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All that Ms. Chang would do is to apply for the patent protection and then franchise a local company to manufacture the CAD system with full assurance that the product will be right protected and the business will still have the same business profits as it is in Singapore.
As a matter of fact, the machine, being so sophisticated will require importation of skills and manpower from the Singapore mother company since they are the ones who are familiar with its operations and can set it up within the licensed company in Pakistan. This makes it easier to have control over the operations of the machine and the levels of output as the technicians will have to be always around to supervise the smooth operation of the system.
Even though the levels of manufacturing in Singapore is above the levels of manufacturing in Pakistan, it still remains to be slightly…
All Things Pakistan, (2010). Handmade Carpets of Pakistan. Retrieved December 14, 2011 from http://pakistaniat.com/2010/04/07/handmade-carpets-of-pakistan/
American Institute of Pakistan Studies, (2011). About Pakistani Economy. Retrieved December 14, 2011 from http://www.pakistanstudies-aips.org/pakistan/economy/development.html
Gary Dean, (2000). The role of FDI in the development of Singapore. Retrieved December 14, 2011 from http://okusi.net/garydean/works/fdising.html
Khursheed Khan & Associates, (2011). Pakistan Patent Ordinance 2000. Retrieved December 14, 2011 from http://www.pakistanlaw.com/memorandum_newpatent_law.php
International Market Evaluation
Political and Legal Environment Comparison: Canada vs. Australia
Both Canada and Australia are reported to have a 'Country isk Tier (CT)' that reflects "A.M. Best's assessment of three categories of risk: Economic, Political and Financial System isk stated in the case of Canada and Australia to be CT-1 classification which is characterized by "very low levels of economic, political and financial system risk." (AMB Country isk eport, 2010) The economic risk in Canada is reported to be 'very low' and the political risk in Canada is also stated at very low since Canada is a "high income country with significant natural resources and an established legal system." (AMB Country isk eport, 2010) The economy of Canada is directly impacted by the U.S. financial system. The budget of Canada is reported to have moved "into deficit as the government has used fiscal policy to help stimulate the economy."…
Maple Leaf Foods (2008) Retrieved from: http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Maple-Leaf-Foods-Inc.-Company-History.html
Howell, GV and Miller, R (nd) Maple Leaf Foods: Crisis and containment case Study. University of Sydney. Retrieved from http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/ojs/index.php/pcr/article/viewFile/1297/1529
Australia (2010) Country Risk Tier. Retrieved from: http://www3.ambest.com/ratings/cr/re ports/australia.pdf
Canada (2010) Canada. Country Risk Tier Retrieved from: http://www3.ambest.com/ratings/cr/repor ts/australia.pdf
Northampton-Based Organisation Wishes Expand Market Internationally
Strategy of International Trade
A firm may decide to operate internationally due to a wide variety of reasons. These reasons include but are not limited to market imperfections at home, gaining market power and favourable environment overseas. In order to operate internationally, firms need an appropriate strategy so that their resources are put to best use and the whole process of internationalization proceeds according to plan. (Twarowska and Kakol, 2013)
There are two ways of entering an international market, equity-based entry and non-equity-based entry. The former gives high return on investment and market control but it has high risk associated with it. The latter does not give sufficient market power nor high rate of return but it is volatile and minimizes the risk. (Twarowska and Kakol, 2013)
The first and the least risky method to trade internationally is engaging in import and export. Using…
Barney, J. (1986). Organizational culture: can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage?. Academy of management review, 11(3), pp.656 -- 665.
Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re-appraisal. Journal of management studies, 41(6), pp.977 -- 1002.
Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re-appraisal. Journal of management studies, 41(6), pp.977 -- 1002.
DeRuiter Consultancy, (2009). THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL Business STRATEGY. Hilversum: DeRuiter Consultancy, pp.1-11.
Segmenting International Markets
Companies that operate internationally will also segment the market internationally. International segmentation is undertaken by companies identifying groups of consumers with common traits or characteristics, which may traverse national borders (Kotler & Keller, 2011). One of the most basic methods of segmenting international markets is through regional, or national, segments based on social or cultural differences. For example, when KFC first entered the Chinese market the market was perceived as a similar market to other Asian countries, is that the company failed to succeed due to different case. When the company realized that Chinese consumers did not like skin on the fried chicken, and adjusted the product for this market they became more successful (Gereffi & Christian, 2010). Different consumer tastes which impact on the way product is made, presented or sold are only one potential source of international segmentation, other influences may include political, legal or…
Arena, (2014), New Product Development Steps & How to Address NPD Challenges, accessed at http://www.arenasolutions.com/resources/articles/new-product-development-npd
Bodine, Kerry; Bernoff, Josh; Manning, Harley, (2012), Outside in: The Power of Putting Customers at the Center of Your Business, Houghton Muflin
Gereffi, G; Christian, Michelle M, (2010), "Trade, Transnational Corporations and Food Consumption: A Global Value Chain Approach," in Hawkes, C; Blouin, C; Henson, S; Drager, N; Dube, L. (eds), (2010), Trade, Food, Diet and Health Perspectives and Policy Options, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 91-110
Hooley GJ; Saunders JA; Piercy, (2007), Marketing Strategy and Competition Positioning, London, Prentice Hall
Globalization and competition within the international markets demands that multinational corporations employ a series of strategies aimed at ensuring that they maintain a competitive advantage over their rivals. Such strategies can never be realized without first being aware of the external environment differences. An external environment analysis is therefore a key factor in the formulation of a successful internationalization strategy (Kennedy,1984).In this paper, we explore the concept of external environmental analysis and its role in the success of Starbucks as a multinational company.
The role of external environmental analysis in the strategic formulation of an internationalization strategy
The work of Babatunde and Adebesi (2012) noted that every organization that operates in a competitive business environment must employ strategic environmental scanning techniques in the evaluation of the external environmental forces (the opportunities and threats) in order to help the organization seize the opportunities and avoid threats and thereby gain profitability. Organizations,…
Fastcasual (2012). Starbucks growth boosted by international operations. < http://www.fastcasual.com/article/198181/Starbucks-growth-boosted-by-international-operations >
Norms: Every society has a set of norms, which often include the folkways, mores, taboos and rituals that exist within the culture.
Values: The values of a culture often refer to the things that are to be achieved or to the things that are considered of great worth or value.
eligion and Beliefs: The religion and the beliefs of the people in a civilization play an important role in shaping up of the culture of any society.
Social Collectives: Social collectives refer to the social groups, organizations, communities, institutions, classes, and societies, which are considered as symbolic social constructions within a culture.
Statuses and oles: A status or a social role is a slot or position within a group or society that a person belongs to.
Cultural Integration: This refers to the degree of harmony or integration within the various elements of culture (What are the Elements of Culture, 2009).…
American Keiretsu. (1998). Retrieved September 17, 2009, from Red Herring Web site:
Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2009, from Web site:
The franchising operations have expanded significantly during the recent years namely because of the benefits and reduced risks they offer to both parties. A positive example in this sense is given by international chain McDonald's, which franchised several of their stores to countries across the globe. The McDonald's example however also reveals that franchising is not always suitable, and it is far from being the universally agreed method of successfully penetrating the foreign markets. To better understand, before entering the ussian market, the officials at McDonalds clearly analyzed the market features and felt the need to handle the operations by themselves, rather than become a franchisor. As a result of increased attention to details, the American corporation now holds next to 80% of the ussian fast food industry. Other American-based fast food chains have attempted to enter the market, but they did this through franchising, and the economic background in…
Castrogiovanni, G.J., Combs, J.G., Justis, T.R., Shifting Imperatives: An Integrative View of Resource Scarcity and Agency Reasons for Franchising, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Volume 30
Fried, V.H., Elango, B., 1997, Franchising Research: A Literature Review and Synthesis, Journal of Small Business Management, Volume 35
Lafontaine, F., Shaw, K.L., 1999, the Dynamics of Franchise Contracting: Evidence from Panel Data, the Journal of Political Economy, Volume 107, Number 5, pages 1041-1080
Martin, R.E., 1988, Franchising and Risk Management, the American Economic Review, Volume 78, Number 5, pp.954-968
5 billion (a$28.2 billion) in 2008 (IK, 2009). The Germans have a long history in the business, with "eau de Cologne" being invented in Koln 210 years ago (IK, 2009). The German market is continuing to grow slowly, despite economic challenges, recording 10.5% growth since 2004 (Ibid.).
There are approximately 525 firms in the industry in Germany, ranging from large international enterprises to small boutique cosmetic and fragrance houses. The industry is centered in Frankfurt. These companies are among the world's leading exporters of cosmetics. The industry association coordinates efforts with respect to both marketing and research and development functions at German firms.
The German cosmetics market is relatively saturated with competitors. Most major international brands have a presence in the market, as do scores of boutique brands. A multitude of channels are used, with indications being that mainstream mass retailers are the preferred channel for Germans in general. These…
Gillespie, Andrew. (2007). Foundations of Economics: Additional Chapter on Business Strategy. Oxford University Press. Oxford, United Kingdom.
European Union. (2008). Bilateral Trade Relations: Australia. European Union. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://ec.europa.eu/trade/issues/bilateral/countries/australia/index_en.htm
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2009). Summary of Australia's Trade. Government of Australia. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://www.dfat.gov.au/PUBLICATIONS/stats-pubs/mtd/australia_trade_0906.pdf
Dougherty, Carter. (2009). Europe's Surge Signals Hope for Economic Recovery. New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/14/business/global/14euro.html
The primary limitation of using the existent data bases as a support for the current marketing research revolves around the fact they can contain outdated information, which was useful at the time the first research was taken, but are no longer applicable in the context of the current research, due to reasons such as changes in demographics, an increased competition or changing consumer preferences.
Personal interviews are similar to focus groups in the meaning that they refer to direct dialogues between the researcher and the audience -- in this case a single individual; the conversations are generally recorded for further analysis. The main advantage of this approach is that of an honest reaction to a product or a campaign promoted; the company could easily capitalize on its experience with the prospective customer and could significantly improve its offering. Nevertheless, there is the major disadvantage that personal interviews take…
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong, V., Saunders, J., 2008, Principles of Marketing, 5th Edition, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273711563
2009, Five Basic Methods of Market Research, All Business, http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing/market-research/1287-1.html last accessed on November 18, 2009
PUPOSE OF THE STUDY
The focus of this research on international marketing and its applicability in an international context is the main contribution of this study. The addition to the literature is using the cultural framework of proportion of immigrants in the society to understand how cultural differences affect the applicability of international marketing. That is, the paper will expand on other international marketing papers to present a wider look at how international marketing differs form other countries. The study also refines the analytical framework by exploring firms in Dublin, Ireland in the business sector -- the sample as chosen from this population to get the unique perspective of these firms. How are modern business strategies that use direct marketing tools and new technological processes affecting specific sectors in the society? Also, what is the role of firms in Dublin, Ireland as it relates to the immigrant population? These are…
Australian Government. 2007. "Business to proportion of immigrants in the society." Australian Trade: Trends and Opportunities. Retrieved on March 29, 2010 from http://www.austrade.gov.au/Business-to-proportion of immigrants in the society/default.aspx
Bayati, A. And Taghavi, A. 2007. The impacts of acquiring ISO 9000 Certificate on the performance of firms in Dublin, Ireland in Tehran. The TQM Magazine, 19(2), pp 140-149.
Cateroa, R. 1987. International Marketing. Illinois: Irwin Incorporated.
Crick, D. Obaidi, M., Chaudhry, S. 1998. Journal of Marketing Science, 4(7), pp 187-199.
International expansion is one of the growth strategies that are embraced by companies in order to improve their bottom-line/profitability. In this paper, we present an elaborate international marketing strategy for ed Bull energy drink. The marketing plan begins with an introduction into the concept of international expansion and marketing and a brief overview of the company. A review of the main conclusions and recommendations is then presented. This is then followed by a discussion of internalization strategy. In this section, the context as well as context and reasons for the firm's internationalization initiation or expansion decision, as well as a discussion of the stage of internationalization at which your chosen firm finds itself. The next section is a discussion of the foreign market segmentation and targeting strategies. Under this section, we justify our choice of a market concentration or diversification strategy, incremental vs. simultaneous entry, the number of countries you…
Doodle, I. And Lowe, R., 2004. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, ThomsonLearning, London.
EastBridge Import & Export Co., LTD, The Import Procedure of Food and Drink, Viewed 14 March 2012, http://www.eastbridgechina.com/En/Show.asp?id=33.
Encyclopedia of the Nations, China Country overview, Viewed 30 April 2012, http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/China.html .
Euromonitor International, Red Bull plans Asian expansion, Viewed 14 March 2012, http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1232&Itemid=77
As a matter of fact, this means venturing into unknown territories by the company and because of this the company has to work to eliminate this weakness by studying the market segments and their needs so you can meet those needs.
Marketing objectives are based on understanding the strengths and weakness and the business environment that the company operate in. The objectives are also linked to the overall business strategy. For instance, in the case of ABC Textile Company business objective is to penetrate in the international market be able to pose a serious competition in the industry. So as to achieve this objective, the company will be targeting a new promising market segment especially those in the rural areas to help achieve this growth.
Having realized the target market, the company has to position itself in it. To do this, the product should have a core message that differentiates…
Garth (2000) Strategic Management; Wiley, New York. Retrieved on May 2nd 2013 from: http://soq.sagepub.com/content/1/2/241.extract
" (Veeramani, 2004)
Stated as contributors to the export success of China are those as follows:
1) Favorable exchange rate;
2) Low wages;
3) Availability of labor;
4) Large domestic market;
5) Huge volume FDI inflows etc. (Veeramani, 2004)
India is not far behind except the gap existing in the FDI volume into China and India, which remains a large gap. The FDI for India has been of much less importance as compared to China except in view of information technology. Sinha (2007) states: "In short, while the multinationals mostly engage in the export activities with China, they target the domestic markets in India." (Sinha, 2007) the following chart shows that China is 'above average' in goods while India is 'above average' in services.
Source: India and China's Developmental Paths (2008)
The differentiations of multinational behavior likely include "the relatively high trade barriers in India (which encourages market seeking FDI)…
Wong, Lung-Fai (1987) Agricultural Productivity in China and India: A Comparative Analysis Presented at the Symposium on Feeding the People of China and India, American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, February 15, 1987. Online available at http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/7510/1/edc87-03.pdf
Das, Dilip K. (2006) the Chinese and Indian Economies: Comparing the Comparables Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Volume 4, Issue 1 February 2006, pages 77-89 Routledge Taylor & Francis Group Abstract Online available at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a743880372?back=%2e%2frelated%7edb%3dall%7econtent%3da713684741%7efirst%3d1%7evaa%3d0%3fbookmark%3d1&words=&hash=
Emerging Markets outlook for 2007 - India, China, Russia, Eastern Europe and Brazil (2007) the Market Oracle. Online available at http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article185.html
Balasubramanyam, V.N., and Wei, Yingqi (2005) Textiles and clothing exports from India and china: a comparative analysis Taylor and Francis Journals in its journal
International Financial Markets and Institutions:
Throughout the globe, today's landscape of international financial market and institutions has continued to experience several changes that require practitioners to examine new models. The need for practitioners to examine new models that are relevant to the state of these markets and institutions has also been necessitated by the recent events that contribute to financial crises, which have been very dramatic. Actually, the recent financial crisis has had significant impacts on the financial institutions and markets resulting in the need for changes. International financial markets and institutions have become an important aspect of economies because they affect daily life. This is primarily because they involve the huge flow of different types of funds in the entire economy that in turn impact the profits of businesses, production of goods and services, and economic well-being of countries. In some cases, the events in these institutions and markets…
Accounting Education (2010), International Capital Market, Accounting Education, viewed 7
Australian Securities Exchange (n.d.), Absolute Return Funds, Australian Securities Exchange,
viewed 7 June 2012,
Starbucks succeeded in Asia specifically because it did not market the same way that it did in North America. Cultural differences made it difficult to market their primary product (coffee), so they shifted focus to their secondary product (the casual "third place"), something that is in high demand in Asia's densely populated cities and Asia's communal culture (Chang, 2010). Had Starbucks stuck with its focus on coffee, the message would have been lost on tea-drinking Asian consumers.
The notion that products can be marketed the same all the world over is a fanciful one. Even the world's most ubiquitous companies tailor their products, their distribution and their promotional strategies to the local conditions. The brand may be the same, but the marketing behind the brand is often very different.
4. There are a number of costs beyond the domestic price that must be considered when marketing abroad, including product-related costs,…
Johnson, J. & Arunthanes, W. (1995). Ideal and actual product adaptation in U.S. exporting firms: market-related determinants and impacts on performance. International Marketing Review. Vol. 12, 3, 31-46.
Chang, D (2010). In Asia, marketing 101 doesn't work. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/02/in_asia_marketing-101-doesnt-work.html
No author. (1999). Pricing, quotations and terms. UNZCO. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/c11.html
Rong, C. (2004). Feeding a behemoth. Far East Economic Review. ISSN: 0014-7591
"Opening up the financial system to foreign capital flows can lead, and has led, to disastrous financial crises, which have resulted in great pain, suffering and even violence" (Mishkin, 2006, p.9).
Directly linked to the previous disadvantage and the basic definition of globalization, is the fact that the interdependence of sectors and institutions increases in a global market. In this instance then, a financial crisis within one country or within one institution is likely to generate negative effects upon its partners. The most relevant example of chain reaction to a financial crisis is the current situation, in which the global community is threatened with economic collapse due to the financial difficulties of the United States. The situation is similar in terms of politics or the social environment.
Globalization has often been assimilated with Americanization, meaning by this the desire of the American corporations to transcend boundaries and get access to…
Ervin, J., Smith, Z.A., 2008, Globalization: A Reference Handbook, ABC-CLIO
Geddes, P., 2004, the Benefits of Globalization, Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment, http://www.free-eco.org/articleDisplay.php?id=378last accessed on January 19, 2009
Holm, H.H., Globalization and What the Governments make of it, European Institute Firenze, Retrieved at http://www.djh.dk/pdf/forskning/global.pdfon January 20, 2009
Kolodko, G.W., 2003, Emerging Market Economies: Globalization and Development, Ashgate Publishing
Notwithstanding these similarities in the marketing function, there are some important differences that must also be considered. For example, even enormous countries in geographic and population terms that have relatively homogeneous populations may require more straightforward domestic marketing techniques and small city-states will require more elaborate international marketing techniques. For example, as ao (2000) points out, "Given its strong tourism base and an open economy, Singapore has modern international retailing and other marketing institutions, making this country a truly global or international city, while India represents primarily a traditional, domestic marketing environment with considerable isolation from international markets" (p. 188).
According to Hills (1994), the ecological model shown in Figure 1 below indicates that there is no single, successful ongoing or steady-state strategy for small companies involved in international marketing initiatives. This author emphasizes that, "Standardization vs. local differentiation is the single most important issue in ongoing international…
Alon, Ilan. (2004). "International Market Selection for a Small Enterprise: A Case Study in International Entrepreneurship." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 69(1), 25.
Andersen, Otto. (1993). "On the Internationalization Process of Firms: A Critical Analysis." Journal of International Business Studies, 24(2), 209.
Andrews, Tim G., Nartnalin Chompusri and Bryan J. Baldwin Obe. (2003). The Changing Face of Multinationals in Southeast Asia. New York: Routledge.
Beckman, Theodore N. And William R. Davidson. (1967). Marketing. New York: Ronald Press Co.
27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.
Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:
1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as…
Bekaert, G., Harvey, C. And Lundblad, C. 2005. Does financial liberalization spur growth? Journal of Financial Economics 77, 3 -- 55.
Edison, H., Klein, M., Ricci, L. And Slok, T. 2004. Capital account liberalization and economic performance: survey and synthesis. IMF Staff Papers 51, 111 -- 115.
Kaminsky, G. And Reinhart, C. 1999. The twin crises: the causes of banking and balance-of payments problems. American Economic Review 89, 473 -- 500.
Klein, M. 2005. Capital account liberalization, institutional quality and economic growth: theory and evidence. Working Paper No. 11112. Cambridge, MA: NBER, pp.19-21.
Competitive strategy is the bedrock on which companies base business decisions to reach their targets and achieve profitability. Formulating and implementing strategies in international business is much more complicated and difficult task than doing so in home or familiar markets. Competitive strategy deals with the development of abilities by a firm to keep ahead of competitors in the fields in which it operates. Firms develop competitive edge in global markets by possessing certain assets, abilities or characteristics. The primary elements of competitive advantage are the critical offer, the significant operating factors and the firm's strategic resources. (ennett and lythe, 2002) Corporate strategies and international marketing strategies are linked closely and have a bearing on business performance. (rown, 1994)
While some companies focus on a single source of competitive advantage, it is common for many firms to opt for a combination of options to be flexible and attain the…
Ahlberg, J; Garemo, N; Naucler, T. (1999) 'The Euro: How to keep your Prices Up and your Competitors Down', The Mclliney Quarterly, Volume: 2
Bennett, R. (1996) 'Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: Transactional analysis vs. The behaviorist approach', Journal of Marketing Management, Volume: 12; No: 6
Bennett, R. (1999) 'International Business Frameworks', Second Edition, London: Financial Times/Pitman
Bennett, R and Blythe, J. (2002) 'International Marketing: Strategic Planning, Market Entry and Implementation', London: Kogan Page
Only a few decades ago, China was a struggling economy. It is much newer in the free market economy system as compared to the already established economical giants, given the country's communist history. China, a country with an extremely high population, put its resources to its best possible advantage and that was something which contributed towards the country's rapid growth. China has one of the cheapest labor and energy and power resources available for its production. As a result, the industries can achieve economies of scale and thus can cut down on their cost of production. As a result, China enjoys a greater absolute advantage over its competitors. Importers around the world have realized the fact that importing goods from China is relatively much cheaper as compared to imports from other developed economies. These cheaper imports allow them a greater profit margin. Moreover, given the fragile economic conditions and declining…
Kreh, W. (2008). Money, Debt and Wealth of Nations. Canada: COMER publications
Lipsey, R. & Chrystal, K. (1997). An Introduction to Positive Economics. London: Oxford University Press.
Zweig, D. & Jianhai, B. (2005). China's global hunt for energy. Foreign Affairs, 84(5), 25-38.
Hale, D. & Hale, L. (2003). China takes off. Foreign Affairs, 82(36).
Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.
The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…
Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org
Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.
Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.
Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com
International Monetary System
In world trade, varied national currencies are swapped for each other by means of rules and procedures set by a system called the international monetary system. To delineate a general standard of value for the world's currencies, such a system is believed to be necessary.
The global monetary structure has always adhered to the organizational framework of the international discipline. In each stage of the financial capitalism there exists a corresponding monetary approach. The monetary structure during the postwar periods catered to the dominance of the United States. This was applied as a tool during the period to enforce the U.S. dominance over all its allies and the developing countries, irrespective of the socialist countries isolated themselves being unconnected from the influence of the financial and monetary disciplines of the global capitalism.
Gold standard was the first contemporary international monetary system. The gold standard contributed for the…
Amin, Samir. Replacing the International Monetary System? - Current Failures of Global Economic Policy. Monthly Review. Volume: 8; No: 1; October, 1993. pp: 93-98
Holloway, Thomas. M. The International Monetary System: Essays in World Economics. - Book Reviews. Monthly Labor Review. Volume: 12; No: 1; January, 1998. pp: 158-164
International Monetary System. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 2001. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/65/in/intlmone.html Accessed on 12 November, 2004.
Little, Jane Sneddon; Oliveri, Giovanni. P. Rethinking the International Monetary System: An Overview. New England Economic Review. Volume: 16; No: 1; November, 1999. pp: 24-29
International Energy Law
International Energy Arbitration
This paper will examine the role of arbitration in the international energy sector over the past 50 years. Discussion is organized around the five decades leading up to the current state of affairs in the international energy sector. In each section, major arbitrations are identified and tied to the categorical intention of arbitrations of that period. For instance, arbitration awards that occurred during a period of substantive concession agreements -- termed the first generation of concession agreements by Kosheri (n.d.) -- include the Abu Dhabi award of 1951, the Qatar award of 1953, and the Aramco award of 1958.
The next period, which occurred roughly in the 1960s and 1970s, was characterized by arbitration awards that evidenced a climate of confrontation, during which host nations took the position of abstaining from participation in arbitration proceedings. These nations were unilaterally interested in bringing the earlier…
Bishop, R.D. (2000). International arbitration of petroleum disputes: The development of a "Lex Petrolea. The Journal, [Website] The Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP).
Brower, C.N. And Sharpe, J.K. (2003, July). International arbitration and the Islamic World: The third phase. The American Journal of International Law, 97 (3).
Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, New York, (1958, 10 June). 330 United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), 38.
Dundas, H. (2004, July). Dispute resolution in the oil and gas industry: An oilman's perspective. Oil, Gas, & Energy Law Intelligence, 2 (3).
Labor influences vary from labor quality, quantity, labor unions, labor markets labor mobility and minorities. All these affect the international market differently. The quantity and quality of labor force are of great importance in the international business due to the profitability, efficacy and competition the employers should uphold and depict. Many countries want to purchase labor as cheaply as possible and also maximizing on the quality. Consequently, factors such as adaptability especially to new environments, managerial skills, ability to learn new things, and knowledge are highly considered when hiring candidates (Ball, 2006).
Labor quality can be termed as education, skills, and attitudes of potential employees which vary with regions and countries. It's an essential aspect and component to be considered in the planning stage. It should be considered to ensure that the right skill level is available to conduct business gainfully. In developing and poverty stricken areas where education and…
Aswathappa, K. (2008). International Business. Delhi: McGraw Hill.
Ball, Donald A. (2006). International business: the challenge of global competition. Columbus:
Bauernfeind, Markus. (2005). Drivers of Globalization: Integration of Theories and Models.
Music is something that reaches the soul. In other more pragmatic words we could state that its role is to answer psychological needs. From this pint of view the greatest opportunity that the artist benefits from is the one of making good quality music. Normally the high quality product should sell itself. In reality it will need a bit of promotion and advertising to achieve its purpose of becoming successful abroad.
Now that we have taken into consideration a multitude of strong points and opportunities, we should probably underline the fact that there are important threats that one must take into consideration. The first threat that we must analyze is represented by the competition. It is true that being a male could be an advantage on the international music market.
One may become the idol of the boys and a desired partner for the girls. Especially under the circumstances in…
Belch G.E., Belch M.A. (2008) Advertising and promotion: an integrated marketing communications perspective. McGraw Hill Higher Education
Benbasat, I., Gefen, D., Pavlou, P.A., (2008) "Trust in Online environments," Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 24, no.4, pp.5-11
Doole, I., Lowe, R. (2008) International Marketing Strategy: analysis, development and implementation. South Western Educational Publishing
Graham, J, Cateora, P. (2008). International Marketing. McGRaw Hill Higher education
The main advantage of this association is that you will get to control the production process and both collaborators will have the right to question and manage everything. It will require high negotiation skills, primary high investments, but the market is full of potential. By joint venture we will have the possibility to interfere in the recruitment process, deciding who the best people for the jobs are. For India, there will also be an important gain. Not only do we stimulate intern, national production but we also give new job opportunities to citizens. Moreover, due to the fact that India has highly trained people in the technological domain, we might improve our product's characteristics or even come up with new ways of reducing the costs. Moreover, the assembling parts will be less expensive as their transportation costs will be lower.
When choosing a country for expansion, one has to…
Alibaba.com, 2007, Who is the leader in software.. china or India?, [Online] Available at http://resources.alibaba.com/topic/23730/Who_is_the_leader_in_software_china_Or_India_.htm
BBC News, 2007, Country Profile: India, [Online] Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm
Directory of Official Websites of the Government of India, 2007, [Online] Available at http://goidirectory.nic.in/
Farlex, 2007, the Free Dictionary, [Online] Available at http://www.thefreedictionary.com
Socialist states use a command and control management structure as a substitute for the profit motive. This structure is less efficient, so production levels cannot match those of capitalist states. Ultimately, the lack of productivity and the large number of distortions lead to economic collapse (Tesche, 1993).
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the pace and nature of economic reforms has differed greatly in the former Soviet states. These range from regions with a virtual continuation of communist dictatorship (Belarus, Transnistria) to full-scale embrace of the free market (Estonia in particular). Russia's economy has only opened somewhat, and only to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). For the most part, the major firms in the economy are controlled by powerful businessmen with close ties to government. Freedom of capital flows has improved slightly, but the Russian economy overall remains under significant government control. The economy has grown substantially since…
No author. (2009). Smithsonian agreement. Investopedia. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/smithsonian-agreement.asp
Eichengreen, B. (2004). Capital flows and crises. MIT Press. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?tid=10369&ttype=2
Pollard, P. (2001). The creation of the euro and the role of the dollar in international markets. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/01/09/0109pp.pdf
Sheppard, M. (2004). The politics of the oversight of OTC derivatives markets: Is there any evidence of systemic risk? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, March 17, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/7/3/4/2/p73424_index.html
Management possesses a broad range of international experience. Decisions may be made at head office or at the subsidiary level, but in either case management is familiar with both outlooks.
The rationale behind the ethnocentric approach is that the home office will deliver consistent decisions that are always in line with core values and objectives. The local managers are directly and specifically oriented towards corporate-wide objectives. The polycentric approach reflects the belief that the local managers will do what is best for the local subsidiary, which in turn will be what is best for the head office. The geocentric approach believes that the best management teams will be able to fuse local and global perspectives and that the other two approaches to do not achieve this.
4. Management development programs are systems for developing managers with specific skills and traits that are consistent with the corporation's strategic objectives. Managers are…
S. inflation in check, even during economic boom times.
The debate about increasing protectionism in the U.S. boils down to a clash of cultural values. In the natural course of international trade, there will be those who suffer and those who benefit. International markets are amoral. Trade is conducted between nations with the intent of raising the standard of living for both, but this is on aggregate, not universally. As a result, jobs losses in some sectors, particularly those where the U.S. does not have comparative advantage, are inevitable. To enact protectionist measures to stem those job losses will have three negative impacts.
The first is retaliatory trade measures. Tariffs and other protectionist measures tend to go hand in hand. If a country protects its industries, nations that trade with that country will do the same. This is the classic Smoot-Hawley scenario. To protect American jobs during the…
No author. (2009). Top ten countries with which the U.S. trades. Census.gov. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/top/dst/current/balance.html
No author. (2007). David Ricardo and comparative advantage. NetMBA.com. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.netmba.com/econ/micro/comparative-advantage/
US Department of State. (no date). Protectionism in the interwar period. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/id/17606.htm
Evenett, S. (2009). The G20's assault on world trade. VOX. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4008
This method is a descendant of a Rand Corporation study methodology changed from war planning and now applied to changing university curricula. t will produce changing and dynamic profiles as the needs arise for a study.
t is a research technique with flexibility that has been used in a program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts of the information systems body of knowledge in business. The Delphi method is a process to collect and distill the anonymous judgments of experts while using a set of data collection/analysis techniques that are interspersed with feedback. The method is suited as a research tool when there is incomplete data about a problem or phenomenon. This method works well when the goal is to improve the understanding of problems solutions, or to make forecasts. t is advantageous from a quantitative standpoint. t is very useful for helping to develop profiles of…
In Academy of Management, 8,633 incumbent managers from 52 managerial occupations were polled and the results showed that behavioral competencies are the very competencies that are least represented in the required MBA curricula. The findings further indicate that the institutional factors such as the media rankings and the mission orientation have almost no effect on the realignment of curricula with critical competencies. The advantage of this study is that shows how far most business schools have to go to reform their programs. Again, the downside are conservative faculty who drag their feet (Rubin & E.C., 2009, 208).
Waller, A.D. (2008). Perceptions of emotional intelligence preparation and industry expectations for utah state university mba graduates. (pp. 1-148). Salt Lake City Utah: Utah State University.
Finally, graduate business students themselves seem to feel they are being short changed, according to a dissertation by Arthur D. Waller of the Utah State University. According to the students in this study, a great skill lacking in graduate business school curricula, are training in the area of teamwork and leadership development. These students felt that the most important elements of a company are its people and that the technocratic nature of present programs overlook this. Unfortunately, this approach does ask companies what they want (Waller, 2008, iii-iv).
International Expansion Proposal
Expansion Report: The report contains information requested by the CEO regarding the possible expansion and recommendation thereof into either the .S., Asian or European marketplace.
In the interest of gaining the optimal perspective for the most profitable expansion of the company, research was conducted into the economic stability and consumer health of each expansion area. It was found that the nited States has the healthiest economy of the three expansion options. Additionally, the nited States has increasing interest and demand for the product and a positive response is feasible.
In order to optimize profit and ensure a smooth transition into the nited States, importation would be the optimal initial option. The importation would be handled through local businesses who sell the product to the customers and order from our company in advance. Once sales reach an optimal level, it is advisable for the company to pursue a…
U.S. Census Bureau News. January 13, 2012. http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/current_press_release/ft900.pdf
U.S. Surfski Championships. Wave Chaser Paddle Series. 2011. http://ussurfski.com/
Valhalla Products. Valhalla Surf Ski. 2011. http://valhallasurfskis.com/index.htm
Other than humans and the impact on their social and economic life, the oil companies also have a profound negative influence on the environment. The oil drilling and exploration process affect the environment at every stage. The first step is the identification of oil reserves in the region and assessing whether it can produce oil to cover the cost of drilling and exploration. The oil wells can be found inland or offshore. If the oil well is found inland, then it has to be dug out to assess its usability while for offshore drilling, the first step is to send seismic waves to understand its depth and exploration possibilities. This affects the organisms that depend on it especially the seismic waves can confuse the marine animals and disrupt their breeding grounds.
The next step is the exploration and this can lead to large scale displacement of people and misuse of…
Longwell, Harry. 2002. The Future of the Oil and Gas Industry: Past Approaches, New Challenges. World Energy. Vol 5(3). pp100-104
Inkpen, Andrew. 2010. The Global and Oil Gas Industry -- 2010. Thunderbird School of Global Management.
Because of the free-price system, trading exists in various degrees thus causing a lack of organized trading system. Issues also indicate that market economy creates monolopies that threaten the competitiveness of goods and services. Therefore, the solution to such problem that market economy critics find is to support mixed economy because they need a structured and organized system of trading. But what can a mixed economy provide to the economic condition of a nation? To the proponents of mixed economy, this system can prevent unstable economic conditions because the economic system is controlled. A mixed economy presents both the faces of a free-market and capitalism where people have the right to choose which type of economic system they wish to implement in trading. Additionally, even if free-market also exists in a mixed economy, it is still limited which therefore continues to present a controlled economic condition.
These decisions of business model structure are predicated in part on the cultural variations of the foreign country to an organizations' home nation as well. Cultural variations between regions also lead more to distrust than trust and this is especially true when work is accelerated, assuming no cultural differences exist (Yeung, Selen, Zhang, Huo, 2009). While globalization is often seen as flattening the world from a common set of business processes, cultural variations, and within these cultural differences, deeply held religious values in Muslim nations for example, are far from as homogenous as the flat world mentality would have one believe. Instead there are significant gaps culturally that are actually catalysts of greater, albeit more attuned and focused, efforts at strategic growth globally.
The misconception that manufacturing is outsourced purely for cost reduction can be seen in the many uses and roles of factories within global manufacturing networks (Fedrows,…
Susan Christopherson. 2007. Barriers to 'U.S. style' lean retailing: the case of Wal-Mart's failure in Germany. Journal of Economic Geography: Transnational Retail, Supply Networks, and the Global 7, no. 4, (July 1): 451-469.
Jeffrey H. Dyer and Kentaro Nobeoka. 2000. Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21, no. 3,
(March 1): 345-367.
Ferdows, Kasra. 2006. Transfer of Changing Production Know-How. Production and Operations Management 15, no. 1, (April 1): 1-9.
International Financial eporting Standards
IFS and Canada
Canada was one of the first prominent nations involved in the North American Free Trade Agreement to consider switching their financial reporting to the International Financial eporting Standards. For years, Canada had been under the pressure of the United States to adopt a system aligned with the GAAP. Still, growing opportunities across the globe made the adoption of the IFS in Canada a better option. It was announced in early 2008 that the move was going to be made in Canada. Canada officially adopted the IFS standards in January of 2011 (PWC, 2014). Actually, the IFS standards were quite similar to the already existing Canadian GAAP standards. Thus the transition, for most businesses, was not extremely different than what they had encountered in the past.
The country made the official decision to adopt the IFS over their own GAAP system came in a…
Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. (2011). The CICA's Guide to IFRS in Canada. Web. http://ocaq.qc.ca/pdf/ang/6_presse/infoca/2007/InfoCA1185_Guide_EN.pdf
Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. (2012). IFRS Adoption in Canada: An Empirical Analysis of the Impact on Financial Statements. Web. http://www.cga-canada.org/en-ca/ResearchReports/ca_rep_2013-10-03_IRFS.pdf
IFRS. (2013). Canada. IFRS Application Around the World. Web. http://www.ifrs.org/Use-around-the-world/Documents/Jurisdiction-profiles/Canada-IFRS-Profile.pdf
PWC. (2013). IFRS Adoption by Country. Web. http://www.pwc.com/en_US/us/issues/ifrs-reporting/publications/assets/pwc-ifrs-by-country-apr-2013.pdf
Ghemawat states that administrative distance in relation to 'preferential trading agreements' involves gold, electricity, coffee, tea, cocoa spices, textiles fibers as well as sugar, sugar preparations and honey. Also included are gas and travel goods such as handbags as well as footwear and sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures and furniture parts. Geographic distance factors impact products such as electricity current transfer over long distances, gas transfer, paper, paperboard and live animals as well as sugar, sugar preparations and honey. Included as well are other numerous products. Economic distance is derived through wealth differences and distance in economics results in a decrease in trade. Linguistic distance is the most severe in the range of distance impacts with second in sensitivity being administrative distance followed by geographic and then finally economic distance being the less in the range of sensitivity to impact on product because of existing distance.
Boerner, Beatrice Barbara (2008) Flat or Not: World Economies, Here Comes Business! Oxford Business & Economics Conference Program. Online available at http://www.gcbe.us/2008_OBEC/data/Beatrice%20Barbara%20Boerner.doc
Ghemawat, Pankaj (2001) Distance Still Matters: The Hard Reality of Global Expansion. Sept 2001. The Tool Kit.
Lavie, Dovev; and Miller, Stewart (nd) the Performance Implications of Alliance Portfolio Internationalization Learning within and Across Organizational Boundaries.
International Supply Chain Management
" (U.S. Secuities and Exchange Commission Annual Repot No. 1-2217)
Economical and Political Influences:
Economical and political conditions in the intenational maket place include: "civil unest, poduct boycotts, govenmental changes and estiction on the ability to tansfe capital acoss bodes." It is vey possible that the cuent instability in economic and political conditions in the Middle East, Noth Koea, Iaq o elsewhee as well as continued teoism could advesely impact the Company's financial esults in business."
Othe factos include: "Changes in the nonalcoholic beveages business envionment which is inclusive of changes in consumes pefeences due to health o nutition aspects, competition pessues in poduct and picing competitive poduct. Othe changes such as changes in foeign cuency fluctuation and inteest ates as well as othe capital maket conditions, weathe conditions advesely effecting the Company by a eduction in demand, vaiations in effectiveness of advetising, maketing and pomotions. Fluctuations on cost and…
references due to health or nutrition aspects, competition pressures in product and pricing competitive product. Other changes such as changes in foreign currency fluctuation and interest rates as well as other capital market conditions, weather conditions adversely effecting the Company by a reduction in demand, variations in effectiveness of advertising, marketing and promotions. Fluctuations on cost and availability of raw materials as well as variables in energy costs and transportation costs as well as other necessary services along with the variables in maintaining supplier arrangements and relationships. Natural disasters will be possible threats due to power disruptions and labor strikes. Other variables in business are: "Our ability to effectively align ourselves with our bottling system as we focus on increasing the investment in our brands; seeking efficiencies throughout the supply chain; delivering more value for our customers; and better meeting the needs of our consumers. Changes in laws and regulations, including changes in accounting standards, taxation requirements
Including tax rate changes, new tax laws and revised tax law interpretations), laws concerning food and beverages, competition laws, employment laws and environmental laws in domestic or foreign jurisdictions. Our ability to penetrate developing and emerging markets, which also depends on economic and political conditions, and how well we are able to acquire or form strategic business alliances with local bottlers and make necessary infrastructure enhancements to production facilities, distribution networks, sales equipment and technology. Moreover, the supply of products in developing markets must match the customers' demand for those products, and due to product price and cultural differences, there can be no assurance of product acceptance in any particular market. • the uncertainties of litigation, as well as other risks and uncertainties detailed from time to time in our Company's Securities and Exchange Commission filings. The foregoing list of important factors is not exclusive.
Third Quarter Statement (2004) Coca-Cola FEMSA a DE CV Earnings Conference [Online] Highbeam Research.
South American Business Information 4.8.2004 Comtex news.
Latin America Operating Segment" the Coca-Cola Company 2003 [Online} available at http://www2.coca-cola.com/investors/annualandotherreports/2003/opseg_latin.shtml
Cultural. Ireland tends to be culturally close to the United Kingdom and Europe and this explains why the main trading partners are represented by the UK, the EU and the United States. First of all, Ireland, the UK and the U.S. share a common language, English, which makes trade and commercial cooperation easier than, say, between Ireland and Japan. The ease of communication also encourages companies from the mentioned countries to invest in Ireland and one can notice that the main foreign investors are also the U.S. And the UK. On the other hand, Ireland, similarly to the U.S. And the UK, is an Anglo-Saxon country, with Anglo-Saxon traditions and social norms. It shares similar customs with the UK. Further more, the significant wave of Irish emigres to the United States had an important impact on the evolution of the U.S. And the development of society took account…
International Business and the egions
In the era of globalization, the primary scope of agencies, institutions and players across the world seems the creation of a free international market place. The efforts so far made have however been insufficient to create such a market place, but impressive successes were observed in terms of the creation of regional market places. In other words, the modern day economic society has managed to support and concretize its efforts in the direction of regional economic development.
egional economic integration
egional economic development is virtually understood as a context in which countries in the same global region direct their endeavors in the sense of creating an economically integrated region. They virtually focus on free trade and migration of goods, people, commodities, technologies and capitals and they strive to reduce the barriers between the respective economies. Jacques Pelkmans (2006) defines economic integration as "the elimination of…
Buckley, P.J., Clegg, J., Forsans, N., Reilly, Increasing the size of the 'country': regional economic integration and foreign direct investment in a globalized world economy, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3265/is_3_41/ai_n28873065 / last accessed on May 27, 2011
Czinkota, M.C., Ronkainen, I.A., 2007, International marketing, 8th edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0324317026
Day, B., The NAFTA Nightmare, Multinational Monitor, http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1992/10/mm1092_10.html last accessed on May 27, 2011
Dodge, D.., 2003, Economic integration in North America, Bank of Canada http://www.bankofcanada.ca/2003/08/speeches/economic-integration-north-america-2 / last accessed on May 27, 2011
"Dell recently established customer and technical support centers in India, China, Morocco, Panama, and Slovakia and has set up design centers in Taiwan and China. Furthermore, it not only has manufacturing facilities in Texas and Tennessee, but also in Brazil, Ireland, Malaysia, and China" (Pruitt, 2012).
Eeven though Dell has come under fire along with other companies by critics who say that offshoring is robbing U.S. citizens of jobs, the company's new chief executive officer has said that Dell will carry on to engage in the practice. The company's current chief operating officer has said that the issue of offshoring in regards to Dell has been overblown. Dell has said that it will persist to employ people overseas, where it sees market growth. The company derived almost forty percent of its revenue from international sales for its fiscal year 2004. In addition, it says that its potential growth is dependent…
Chestnut, D. 2012. Outsourcing & Offshoring in the 21st Century. Web. 6 March 2012.
Gibbs, M. 2004. Offshoring for the Right Reasons. Web. 6 March 2012.
Grossman, G.M. 2006. Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring. Web. 6 March 2012.
King, D. 2009. Offshore outsourcing: practical and ethical arguments for and against, from a small business perspective. Web. 6 March 2012.
" (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
The main objectives of the sustainable development are to: revive growth, change the quality of growth, satisfy the basic needs for jobs and subsidiary services, ensure a sustainable level of population, preserve the resources, reorient technology and control risk, consider both economy and environment in the decision making process, and reorient international economic relationships. (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
Connections between the two
Harriss promotes the idea of disciplined economics and governance based on rules. Lele promotes the sustainable development, again a form of governance based on a strict set of rules. The idea at the basis of these two theories is practically the same: governance, economy and the entire human behavior should be based on a set of rules previously elaborated to protect the interests of the participants as well as the environment's.…
Jamie Joseph, Development in Practice, Volume 11, Numbers 2 & 3, May 2001; Sustainable Development and Democracy in the Megacities
Joseph T. Siegle, Michael M. Weinstein, and Morton H. Halperin, Why Democracies Excel, Foreign Affairs September/October 2004
Mick Moore, Political Underdevelopment, What causes 'bad governance', Volume 3, Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2001
Lionel Cliff and Robin Luckham, Complex political emergencies and the state: failure and the fate of the state, Third World Quarterly, Vol 20, No 1, pp 27A± 50, 1999
Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)
Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…
Nigeria's air traffic grows by 31% during 2008; defies global slump (2009) TradeInvest Nigeria Thu, 05 Mar 2009. Online available at: http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/news/957188.htm
Lawal, Lateef (2009)FG Invests Over N7b In Air Navigation, Safety, Search & Rescue - Nigeria Masterweb Daily News. Online available at: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/
More Frequencies to Foreign Airlines Put Nigerian Carriers at Risk (2009) The Guardian -- Travels 17 Jul 2009. Online available at: http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/travels/article01//indexn2_html?pdate=170709&ptitle=More%20frequencies%20to%20foreign%20airlines%20put%20Nigerian%20carriers%20at%20risk
Dunn, Graham (2009) Arik Air: Pressing Ahead with International Plans. 3 June 2009. Airline Business. Online available at: http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/03/06/323508/arik-air-pressing-ahead-with-international-plans.html
It is necessary to underscore this importance given the current fragility of the international trading system amid a global resurgence of protectionist pressures due to the deepening economic crisis (Bown, 2009).
In 2006, and in response to increased political pressure by the U.S. Congress, Washington initiated the current U.S. strategy of using the judicial forum of the WTO to manage bilateral trade frictions with Beijing. In March 2006, Canada and the European Community (EC) joined the United States in the first dispute by challenging China's discriminatory treatment of imported automobile parts. In 2007, the United States and Mexico disputed China's system of subsidizing domestic industries. Also in 2007, the United States initiated two complementary disputes over China's treatment of imported movies, music, and books, both Beijing's failure to enforce American intellectual property rights protection and its creation of regulatory hurdles that impede Hollywood film studios and other media and publishing…
Bown, Chad P. (2009). U.S. -- China Trade Conflicts and the Future of the WTO. Retrieved April
0, 2010 from Web site: http://fletcher.tufts.edu/forum/archives/pdfs/33-1pdfs/Bown.pdf
Gross, Daniel. (2009). Chicken Feet and Chump Change. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from Newsweek Web site: http://www.newsweek.com/id/216754
Lum, Thomas and Nanto, Dick K. (2007). China's Trade with the United States and the World.
International Trade Transaction used by MNEs in Global Business
International Trade Transaction
In the Global business environment, a typical trade transaction is either initiated by a seller who wishes to export his goods to the potential buyers in the international markets or by a buyer who is in a need for some specific goods that are not available in his country or it is more feasible for him to purchase them from international sellers. An international trade transaction is quite similar to a general local trade transaction with certain additional steps and precautions. These steps and precautionary measures make the international trade transaction far more complex than a local transaction (Hinkelman & Ebrary 140).
Participants in an International Trade Transaction:
Generally, there are four major participants in an international trade transaction; the seller (beneficiary or exporter of goods), buyer (importer of goods), issuing bank, and advising bank. Every international trade…
Bertrams, Roeland. Bank guarantees in international trade: the law and practice of independent (first demand) guarantees and standby letters of credit in civil law and common law jurisdictions, 3rd Edition. Paris: ICC Publ. [u.a.], 2004. Print.
Carr, Indira. International Trade Law, 3rd Edition. U.S.: Routledge-Cavendish, 2005. Print
Hinkelman, Edward & Ebrary, Inc. Importers manual USA: the single source reference encyclopedia for importing to the United States, 4th Edition. San Rafael, CA: World Trade Press, 2004. Print.
Hinkelman, Edward & Shippey, Karla. Dictionary of international trade: handbook of the global trade community includes 19 key appendices, 6th Edition. Novato, California: World Trade Press, 2004. Print
international business expansion process.
International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.
The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…
Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.
Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.
Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.
The same differentiation of how research is completed in specific countries also needs to pervade the development and execution of media research in various countries as well. International market research that centers on measuring branding effectiveness often has a focus on aligning with cultural values and norms, and in certain countries, religious beliefs (as is the case in Islamic countries) versus a purely feature or solution focus. Market research on both media preferences including branding and the development of research plans must be attuned to regional differences within nations that are more than just driven by previous purchases of research prospects, the cultural diversity of a nation must also be taken into account if a research project is to be effective (Yin Wong, Merrilees, 2007).
Alexander, N., hodes, M., Myers, H (2007). International market selection: measuring actions instead of intentions. The Journal of Services Marketing, 21(6), 424-434. etrieved January…
Alexander, N., Rhodes, M., Myers, H (2007). International market selection: measuring actions instead of intentions. The Journal of Services Marketing, 21(6), 424-434. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1341239851).
Yin Wong, H., Merrilees, B. (2007). Multiple roles for branding in international marketing. International Marketing Review, 24(4), 384-408. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1363412551).
According to Chancellor Helmut chmidt the interest rates of the developed countries in the post1990 era were higher than they had ever been "at any time since Jesus Christ" (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In 1983, in Latin America, whose devaluations were enormous, it was recorded that in one year "the effect on the individual private sector, which in [some] cases had been encouraged by the policies of the authorities to borrow, has been devastating...the amount needed in local currency to service external debt has increased three or four times" (Kuczynski,1983, p. 22). The situation in these countries is such: with the decrease of their currency value, more goods must be sold to pay back their debt plus interest, and since their export prices have been steadily declining in the post war years, their accumulated interest swells to a rate that is higher than the nominal dues stipulated in the original contract (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In…
Developing countries in the international economic system. Accessed on 1/13/2011 from: http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm
InfoPlease, International finance. The International Monetary System. Accessed on 1/13/2011 from: http://www.infoplease.com /cig/economics/international-monetary-system.html
Kahn, a.A. (19-Jan-2009). International monetary system, globalization, and developing countries. The News, Accessed on 1/13/2011 from: www.opfblog.com/3909/international-monetary-system
Kuczynski, P.P. (1983). Latin American Debt: Act Two, Foreign Affairs, 22-29
market case analysis for Verizon FiOS TV offered by Verizon Communications. The analysis consists of product, pricing, promotional, and distribution strategies which Verizon Communications should follow in order to operate in the industry in the most competitive and profitable way. The analysis of industry and competition is also given as a part of marketing research strategy.
Verizon Communications is one of the leading communication services providers in the World. Its major products and services include Verizon FiOS TV, FiOS Internet, FiOS Digital Voice, set-top box, and receiver sets. This paper presents a marketing analysis for Verizon FiOS TV -- one of the most successful communication services offered by Verizon Communications in the United States and some other countries. Verizon FiOS TV is a high quality fiber optic cable network for home television entertainment. Verizon Communications offers its Verizon FiOS TV in all the major cities and towns of the United…
Kotler, P., Brown, L., Burton, S., Deans, K., & Armstrong, G. (2010). Marketing, (8th ed.). U.S.: Prentice-Hall
Kurtz, D.L., MacKenzie, H.F., & Snow, K. (2010). Contemporary Marketing, (2nd ed.). Toronto: Nelson Education
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Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
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Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
By offshoring tasks, companies can also focus on their core business, allowing them to grow more rapidly, increase organizational value, and complexity. In an increasingly competitive world, these benefits can mean the difference between success and failure.
Globalisation and international expansion are two driving forces in organizational change, in today's world and likely will continue to be of increasing importance as the world becomes more competitive. As such, corporate strategies must be put into place that will effectively utilize the opportunities that arise from these forces, as well as safeguard against emerging threats. Increasing competition from foreign competitors is one of these threats, while international expansion offers great opportunities. Product diversification is also a corporate strategy that must be undertaken to meet the needs of consumers in different geographic regions. In addition, to remain competitive, corporate strategy can use outsourcing, as a byproduct of increased globalisation..
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agree with the belief that the Asian financial crisis was rooted in governmental interference. I also agree with the fact that the export-led model is no longer sustainable because international markets are saturated. The mandating and structuring of regional markets by the nations in East Asia, particularly Japan, China, Malaysia, and Singapore, have proven to be devastating to their relative economies.
In order to understand the Asian financial crisis, it is important to explore its origins. Throughout the 1980s, the Asian countries, particularly Japan, experienced major financial growth. Industries, especially those involving high technology, were thriving in East Asia (Sato, Ryuzo, and Takashi Negishi). In the mid 1990s, signs began to emerge that the economy was much less stable than people had originally thought (Sato, Ryuzo, and Takashi Negishi).
Firstly, capital account surpluses were greatly exceeding the deficits of many of the East Asian countries, including Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore.…
Goad, Pierre. "Look Homeward, Asia." Far East Economic Review. 10 June
1999. Accessed 8 June 2003. http://www2.gol.com/users/coynerhm/look_homeward.htm
Hsu, Robert. Economic Theories in China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 1991.
Liping, Xia. "The Trends of Japan's Economy and Foreign Policy." (Electronic
Ever since Adam Smith demonstrated in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that individuals would be better off if they specialize, instead of trying to be economically self-sufficient, countries across the world have tried to apply the same principle to international trade. It is argued that all countries would be better off if they exchange the products and services that they are relatively good at producing for those things that other countries are relatively better at producing. David icardo (1772-1823), British economist and businessman, through his theory of Comparative Advantage went on to "prove" that it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even if one of them is able to produce each item more cheaply than the other.
The colonialist powers, particularly Britain, had realized the benefits of international trade after its industrial revolution although it is highly debatable whether such trade was beneficial for the colonies…
Dollar, D. And Kraay, A. (2001). "Trade, Growth, and Poverty." Development Research Group: The World Bank. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://econ.worldbank.org/files/2207_wps2615.pdf
Moore, Richard K. (1999). "Achieving a Livable, Peaceful World." Part I - Corporate rule and global ruin. Introduction. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://cyberjournal.org/cj/rkm/alpw/p1.intro.html
Nordstrom, H. And Vaughan, S. (1999) "Trade and Environment." Special Study: World Trade Organization. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/environment.pdf
'The Rural Poverty Trap." (2004). Oxfam Briefing Paper # 59. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.maketradefair.com/en/assets/bp59_The_Rural_Poverty_Trap.pdf
due to changes in the economical, financial, political and technological changes, the capital markets across the world are highly influenced by the changes. As compared to the past, the development in the financial sector has been observed to be at the highest rates. In order to understand and analyze the changes in the global capital markets the below report has been constructed.
Based on the theme idea, which is the change in the capital market due to many factors and elements, the report below tends to discuss and analyse the impacts of financial deregulation and capital control on financial globalization and international diversification. This will allow understanding of how these two elements are supporting the financial globalization. A part from this, the report will also analyze the role of financial innovation and advancements and technologies on international investments. Moreover, the risks and benefits that are associated with the carry trade…
Buch CM, 2004, Globalization of Financial Markets: Causes of Incomplete Integration and Consequences for Economic Policy, Springer, Germany
Collier P & Dollar D, 2002, Globalization, Growth & Poverty, Oxford University Press, GB
Henderson C, 2006, Currency Strategy, John Wiley & Sons, USA
Lien K, 2009, Day Trading and Swing Trading the Currency Market, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Canada
Comparative advantage is when someone is better at something than someone else. In the context of economics, it is typically applied to trade. For example, if two countries are trading, they should each produce the good at which they have comparative advantage. The overall production of two countries producing to their respective comparative advantage will be higher than if they both produced to their domestic demand. Key to understanding comparative advantage is the idea of opportunity cost. Where resources are scarce, any use of resources for one purpose means that another purpose must be forgone. But if parties produce that in which they have comparative advantage, not only does overall production increase, but opportunity cost decreases (Landsburg, 2007).
The product life cycle theory is an entirely different theory, reflecting an entirely different subject. The product life cycle theory is focused on the idea that products start with an introductory…
Business Mate (2014). What is transaction cost theory? Business Mate.org. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=182
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Australia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
FFS (2014). Fragile States Index 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://ffp.statesindex.org/
Geert-Hofstede.com (2014). Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://geert-hofstede.com/
An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.
Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…
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Alibaba Group operates what it bills as the world's largest online marketplace, based on two main businesses, the B2B site Alibaba and the B2C site Taobao. The company's service is an interface that connects buyers and sellers. It arose out of a need to connect buyers and sellers within China, but the rapid growth of China as a global goods supplier facilitated the growth of Alibaba. Companies anywhere in the world could use the site to get bids from multiple suppliers, creating an efficient marketplace. The large number of customers allowed Alibaba to expand globally, so that today it is a network of buyers and sellers that operates globally. Alibaba is now floated on the New York Stock Exchange, giving the company greater access to foreign capital and solidifying its position as an international company.
Taobao is the largest online retailer in China. While this site is focused on the…
Alibaba Group 2015 Annual Report. Retrieved November 30, 2015 from http://ar.alibabagroup.com/2015/index.html
Examples in the United States include canned mushrooms" (p. 365). In contrast to the fresh market, the market for canned mushrooms in the United States has been adversely affected by imports, initially from Taiwan but increasingly from mainland China (Zamula 1998).
The research showed that the global mushroom industry has enjoyed significant growth in recent years due to a combination of increased consumer demand and innovative production methods. The research also showed that although fresh white button mushrooms continue to dominate the production and consumption patterns in the United States, demand fell slightly for this category while specialty mushroom categories experienced significant growth. The mushroom industry appears to have weathered the global economic downturn better than some other industries as well, and despite increasing pressure from foreign producers, it is reasonable to conclude that the domestic and global mushroom industries will continue to experience solid growth in the future.…
Chang, S-T. & Buwell, J.A. (2008). Development of the world mushroom industry: Applied mushroom biology and international mushroom organizations. International Journal for Medicinal Mushrooms, 10(3), 10-114.
Dietz, D. (2005, October 12). Forests suddenly off-limits to pickers. The Register-Guard, A1.
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Iqbal, T., Rodriguez, F.A., Mahajan, J. & Kerry, P. (2009). Effect of time, temperature, and slicing on respiration rate of mushrooms. Journal of Food Science, 74(6), 298-303.
Whole Foods Market (WFM) is a grocery store chain that has operations in the U.S., Canada and the UK. Competitor The Fresh Market (TFM) is based only in the United States at this point. While Whole Foods is substantially bigger, these two companies are close competitors of one another based on the similarity of their product lines and their target markets. This paper will analyze the strategic tactics of each of these companies, based on their respective growth strategies.
The Merger & Evaluation
By 2007, Whole Foods was becoming the dominant player in the natural foods grocery business. It sought to grow further, and decided to purchase struggling competitor Wild Oats (Fineman, 2007). At the time, Whole Foods paid $18.50 in cash for each share of Wild Oats. There was concern from the Federal Trade Commission about the deal, because it put Whole Foods in a dominant position…
Bartz, D. (2009). Whole Foods, FTC settle on Wild Oats merger. Reuters. Retrieved November 30, 2013 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/03/06/us-wholefoods-ftc-idUSTRE5253AL20090306
Fineman, J. (2007). Whole Foods agrees to buy Wild Oats; profit declines. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 30, 2013 from http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aZtDQutxeDsU
MSN Moneycentral. (2013). Whole Foods. Retrieved November 30, 2013 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=WFM&ocid=qbes
MSN Moneycentral. (2013). The Fresh Market. Retrieved November 30, 2013 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=TFM&ocid=qbes
International Accounting Culture
Changing something as important and far-reaching as the accounting standards followed by a business can be a massive undertaking. However, this sort of complex change can be made all the more complicated when there are intense or complicated social and international factors in play. The case study studied for this report describes exactly such a situation in Egypt. That study will be reviewed in this report and other sources covering the same general topic will also be explored.
Case & esearch Analysis
As for the case study itself, it is quickly noted that Egypt is a developing country but they are most certainly transitioning to a market-based economy on par with more developed parts of the world like North America and western Europe. Egypt, like much of the world, was under colonial control and that was not ceded until the revolution that occurred in the 1950's. The…
Carlo, A.M. (2006). "Overseas Adjustment," Home Channel News. New York: October
2006, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 26-28
Dahawy, K., Shehata, N., & Ransopher, T. (2011). The state of accounting in Egypt: A
case. Journal of Business Cases & Applications, 3, 68-79.
China - United States Trade Analysis
Chinese Economic Development
China's Growing Resource Needs
China and Globalization
Protecting Intellectual Property
orking with Government Bureaucracy
International Management Considerations
Modes of Market Entry into China
Recommendations for International Expansions
China financial integration has significantly developed over the past three decades. The total of U.S.-China trade balances grew from $5 billion in 1980 to $409 billion in 2008. Both economies were significantly affected by the global financial crisis and the 2008 balance was reduced by a little over ten percent in 2009. However, the United States is still the world biggest importer of Chinese goods and the Chinese market as represent the third largest importer of U.S. exports. The total amount of trade between these two financial powerhouses is enormous. Furthermore, the Chinese population is already staggering and it is developing economically in historical rates. Thus China also represents a key strategic…
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