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Integrating network relationships with entrenched resources, can lead to the development of organizational ability for achieving long-range business sustainability. Internal and external knowledge processes are a characteristic of organizational capabilities.
Building organizational capability is reliant on the qualities of networks, tacit knowledge, collective learning, and organization of work, delivery of value, coordination of diverse skills, commitment, involvement, and flexibility within organizational structures. Similarly, firm value formation helps to build organizational competence via product, service, or organizational modernization. Therefore, in order to maintain business for the long-range, promising entrepreneurs need to develop suitable network strategies for managing entrenched resources, which should be directed to knowledge attainment and firm value formation (Latip & Smyrnios, 2012).
The entrepreneurial personality is characterised by a self enthusiasm that makes conquering risks promising and is driven by new business occasions. Achievement motivation, risk-taking and internal locus of control are all characteristics that are seen as valuable…
Elenurm, T. & Alas, R. (n.d.). Features of successful entrepreneurs in Estonia and organisational learning challenges. Retrieved from http://www.eiasm.org/documents/abstracts/19545.doc
Keh, H., Foo, M., & Lim, B. (2002). Opportunity Evaluation under Risky Conditions: The
Cognitive Processes of Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(2),
Contract global employment under the Nike Code of Conduct has been altered significantly, as diversity of legal and social standards for employment come into play in Nike factories all over the world. Nike also actively seeks to allow contractor managers and employees visits to domestic operations of both management and manufacture and hires within these pools when they can to increase domestic diversity.
Ethics are an essential aspect of the manner in which Nike has come to adopt standards that apply to both domestic and global manufacture, as their early exposure to public criticism in the global market led them to a completely different set of goals that enforce greater compliance with and the planning, organization, leadership and control of the Code of Conduct itself. External audits by outside interested parties have concluded that the Code of Conduct and its enforcement are novel and frequently uphold a standard that many…
Nike Code of Conduct, 2007
Richard, L., Kochan, T., Romis, M., & Qin, F. (2007). Beyond Corporate Codes of Conduct: Work Organization and Labour Standards at Nike's Suppliers. International Labour Review, 146(1-2), 21.
Now, both services are under one entity for many consumers.
In terms of leading the market share, the greater the connection between the wireless and landline services, the better able the merged entity will be able to extend incentives to consumers to make use of the company for both technical services, such as the rollover options advertised on the company, expanded Mobile to Mobile calling, and access to the ALLOVER Network, said to be "the largest digital voice and data network in America." The website assures consumers, "you can continue to enjoy your existing benefits uninterrupted and without changes to your plan or its features." (Cingular ebsite, 2004) However, industry analysts believe that consumers will end up paying more for services, because of the absence of competition, in the long run.
In terms of overall organizational shaping of the merged corporate entity, this merger will undoubtedly increase "the dominance of…
Cingular Wireless. (2004) "Overview of Merger." Official Website. Retrieved 17 Dec 2004 at http://www.newcingular.com/a_overview.html
Consumers Will Pay Big for Cingular/at&T Merger, Study Warns." (May 27, 3004) Consumer Affairs. Retrieved 17 Dec 2004 at http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/att_merger_phoenix.html
Out of ethical concerns regarding distribution of funds, in 2002, the United Way of America reorganized its operating structure. The goal was to transform the primary governing body into a leadership Board of Trustees "comprised of diverse volunteers who are senior representatives of the largest, most influential donors and sponsors, noted intellectual, civic, moral leaders and other stakeholders" (Governance, 2010, The United Way). This was also designed to ensure that the governing body had a vested interest in upholding the charitable mission of the organization. Focusing on volunteers in choosing UW leadership promoted diversity and inclusiveness in the membership of the organization's governing board as well as in UW outreach activities.
Instituting measures to ensure financial compliance with the law and accountability measures for its national and local chapters has been critical for the charity: "The United Way system has developed comprehensive requirements for completion of audited financial…
Accountability. (2010). The United Way. Retrieved January 29, 2010 at http://national.unitedway.org/about/accountability.cfm
Governance. (2010). The United Way. Retrieved January 29, 2010 at http://national.unitedway.org/about/governance.cfm
Mission and vision (2010). The United Way. Retrieved January 29, 2010 at http://national.unitedway.org/about/missvis.cfm
Nokia's path -- based on Symbian, relatively slow innovation and a focus on low-margin emerging markets -- has not benefitted the company much. Yet, it still has some valuable assets. The firm may no longer have any 'hot' products, but the Nokia name is still respected. In addition, the company still has some financial health as well. That said, Nokia is struggling to find its way in the smartphone market. It feels that its product is competitive, but either they are wrong about the product or they have horrible marketing because Symbian is nowhere to be found. Its focus on India and other low-margin markets has it struggling with pretax margins, while industry leaders Apple, RIM and HTC have robust margins.
Nokia's way forward is to either make up ground in mobile, become an OEM using Android (the leading open mobile OS) or to stay out of smartphones and attempt…
According to her market research, the primary reason that families do not take traditional birth courses is that the courses are expensive. In order to address this, Brio maximized the online and digital aspects of their curriculum to drastically reduce the costs to families who were primarily paying for the published course material in other classes.
The internal factor that I wish to further evaluate is that of resources within the institution. The hospital that I chose to observe and suggest the change in curriculum for was a hospital in Scottsdale. This hospital is very large and has a large labor and delivery area. Additionally, the hospital also has one-site conference space available that can be requested in advance. This space would provide the ideal place for the training, especially since the training is meant only for labor and delivery nurses within the hospital.
Additional resources to consider for the…
Martin, Karin (2003). "Giving Birth Like a Girl." Gender and Society. Vol 17.1 (54-72).
The Bradley Method of Husband-Coached Childbirth. Accessed 5 Feb 2012 at http://bradleybirth.com/
Brio Birth. Accessed 5 Feb 2012 at http://www.briobirth.com/
successful leadership styles, strategies and traits.
Two leadership styles that I believe are successful and effective styles are servant leadership and transformational leadership. Both of them emphasize strategies of helping followers to become better overall, and both build on positive traits of trust and integrity. Servant leadership focuses on putting the needs of the other ahead of one's own. It is truly about serving one's followers and thereby building an organization that is grounded in compassion, empathy, and the desire and ability to actually help other people overcome the obstacles they face, whether they are in a particular work habit, a personal problem, or a financial difficulty. Servant leaders look out for their followers as though they were their sheep.
Transformational leaders focus on using Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Social Intelligence (SI) to build relationships and transform their followers into the kind of workers that the organization needs to succeed.…
Eichenwald, K. (2005). Conspiracy of Fools. NY: Broadway Books.
Sanders, T. (2006). The Likeability Factor. NY: Three Rivers Press..
Internal Analysis SWOT Analysis
esource-Based View (BV) analysis in Kraft Foods Company
esources in Kraft Foods Company
Kraft Foods Company has an advance of physical resources. These resources are meant for production and creation of a sustainable environment of productivity. Within the notion of productivity, Kraft Foods Company benefits from the resources since they offer the company a positive strength or capability to perform in the market. Increase in the amounts of resources translates to increase in productivity within the organization. Therefore, fullness of resources within the company has fostered its existence and strength of productivity in the market. Physical resources are the tangible facets that are used in production. For instance, the company relies on manufacturing structures, tools, and transportation mechanisms like trucks. These tangible resources are of immense assistance when it comes to productivity within the organization.
The physical resources give the company strength of productivity.…
Henry, A. (2007). The Internal Environment: A Resource-Based View of Strategy.
Understanding Strategic Management. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199288304/henry_ch05.pdf
The Value Chain. (2007). Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from:
This study demonstrates that different total P. fraction releases may differ between two bodies of water under similar oxygen conditions (Kisand & Noges, 2003). This study is important in that it highlights the complexity of understanding P. fractions in any given body of water. There are a multitude of potential reactions in any body of water. Oxygen plays a role in the reactions of any individual lake, but one cannot make predictions based on oxygen level alone.
Shallow lakes differ from stratified lakes in many ways. A stratified lake typically reaches equilibria in such a manner that it becomes divided into regions. This is not the case with shallow lakes. With a shallow lake, the entire lake may change from clear water to macrophyte dominated to algae dominated, each phase has its own state of equilibrium (Dokulil & Teubner, 2003). Total chlorophyll to phosphorus ratios are different in these various…
Burger, D., Hamilton, D., Pilditch, C., & Gibbs (2007).Benthic nutrient fluxes in a eutrophic polymictic lake. Hydrobiologia. 584, 13-25.
Dokulil, M., & Teubner, K. (2003). Eutrophication and restoration of shallow lakes - the conceptof stable equilibria revisited. Hydrobiologia. 506-509, 29-35.
Farmer, J., Bailey-Watts, a., Kirika, a., and Scott, C. (2006).
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 4 (1): 45-56.
As shown in Appendix 2 these report gives a complete and detailed picture of candidate's personality type, classifying him to one of five main types: A-director, B - socializer, motivator, people person, C - thinker, analytic, D - supporter, X which means that personality has two types synergized.
Interviewing as the most used employee screening skill
Another very effective method of prospective employee evaluation is evaluation interview. Evaluation interview was a theme of a number of researches and studies, which examine the validity of different interview types. The researches show that structured intrviews have a higher acuracy than unstructured (Huffcutt and Arthus, 1994; McDaniel et al., 1994; Wiesner and Cronshaw, 1988; Wright et al., 1989). In most cases interviews can be planned using job analyses questions or scoring procedures, which can objectively evaluate candidates creditability in prospective field.
Each interview has five common steps: planning and preparing the interview, beginning…
Terpstra, D.E., & Rozell, E.J. The relationship of staffing practices to organizational level measures of performance. Personnel Psychology, 46. 1993
Maurer, S.D., Howe, V. And Lee, T.W. Organizational recruiting as marketing management: an interdisciplinary study of engineering graduates, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 45, 1992.
Lievens, F. Recent trends and challenges in personnel selection, available from www.emeraldinsight.com/0048-3486.htm
Ullman, J.C. 1966. Employee referrals: A prime tool for recruiting workers. Personnel, 43
Analysis of California Pizza Kitchen Strengths and Weaknesses
California Pizza Kitchen has been able to rise above the difficult economic conditions in their largest markets by concentrating on the most strategically important process areas first. At the center of their strengths, the chain has is the ability to support their global brand with a unique, branded dining experience (Fair Disclosure Wire, 2010). Creating the integration between a restaurant's global brand and having the dining experience support and accentuate the brand's messaging and value is elusive and yet very profitable (McCaw, 2009). This is the greatest strength that California Pizza Kitchen has been able to attain in its history including its growth across geographies.
The second greatest strength of the company is its ability to continually create unique food entrees and continually keep the in-restaurant dining experience new and exciting even for the most loyal customers. This ability to create a…
Dasu, S., & Chase, R.. (2010). Designing the Soft Side of Customer Service. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1), 33-39.
Event Brief of Q2 2010 California Pizza Kitchen Earnings Conference Call - Final. (5 August 2010). Fair Disclosure Wire
Monica Hanefors & Lena Mossberg. (2003). Searching for the Extraordinary Meal Experience. Journal of Business and Management, 9(3), 249-270.
McCaw, B. (2009, September). Brand Licensing. The Licensing Journal, 29(8), 23-26.
On the other hand, organizations that focus on external equity enjoys the advantage of attracting and retaining highly qualified employees. Similarly, the rate of staff turnover is extremely minimal as the staffs remain aware that their organization is offering compensation packages, which are streamlined accordingly with the compensation in the market. However, insisting on the external equity bears also some disadvantages. For instance, by focusing on the prevailing market compensation, an organization whose economic state does not support such pay package ends up hurting its operations. Similarly, resentment within the top brass, such as CEO's and other managers may crop due to inequality dictated by the conditions in the market (CCH, Incorporated and Myers, 2003).
It is worth noting that a given organization may resort to choose a definite compensation plan depending on its objectives. For instance, Intel chose internal equity plan which is in accordance to its objective of…
CCH, Incorporated and Myers, D.W. (2003). 2004 U.S. Master Human Resource Guide. New York, NY: CCH Incorporated.
Armstrong, M. (2007). A Handbook of Employee Reward Management and Practice. New York, NY: Kogan Page Publishers
It helps keep the employees motivated and involved when information is shared with them as and when the need arises. It is also critical to bear in mind that messages must be exchanged and delivered in a timely fashion. Sharing the facts that the entire world already knows is a surefire way of losing employees' trust. Stale information is of no use to the stakeholders and usually results in greater mistrust and friction. However for timely delivery of information, senior management or whoever is responsible for transferring information from one end to another must avail all forms of communication including:
Face-to-face meetings, Voicemail and email messaging, Brochures, pamphlets etc. Apart from time, another thing that must be kept in view is the content of messages or information delivered to employees. Messages must be clear and consistent at all times. Brown adds, "Make sure messages are clear, consistent and credible. While…
Gordon, Gloria the state of internal communication - three views. (Panel Discussion) Publication: Communication World; Date: 03/01/1998;
Geddie, Tom B. Internal communication: a model for the future Publication: Communication World; Date: 01/01/1995;
David Brown in DEPTH: Business STRATEGIES: Internal communications should be of vital importance to any business the Business Review (Albany) - August 19, 2002
This population of aging, having had just one child, will rely upon society as a whole to care for them, instead of an extended family as was once traditionally and culturally the case.
The Rural Subsistent Dwellers
Evidenced by the lower income figures reported widely, China's rural farming populations have perhaps been the hardest hit by the One Child Policy. here ancient traditions and customs once dominated the way of life in the rural areas, China's reform policies, especially that one limiting One Child per family, have long impacted the rural way of life and productivity in China (Diamant, Neil, 2000, 93). here families that farmed once had children, sometimes numerous children, and those children helped to farm and bring in productive crops that could sustain the family, with the results of the family's labors far reaching and providing a source of income as well; since the One Child Policy…
Diamant, Neil J. Revolutionizing the Family: Politics, Love, and Divorce in Urban and Rural China, 1949-1968. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000. Questia. 28 Apr. 2009 .
England, Robert Stowe. Aging China: The Demographic Challenge to China's Economic Prospects. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2005. Questia. 28 Apr. 2009 .
Peerenboom, R.P. Law and Morality in Ancient China: The Silk Manuscripts of Huang-Lao / . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. Questia. 28 Apr. 2009 .
Wal-Mart is also a highly delegative culture in terms of its subsidiaries, with in-store managers in all regions they operate in responsible for performance. The Wal-Mart approach to delegation also requires in-store associates to assist with the unloading of trailers when they arrive with merchandise at Superstores as well. Wal-Mart strongly holds efficiency and delegation in the same context (Appelbaum, Lichtenstein, 2006).
Diversity and Ethics
Wal-Mart has often been criticized for their lack of diversity and for a lack of ethics in managing part-time workers. In response to these claims and to practices that proved to be unethical, the company has created a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) program that is global in scope. Wal-Mart's efforts to ensure diversity and ethics have in turn been delegated to the store manager level (Spangler, Britt, Parks, 2008) where individual performance is measured and evaluated over time. The framework of planning, organizing, leading and…
Appelbaum, R., & Lichtenstein, N.. (2006). A New World of Retail Supremacy: Supply Chains and Workers' Chains in the Age of Wal-Mart. International Labor and Working Class History, 70(1), 106-125.
Bateman, Snell. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World. New York: McGraw Hill
Cherie Blanchard, Clare L. Comm, & Dennis F.X. Mathaisel. (2008). Adding value to service providers: benchmarking Wal-Mart. Benchmarking, 15(2), 166-177.
Krotov, V., & Junglas, I.. (2008). RFID as a Disruptive Innovation. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 3(2), 44-59.
However, some internal factors are more controllable than others, such as the organizational mission. ven while competitors may enter the market from the outside, and standards may change, the organization can still demand as part of its mission, high quality standards of behavior from its doctors and those whom it helps to attain appropriate certification in the United States. The impact of the economy may necessitate budget cuts or reorganization for an organization, as might, in the future, different technological innovations, as so much of our business is conducted online, but business ethics and purpose, as defined by the organization's mission, will remain constant.
External and Internal Factors
All organizational behavior in the business world feels the impact of both external and internal factors. For instance, one external, often uncontrollable factor is the rate of globalization. No American company, for example, can control the unity and cohesion of the European Union's rate of production, yet they still must compete with the EU for its market share. For my own organization, the Educational Commission for Medical School Graduates (more information regarding the organization is available on the web at ( http://www.ecfmg.org/ )the increasing globalization and interconnected nature of the heath care and educational community and economy has proved to be the wellspring for the organization's founding and purpose. Globalization has proved to create and continue the ECFMG's usefulness to medical students from around the world attain certification in the United States. The organization has no control over different nation's friendly relations with the United States, and in that sense it cannot fully control the external impact globalization, although on an internal level an organization can decide how responsive it will continue to be to international as well as national forces, and the ethics it will demand of the users of the service, even though it has no control over different global government standards regarding certification of doctors.
However, some internal factors are more controllable than others, such as the organizational mission. Even while competitors may enter the market from the outside, and standards may change, the organization can still demand as part of its mission, high quality standards of behavior from its doctors and those whom it helps to attain appropriate certification in the United States. The impact of the economy may necessitate budget cuts or reorganization for an organization, as might, in the future, different technological innovations, as so much of our business is conducted online, but business ethics and purpose, as defined by the organization's mission, will remain constant.
Anything that appears challenging or threatening in the external environment needs to be taken seriously and this is where management plays a key role.
Internal factors or forces on the other hand are more concerned with organizational culture, mission and values and human resource. While all managers are required to remain true to organization's culture and uphold its values at all times, a real manager is the one who knows when to mould the culture in such a way that it would remain close to its original values while at the same time also become more accepting of external changes. A manager who is blinded by his organization's culture and beliefs is likely to miss signs of external change. Management needs to understand that internal forces are within its control and thus can be used constructively for the benefit of the entire organization instead of allowing it to control the…
Lawton, P. (1995, September). Initiating and managing change in your organization. CMA Magazine, 69 28-32.
Anamnesis, A. (1996). The root ideas in dealing with change. Physician Executive, 22 41-45.
Enron Corporation was the American company that specialized in supplying of energy.
Prior to its collapse in 2001, Enron was one of the most admired companies in the United States recording superior profits year by year, however, in 2001, series of the Enron questionable financial transactions were finally made opened when the company's stock price collapsed within one day. This study investigates several factors that led to the fall of Enron Corporation, the outcome of the investigation reveals that the top management did not promote culture of ethics within the organization. The paper reveals that the management was intoxicated with power manipulating information to their benefits. Moreover, top officials used power ruthlessly intimidating the subordinated. The company did not promote the culture of checks and balances by allowing only one entity performing both the functions of internal and external auditing. The study recommends that integration of ethical business is an…
Internal Supply Chain Management
ABOUT HAVEY NOMAN
Harvey Norman is a large scale retail chain owned and operated by Harvey Norman Holdings Ltd. It is one of the most successful retailers in the Australian region. It promotes and sells all kinds of consumer products of world's top quality brands. The major product lines include personal computers, cameras, gaming, mobile phones, audio and video players, home appliances, furniture & bedding, gifts, home decoration and interior designing, fitness machines, leisure, etc. Headquartered in New South Wales, New Zealand, Harvey Norman operates with more than 230 stores in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Malaysia, Croatia, Singapore, Slovenia, and Northern Ireland. It was established in 1982 by Gerry Harvey and Ian Norman. The holding company, Harvey Norman Holdings Ltd. has also franchised a number of retail chains in Australia; including Space Furniture, Joyce Mayne, Ariston Appliances, Domayne, etc.
Harvey Norman has a wide…
Agrawal, N., & Smith, S.A. 2009, Retail Supply Chain Management, Quantitative Models and Empirical Studies, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, Vol. 122. U.S.: Springer
Bamford, D., & Forrester, P. 2010, Essential Guide to Operations Management: Concepts and Case Notes. U.S.: John Wiley and Sons
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. 2010, Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
Boyer, K.K., & Verma, R. 2009, Operations and Supply Chain Management for the 21st Century. U.S.: Cengage Learning
internal validity and external validity are important when designing, implementing, and reviewing empirical research. Internal validity refers to the design of the research and its methodology. Issues like sampling, statistical analyses, robustness of the variables, survey instruments, and researcher bias can impact internal validity. With regards to my research question, internal validity is of the utmost importance. The independent variables in this case include two different types of interventions: bloodless cardiac surgeries and blood transfusions. However, it is important to operationalize these two independent variables so that the researchers are clear on what exactly constitutes a bloodless surgery and a blood transfusion. Moreover, issues like hospital setting must be taken into account as a potentially confounding variable. When, where, and how these procedures are implemented can all have a bearing on the internal validity of the research design.
Likewise, the dependent variables are morbidity and mortality in patients. It is…
"Internal Validity," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.indiana.edu/~p1013447/dictionary/int_val.htm
Osborn, D.R. (n.d.). External validity. Retrieved online: http://cas.bellarmine.edu/Osborn/hypertut_piv/external_validity_is_concerned_w.htm
Shander, A., Moskowitz, D. & Rijhwani, T.S. (2005). The safety and efficacy of 'bloodless' cardiac surgery. Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 9(1).
Whitson, B.A., Huddleston, S.J., Savik, K. & Shumway, S.J. (2007). Bloodless cardiac surgery is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Journal of Cardiac Surgery 22(5): 373-8.
Performance measurement is an increasingly important process in today's organisations. This is true for not only business or private sector organisations, but also public sector organisations. Against the backdrop of budgetary constraints and the need for guaranteeing the effectiveness of public programs, performance data is crucial for decision making in the public sector. From the health and education sectors to criminal justice agencies, government agencies and organisations are ever keener on outputs and outcomes. Performance measurement frameworks such as benchmarking and the balanced score card are now utilised to inform decision making. For instance, performance measurement enables the government to evaluate the effectiveness of a given policy or initiative. Based on the findings, decisions can then be made to expand or discontinue the initiative.
Given the unique characteristics of the public sector, it is imperative to understand the factors that drive the use of performance information in decision making. In…
Louis Vuitton -- Case Study
To formulate a plan for the expansion of the brand into the international market. The planning and execution of strategies that would help on long-term commitment of support in the international market, depending upon different parts of the world.
The formulation of strategies and plans in cases of economic down times and interference of government policies.
Assess the performance of the company by taking into consideration the consumer trends, relevant fashion of time, the scope and demands of every international market.
To evaluate an effective model of communication and monitoring in order to analyze the trends of the existing markets that includes domestic market, variety and innovations of the products of the company.
Internal Analysis: Brand Recognition
The parent company, Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton is one of the most famous, renowned and old fashion and apparel house. The company and the brand…
iordan Manufacturing: Internal and External Compensation
iordan Manufacturing: External and Internal Equity Compensation
iordan Manufacturers, being a leader in its industry, appreciates the need to meet the needs of its employees through a fair compensation policy - one that equates pay with the value of the task performed, because fair treatment boosts employee performance and morale, and is an effective employee retention technique (omanoff, Boehm & Benson, n.d.). Internal equity compensation describes an employee's compensation in relation to that of other employees at the same level within iordan Manufacturing (H Council, 2014). External equity, on the other hand, compares iordan Manufacturing's wages with those of organizations within the industry.
Employee compensation is fundamental to iordan Manufacturing, just as is stipulated in the company's compensation philosophy. iordan realizes the intensity of global competition and understands that in order to maintain its industry position and market share, it has to acquire the…
HR Council. (2014). Compensation and Benefits. HR Council. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://hrcouncil.ca/hr-toolkit/compensation-systems.cfm
Romanoff, K., Boehm, K., & Benson, E. (n.d.). Pay Equity: Internal and External Considerations. Pay Equity Article. Retrieved http://theperfectpayplan.typepad.com/Pay_Equity_Article.pdf
business model canvas developed by Osterwalder and Pigneur in order to evaluate and diagnose Pfizer Inc. organizational model. This is done to provide recommendations for improvements as identified using the canvas model. Key areas of internal assessment include its products and services offerings, key resources, capabilities and competitive advantages. Key areas of external assessment include Porter's five forces, including but not limited to, key products, major competitors, new entry and market dynamics, suppliers and customers.
Pfizer Inc. has its headquarters in New York City. It has a staff of about 115,000 people. It is involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products for both animals and humans.
Principal Services and Product-line
The company manufactures 31 different products, which are categorized into ten different divisions. Each division has a major product that it promotes as follows:
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases (Lipitor, Caduet, Norvasc)
Central Nervous System Disorders (Aricept, Geodon, Lyrica,…
Grant, R. (2010). Contemporary Strategy Analysis. Blackwell Publishing: Malden, MA.
MarketLine. (2014). Company Profile: SWOT Analysis. Accessed from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.vlib.excelsior.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=8df88857-0b4b-446b-8527-53d27ea4d339%40sessionmgr4004&vid=1&hid=4105
Research and Markets. (2012). Pfizer Inc. - Company Analysis: a Strategic Insight into the Prospects for Pfizer over the Next Six Years. Business Wire, Regional Business News.
Research and Markets. (2013a). Research and Markets: Comprehensive Company and Financial Analysis of Pfizer 2013. Business Wire, Regional Business News.
CASE ANALYSIS: STABUCKS
Starbucks Case Analysis
Starbucks Case Analysis
Many individuals all over the world walk into Starbucks daily for their cup of coffee, but it is more than the costly coffee that brings individuals in day after day to the shops across the globe. Starbucks offers a high-energy atmosphere and helpful employees who help clients in any issue or question they might have with the coffee or service. People buy the product because of symbolizes and the status position coming along with it. Although various business designs are available, the concepts and framework of Starbucks is a good design to follow, due to its nationwide and international success. This paper investigates the strategic fit of Starbucks as a business and further shows how it survives even through hard economic times. By looking at the market and…
Grimm, C.M., Lee, H., & Smith, K.G. (2006). Strategy as action: Competitive dynamics and competitive advantage. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pham-Gia, K. (2009). Marketing strategy of 'Starbucks Coffe'. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Pahl, N. (2008). The idea behind the Starbucks experience: The main elements of Starbucks' strategic diamond. Munchen: GRIN Verlag.
Systems Model of Organizations Perspective
Analyzing an organization as a system can help understand how the organization is interconnected along a variety of different factors. These factors can include everything from the technology infrastructure to the organizational culture and the behaviors of individual employees. For example, an organization that has a learning culture can overcome any obstacles or organizational changes more quickly than more rigid structures. This analysis will briefly outline some of the implications for using a systems approach by discussing three factors that are present in an organization and how they may affect other parts of the organizational "system."
Organizational culture can be a difficult concept to define because it can be highly subjective in nature. Each organization develops a culture in which employees and stakeholders create a set of shared values and norms. The organizational culture can be guided by the organization's leadership…
Education - Theory
Addressing etention Issues in Community CollegesUsing Transition and Ecological/Environment Theory
Many community colleges face serious retention issues that affect student performance, persistence, and learning. The rationale employed in identifying alternative assessments involves overriding standardized test validities and predictive reliability issues. However, there are concerns regarding the derived holistic understanding among student outcomes. The goal of providing college educators through alternative supplemental approaches facilitate standardized testing of various evaluative measures as introduced. The issues of student self-assessment and social and value-added assessments, evaluations, and personal growth portfolios within community colleges had increased. The design suggests an institution of the writing and implementation of parallel outcomes in the studies are linked to different fundamental questions serving as subjects of confirm relevance to campus dynamics and student success.
The levels involved in making the students leave or stay are informative points on student engagement. This includes social and academic connection…
Braxton, J.M., & Doyle, W.R. (2013). Rethinking College Student Retention. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. International Encyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, 2nd ed., 131-214.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.
Forney, E., & DiBrito, G. (1998).Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. pp. 111-114.
There are several criteria that can go into a decision to initiate screening for a disease. The disease that I have chosen as an example is colorectal cancer. The prevalence of the disease is one factor. Diseases with a relatively high prevalence are more likely to require screening, as mass screening for rare diseases is not necessarily a good use of funds.. Other consideration is the availability of reliable tests. In the case of colorectal cancer, this is a disease with relatively high prevalence, but also a number of reliable tests ranging from barium tests to colonoscopy.
The value of early detection is also an important variable. For something like ALS, the prognosis will not change with early detection, but with colorectal cancer the prognosis changes a lot if you find polyps, or even Stage 1 tumors. So setting up a screening program is important for diseases where there…
Burt, R., Barthel, J., Dunn, K.., David, D., Drelichman, E., Ford, J., Giardello, F., Gruber, S., Halverson, A., Hamilton, S., Ismail, M., Jasperson, K., Lazenby, A., Lynch, P., Martin, E., Mayer, R., Ness, R., Provenzale, D., Rao, M., Shike, M., Steinbach, G., Terdimann, J. & Weinberg, D. (2010). Colorectal cancer screening: Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Vol. 8 (1) 8-60.
Bretthauer, M. (2011). Colorectal cancer screening. Journal of Internal Medicine. Vol. 270 (2) 87-98.
INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF OVERSTOCK.COM
INTERNAL ANALYSIS AND SWOT FOR OVERSTOCK.COM
Overstock.com is a company based in Cottonwood Heights, Utah in United States. It was established in 1999, and it offers different types of equipments including furniture, shoes, bedding, clothes, watches, and many others. Internal analysis of the organization is assessing on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. In Overstock.com, some of the strengths include qualified staff, quality products, and customer relations. The company has trained staff equipped with knowledge, skills, and experience in various fields. Staffs who are working in various departments like marketing, finance, production, and human resource are delivered to the required standards. The staff advice on the decisions to be made in the source of funds, markets research, and responding to competition. The company produces quality products, which satisfy the needs of customers. When the needs and requirements of the customers are satisfied, they will be influenced…
Internal company and the External Environment
Based on your research, what are the key drivers for success in the large office supply store industry? This section should be at least 2 pages in length.
There are key success factors for the large office supply store industry. One of the key success factors is location and significance. It is imperative to note that one of the most pivotal success factors for any business is its location. This is the same case for large office supply stores. It is imperative for such corporations to locate their retail stores in a high-traffic area, for instance a mall or a highly frequented intersection. Furthermore, it is essential to make certain that the business is situated near consumers that the corporation seeks to target. The utmost potential customers for office stationeries comprises of the corporate or business consumers, therefore positioning a store in the area…
External and Internal ecruitment
External recruitment and its strategy at Coca Cola Company
ecruitment refers to an act of enabling employees take after the various roles and responsibilities within an organization. The act of selecting and employing procedures that ends in having employees fill up various responsibilities within an organization is referred to as recruitment. External recruitment refers to a recruitment process that the human resource of an organization moves outside the organization. The officer in charge searches and selects the best employees who are going to fill up the empty positions of responsibilities. Unlike internal recruitment, the mechanisms that are put in place cater for the organization from outside figures. The organization uses its human resource department to search systematically for workers who can be part of the employee fraternity in the organization (Chan, 2006, p. 34-45).
In Coca Cola Company, stakeholders involve external recruitment as it engrosses various…
Bayo-Moriones, A & Ortin-Angel, P. (2006). Internal Promotion vs. External Recruitment
in Industrial Plants in Spain. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ISSN 0019-
7939, 04/Volume 59, Issue 3, pp. 451 -- 470
Chan, W. (2006). External Recruitment and Intra-firm Mobility. Economic Inquiry, ISSN
Human Factor in Cargo Security
Is Human Factor important Cargo Security
Cargo security I one of the major issues handled with priority by Homeland security department in United States of America. It is regarded as a positional facilitator in terrorism activities. Another notable factor in implementing security measures for cargo was theft as a direct business cost for U.S. It is observed that businesses lost $15b to $30 billion as a loss to cargo theft in 2006. The research further states that personnel access, vehicles access, and proliferation of papers are one of the major causes of cargo theft. It is evident that certain factors have a direct influence on maintaining security for cargo. Technology, processes, procedures, systems, and all of the above human involvement are major issues in cargo security. It requires maintaining a high level of integrity for all these factors to reduce risk in cargo transportation.
Giermanski, J. (2011, June 01). Facing the realities and probabilities of enhancing supply chain security. The Maritime Executive, Retrieved from http://www.maritime-executive.com/article/facing-the-realities-and-probabilities-of-enhancing-supply-chain-security/
Giermanski, J. (2012). Global Supply Chain Security. USA: Rowman & Littlefield.
Iseby, J. (2008). 9/11 Comm Recommendations. USA: Nova Science Pub Incorporated.
Ivanov, D., & Sokolov, B.V. (2010). Adaptive supply chain management. London: Springer verlag.
Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
The Boeing Company (n.d.). Human factors. etrieved online: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_textonly.html
Hayhurst, K.J., Maddalon, J.M. Miner, P.S., DeWalt, M.P. & McCormick, G.F. (2006). Unmanned aircraft hazards and their implications for regulation. etrieved online: http://shemesh.larc.nasa.gov/people/jmm/5B1_201hayhu.pdf
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
NASA (2013). Unmanned Aircraft Systems Airspace Operations Challenge (UAS OC). etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_challenges/uas/index.html
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, 2013). NOAA Unmanned aircraft systems program. etrieved online: http://uas.noaa.gov/
Tvaryanas, a.P., Thompson, W.T. & Constable, S.H. (2006). Human Factors in emotely Piloted Aircraft Operations: HFACS Analysis of 221 Mishaps Over 10 Years. Aerospace Medical Association. etrieved online: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2006/00000077/00000007/art00008
United States Coast Guard (2013). Unmanned aircraft system. etrieved online: http://www.uscg.mil/acquisition/uas/
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
The Boeing Company (n.d.). Human factors. Retrieved online: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_textonly.html
Hayhurst, K.J., Maddalon, J.M. Miner, P.S., DeWalt, M.P. & McCormick, G.F. (2006). Unmanned aircraft hazards and their implications for regulation. Retrieved online: http://shemesh.larc.nasa.gov/people/jmm/5B1_201hayhu.pdf
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Careful selection of the right employees is one mechanism of external control deployed by Google.
Google controls its employees not through fear, but by motivating them to do good works: "With millions of visitors every month, Google has become an essential part of everyday life - like a good friend - connecting people with the information they need to live great lives" it proclaims (Top ten, 2009, Google). Google offers generous compensation packages to its employees that are individually tailored, and given the difficulty of finding good health insurance and 401 (K) s in the current economy, this also acts as an incentive to remain at the company.
Google's workplace environment, which includes free lunches, free fitness classes -- even free dry-cleaning -- creates an atmosphere of a college campus or even a summer camp. Employees have little incentive to leave the workplace. They have a greater sense of…
Benefits. ( 2009). Google. Retrieved December 19, 2009 at http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/toptenreasons.html
Top ten reasons to work at Google. (2009). Google. Retrieved December 19, 2009 at http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/toptenreasons.html
This savings on fuel has also given Southwest more funds to invest in programs to reduce turn-around time of their jets between flights .
Southwest Airline's Internal Weaknesses
As with any company the size of Southwest, they have several weaknesses, with the most significant being their heavy dependence only on passenger traffic as their primary source of revenue. Despite efforts to move into logistics and supply chain services, the company is still struggling to gain significant success in more profitable business services markets (Kumar, Johnson, Lai, 2009).
Despite having an employee base that has the lowest turnover and highest levels of morale, Southwest also has one of the most rapidly declining sales-per-employee revenue levels for U.S.-based airlines (Kumar, Johnson, Lai, 2009). One of the factors that contribute to this is the fact that Southwest has more ground crew members than other airlines, an investment the company makes to attain the…
Christopher P. Ball. (2007). Rethinking Hub vs. Point-to-Point Competition: A Simple Circular Airline Model. The Journal of Business and Economic Studies, 13(1), 73-87,116.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
David a Carter, Daniel a Rogers, & Betty J. Simkins. (2006). Does Hedging Affect Firm Value? Evidence from the U.S. Airline Industry. Financial Management, 35(1), 53-86.
D'Aurizio, P.. (2008). Southwest Airlines: Lessons in Loyalty. Nursing Economics, 26(6), 389-92.
An Internal Analysis of the al-Mart Corporation
The al-Mart Corporation is among the most successful, recognizable and notorious brand names. The chain of retail stores is associated with low prices, convenient one-stop shopping and geographically permeating accessibility. However, the retail chain is also frequently associated with a poor record on labor rights, negative performance in environmental categories, destructive community orientation, abuse of human rights in its developing sphere production operations, distribution of low-grade products and a general strategy of stifling local business enterprises and devastating local economies. The result is a relative mixed outlook for al-Mart, which will certainly continue to enjoy some level of dominance in the U.S. And global retail markets but which must also work to make internal organizational changes that can improve its reputation and its compliance with expectations regarding the environment, human rights, labor and community citizenship. The internal analysis conducted here below…
Banker, S. (2010). The Walmart Sustainability Value Chain. Logistics Viewpoints.
Blanchard, C. (2008). Adding Value to Service Providers: Benchmarking Wal-Mart. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 15(2), 166-177.
Chandran, P.M. (2003). Wal-Mart's Supply Chain Management Practices. ICFAI Center for Management Research.
Gogoi, P. (2008). Wal-Mart Supplier Accused of Sweatshop Conditions. BusinessWeek.
Balanced Scorecard: Internal Business Perspective
Increasingly companies large and small are implementing the balanced scorecard (BSC) as "a management system that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action" (Balanced Scorecard Institute. N.D.). In Kaplan and Norton's framework of the BSC they articulated four distinct perspectives: financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth; because "financial measures alone were not sufficient to measure performance" (Gumbus, . & Lussier, R. 2006). In the case of Duke Children's Hospital, a BSC was introduced to ameliorate deteriorating financial conditions; with expenses per case rising 42% from 1993-1996, and net margin reductions of 11 million in 1996 form two million in 1993. "In addition, staff productivity had fallen, and patient and staff satisfaction was at an all time low" (Meliones, J. Ballard, R. Liekweg, R. & Burton, W. 2001).
The balanced scorecard implemented by Duke Children's Hospital focused…
A well implemented internal process approach depends on use of one or some combination of four clusters: operations management, customer management, innovation, and regulatory/social. In the case of Duke, operations management was the primary driver with considerable assist from innovation in the form of technology. Operations management "the basic, day-to-day routine activities necessary first to produce and ultimately deliver a product or service to the market" (Niven P.N.D. Internal Process) was the top priority for management. Drawing on the three pronged approach, the operations management focus was to get connected through the use of Key Performance Indicators (KPI), "quantifiable measurements, agreed to beforehand, that reflect the critical success factors of an organization" (Reh, J.N.D.). For Duke Children's Hospital the KPI's included: monthly productivity and cost, trends of volume, target staffing levels, and cost per patient. For Duke, the development of KPI's is a critical factor in successfully implementing the balanced scorecard" (Meliones et al., 2001).
The get results step focuses on measurement of KPI and other strategic benchmarks to "link the mission, strategy, and initiatives across the organization" (Meliones et al.,
Key Success Factors (KSFs) of most organizations have similar attributes, references, and disciplines. This is because each project has internal and external expectations. In most cases, internal expectations happen to be project developers while the external expectation happens to be clients and/or the audience community. The positive striking balance is categorical in elaborating the nature and quality expected in developing each project. This comparison will be substantial in assessing KSFs of two seemingly different organizations. The analysis will identify the reasons why the organizations have pursued the KSFs in the execution of their projects. This study analyzes the KSFs of the two organizations. The study will also appoint basic commonalities between these two organizations in relation to the nature of projects that the two organizations are pursuing.
The key success factors in these two seemingly different scenarios
Combined Security Transition Command -- Afghanistan (CSTC-A)
After a close…
Degnitu, W. (September 1st, 2000). PROJECT Management: A Case study of Zuquala Steel Rolling Mill. Journal of the ESME, Vol. III, No. 1. Retrieved July 29, 2012 from http://www.africantechnologyforum.org/ESME/prjmgmt/Zuquala.htm
Dow, W., & Taylor, PMP. (2012). Project Management Communications Bible. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Goatham, R. (February 19th, 2009). The Story Behind the High Failure Rates in the I.T Sector. Retrieved March 08th, 2014 from http://www.maxwideman.com/guests/failure_rates/intro.htm
Schwalbe, K. (2008). Introduction to Project Management, Second Edition. New York: Cengage Learning.
Further Briggs (2008)
adds weight to the argument saying although internal validity and the statistical conclusion adds weight to the causal effect, external validity and construct validity are essential for the causal effects and generalization purposes to many settings. To ensure concrete construct validity level on a study's dependent variable, re-examination for reliability is noteworthy not just the causal effect. Details on the sample and sampling procedures should be analyzed thoroughly for rigorous data Creswell, 2008()
Threats to external validity
It implies a situation where sample picked to act as a representative of the population is insufficient to cover all facets of the population. In this case, the sample is inadequate to act as a representative and is expected to obscure generalization of research result.
Non-representative research context
It describes a situation where the research was set out of context. Example if the survey conducted tried to evaluate…
Briggs, D.C. (2008). Comments on Slavin: Synthesizing causal inferences. Educational Researcher, 37, 15-22.
Campbell, D., & Stanley, J. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago, IL: Rand-McNally.
Creswell, J.W. (2008). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches: Sage Publications.
In addition to these factors,
Microsoft also has to contend with challenges to its core business of
personal productivity applications from a wide variety of competitors.
Internally, Microsoft's environment is hard-driving, very focused on
development schedules, and has a definite intensity of focus. The internal
environment is dominated by engineering expertise and depth of insight over
and above work-life balance, an issue the company has struggled with for
years. In addition the internal environment is dominated by managers who
have been promoted based on their technical prowess and not necessarily
their management ability. This makes for a tense yet very focused internal
culture where accomplishment is everything. As a result the company's
internal environment is not necessarily marked by a work-life balance;
instead it is a culture that rewards technical insight, intelligence and
DataMonitor (2006) - Microsoft Corporation Company Profile. Publication
Date 5 April 2006. eference Code: 1103…
DataMonitor (2006) - Microsoft Corporation Company Profile. Publication
Date 5 April 2006. Reference Code: 1103
Greene (2005) - Troubling Exits at Microsoft. Business Week Online.
September 26, 2005. Accessed from the Internet on January 18, 2007 from
An important aspect of the marketing management plan relates to communication. Key internal stakeholders must be kept informed of the objectives of the marketing plan, progress, as well as any relevant updates as the implementation of the plan proceeds (Ferrell & Hartline, 2014). Effective engagement of internal stakeholders is crucial if the desired outcomes are to be achieved. When internal stakeholders are well informed of the marketing objectives, they are likely to be more committed to the initiative, hence increasing the success of the initiative. At HtW, internal stakeholders mainly include the board, the management, and members of staff. The board acts as the overall decision making organ of the organization. It formulates polices and the strategic direction of the organization and supervises the management. Communicating the marketing objectives and progress to the board would, therefore, be vital. The board requires such information for purposes of decision making on aspects…
The proper authorization to complete an inventory also needs to include training on how to manage the exceptions that often occur when physical counting is taking place (Corman, 1988).
The third principle to have adequate documents and records in place that can be quickly be used by the teams completing the audits. This also needs to be preceded with a training session focused on how to also manage exceptions to the paperwork as well, as each company's physical inventory processes are unique to their specific business models (andall, 1984).
The fourth and fifth principles are physical controls and independent checks on performance. These two principles need to anchor all training activity and also be continually audited to ensure performance to standards set over decades are attained. Physical controls and independent checks are also indispensable to the audit and final approval of physical inventory levels, which is the first step in…
Corman, T.R. (1988). Inventory management. Hospital Materiel Management Quarterly, 10(2), 5-5.
Giannoccaro, I., & Pontrandolfo, P. (2002). Inventory management in supply chains: A reinforcement learning approach. International Journal of Production Economics, 78(2), 153-161.
Howard, K. (1984). Inventory management in practice. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 14(2), 3-3.
Randall, a.M. (1984). Computerized inventory management: A return to basics. Hospital Materiel Management Quarterly, 5(3), 12-12.
Human Factors in Aviation
rief Historical ackground
The Airline Industry has a history that dates back to 1903 when the Wright brothers made their first successful flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Initially the public did not take the idea of the airplane travel favorably. ut this event marked the beginning of the Airline Industry as more and more inputs were given by people such as Charles Lindbergh who successfully completed a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927 and created massive interest in flying with the general public.
The concern for human factor involvement in aviation started as soon as the interest of general public was roused in it. The initial concern was for the safety of people daring to fly the aircraft as accidents were reported due to a flaw in the design or working of the plane. A pilot task was to juggle with the complexity…
Daniel J. Garland, V. David Hopkins, John A. Wise. (1999). Handbook of Aviation Human Factors. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Clint A. Bowers, C. Shawn Burke, Eduardo Salas, Katherine A. Wilson. (2001) Team Training in the Skies: Does Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training Work?, Vol. 43
Clint A. Bowers, Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Randall L. Oser, Carolyn Prince, Eduardo Salas, Renee J. Stout. (1999) A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training, Vol. 41
Airlines in the industry. (N.d.) Retrieved on Sep 30, 2005 from:
One of the most difficult cultural changes many companies confront when they use Six Sigma techniques is staying focused on customer requirements vs. just producing products as quickly and inexpensively as possible.
Of all TQM approaches mentioned in this paper, Six Sigma requires that organization adopt a customer-based culture that strives to continually align to customers' needs. While the topic of organizational barriers to change is outside the scope of this paper, it is clear that overcoming resistance to change is one of the biggest impediments to getting Six Sigma projects started in organizations. Six Sigma also requires organizations to concentrate on reducing all sources of variation in producing products. By reducing variation so that each unit of a product matches customers' expectations, a higher level customer satisfaction is inevitably earned. To minimize variation in a products' manufacturing quality, it also requires that companies have a strong level of teamwork…
In the contemporary business environment, businesses are learned to satisfy their customers, however, they are also required to satisfy their employees. For instance, the Fedex has discovered that there is a statistical correlation between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction. A decline in employee satisfaction leads to a decline in customer satisfaction. It has also been discovered across different industries that employee satisfaction assists in increasing customer satisfaction as well as increasing their loyalty towards organizations. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs and working conditions will be loyal to firms, offer high-quality services and productivity. However, the case of LegoAssembly4You reveals that the full-time employee is not satisfied with his present job because he is the one completing most of the work tasks and earns the same remuneration with the part time worker. Despite being a full-time worker, he is being offered the same pay per hour with the part…
Also unlike the president, it is entitled to be part of the political party. This is an important aspect because its adherence to the party ensures its support for the political figure and for the measures to be taken throughout the mandate. This enables the administration to avoid potential situations when political support lacks.
Political accountability rests in the power of the Parliament to hold accountable the Government. In this sense, similar to the other cases, the Parliament plays a crucial role in the life of the executive branch. Given the fact that the Executive is represented by the major parties in the Parliament, the interpellations of the Government are often settled. In any case, the strong relation between the executive, the political parties, and the parliament enable a strong relation and commitment on the lines of the ruling parties.
Efficiency of the systems
It is rather difficult to consider…
French Constitution. Accessed 10 June 2010 from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp
Gregg, G.L. The Presidential Republic: Executive Representation and Deliberative Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
Hoffmann, V., Hellmut Wollmann (eds). State and local government reforms in France and Germany: divergence and convergence, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2006.
Newton, K., Jan W. van Deth Foundations of comparative politics: democracies of the modern world. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, 2005.
Q3. Explain the importance of the Fisher King in Modern Literature.
The Fisher King is the wounded king that motivates Sir Galahad to find the Holy Grail to heal him and his people: the quest narrative is one of the most significant narratives in all of literature, and the Moderns despaired of finding a quest in the modern, faithless, directionless world. The Fisher King's wound symbolizes his lack of fertility, which leaves his kingdom hungry and barren. T.S. Eliot's poem "The Wasteland" suggests that modern life is like the Fisher King's kingdom.
Q4. Explain the importance of WWI trench poetry and the works of Wilfred Owen
While some of the early poets celebrated patriotism, or eulogized the fate of the common soldier with quiet despair, Owen's poetry was harsh, gritty and realistic. In his poem "Dulce et Decorum est" Owen takes the familiar Latin phrase that it is sweet to…
Cultural, Ethical, And Legal Factors in esearch
In research, there are cultural, ethical, and legal factors that have to be addressed, and that are highly significant to the quality and appropriateness of the research and its conclusions. These include IB approval and informed consent, along with whether the study participants were part of a population that was vulnerable. Three articles will be reviewed and addressed here, in order to see whether they were handled acceptably from cultural, ethical, and legal standpoints. Whether the populations that were used for the studies were treated correctly is highly significant when it comes to the safety of those populations and their use in future studies. When older research is used and compiled there are no serious worries about population safety, but when the researchers of a current study decide to conduct a survey or experiment, it is vital to be sure the participants are…
Bibbins-Domingo, K., Pletcher, M.J., Lin, F., Vittinghoff, E., Gardin, J.M., Arynchyn, A., Lewis, C.E., & Williams, O.D. (2009). Racial differences in incident heart failure among young adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360(12): 1179-1190.
Gottdiener, J.S., McClelland, R.L., Marshall, R., Shemanski, L., Furberg, C.D., Kitzman, D.W., Cushman, M., Polak, J., Gardin, J.M., Gersh, B.J., Aurigemma, G.P., & Manolio, T.A. (2002). Outcome of congestive heart failure in elderly persons: Influence of left ventricular systolic function. Annals of Internal Medicine, 137(8): 631-639.
Yancy, C.W., Fowler, M.B., Colucci, W.S., Gilbert, E.M., Bristow, M.R., Cohn, J.N., Lukas, M.A., Young, S.T., & Packer, M. (2001). Race and the response to adrenergic blockade with carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18): 1358-1365.
For example, in their study, "Nawkaw, Inc.: Changing the Color of Masonry," Amason and Ciavarella (2001) report that, "Commercial jobs usually were won through competitive bidding by general contractors, who then hired subcontractors. Sometimes general contractors did not seek bids, instead choosing subcontractors on the basis of their past performance" (p. 77).
Other factors involved that will likely influence which subcontractor will be selected relate to the organizational structure of the project. For example, as Frame (2003) points out, there is a basic approach to most large construction projects in use today. As shown in Figure 1 below, this is a commonly encountered organizational structure employed on construction projects which involves the owner retaining direct authority over both the contractor and architect-engineering firm; in this arrangement, the owner can issue directions, and the contractor and architect-engineering firm are obliged to comply and it is this degree of control over these…
Amason, a.C., & Ciavarella, M.A. (2001). Nawkaw, Inc.: Changing the color of masonry. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(2), 77.
Applebaum, H. (1999). Construction workers, U.S.A. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bidding procedures for the City of Minneapolis. (2004). City of Minneapolis. [Online]. Available: http://www.ci.minneapolis.mn.us/cped/docs/bidding_procedures_LCDA_RFP.pdf .
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
change agent -- internal or external -- has to evaluate the organization as a whole. The problems and difficulties experienced by any company may be unique to the company or to the type of business. Change implementation generally requires a change in the behavioral strategies -- either of the organization, the process used or the individual.
Attempts at changing the motivation of the organization have to be tackled by changing the motivation of the employees at all levels of the organization. Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas M. McGregor both believed that in order for people to work to their full potential, they're basic needs have to be satisfied. There are various factors that affect motivation: achievement in a specific field, recognition of the value of the work, pride in the work, responsibility, advancement and growth in the workplace act as a stimulant and motivator.
In recent times, the manager has…
Harvey, Donald F. And Brown, Donald R., 1976. An Experimental Approach to Organization
Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentiss-Hall Inc.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs; extracted from "Motivation and Personality"; A.H. Maslow. New York: Harper and Row, 1954
Theory X: extracted from "The Human side of Enterprise"; address delivered to the MIT School of Industrial Management.
The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism
The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…
Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.
Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.
Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.
Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).
external communications, internal communications such as memoranda require careful organization and accuracy of expression in their content. Although memoranda are frequently used by individuals within an organization to communicate, they are also used as part of the working papers and for the record, and these different types of communications are discussed further in this chapter.
Memos: Some Basic Principles
The organization of memoranda depends on the subject matter. Typically, memos are shorter in length than external communications, but in some cases they can run to several pages or even more. In any event, the type of organization will depend on the type of information that is being communicated, but the basic components include date, recipient, sender and subject. The other parts of memoranda are discussed further below.
The Parts of a Memo: Organizing for Coherence
As with other types of report writing, memoranda usually include an introduction that describes what…
To define the safety objectives of the UAV, it is essential to evaluate the current level of safety necessary for the human-piloted aircrafts. While manned pilot aircrafts consider the safety of the pilots and the people on board to be important, however, the safety of the UAV is considered relatively to the hazard that that it will cost to the community. Thus, the intervention of human related aviation safety is still critical to enhance overall safety of the UAV. Although, the UAV accidents may lead to the zero loss of pilot's life, nevertheless, the financial investments that the governments or private organizations provide for the development of the UAV is huge, and the implementation of maximum safety to realize the objective of UAV is very essential. The human related aviation safety is still essential.
The thesis investigates selected human factors affecting safe operation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The thesis…
Dixon, S. & Wickens, C.D.(2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation University of Illinois.
Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown.M. (2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 1( 3): 327-362
Johnson, C.W. & Shea, C. (2007). The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow.
Rutley, M. (2010). On Target - Human Factors UAV's. Royal Air Canadian Force. Canada.
Infant and caregiving factors affecting weight-for-age and motor development of full-term and premature infants at 1 year post-term. In this assessment, the purpose of the study, the background of the study, the study's main variables, population, research design, data collection and analysis, main findings of the study, discussion of findings, limitations of study, recommendations, generalizability, and the extent the findings can be utilized to address the guiding question of the course are all analyzed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of infants' biological condition and experience, the caregiving environment, and caloric intake variables on two outcomes, weight-for-age and motor development, for 52 full-term and 47 premature infants at 12 months post-term age (Pridham, Brown, Clark, Sondel, & Green, 2002, p. 394).
This stated purpose is quite clear. In addition, it does fit with the clinical question asked for this literature, involving what parents…
Pridham, K., Brown, R., Clark, R., Sondel, S., & Green, C. (2002). Infant and caregiving factors affecting weight-for-age and motor development of full-term and premature infants at 1 year post-term. Nursing & Health, 25. Pp. 394-410.
There are a number of factors Nick needs to consider for the project to be a success. First, he needs to understand what the project is, and what the expectations for the project are. These need to be specific, so that they can be actionable and so that Nick can be evaluated properly. Nick will need to understand the industry and project management process well in order to translate the desired specs into a set of actions and resource allocations that will deliver positive results. Internal resources, external environmental conditions, time frames, specs, budgets -- there are an almost untold number of individual factors that need to be taken into consideration.
The planning meeting here is in incomprehensible debacle. There is no focus and no specificity. Now, this is done in media res so we'll assume that everybody knows each other and their roles, and that the project has…
Pavey, S. (2014). Cost-benefit analysis. MindTools.com. Retrieved January 18, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_08.htm
The Fraternal Society of St. Pius X is a non-profit organization that caters to Traditional Catholic individuals seeking a Traditional Catholic education that is at variance with the modern Catholic education based on the principles expressed in the Second Vatican Council (1962-65). This organization addresses a number of issues in its strategic plan, which focuses on building a network of parishes and schools in order to foster communities dedicated to revitalizing Traditional Catholicism in everyday life. These issues range from how to dress to how to think critically about doctrine. However, some issues are being clouded in light of the organization's advances towards the modern Church which espouses a more progressive doctrine. For example, the leaders of the Fraternal Society have in recent years expressed approval of the principles laid down in the Second Vatican Council. This is a new development in the Fraternal Society which is not…
Bryson, J. M. (2011). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Free Management Library. (n.d.). Basics of identifying strategic issues and goals.
Retrieved June 14, 2014, from http://managementhelp.org/strategicplanning/issues-goals.htm
The majority opinion would be written by the historically conservative
Justice Scalia. His response is characterized by Stout (2009), who reports
that "in layman's terms, 'arbitrary and capricious' action by a lower court
or an agency means the action was totally unreasonable and in disregard of
the facts. Justice Scalia wrote that the F.C.C. has the power under law to
turn to more aggressive enforcement, if it wishes, and that it need not
present empirical evidence of harm done to children by over-the-air dirty
language. Indeed, he wrote, such empirical evidence is unattainable in any
event." (Stout, 1) This sites the one aspect of the FCC approach that may
be characterized as positive, which is that it awards it sufficient power
to restrain broadcasting excesses.
Recommendations for a New Policy:
Beyond this, the policy should generally be regarded as negative for
creating a test of indecency that is indefensible. A…
Ahrens, F. (2005). FCC Indecency Fines, 1970-2004. Washington Post.
Eggerton, J. (2009). FCC: Indecency/Obscenity Complaints Soar From Q4.
Broadcasting & Cable.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2008). Obscene, Indecent and
Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem.
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited osenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity…
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
Causes of Crime
Natural Causes of Crime
The factors and precursors that are associated in whole or in part with the causes of crime are prolific and many. Many of those causes fall under one of three major categories, those being biological, sociological and psychological. Indeed, many crimes are caused in whole or in part by inherent biological attributes, external factors or a combination thereof. Crimes can be committed of a person knowing better and not caring enough to not do or stop the behavior or they can be committed from a person that is at least temporarily unable to process and realize what they are doing due to being on alcohol, an illicit street drug or prescription medication. This report will cover all of those and provide examples of each, either general or specific. While some people perhaps lean a little too heavily on crimes causing them to commit…
Carroll, A. (2008). Drug-associated psychoses and criminal responsibility. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 26(5), 633-653.
Collins, R. (2013). Micro and macro sociological causes of violent atrocities. Sociologia,
Problemas E. Praticas, (71), 9-22. doi:10.7458/SPP2013712327
Moskalenko, S., & McCauley, C. (2011). The psychology of lone-wolf terrorism. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 24(2), 115-126.
The Age of Marketing has undergone a profound paradigm change over the last few decades. Instead of advertising and product driving the market, globalism has both shrunk the borders of economics and made products far more available worldwide. With this availability of production and shipping comes the inevitable -- hyper competition. What then, are organizations to do to keep their sales and marketing edge? Because of the number of choices today's consumers have, the organization must differentiate itself in some manner that appeals to a specific customer base -- and to hope that base is large enough to fulfill its internet profit needs. The answer for many organizations has been the development of enhanced customer management systems, collectively known as e-CM (electronic customer relations management). This powerful tool organizes the individual organization's customers, uses appropriate contact and data manning protocols, and amasses information in a way that allows…
1. Chen, Q & Chen, H 2004, 'Exploring the success factors of eCRM strategies in practice', Journal of Database Marketing and Customer Strategy Management, vol 11, no. 4, pp. 333-43.
2. Holmen, E 2010, CRM: Customer Relationship Mobile, viewed August 2011, http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol9/issue4/lawson_body.html .
3. Lawson-Body, A & Limayem, M 2004, The Impact of Customer Relationship Management on Customer Loyalty, viewed August 2011,