge may not provide any kind significant benefit to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Thomas, M, 2005, Hedging Instruments and Risks. McGraw Hill, New York.
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Hedging Arbitrage the 3-Month Forward Rate

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96005352

1555209 / .1545953

R/2 =.0059872 c) the ask price for dollars in three months is 1 / 6.435 =.1554001; therefore for FFR 1,000,000 you will receive $155,400.10 d) the bid price for francs in six months is 1 / 6.430 =.1555209; therefore it will cost $77, 760.45 for the FFR 500,000.

3. The bid from the Paris dealer would be.03/.2 =.15.

The ask from the Paris dealer would be.0335 / .202 =.1658415

4. The DEM is undervalued as of December 31, 1999. The PPP calculations for the DEM as follows:

5225 (1.05/1.025) =.5352438;.5252438 (1.045 / 1.02) =.5483624;.5483624 (1.055 / 1.035) =.5589587 should have been the value of the DEM on December 31, 1999.

5. Given the 1% mandatory profit, arbitrage opportunities exist with DEM/FFR exchanges in Frankfurt and Paris. Three point arbitrage opportunities are also possible with transactions beginning with the purchase of FFR in New York; the purchase of…… [Read More]

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How to Hedge for Exchange Rate Risks in Corporations

Words: 2511 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16447902

Exposure

Transaction exposure risk may be defined as "cash flow risk" and is associated with the impact of FX rate moves on exposure due to transactional accounts, regarding exports, import or dividend repatriation: and FX "rate change in the currency of denomination of any such contract will result in a direct transaction exchange rate risk" (Papaioannou, 2006, p. 4), thus impacting the multinational corporation in terms of affecting the inflow and outflow of cash over a given period.

Translation risk may be defined as the FX rate risk associated with the balance sheet of a company's holdings. The notion is that exchange rates affect the value of a subsidiary in a foreign country and in instances where the subsidiary is consolidated to the parent balance sheet, the risk becomes translational. The way to measure this risk for a company is by assessing the net asset exposure and measuring it against…… [Read More]

References

Bodnar, G. (2015). Techniques for managing exchange rate exposure. Wharton/UPenn.

Retrieved from http://finance.wharton.upenn.edu/~bodnarg/courses/readings/hedging.pdf

Dohring, B. (2008). Hedging and invoicing strategies to reduce exchange rate exposure:

a euro-area perspective. Economic Papers 299, European Commission.
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Exchange Rate Influence

Words: 808 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84607261

country can interfere in the foreign exchange markets. In many cases, the motivation for doing so lies with propping up exporters, by lowering the value of the domestic currency. While this is the most common reason for currency manipulation, it is not the only one. In some cases, currency manipulation aids in the cause of making debt disappear, lowering the value of that debt in order that it might be paid back early. This paper will discuss some of the different ways that countries can affect their exchange rates.

A freely-traded currency should reflect the economic strength of a nation, in particular the expectations for future interest rates. Where expectations for future rates are relatively low, that means that the economy is expected to perform worse. This is the case for Japan. The country has adopted a policy recently of a low yen, in order to provide some spark to…… [Read More]

References

Kim, Y. & Ying, Y. (2007). An empirical assessment of currency devaluation in East Asian countries. Journal of International Money and Finance. Vol. 26 (2007) 265-283.

Palmer, B. (2012). If currency manipulation is so great for exports, why don't we do it? Slate. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2012/10/china_currency_manipulation_how_does_it_harm_the_u_s_and_what_can_we_do.html

Staiger, R. & Sykes, A. (2008). Currency manipulation and world trade. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14600

The Economist. (2014). A fistful of dollars, or perhaps not. The Economist. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from http://www.economist.com/blogs/americasview/2014/04/venezuelas-byzantine-exchange-rate-system
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Interest and Compound Interest Why Is Knowing

Words: 1063 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28606366

interest and compound interest? hy is knowing the difference important? hat is the formula for determining the future value of an amount? hy is a dollar today worth more than a dollar received in the future?

First Student Response:

Interest in financial terms is when your initial investment yields benefits. You invest an amount and a percentage of that basic investment turns into financial surplus. You gain funds through your investment. There are two types of interest: simple interest and complex interest (Buckelew). Simple interest is when the amount gained does not change. There is a formula which goes I (interest) = P (principle) multiplied by r (rate of interest) and multiplied again by t (time). So the interest you get is based on the amount you put in, the rate of interest, and the time you leave your interest to grow. Compound interest is more complicated than this. In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buckelew, B. The spreadsheet in mathematics explorations. The University of Georgia.

Retrieved from  http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMT668/EMAT6680.2004.SU/Buckelew/assignment12/assignment12.html 

Lane, M.A. The time value of money. Business Finance Online. Retrieved from  http://www.zenwealth.com/BusinessFinanceOnline/TVM/TimeValueOfMoney.html 

Simple vs. compound interest calculation. (2013). Accounting Explained. Retrieved from  http://accountingexplained.com/misc/tvm/simple-compound-interest
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International Crime Rates Crime Rates International Crime

Words: 2783 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99971337

International Crime Rates

Crime rates

International Crime Rates: Germany, France, and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia & the United States of America

Comparative Essay

The legal systems in the United States, Germany, France, and Saudi Arabia are different due to the differences in the U.S. crime rate and due as well to the differences in the Criminal Justice systems of Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. What factors can be said to cause the difference in crime rates? Does the integration of culture and religion in Saudi Arabia really result in reduced crime rates?

The basic of structure in court systems throughout the world or the universal structure is characterized by courts being divided by lower, mid, and higher levels of courts. There are evident and not so evident differences and variations with this basic structure of organization. There are four types of criminal justice structures of organization. Those are:

Common law…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Cummings, Milton C., Jr. & Wise, David (1982) Democracy Under Pressure: An Introduction to the American Political System. CAT. 81-80036. I.S.B.N. 0-25-5273434. Harcourt Brace Jovanovic, Inc.

New Standard Encyclopedia (1984) Vol. IV, VII, XI, XVI. Standard Education Corporation. Chicago (1984)

The U.S. Encyclopedia of History (1967) Vol. IV, VII, XI, XVI. Curtis Pub Co Philadelphia -- New York. (1959)

American Heritage Collection (1959) American Heritage Publishing Company.
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Metropolitan Development Affect Rates of

Words: 1924 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81802379



Contrary to what is often seen on the nightly news programs, there are still many people in this country and throughout the world who want to live in safe places and who would be interested in making their town better. Often, they do not know what they can do to improve the poorer parts of town, so they simply choose not to live or work there. This only leads to the decay of those areas and the rising crime rate. While unfortunate, it is not entirely unexpected. However, urban revitalization has begun in a lot of cities and towns, both big and small, in recent years. Although the economy has slowed some of that, there are still many areas where it is moving forward. This will, in time, lower the number of sexual assaults and other crimes in those revitalization areas. If more people would help to improve their neighborhoods,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chu, James A. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse, Am. J. Psychiatry.

Coons, P.M. (1994). Confirmation of childhood abuse in childhood and adolescent cases of multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorders not otherwise specified. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 461-464.

Finkelhor, D. (1990). Early and long-term effects of child sexual abuse: An update. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 325-330.

Jarvis, T.J., & Copeland, J. (1997). Child sexual abuse as a predictor of psychiatric co-
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Public Pension Replacement Rates

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75851129

Pension Plan eplacement ates

Public Pension eplacement ates

The portion of monthly pre-retirement income that will be replaced by monthly pension plan funds is called the pension plan replacement rate (Quadagno, 2011). In the United States, the majority of pre-retirement income replacement comes from Social Security payments (Quadagno, 2011). The actual replacement rate for wage earners with lower incomes is higher than for those who have had higher wages during their working years (Quadagno, 2011). But overall, wealthier recipients of Social Security payments still achieve higher income replacement (Quadagno, 2011). "By 2030, a worker who retires at age 62 will receive only 70% of the whole retirement benefit, and workers who want to receive the maximum benefit will have to wait until they reach age 67" (Quadagno, 2011, p. 10). How does this compare with the situation in other countries? Comparing prior earning replacement rates for Greece and the United…… [Read More]

References

Current and Prospective Theoretical Pension Replacement Rates. (2006, May 19). Social Protection Committee (SPC), European Commission: Employment, Social Affairs, and Inclusion. Retrieved http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/

social_protection/docs/isg_repl_rates_en.pdf

Nektarias, M. (). Financing public pensions in Greece. SPOUDAI, 50 (3-4), University of Piraeus.

Nelson, R.M., Belkin, P., Mix, D.E. (2011, August 18). Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41167.pdf
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Economy on Crime Rates it

Words: 3250 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91834440

The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.

This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.

In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.

Economic growth, unemployment…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Becker, Gary 1999, Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, Journal of Political Economy

Becker, Gary and Murphy, Kevin 1999, A Theory of Rational Addiction, Journal of Political Economy

Richardson, Isaac, (2009) Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, Journal of Political Economy

Ehrlich, Isaac 1975, The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life
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Managing Exchange Rate Risk

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86144357

Managing Exchange ate isk

For a number of multinational corporations, currency fluctuations can pose an extreme risk for them. This is because of sudden changes and dramatic amounts of volatility inside the marketplace can have a negative effect on their bottom line results. When this happens, there is a realistic possibility that these challenges could negatively impact their financial position and ability to compete inside many different markets. (Berger, 2011)

In the case of Fed Ex, the company has operations around the globe and is one the larger overnight package delivery services. This means that sudden shifts in the currency could negatively impact their earnings. To fully understand the overall scope and the way they are able to deal with these challenges requires focusing on how this impacts their operations, options financial managers can use to manage it and the benefits / drawbacks of these strategies. Together, these elements will…… [Read More]

References

Fed Ex. (2013). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from:  http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=FDX+Profile 

Fed Ex First Quarter Results. (2012). IPC. Retrieved from: http://www.ipc.be/en/Newsroom/General%20news/FedEx%20reports%20first-quarter%20results

Berger, A. (2011).Case Study Fed Ex Corporation. Nordstadt: Verlag.

Grady, G. (2010). Foreign Exchange Risk Management Methods. E Zine Articles. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Foreign-Exchange-Risk-Management-Methods&id=3047383
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Future of the Concepts of Public Interest and Administrative Responsibility

Words: 1078 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43537761

Public administration is one of the constructs upon which every government functions. It incorporates the concepts of administrative responsibility and public interest upon which the idea of ethical obligation and the dilemma brought about by the privatization of government functions ride. Anytime the electorate cast their votes and express their preference for one candidate over another, they do so in the expectation that the candidate will work towards satisfying the public's interests, rather than their own, and that they will use their positions to help people, rather than dominate them. This expectation is, however, not often given the significance it deserves, despite the fact that it advances from the party that stands to either benefit or lose directly from a public administrator's actions.

The Concept of Public Interest

Although it is difficult to give an explicit definition of the constituents of public interest, experts have repeatedly referred to it as…… [Read More]

References

CAPAM Featured Report. (2010). Ethical Dilemmas in the Public Service. CAPAM. Retrieved from http://win2vin.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/ethical-dilemma-good-one.pdf

Holland, D., Nonini, D.M., Lutz, C., Bartlett, L. & Frederick-McGlathery, M., Guldbrandsen, T. & Murillo, E. (2007). Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics. New York: New York Press.

Starling, G. (2007). Managing the Public Sector (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Stillman, R. (2009). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
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China's Investment Interests in Iran

Words: 2657 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74608004

China's Interests in Iran

The following hite Paper is an examination of the prospects and pitfalls for China in pursuing further economic opportunity through its investment in the future of Iran. As the two nations proceed with the explicit intention of further entwining prospects both economically and diplomatically, China must move forward with care and precision. As the discussion here will demonstrate, its opportunities and the level of commitment already pursued are quite ample, but it will also be necessary for China to take a more active role in helping to reign in some of Iran's behavioral excesses if it is to enjoy the benefits of this relationship. And quite to the point, it will also appear to be in the best interests of Iran to accommodate calls for a more moderate disposition in world affairs if it is to benefit from the opportunities presented by China. The mutuality of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

China Knowledge Online (CKO). (2009). Iran, China to strengthen energy cooperation. China Newswires.

Daraghi, B. (2009). Iran signs $3.2-billion natural gas deal with China. Los Angeles Times. Online at http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fg-iran-china15-2009mar15,0,4516210.story?track=rss

Hiro, D. (2005). Iran's Nuclear Ambitions. The Nation. Online at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20050912/hiro

ICS. (2003). History: The Islamic Revolution of 1979. Iran Chamber Society. Online at  http://www.iranchamber.com/history/islamic_revolution/islamic_revolution.php
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Circle Around I Am Interested in Exploring

Words: 2730 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55853450

circle around. I am interested in exploring the tensions between the stated goals and the process of achieving them. The readings in this course have demonstrated that there are many pitfalls within the community building community itself. Some of these are as black as white as: who is the most important factor in a mobilizing effort -- the individual or the group. Some of the tensions, like those about roles and the future, are more nuanced and are answered with a well it depends. At the heart of my response to this course is the recognition that there are and always will be competing objective in a world with limited resources. And that despite those limitations the objective is to find ways to adapt and evolve while retaining the human connections to one another that allow us to effectively problem solve so that we may all live well. To that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cooper, P.J. "The Duty to Take Care:President Obama, Public Administration, and the Capacity to Govern." Public Administration Review 71.1 (2011): 7-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02302.x

Corbin, Julia. "Connect The Dots for Putnam and Denhardt Readings." Colleague Paper.

Pages 1-4. September, 26, 2011.

Denhardt, Robert B. (2008) Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Belmont, CA:
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National Interest as a Key Determinants in Foreign Policy Internationally

Words: 3533 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52453083

National Interest as a key determinant in Foreign Policy

National Interest and Foreign Policy

National Interest Defined:

The national interest is, very simply, the objectives of a country ranging from the macro goals i.e. economy, military to the micro goals like social use cyber space. National interest is an integral part of international relations as it is a concept based out of the realist school of though. This will be discussed in more detail in the paper.

Foreign Policy Defined:

Foreign policy, very simply, is the strategy that guides all international dealings and associations of a country

When dealing with national interest, one has to wonder about the degree to which domestic politics is vital for the comprehension of that country's foreign policy. Domestic politics is not of immense significance; this has been depicted by an eminent assumption related to structural realism, global association. The systemic vigour of the global…… [Read More]

References

Bond, J.R., and R. Fleisher. 1990. The President in the legislative arena. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Clarke, K.A. 2001. Testing nonnested models of international relations: Reevaluating realism. American Journal of Political Science 45(3): 724 -- 744.

Clarke, K.A. 2003. Nonparametric model discrimination in international relations. Journal of Conict Resolution 47(1): 72 -- 93.

Fearon, J.D. 1998. Domestic politics, foreign policy, and theories of international relations. Annual Review of Political Science 1: 289 -- 313.
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Carlson Bitterman and Jenkins 2012 Were Interested

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64312374

Carlson, Bitterman, and Jenkins (2012) were interested in the effects of home literacy environment on a sample of preschool children with disabilities. Home literacy environment refers to a number of conditions that foster the development of reading and writing skills in children. Carlson et al. (2012) reviewed the previous research findings and determined that the frequency that parents read to their children (joint reading) has dominated this research and findings and generally finds that a significant amount of the variance in reading achievement, literacy, and language abilities can be treated to joint reading of toddlers and preschoolers. They also discuss two major categories of home literacy experiences: formal literacy experiences (activities in which parents actively teach children to read and write) an informal literacy experiences (joint reading or reading story books focusing on the story rather than the reading skills). The research has generally found that informal literacy experiences explain…… [Read More]

References

Carlson, E., Bitterman, A., & Jenkins, F. (2012). Home literacy environment and its role in the achievement of preschoolers with disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 46(2), 67-77.